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# FOREWORD

Praise and gratitude, I thank the Almighty God is one, for our grace and grace are
given pleasure pleasures and pleasurable spiritual pleasures. And on that basis too, I can
complete the task of number theory, is critical journal report . The authors also thank the
lecturers Mr. Dr. Asrin Lubis, M.Pd, who have given the best guidance possible without the
guidance of the lecturer this task cannot be solved.

I also realize that this task still has many weaknesses and shortcomings. Therefore, if
there is a mistake in writing, I hope that constructive criticism and suggestions will be
welcomed with open arms, for the perfection of this paper's work in the future. And I thank
you. Hopefully this task can be useful and can increase knowledge for us all and can be
useful in accordance with what we expect

## Medan, March 29th 2018

Author
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background
Calibration numbers are basic concepts that should be mastered and understood so
that children can master and understand the application of this concept in everyday life.
Given this demand it is necessary to learn through meaningful learning about the concept of
counting. As the implication of elementary school teachers and elementary school teachers as
educators should be able to understand and master the concept of counting and skillful
meyajikan meaningfully both on the side in low and high class. Therefore this paper presents
the concept of counting numbers, the number of counting operations, and the properties of
counting numbers. In order for prospective elementary teachers to understand about the
number of counts and can apply it when later teaching in elementary school

Purpose
1) To fulfill one specific task of number theory
2) To review or review the contents of research journals
3) To be able to compare the methods used in the journal in the review
4) to be able to better understand and deepen the material about the counting
CHAPTER II
SUMMARY JOURNAL
1.1 Journal 1

A. Journal Information
Title : Peningkatan Hasil Belajar Siswa pada Materi Operasi Pengurangan Bilangan
Cacah dengan Menggunakan Blok Dienes Siswa Kelas I SDN 016 Bangkinang
Kota.
By : Rizki Ananda (Dosen Program Studi Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar
Universitas Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai).
Vol : Volume1, No. 1, Mei 2017. 1-11

B. Summary journal
Pendahuluan
Matematika merupakan salah satu mata pelajaran di Sekolah Dasar. Matematika tidak dapat
dipisahkan dengan mata pelajaran yang lain. Matematika dibutuhkan dan diaplikasikan dalam
kehidupan sehari-hari. Materi operasi pengurangan adalah bagian dari materi dasar dalam
matematika yang harus dikuasai oleh siswa. Untuk memahami materi-materi matematika
yang dimiliki objek kajian dari yang konkret kepada yang abstrak maka siswa akan
mengalami proses untuk memahami konsep dengan pemakaian alat peraga. Hal ini sesuai
dengan tujuan khusus pengajaran matematika Sekolah Dasar yang terdapat dalam Depdiknas
(2006: 417), mata pelajaran matematika bertujuan agar peserta didik memiliki kemampuan:
1) Memahami konsep matematika, menjelaskan keterkaitan antar konsep dan
mengaplikasikan konsep atau algoritma, secara luwes, akurat, efisien, dan tepat dalam
pemecahan masalah,
2) menggunakan penalaran pada pola dan sifat, melakukan manipulasi matematika
dalam membuat generalisasi, menyusun bukti, atau menjelaskan gagasan dan
pernyataan matematika.
3) memecahkan masalah yang meliputi kemampuan memahami masalah, merancang
model matematika, menyelesaikan model dan menafsirkan solusi yang diperoleh.
4) mengomunikasikan gagasan dengan simbol, tabel, diagram, atau media lain untuk
5) memiliki sikap menghargai kegunaan matematika dalam kehidupan, yaitu memiliki
rasa ingin tahu,perhatian,dan minat dalam mempelajari matematika, serta sikap ulet
dan percaya diri dalam pemecahan masalah.

Issue Problem
Senin tanggal 6 Maret 2017 mulai pukul 08.00-9.10 WIB, hari Kamis tanggal 9 Maret 2017
pukul 7.30-8.40, peneliti menemukan beberapa masalah dalam proses pembelajaran
matematika di SDN 016 Bangkinang Kota,
 dalam penyampaian konsep guru belum menggunakan alat peraga yang sesuai
dengan materi, disebabkan alat peraga yang terbatas, walaupun ada alat peraga
yang sesuai dengan materi pembelajaran, guru kurang mengerti cara
menggunakannya,
 guru sering beranggapan anak mengerti sehingga cepat pindah kepada materi
lain,
 guru sering memberi PR, sedangkan materi belum dikuasai anak, dan
 guru memeriksa PR dan memberi nilai tanpa memberi pembetulan dengan
cara membuat penyelesain pengerjaan.

Tujuan Penelitian
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan:
 Rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran operasi pengurangan bilangan cacah
dengan menggunakan Blok Dienes pada siswa kelas I SDN 016 Bangkinang
Kota.
 Perbaikan proses pembelajaran materi operasi pengurangan bilangan cacah
melalui Blok Dienes pada siswa kelas I SDN 016 Bangkinang Kota.
 Hasil pembelajaran operasi pengurangan bilangan cacah dengan menggunakan
Blok Dienes pada siswa kelas I SDN 016 Bangkinang Kota.

Tinjauan Teori
tentang beberapa kesiapan siswa untuk belajar.
waktu mengalami atau mengenal peristiwa, benda di dalam lingkungannya menemukan cara
untuk menyatakan kembali peristiwa atau benda tersebut di dalam pikirannya, yaitu suatu
model mental tentang peristiwa atau benda yang dialaminya atau dikenalnya”.
Menurut Russeffendi (1997:1) bahwa : Dengan menggunakan alat manipulatif dalam
pengajaran matematika, proses belajar mengajar akan termotivasi. Baik siswa maupun guru
dan terutama siswa, minatnya akan timbul. Ia akan senang termotivasi dan karena itu akan

Hasil Belajar
Berdasarkan pendapat yang telah dipaparkan, hasil belajar dapat dilihat dari
kemampuan peserta dalam mengingat pelajaran yang telah disampaikan selama proses
pembelajaran dan bagaimana siswa tersebut bisa menerapkannya serta mampu memecahkan
masalah yang timbul sesuai dengan apa yang telah dipelajarinya. Dalam KTSP hasil belajar
yang dituntut bukan kognitif saja tetapi mencakup tiga ranah yaitu kognitif, afektif, dan
psikomotor.

Kerangka Teori
Hasil dan Pembahasan
Berdasarkan pengamatan dan hasil tes yang telah dilaksanakan selama proses
pembelajaran maka tujuan pembelajaran yang diharapkan pada pembelajaran siklus II sudah
mencapai target yang diinginkan. Maka penelitian tidak dilanjutkan lagi pada pertemuan
berikutnya. Ini dapat kita lihat dari hasil analisis data pada siklus II dengan rata-rata kelas 9,1
(91%) dan ketuntasan secara klasikal 89,5%.

## Kesimpulan dan Saran

Kesimpulan
Rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran Matematika dengan menggunakan blok dienes
disusun dalam bentuk Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP) yang disesuaikan dengan
kurikulum. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran matematika dengan menggunakan blok dienes
dilakukan melalui beberapa tahap, yaitu tahap enaktif, tahap ikonik, dan tahap simbolik.
Peningkatan hasil belajar dapat dilihat dari hasil persentase ketuntasan belajar siswa. Pada
siklus I pertemuan I rata-rata kelas 5,3 (53%), siklus I pertemuan II 6,5 (65%) dansiklus II (I
kali pertemuan) dengan rata-rata kelas 9,1 (91%).

Saran
Pembelajaran Matematika dengan menggunakan blok dienes layak dipertimbangkan
oleh guru untuk menjadi pembelajaran alternatif yang dapat digunakan sebagai referensi
dalam memilih media pembelajaran. Dalam setiap pembelajaran guru hendaknya lebih
selektif dalam memilih, menggunakan alat peraga yang sesuai dengan materi, dan dapat
menarik dan sesuai dengan tingkat perkembangan siswa.
CHAPTER III

##  content and explanation of journal I is quite clear so as to facilitate the reader to

understand it While in the journal II very clear and in-depth discussion of prime
numbers
 Relevance of the topic is complete and good in journal II but in book I not so
 The feasibility aspects of good content and material coverage are also easy to
understand
 Aspects of language feasibility of the flow of communicative and forward thinking,
the use of symbols in accordance with punctuation
 The aspect of the feasibility of presentation in journal I and II has been very
mendukunng and in accordance with the material

## 1.2 WEAKNESS JOURNAL

 Completeness of the topic in journal 1 is not so complete and less to understand it
while at journal II is quite complete
 The linkage is not all sections related and there are also related
 The feasibility aspect is good enough for journal I while journal II is good
 The language feasibility aspect is not communicative so there are some words that are
not connected

The aspect of the presentation feasibility is less appealing that makes the reader less
interested to read it, because it is too monotonous and boring.
CHAPTER IV

IMPLICATION

Theory

The counting number is a set of non-negative integers, ie {0, 1, 2, 3 ...}. In other words the
set of the original numbers plus 0. So, the counting number must be positive. Capping count
set: C = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ....}

## 1) The set of natural numbers = {1, 2, 3, 4, ...}

2) Even set of numbers = {0, 2, 4, 6, ...}
3) The set of odd numbers = {1, 3, 5, 7, ...}
4) The set of squared numbers = {0, 1, 4, 9, ...}
5) The set of prime numbers = {2, 3, 5, 7, ...}
6) The set of composed numbers (composites) = {4, 6, 8, 12, ...}

Operation

1) commutative: a + b = b + a
2) associative: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
3) the element of identity (neutral) is zero (0)
4) closed nature at sum
5) The sum of two or more chunks always yields a count
6) Reduction is the inverse operation of the sum of a - b = c, equals b + c = a.

 Multiplication
1) commutative: a x b = b x a
2) associative: (a x b) x c = a x (b x c)
3) distributive:
4) a x (b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c)
5) a x (b - c) = (a x b) - (a x c)
6) multiplication identity element is one (1)
7) a x 1 = a
8) b x 1 = b
9) all counts are multiplied by zero (0), the result is zero (0)
10) a x 0 = 0
11) b x 0 = 0
12) closed properties multiplication
13) all the multiplication of the counts produces the counting number as well.

 Sharing
1) The division is the inverse operation of the multiplication
2) a: b = c ⟹ b x c = a
3) 0 divided by the counting number (except 0), the result is zero (0) division by 0 is not
defined.

## Jakarta, Kemendikbud - In improving Indonesia's superior, competitive and

characteristic human resources, the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemendikbud)
continues its efforts to develop education and culture by referring to the Nawacita that has
been contained in the National Medium Term Development Plan 2015 - 2019, namely
improving the quality of life, revolution of nation character, increasing people's productivity
and competitiveness in international market, and strengthening diversity and strengthening
social restoration of Indonesia.

The direction of education development policy in 2017, Minister of Education and Culture
Muhadjir Effendy delivered in the Working Meeting with Commission X of DPR RI on
Thursday night (01/09/2016), in Commission X meeting room of DPR RI, Senayan, Jakarta.
There are seven directions of education development policies in 2017, which meet the
financing of national priority activities in the Government Work Plan (RKP) of 2017 for the
attainment of Nawacita.
"The emphasis on efforts to improve the quality of learning at all levels and educational
paths, both public and private, with a smaller quality gap," said Mendikbud when delivering
the direction of the second education policy in front of 38 members of Commission X DPR
RI last night.

The direction of further education policy is to give greater attention to the least developed,
outermost, and leading (3T) areas, ensuring the poor and marginalized groups more easily
access education services with due regard to equity and gender equity, making use of the
educational development budget as much as possible to the community, maximum public
involvement, and strengthening governance of education and cultural development, including
transparent and accountable budget execution.

## In addition to conveying the direction of education development policy, the Minister of

Culture and Tourism also conveyed the seven directions of the policy of cultural development
in 2017. The policy direction is to increase public understanding of the importance of the
noble historical and cultural values of the nation and its relevance to sustainable livelihoods
in various sectors, and in cooperation with various ministries and agencies both in the country
and other state institutions to increase tolerance and dampen sectarian violence.

It then enhances arts and cultural education from an early age and provides art facilities and
infrastructure for both production and appreciation purposes, develops an effective system of
registration and management of cultural heritage, opens art and cultural activities centers in
suburbs, promotes promotion inter-regional culture. "We will also develop a human
development index (HDI) to measure the achievement of human development in the field of
culture," said Mendikbud.
CHAPTER V

CLOSING

Conclusions

From the above description it can be concluded that the counting number is the number used
to denote the member count or the cardinality of a set. There are four operations in the
number of counts, namely (1) the summing (2) subtraction (3) multiplication (4) division.
The properties that apply to the addition operation on the counting number are the nature of
the exchange (commutative), the nature of grouping (Assosiatif), and the nature of identity on
the number zero. While the reduction operation does not meet the properties possessed by the
addition operation. The properties that apply to the multiplication operation on the counting
number are the nature of the exchange (commutative), the nature of grouping (associative),
the nature of the number 0 on the multiplication, and the nature of the number 1 on the
multiplication as the element of identity. While the properties that apply to the division
operation on the counting number is the nature of the number 0 in the division operation and
the nature of the number 1 on the division. The method used to teach counting and its
operations are numerous. It is necessary creativity and patience of educators to provide this
material considering the thinking stage of students still think concretely (in the low class).
Suggestion The author suggests that educators and educator candidates understand exactly
how the stages in each operation and understand the proof and where the results. Not only
that, educators must also be sure their students are adept at performing addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division operations. Because the operation is very important as the basis of
the next material.

Suggestion

I think from both journals that I review both journal tersku ters read in read to add insight