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BTCHT 605T/4 Pulp and Paper Technology IV

(Pulping Processes IV)

Unit 1: Chemical Pulping, general considerations, various chemicals used, Alkaline

pulping origin, alkali as delignification agent, Soda process, Sulfate or Kraft
pulping process, flowsheet, description, unit operations and unit processes,
composition of liquor, role of sodium oxide in alkaline pulping, standard kraft
pulping terms.

Unit 2: Cyclic nature of Kraft pulping, variables associated with wood and pulping
process, kinetics of Kraft process, batch and continuous digesters, direct and
indirect cooking.

Unit 3: Blow tank operation, pulp washing, dilution factor, knotters, pulp screening and
refining, and energy balance calculations of digester, blow tank and brownstock
washers. Introduction to chemical recovery process, flow diagram, unit
operations and unit processes.

Unit 4: Single and multiple effect evaporation, problems associated with the
concentration of black liquor, optimization of steam pressure to evaporators,
different feed arrangements, design considerations of multiple effect evaporators,
cascade/ direct contact evaporators.

Unit 5: Combustion of black liquor, recovery furnace concept, composition of smelt, flue
gases, salt cake reduction, heating value of black liquor solids, various heat losses
during combustion, evaluation of thermal efficiency of a recovery furnace. Steam
generation capacity. Characteristics and causticizing of green liquor, calcining of
lime. Analysis of liquors.

Unit 6: Sulfite pulping, outline of the process, delignification, raw materials and
technology, sulfur burning, sulfur dioxide absorption system, standard terms in
the process, recovery of heat. Digesters, steam requirements, pulping variables,
sodium, ammonium and magnesium based pulping recovery systems.

Books Recommended:

1. Pulping Process by Rydholm

2.Pulp and Paper Science and Technology by C.E.Libby Vol I
3.Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology by J.P. Casey
4.Pulp and Paper Manufacture Vol- I by MacDonald
5.Hand book of Pulp and Paper Technology by K.W. Britt.