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Management Information Systems

Chapter 5
Database Processing

Prof. Tagelsir Mohamed


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What Is the Purpose of a Database?
• Databases keep track of things
• Lists of data and themes
– Single theme (concept)
• Can be managed using a spreadsheet
– Multiple themes (concepts)
• Require databases

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What Is the Purpose of a Database?

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What Are the Contents of a Database?
• Database
– Self-describing collection of integrated records
• Characters (bytes)
• Columns (fields)
• Rows (records)
• Tables (files)

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Hierarchy of data elements in
traditional file environments

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Problems with the traditional data
environment
• The resulting problems are data redundancy
and inconsistency, program-data dependence,
inflexibility, poor data security, and an inability
to share data among applications.

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The traditional file processing

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Data redundancy and inconsistency
• Data redundancy is the presence of duplicate
data in multiple data files so that the same data
are stored in more than one place or location.
• Data redundancy occurs when different groups in
an organization independently collect the same
piece of data and store it independently of each
other.
• Data redundancy wastes storage resources and
also leads to data inconsistency, where the same
attribute may have different values.
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Program data dependence
• Program-data dependence refers to the
coupling of data stored in files and the specific
programs required to update and maintain
those files such that changes in programs
require changes to the data.
• Any change in a software program could
require a change in the data accessed by that
program.

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Lack of flexibility and poor security
• A traditional file system can deliver routine
scheduled reports after extensive
programming efforts, but it cannot deliver ad
hoc reports or respond to unanticipated
information requirements in a timely fashion.
• Because there is little control or management
of data, access to and dissemination of
information may be out of control.

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Lack of data sharing and availability
• Because pieces of information in different files
and different parts of the organization cannot
be related to one another, it is virtually
impossible for information to be shared or
accessed in a timely manner.
• Information cannot flow freely across different
functional areas or different parts of the
organization.

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The database approach to data
management

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What Are the Contents of a Database?
• What are the relationships among rows?
– Key
• A value in one row of one table that appears as
a value in another row of another table
– Primary key
• A value that identifies a unique row in a table
– Foreign key
• A value in one table that appears as a primary
key in another table to which it relates
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What Are the Contents of a Database?
• Tables are linked together by relationships among
rows. The relationships are created using keys. A
key is a value in one row of a table that appears
as a value in a row of another table.
• There are two basic keys: primary keys and
foreign keys. A primary key is a value that
identifies a unique row in a table, whereas a
foreign key is a value in one table that appears as
a primary key in another table.
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What Are the Contents of a Database?
• Relational Database

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What Are the Contents of a Database?
• The student number is the value in the rows that
uniquely identifies the row. The Student Number
is a primary key.
• The Student Number appears as values in rows
of both the Email Table and the Office Visit
table. In those two tables, the value for Student
Number is considered a foreign key, because it
serves as the primary key in the Student Table.
• This concept of linking tables together using
foreign keys is called a relational database.
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Sample meta data in access
Data that is used to describe data is called
metadata.

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What Are the Components of a Database
Application System?
Database •
DBMS •
Database •
Application(s)

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Human resources database with
multiple views

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What Are the Components of a
Database Application System?
• Database Application Systems are made up of
three major components: the database, a
database management system (DBMS), and
one or more database applications.

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What Are the Components of a Database
Application System?
• Database Management Systems (DBMS)
– Creating the database and its structures
– Processing the Database
• Read, insert, modify, or delete data
• Structured Query Language (SQL)
– Administering the database
• Database Administrator (DBA)

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What Are the Components of a
Database Application System?
• The DBMS show where and how the data are
actually stored by separating the logical and
physical views of the data.
• The logical view presents data as they would
be perceived by end users or business
specialists.
• The physical view shows how data are actually
organized and structured on physical storage
media.
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Database applications
• Forms are used primarily for data entry to read,
insert, modify, and delete data.
• Reports are used to show data in a structured
form.
• Queries are used to help locate data in the
database.
• Application programs are used to process logic
specific to a given business need.
• The application program serves as a link
between the DBMS and a Web server when data
bases are used via the internet.
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What Are the Components of a Database
Application System?
• Multi-user Processing
– Lost update problem

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What Are the Components of a
Database Application System?
• lost update problem occurs when more than
one user is processing the database and a
conflict occurs.
• To prevent it some form of lock logic can be
used to prevent more than one user from
processing the same thing in the database and
needs to be accounted for in these situations.

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What Are the Components of a
Database Application System?
• DBMS products fall into two broad categories.
Enterprise DBMS are for large organizations
with hundreds and thousands of users.
Personal DBMS are for fewer users (generally
less than 100). Today, MS Access is the only
remaining personal DBMS.

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How Do Data Models Facilitate Database
Design?

• Database Design Process

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How Do Data Models Facilitate Database
Design?
• Entity Relationship (E-R) Model
– Tool for constructing data models
• Entities
– Something users want to track
– Attributes
• Relationships
– Entities are linked to each other

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How Do Data Models Facilitate Database
Design?
• Entity Relationship (E-R) Diagrams
– Maximum Cardinality

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How Do Data Models Facilitate
Database Design?
• The diagrams depict relationships between
entities.
• The crow’s feet indicate something called
maximum cardinality. That is, the crow’s feet
show the maximum number of entities that
can be involved in the relationship.

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How Do Data Models Facilitate Database
Design?
• Entity Relationship (E-R) Diagrams
– Maximum and Minimum Cardinality

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How Do Data Models Facilitate
Database Design?
• The vertical line represents minimal
cardinality, meaning at least one entity of that
type is required.
• The small oval means the entity is optional
and the relationship does not require an
entity of that type. As an example, an adviser
must belong to a single department, but a
department does not need to have an advisor
relationship.

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How Is a Data Model Transformed into a
Database Design?

• Normalization
– Converting poorly structured tables into two or
more well-structured tables
• Normalization
– Data integrity problems
– Normalizing for data integrity

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How Is a Data Model Transformed into a
Database Design?

• Representing relationships
– 1:N relationships
– N:M relationships

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How Is a Data Model Transformed into
a Database Design?
• Examples of maximum cardinality are 1:N and
N:M relationships.
• In 1:N relationships, we need to consider
which table will receive the foreign key.
• In N:M relationships, we need to create an
additional table to form the relationships.

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Relational and non-relational DBMS
• Because of the growing amount of data
created these days, companies like
Amazon.com, Google, and Facebook realized
that the relational database technology
wouldn’t be able to meet their processing
needs.
• Each in turn created a non-relational data
store. Today, non-relational DBMS are
referred to as NoSQL DBMS.

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How Can the Intramural League Improve its
Database?
• League Database, Revision 1
– Update “Team” table with “Season” field
– Rename the table “Team_Season”

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How Can the Intramural League Improve its
Database?
• Database Revision 1

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How Can the Intramural League Improve its
Database?
• Database Revision 2

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Using database to improve business
performance and decision making
• Businesses use their databases to keep track
of basic transactions, such as paying suppliers,
processing orders, keeping track of customers,
and paying employees.
• But they also need databases to provide
information that will help the company run
the business more efficiently, and help
managers and employees make
• better decisions.
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The challenge of big data
• Big Data describes the data collections that
differ from relational databases by their huge
volume, rapid velocity, and great variety.
• Businesses are interested in big data because
they can reveal more patterns and interesting
anomalies than smaller data sets, with the
potential to provide new insights into
customer behavior, weather patterns, financial
market activity, or other phenomena.

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Business intelligence infrastructure
• A contemporary infrastructure for business
intelligence has an array of tools for obtaining
useful information from all the different types
of data used by businesses today, including
semi-structured and unstructured big data in
vast quantities.
• These capabilities include data warehouses
and data marts, Hadoop, in-memory
computing, and analytical platforms.

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Data warehouses and data marts
• A data warehouse is a database that stores
current and historical data of potential
interest to decision makers throughout the
company.
• The data originate in many core operational
transaction systems, such as systems for sales,
customer accounts, and manufacturing, and
may include data from Web site transactions.

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Components of a data warehouse

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Data warehouses and data marts
• A data mart is a subset of a data warehouse
in which a summarized or highly focused
portion of the organization’s data is placed in
a separate database for a specific population
of users.
• For example, a company might develop
marketing and sales data marts to deal with
customer information

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Hadoop
• Hadoop is an open source software framework
that enables distributed parallel processing of
huge amounts of data across inexpensive
computers.
• It breaks a big data problem down into sub-
problems, distributes them among up to
thousands of inexpensive computer processing
nodes, and then combines the result into a
smaller data set that is easier to analyze.
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In-memory computing
• In-memory processing makes it possible for
very large sets of data, amounting to the size
of a data mart or small data warehouse, to
reside entirely in memory.
• Complex business calculations that used to
take hours or days are able to be completed
within seconds, and this can even be
accomplished on handheld devices.

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Analytical tools:
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
• OLAP supports multidimensional data
analysis, enabling users to view the same data
in different ways using multiple dimensions.
• Each aspect of information—product, pricing,
cost, region, or time period—represents a
different dimension.

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Multidimensional data models

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Analytical tools:
Data Mining
• Data mining provides insights into corporate
data that cannot be obtained with OLAP by
finding hidden patterns and relationships in
large databases and inferring rules from them
to predict future behavior.

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Type of information obtained from
data mining
• Associations are occurrences linked to a single
event.
• In sequences, events are linked over time.
• Classification recognizes patterns that describe
the group to which an item belongs by examining
existing items that have been classified and by
inferring a set of rules.
• Clustering works in a manner similar to
classification when no groups have yet been
defined.
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Analytical tools:
Text Mining and Web Mining
• Text mining tools help businesses to extract
key elements from unstructured big data
sets, discover patterns and relationships, and
summarize the information.
• Text mining can be used to analyze transcripts
of calls to customer service centers to identify
major service and repair issues or to measure
customer sentiment about their company.

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Analytical tools:
Text Mining and Web Mining
• The discovery and analysis of useful patterns
and information from the World Wide Web is
called Web mining.
• Businesses might turn to Web mining to help
them understand customer behavior,
evaluate the effectiveness of a particular
Web site, or quantify the success of a
marketing campaign.

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Linking internal database to the web

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