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LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses Graduate School

1971

Simple Models.

Kuo-cheng Chiu

Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College

Recommended Citation

Chiu, Kuo-cheng, "Digital Control of Complex Systems Based on Simple Models." (1971). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses.

2114.

https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_disstheses/2114

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University Microfilms

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Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106

72-17,752

DIGITAL CONTROL OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS BASED ON

SIMPLE MODELS.

and Mechanical College, Ph.D., 1971

Engineering, chemical

DIGITAL CONTROL OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS BASED

ON SIMPLE MODELS

A Dissertation

Louisiana State University and

Agricultural and Mechanical College

in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

in

by

Kuo-Cheng Chiu

B.S., University of Rangoon, 1963

M.S.E., University of Florida, 1968

December, 1971

I

P L E A S E NOTE:

S o m e p a ge s m a y have

i n d i s t i n c t print.

F i l m e d as received.

U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , A X e r o x E d u c a t i o n C o mpany

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

the XDS Sigma 5 computer provided by this contract and the IBM-360

University.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

ABSTRACT xiv

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION 1

Introduction 6

Process Description 6

Process Characteristics 12

Model Development 13

Tuning Techniques 26

Optimization of Parameters 28

Literature Cited 40

ill

Page

Introduction 42

z-Transform 42

Set Point 44

Handling of Saturation 50

Ringing 50

Comparison of Algorithms 56

Kalman Algorithm 64

Algorithms 69

Sumnary 82

Literature Cited 84

Introduction 85

z-Transform 85

Dahlin's Method 87

Handling of Saturation 88

Ringing Analysis 95

iv

Page

Summary 120

Introduction 124

130

Outer Loop Tuning

Tuning 153

VI CONCLUSIONS 171

v

Page

PARAMETERS FOR. SET POINT CHANGE

VITA 178

vl

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

response 22

order lag plus dead time system 25

algorithms

algorithms

change

change

vii

Page

(Equation 3.8)

(Equation 3.10)

ringing poles removed (Equation 3.12)

ringing poles removed (Equation 3.13)

removed (Equation 3.15)

ringing poles removed (Equation 3.17)

algorithms on load change

design Kalman's algorithm

(Equation 3.27)

ringing poles removed (Equation 3.31)

ringing poles removed (Equation 3.33)

viii

Comparison of algorithms on load change 80

change

free algorithms on load change

(Equation 4.10) 94

poles removed (Equation 4.15)

ringing poles removed (Equation 4.17)

Second order Dahlin algorithm with z=<l-e

"JlT)

removed (Equation 4.23) 106

removed (Equation 4.21) 107

ringing poles removed (Equation 4.25) 108

(Equation 4.8) on load change 109

(Equation 4.10) on load change 110

algorithms on load change (1=1)

algorithms on set point change (1=1)

Ix

Figure Page

algorithms on set point change (X“l)

with varying X on load change 116

4.25) with varying X on load change 117

with varying X on set point change 118

4.25) with varying X on set point change 119

(X=l)

(X-l) 122

5.1c Equivalent feedback loop 125

5.1 Cascade control system 125

disturbance

reactor

controller in manual

controller in automatic

134

slave controller in automatic

controller for feed rate change

x

Figure Page

controller temperature set point change

controller for step change in cooling water

temperature

point

control system

water rate

c | a

5.15 Two different means of tuning multivariable 155

control systems

temperature controller in manual

temperature controller in automatic

FCIM tuning; temperature controller on manual

FClA tuning; temperature control on manual

in feed concentration FCIM tuning

in feed concentration FCIA tuning

in temperature set point, FCIM tuning

set point change, FCIA tuning

xi

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

Dead Time Model

Dead Time Model

Dead Time Model

Poles Removed

Ringing Poles Removed

xii

Tables Page

Settings

xiii

ABSTRACT

systems.

xiv

In all cases, algorithms derived on second order plus dead time

used for step change in set point while ringing algorithms are

xv

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

algorithms for load change and set point change are studied.

method. Temperature response of the reactor due to a step

and studied.

In Chapter IV, Dahlin's algorithm, which has one adjustable

for both load changes and set point changes are studied.

In summary, the purpose of this dissertation is to discuss

least for systems without large dead times such as the one studied.

Literature Cited

Techniques", Control Engineering, (Dec. 1967), p. 72.

mation", Instruments and Control Systems. Vol., 40, (Dec.

1967), p. 76.

Technology. (Sept. 1970), p. 39.

Numerical and Statistical Problem", J. Assn. Comp. Math.,

8 , 2 (April 1961), pp. 212-229.

Systerns, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963.

Chapter II

Introduction

set point. First and second order plus dead time models obtained

Process Description

3

Reactants of concentration C^Clbs/ft ) and temperature ^ ( “F) are

&

T. The products are removed at the rate W, with the same concen

3 3

mixture has volume V(ft ), density p(lbs/ft ) and specific heat

Cp (Btu/lb-°F).

w c

(lbs/min) and leaves at T (°F). The heat capacity of the walls

c

of the reactor and of the jacket Is combined with that of the

c

of water Is taken as unity and heat losses to the surroundings are

2 2

min-ft -°F). The heat transfer area of the jacket is A(ft ).

are assumed to behave like first order lags with time constants

t V

8

Table II-l

dC

Pv -dT " W(Caf- Ca> ' k°a2 <2 - ^

-a

(T+460)

k « k0e (2 .2)

dT 2

pvc - WC ( T r T )-UA(T-T )+(-AH)VkC (2.3)

dT

Mc -jf - UA(T-Tc) -Wc (Tc-Tw ) (2.4)

3

k = reaction rate constant, ft /lb-mln

3

k “ Arrhenius rate constant, ft /lb-min

o

a = Arrhenius temperature constant, °R

dT _

T — - T - T (2.5)

Tt dt c cR

Table II-l (cont.)

dW _

cR _ „

V “dt" " Wc " cR (2.6)

CK

CONTROLLER

SET POINT FEED

^ COOLING

** WATER

COOLING

WATER

PRODUCT

Table II-2

C = 3 . 6 lb/ft3 a = 2560°R

a

Ca£ = 9.0 lb/cu.ft. C = 0.9 Btu/lb-°F

P

k = 0.0278 cu.ft/lb-mln AH = 867 Btu/lb

T = 190°F k = 1 . 4 3 ft3/lb-min

o

T = 120°F M = 6000 Btu/°F

c c

Tf = 150°F UA = 600 Btu/min-°F

w

W = 1000 lb/mln p = 60 lb/cu.ft.

c t

t = 0.1 min

Process Characteristics

rates. Corripio and Smith (1) show that the response of the

these nonlinearities.

The system in question is self-regulated by nature. With

Model Development

bitrarily chosen.

the literature was that of Ziegler and Nichols (3), who charac

o RESPONSE CURVES

Q

o>

05

Q_

CD

CD.

AW = -300 lb/min.

03

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 50.00 00

TIME IN MIN.

Figure 2-2a. Response to Change of Controller Output

.

O

RESPONSE CURVES

Q

=a*

o>

o Feed Temp.

o

(AT, = 5°F)

CD

o>_

IN F

CD

o

TEMP

o

05

O

Cl)

CO.

10.00 30.00 U0.00 50

T I M E IN M I N

o

o

Slope = 0.18oF/min

3 09

1'

3'qq = -0.0103 °F/pound per minute

2.3 min

17.2 min

“2.3s

T= 17.2 -0.0103 e

17.2 s + 1

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 2.3. Ziegler-Nichols Model.

extended to obtain a first order lag plus dead time model of

the form

K 33 process gain

0 = dead time

T 9 time constant

method does not depend upon this procedure giving a good fit.

G(s) = (Tis+1)(t2s+1) “ 2

where

K = process gain

6 = dead time

£ “ damping ratio

o>

CD

o>_

Q. 2.3 min.

Z

LUo -0.0103 e”2 *3s

G(s)

12.5s+l (2.8)

CO

CO-

o T = 12.5

p*

CO.

0.00 1 0. 0 0 20.00 50.00 60

The main deterrent to considereing second order models is the

mining the time constants for overdamped systems without dead time.

Smith (8) and later Cox et.al. (9) extended this method to systems

with dead time. Meyer et.al. (10) developed a quick and easy

testing method for second order plus dead time model is developed

by Pemberton (12).

better than Sten's method should not be concluded; for other systems

the converse may be true. In fact, the two second order models

o

CD

= 0.054

o

o>_

'rom Figure 2 in the original artic .e (11)

1.72 min

CL. 13.14 min

0.93 min

CD

co_ 1.37 min

Gf.i --o-oioae'1-373 (2.9)

= 17.2 K J (1.72S+1)(13.14s + 1)

3.09

-300

o

-0.0103 °F/pound per min.

03

0 .00 10.00 20.00 50.00

c

o>

0 = 1.0 min

o 27.8 min

o>. _9 _

t„/tft = 0.1728

0.18 min

UJo

T.= 11.84 min

CD

00- T0= 2.61 min

to

G M = -0-0103 e-1-0s

v^ s' (11.84s+l)(261s+l) (2 .10)

0 00 . 10.00 20.00 30.00 0.00 60.00

T I M E IN MIN

Figure 2.6. Meyer.!s Second-Order Model Plus Dead Time.

o RESPONSE CURVES

o

o>.

o Miller

o>_ System

Meyer

ll-C3

4z-ai

»■ »co_

Sten

CD

00-

O

O

03

0.00 5.00 1 0.0 0 15.00

T I M E IN M I N .

Figure 2.7. Comparison of Model Responses to the System Response.

77

Conventional Control Algorithm

m

n

(2 .11)

where

K = proportional gain

c

T^ = reset time

T = derivative time

d

m^ = initial valve position

T = sampling time

m = manipulated variable

e = error

(actuator) position rather than its actual value via the velocity

algorithm:

Tuning Control Algorithms

These are:

model.

gives the responses C(t) that most nearly satisfies the desired

"Optimize the response C(t) over Kc and T^". Although there are

used criteria can be separated into two classes: (1) the simple

and (2) the more exact (but more difficult to evaluate) criteria

Load or

Disturbance

Controller Plant

Ke Output,C(t)

t s +1

Figure 2.8. Control loop with PI controller and first order lag plus

dead time system.

percent overshoot, rise time, decay ratio, etc., which are defined

00

Tuning Techniques

Decay Ratio

105%

100% •

Output

95%

settling time

1— Rise Time

Time

The first tuning techniques to appear were for continuous

proposed by Ziegler and Nichols (3); Cohen and Coon (15) presented

a later version; and finally Smith and Murrill (16, 17). The

techniques for a second order plus dead time model with disturbance

parameters for the first order plus dead time model, the second

order plus dead time model, and the process. The pattern search

OPTIMIZATION CRITERION

Set

Point STANDARD

CONTROLLER SYSTEM

Table II-3

Tuning Results

Method K T. Set Point Load Ratio

c i Td

Table II-3 (cont.)

Method K T. Set Point Load Ratio

c i Td

for the PI control, load change case, but for PID control, load

cases and especially for PID control, the decay ratio is less

than the objective of one quarter. For both set point cases,

order tuning method was poorest of all on the PI and PID load

settings can be obtained from Figure 2.11 for the PID, load

case and Figure 2.12 for the PID, set point case.

PID over PI was by a factor of about 5 for load changes and almost

Figure 2.13.

for load changes are not optimal for set point changes, and vice

versa. This situation is much more pronounced for the PID case

order model produced settings that were quite close to the true

jj

192 . 0 0

first-order

Optimum

190.00

second-order

IN r.

168.00

TEMP

155.00

I D . 00 0.00 1 0 .0 0 20.00

TIME FM M

195.00

.190.00

IN F.

first-order

seqond-order

185,00

TEMP

optimum

IBD.tJO

.

0 00 10.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

192.00

PID

190.00

IN F.

186.00

.TEMP

86.00

36

o

o

in

03

o

03

Ll.

1— 4

O

a

o

oo

• ID.00 0.00 10.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

j/

192.00

Set point

190.00

IN F.

Load

1 8 6 . DO

TEMP

1 8 6 . DO

T I M E IN MIN.

195.00

190.00

IN F.

1 8 5 . DO

Set point

TEMP

180.00

- 10.00 .

0 00 1 0 . OU 20.00 30.00

impossible to obtain accurate parameter values from normal

preferable.

Literature Cited

Control Strategies", Instruments and Control System, January

1971, p. 87.

Techniques", Control Engineering. (Dec.1967), p. 72.

Automatic Controller", Transactions ASME» (November 1942),

p.759.

Tuning of Proportional Digital Controllers", Instruments

and Control Systems, (Oct. 1968), p. 97.

Instruments and Control Systems, (Feb. 1969), p. 89.

York, 1964.

matic Controls", ASME, New York (1948), p. 276.

ISA Journal, Vol. 6 , No. 2 ( February 1959 ),

pp. 28-33.

Process Control Algorithms", ISA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 10,

(Oct. 1966), pp. 65-72.

mations", Instruments and Control Systems, Vol. 40, (Dec.

1967), p. 76.

Instrumentation Techn61ogy, (Sept. 1970), p. 39.

12. Pemberton, T. J., "An Improved Pulse Testing Method",

Instrumentation Technology,(Dec. 1970), p. 51.

Algorithm with Anti-Windup Feature", Leeds & Worthrup

Technical Journal, (Jan. 1968), p. 1.

Digital Control Dynamics for Controller Tuning and Hardware

Lag Effects", Instrument Practice, (Jan. 1969), p. 45.

Retarded Control", Taylor Instrument Companies Bulletin

#TDS-10A102.

Underdamped Systems", ISA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 9, p. 40.

Right", Hydrocarbon Processing and Petroleum Refiner, Vol.

45, No. 2, (Feb. 1966).

Based on Integral Performance Criteria", Instrumentation

Technology, Vo . 16, No. 11, Nov. 1967, p. 57.

Controllers for Set point Changes", Instruments and Control

Systems, (Dec. 1969), p. 67.

Tuning Method", British Chemical Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 11,

(Nov. 1969), pp. 1552-1555

Instruments and Control Systems, Vol. 43, No. 8 (Aug. 1970),

pp. 101-102.

Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Numerical and Statistical Problem,"Journal of the Association

for Computing Machinery, 8 , 2 (April 1961), pp. 212-229.

Chapter III

Introduction

quite restricted.

Set Zero-order

Point Controller Hold Plant C(s)

D(z) 1-e -sT G(s)

- Error Plant

Manipulated Output

Variable

where

K } 777

HG(z) 1-C(z)/R(z) 0.3)

for HG(z) corresponding to first and second order plus dead time

models are derived (3). Table III-l gives numerical values for

criteria that (1) the settling time must be finite, (2) the rise

Table III-l

dead time model dead time model

Continuous Transfer

■0.0103 e-2 -3!_ ,0i0103 e-ls

Function

12.5s + 1

(11.84s+l)(2.61s+l)

Pulse Transfer

[b.0545-fq.02_24Z-.1] 0139+0.0119z_1

-o.oios*’2 [ M i 2

Function T = 1 -3

-0.0103z |

L „1 - « no„_-l1 JI

0.9231Z- I,-, ''>

L(l-0 .9i90z'1)(l-0.687z"1X

Pulse Transfer

-2 [~0.1272 + 0.0207z~1 -1 [~0.0139+0.06

0619z’1+0.1074z"2

Function T = 2 -0.0103z -0.0103z

L 1 - 0.8521z_1 . L(l-0.8446z' 1)(l-0.4647z"1)

One specific case that satisfies the above criteria is that

1-z

C(z)/R(z) = z *

-1 .

D(z)\ = Z 1

1_z-l HG(z) (3.5)

if the time delay in HG(z) does not exceed the sampling time.

So in general cases

-N-l x

D(z) = 1_z-N-l HG(z) <3 *6)

The controller D(z) and the equivalent difference equations

for equations for first and second order models are given in

T “ 1 minute.

Table III-2

D(z) = (3.7)

(3.8)

where

1

a, = -

1 T

-a.mT

C = 1 - e

6

-a-jmT -a-T

C? = e - e

0 = N T + 6

and

(3.8a)

Table III-3

D(z) = 0 - 1 ^ ----» -? q - e 5-i. (3.9)

-2 2 -1

KC-Cl-ss ^ ( 1 + —

I cx z )

or

n KC^ L n ' n-1 n-2J

C C

E7 V l + Mn-2 + 57 “a-3 (3-10>

n 1 L n Cj n-1 n-2 n-3J ' n-1

where

1

a = --

T1

b = ^

T2

9 - NT

be"aT- ae"bT

C1 ° 1 + ' a - b

Table III-3 (cont.)

2 _ + a - b

and

0 = dead time

K = process gain

E = error

M = manipulated variable

Handling of Saturation

process for a step change in set point, the manipulated and the

Ringing

design.

o

o

u>

r-

Ol

O

CCo

UJ •

a ”

T I M E IN MIN.

o

o

lO

o>,

o>.

Q

CO,

-10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

a

0

«l

O

CCo

LJ •

n 10

CO

Q

2 2

T I M E IN MIN.

o

o

U>

o

o

O

U-i05

z

o

o

CJ

CD.

- 10.00 0.00 1 0 .0 0 20.00 30.00

TI M E IN MIN;

Figure 3.3. Second order ringing deadbeat algorithm (Equation 3.10).

pole. Moving the pole away from the ringing node decreases

aggrevate it (4).

there are one real and two complex conjugate poles in the left-

poles are on the unit circle. Dahlin (4) suggests the ringing

(3.11)

or

1

M

n 3KC,

6

(3.12)

is improved considerably.

7 o

the algorithm

1

Imaginary

1.0

923 Real

o

CD

*— i

oi

□

21 CD

TIME IN MIN.

in

03

Li_

•— 1

o

to

" - ' 0.00 0.01 10.00 20.00 30.00

TIME IN MIN

Figure 3.5. First order deadbeat algorithm with complex ringing

poles removed (Equation 3.12).

Using this algorithm gives virtually the same process response,

of the ITAE criterion gives the values -225 and 12.6, respectively.

from the second order model. The pole-zero locations are shown

3.9, the algorithm with both poles removed exhibits much less

Comparison of Algorithms

o

c=>

•— i

TIME IN MIN.

CD

O

urj

o>

CD

CD

0- -

o

oo

- 10.00 .

0 00 10.00 20.00 30.00

TIME IN MIN.

Figure 3.6. First order deadbeat algorithm with all ringing

poles removed (Equation 3.13).

z-Plane

Imaginary

0.86 682

919

Table III-4

Removing z = -1:

D(z) - Cl - e z )(1 - e ) (3 .14)

or

__ 1 r„ / -aT , -bT. -(a+b)T i

M = IE - (e + e )E ,+ e E 0

n 2KC^ L n n-1 n-2J

2K(Cj+C2) (1 - z’1) (3'16)

or

(3.17)

60

O

o

JUlXLTur-u/

T I M E IN MIN.

o

o

in

co,

o

oo

- 10.0 0 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 3.8. Second order deadbeat algorithm with z=»l removed

(Equation 3.15).

o

C3

ID.

w

o

X q

CCo

IxJ -

0.2 -

cn

a

2 S

T I M E IN MIN

e>

Cl

in

o>,

Z

I— <

o

o

a

CO

- 10.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 3.9. Second order deadbeat algorithm with all ringing poles

removed (Equation 3.17)>

192

second order PID first order dead

beat (Equation 3 .1;

190.00

IN F.

186.00

(Equation 3.17)

TEMP

186.00

0.00 1 0 .0 0 30

TI M E IN MIN.

195.00

190.00

IN F.

185.00

TEMP

beat (Equation ^

3.17)

180.00

(Equation 3.13)

TI M E IN MIN.

as compared to those with ringing poles removed, as shown in

Figure 3.12. That is, in the case of a set point change the

o/ \ -1 , -2 , -3 ,

C(z) = c^z + z + z + ...

for M(z) is

-1 -2 -3

M(z) = m + m,z + m_z + m_z + ...

o 1 f f

Q

o

cu

03

* -*

O

O (Equation 3.17)^7

CD

D

to

lO.

- 10.00 0.00 10. D U

TIME IN MIN

on load change.

time

m

o

1 1

| |

1

n»(t) . 1 1

I

ml 1 1 1

i 1

. 1 i

0 T 2T 3T 4T

time

Kalman's algorithm.

o/

R(z) = —

1 - z’1

c (z) = /i - z

= (1 X c ^ “I j+. z

"2 +, z

-3 +, ...).

= c^z -1 +, ,, - c^)z

v -2

(1

= P jZ -1 + P2z~2 = P (z) (3 .1 8 )

and

= (1 - z )(n^+ m^z + mfz + mfz +...)

} M(z) Q(z)

function HG(z).

be noted:

2

i? ! Pi = + P2 = cx + ” ci^ = 1 (3 .2 1 )

2

- - - + m, - m + m - m, = m_ = 1/K

i=l\ - 9o + ^1 + ^2 " mo + ml" V V ml “ ”f

(3 .2 2 )

where K is the process gain for a linear system. Although these

Now that P (2) and Q(z) are known, the control algorithm

J)(z) s — -—

' HG(z) 1-C(z)/R(z)

o Slzj PCz)

P(z) l-P(z)

function.

-2

z . In other words, the plant should be second order, since

-2

If the process contains a dead time z , equation 3.23

still holds. That is, the process dead time presents no problems

The controller D(z) and the equivalent difference equations

for first and second order models are given in Tables III-5 and

poles removed for first and second order algorithms, and the

of 1.80.

order model algorithm are shown in Figure 3.20 and Figure 3.21

Table III-5

a.T ,

1 (1 - e z )

D (z) = (3.24)

K(C6+C?) r -3 -4 i

C,z C,z

1 6 7

C,+C_ C,4C

6 7 6 /J

or

-ajT C

1 r_

M =

K(C6+C?) L^n c "n-lj ' C6+ Mn-3 + C,+C, Mn-4

o /

(3.25)

where

a = —

1 T

-a^mT

C6 ‘ 1 ' c

-a.mT -a T

C? = e - e

6

m

1 ” T

e = NT + 6

Table III-6

.1____ Ll ~ ( e + e )z + e z J

D(z) =

k (c 1+ c 2)

. C1 -2 C2 -3

■ C1+C2 z "Cj+Cg 2

(3.26)

or

1 r -aT, "bT._ . -(a+b)T „ i

n K(C1+C2)LEn- (e +e )En-l En-2]

c c

+ 5 ^ «n-2 + c j f q “a-3 <3 -27>

where

a = — 9 = dead time

T1

t2

0 = NT K = processgain

D6 -aT — £L6-bT

= 1 + a - b M = manipulated variable

-(a+b)T . be ae

2 = e + a - b ----

/1.

o

o

in

CD

in_

•=*

TIM E IN MIN.

CD

O

in

03

CD

t— 4

a

--

o

oo

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 0.00

TI ME IN MIN.

Figure 3.14. First order Kalman algorithm (Equation 3.25).

CD

O

TI ME IN MIN.

o

o

Ift

CD

O

CD,

- 10.00 0.00 1 0 .0 0 20.00 30.00

TIM E IN MIN.

z-Plane

Imaginary

1.0

Real

382 923

309-*8161

/3

z-Plane

919

-.5-.461

/o

Table III-7

”al^

-1

D (z) - “ r f ™ (1 V E -1 :-! - (3-28)

.10JK. (1_z J-)(1+>382 z A)

or

_a x

“n ' l k K ' 6 1 En-l] + -618Mn-l + -382Mn-2 <3 ‘29>

-aiT

_, „ 1 (1 - e z )

D <*> ■ K(3C6« C 7) . ,-1, (3-30)

or

“3 T

(3.31)

Mn = K(3C6+4C?) [En " 6 1 En-l] + Mn-1

Table III-8

[l -

( ' " K(2C1+3C2)- - ( 1 . z-l)

(3.32)

or

1 2 n-2J n-1

(3.33)

where

a = — 9 = dead time

T1

1

b = —- T|»To = time constants

2

0 = NT K = process gain

c , - 1 + be -■ ^

1 a - b

_ -(a+b)T be bT - ae aT

2 + a - b

78

o

CD

tn

CO

O

2 5

- 10.00 .

0 00 10.00 20.00 30.00

TTI M E IN MIN

CD

o

U3

05

CD

CD

CD

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

TIM E IN M N

Figure 3.18. First order Kalman's algorithm with all ringing poles

removed (Equation 3.31).

79

a

CD

to

O

CO

o

*- J—k

T I M E IN MIN.

CD

a

to

o>

<— i

CD

O

cl : .

luS“

CD

o

o

DO

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

TI M E IN MIN.

removed (Equation 3.33).

ov

O

o

OJ

o>

Kalman's first ordc

(Equation 3.31).

PID second order

o

o

,o

ox

2

Kalman's second order

(Equation 3.33).

CJ

o

to

T I M E IN MIN.

U JL

U>

o?

i— i

C3

* O

0.-; *

u j» -

C3

(Equation 3.33) (Equation 3.31)

CO

- 1 0 .0 0 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

model algorithm in which the rising time is faster, less over

Summary

PID algorithms.

09

o Equation 3.33)

»— i

(Equation 3.27)

CD

to

to

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 30

TIME IN MIN

algorithms on load change.

Literature Cited

Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963.

Book Company, Inc.

Samples," Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 46, No. 12, (Dec.1967);

Vol. 47, No. 1, (Jan.1968).

Instruments and Control Systems. (June 1968), p. 77.

"Sampled-Data Processing Techniques for Feedback Control

Systems", by A. R. Bergen and J. R. Ragazzini, Transactions

of the AIEE. (Nov. 1954), pp. 236-247.

Chapter IV

Introduction

process output to move from the old set point to the new set

The problem is not with the design method, but with the chosen

The Dahlin method has such a parameter and therefore may be more

1 C(z)/R(z)

(4.1)

HG(z) 1-C(z)/R(z)

where

Zero-order

E(z) Controller Hold Plant

C(s)

R(z). -sT

D(z) 1-e

G(s)

Plant

"- Error

Set Output

Manipulated

Point

Variable

is the pulse transfer function of the process. Several expressions

Dahlin's Method

Dahlin (3) suggests that the closed loop system should behave

Xe~08

c (s ) = —

s+X (4.3)

In discrete form

(1 - e”^T)z"N_1

C O O = <■' •li > -i (4.4)

(1-z ) (1-e KTz L)

T = sampling time

C(z) (l-e"XT)z~N ~1

(4.5)

R<z> " (l-e^V1)

Substituting into equation 4.1, we have

D(z) =

i . - M z -1- (1-e

1-e ,, -\T.)z -N-l HG(z)

(4.6)

time model and for second order plus dead time model are

for first and second order models are given in Table IV-1 and

Handling of Saturation

to the original process for a step change in set point for X=l,

position form.

oy

Table IV-1

-XT "ajT ,

d /8) * d - e XT) (1-e 1 z 1) ..

-XT -1 -XT. -31 fn _ -1. (4,7)

K |_l-e z -(1-e )z J (Cg+C^z )

1 -XT -a,T

M = [ V e ’1‘ V , ] +(e'XI-C7/C6)Mn.1

6

KC

\ = [Mn-(e'"T-C7/C6)M„ - r C7/C6e' " \ - 2 - < 1-e'W )M„-3

->T -a-T

- C7/C6 (l'e )Mn-4] + 6 En-1 (4‘8a)

where

1

ai T

-a irfT

C6 = X - e

-a-rrfT -ajT

C = e - e

7

m = 1 - 6/T

90

0 = NT + 6

0 = dead time

T = time constant

K = process gain

E = error

M = manipulated variable

X = tuning parameters

Table IV-2

u / I * n-2

+ C2/Cl ( l - ’« ) H n_3

KC

En = 7 7 x f [ V (C2/Cr e'W ) M n - r [<C2/Cr l)e'XT+l]

where

92

9 = NT

-aT -bT

C 1 + be - ae

'1 a - b

2 a - b

9 = dead time

= t:^me constants

K - process gain

E = error

M = manipulated variable

X = tuning parameter

o

o

in.

(M

o

X q

©

CC©

LJ '

0-S

T I M E IN MIN.

CD

CD

in

o>

»—«

X=1

oo.

-10.00 0.00 1 0 .0 0 20.00

T I M E IN MIN.

CD

O

•

u>.

r**

o g

Xt»-|

=*•

UJ

I—

CE^

tn°

l/5_| LnJlrun.

cc ~

UJ

f—

CCo

120

in

I

- 1 0 .0 0 0.00 1 0 .0 0 2 0 .0 0 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

o

o

in

05

oo

- 1 0 .0 0 0.00 1 0.0 0 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 4.3. Second order Dahlin algorithm (Equation 4.10).

Ringing Analysis

(1-z’1)(l+(l-e"XT)z-1+(l-e"XT)z“2) (1+ )

(4.11)

where

-\T

-(l-e~XT)± iV/£a-e"XT)-(l-e"XT)2

z (4.12)

2

It is very interesting to note that deadbeat is a special

zero locations are shown in Figure 4.4 for \=1 and (deadbeat).

ringing, the algorithm with all the left half poles removed

(4.18)

1

s/

z-Plane

Imaginary

X=1

\=

Real

X=1

Table IV-3

-IT **al^ -1

D(z) = (1 -,.e„XT)(l - e .z )

-1 ^7 -1

KC6 (3-2e KL)(l-z ) (1+- (T * A)

6

-XT -a,T

1-e

M =

n

KC6 (3-2e"X’T)

[ V 6 1 Vl] +(1-°7/C6>Mn-

^7

+ 7T M o

6 n"2

Table IV-3 (cont.)

where

-a.mT

C6 ’ 1 - 0

-a.mT -a.T

C? = e - e 1

m = 1 - 6/T

e = NT + 6

0 = dead time

T = time constant

K = process gain

E = error

M = manipulated varialbe

\ = tuning parameter

IUU

o

o

in

OCo

UJ •

0-2“

TI ME IN MIN.

o

o

LO

CD.

X=1

a

co

-10.00 0.00 10.00 30.00

TI ME IN MIN.

removed (Equation 4.15).

o

o

LO

X o

o

0

in.

OCo

LU •

CUS

CO

Q

2 5

T I M E IN MIN.

o

o

in

o>

21

V—I

X=1

o

a

03

T I M E IN MIN.

removed (Equation 4.17).

where

1 - e’XT

K" = 6

“ l

-XT

poles are located at -0.855 and -(1-e ).

-IT

(1-e ) = .632, as shown in Figure 4.9. Algorithm with both

time of 1.80.

Chapter III. Figures 4.11 and 4.12 are responses for first and

z-Plane

Imaginary

-.855 919 0

Real

682

iwo

Table IV-4

With z = removed

n f z) = _____ (1-e z )(l-e z_J_ (4.20)

K(C1+C2) (1 - z " 1) (l+(l-e"XT)z"1)

n K(C1+C2) I n ” n-1 En-2]

n-1 n-2

D«) = .I > (1-e .« > (4.22)

KC1(2-e A i ) (1-z i)(l-K]2/C1z 1)

M = -e

l-eXT r„ , -ax. -oi\„

r. ./.-aT^-bT^ , -(a+DjT„

^-(a-A)!, t

— — ^ [ E n-(e +e ^ n-1 V l ]

n KC

(4.23)

+ ^ - V W l W n - a

Table IV-4 (cont.)

“XT

with z 5 -(1-e ) and removed

D <Z> " - L ^ S <1-e Z >P~e Z >

K(C1+C2)(2-e Ai) (1 - z )

-XT

M„ L ~-- |E -(e'aT+e‘bT)E .+e-<a+b>TE

“ k (c 1-

k ;2) (2-e XT) L n n '1

o

o

•

tn,

p-

(M

2 §

Xin4

sa*

Lul

h-

CEO

0Cl

in.

i

QC-

LU

<Xo

3 0

in

i

10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

TI M E IN MIN.

o

o

in

o

o

GO

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

TI M E IN MIN.

removed (Equation 4.23).

107

o

o

in.

UJ

TIME IN MIN.

o

o

in

03

UJ

U_

03

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 90.00

TIME IN MIN.

Figure 4.9. Second order Dahlin algorithm with z=-C0/C, removed

(Equation 4.21). 2 1

I v/o

o

o

u>

T I M E IN MI N

o

Q

io

o

o

o

05

UJ

Ll.

o

CD

Q

CO

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30,00

TI M E IN MI N

Figure 4.10. Second order Dahlin algorithm with all ringing

poles removed (Equation 4.25).

- 1 0.0 0 0.00 1 0 .0 0 20.00 30,00

TIM E IN MIN.

o

o

Cvl

Oi

=1

190,00

IN PER*

186.00

TEMP

85.00

TI M E IN MIN.

on load change.

o

o

in

in

- 1 0.0 0 0.00 10.0 0 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

Cj

O

rO

cn

to

03

0.00 1 0 .0 0 20.00 30.00

TI M E IN MIN.

Figure 4.12. Second order Dahlin ringing algorithm (Equation 4.10)

on load change.

second order algorithms respectively without the ringing poles

the set point change. From Figure 4.13 and Figure 4.14, we

notice that the ringing algorithms give a faster rise time, less

advisible to use the ringing algorithms for the load change and

i

.lZ

132,00

Equation

190.00

4.17

IN F.

Equation 4.8

166.00

TEMP

166.00

TIME IN MIN.

algorithms on load change (X=l).

e>

o

to

co

CO,

Equation 4.17

co,

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 30.00

T I M E IN M I N

algorithms on set point change (X=l).

e»

o

•

CVJ

05

Equation 4.25

O

Q

05

Equation 4.10

to

T I M E IN MIN.

algorithms on load change ( 1=1 )

o>

Equation 4.10

Equation 4.25

o

00.

- 1 0 .0 0 0.00 1 0 .0 0 30,00

T I M E IN M I N

algorithms on set point change (\=1)•

132.00

100.00

1.0

IN F.

\=

186.00

TEMP

186.00

1 0 .0 0 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 4.15. First order Dahlin algorithm (Equation 4.17) with

varying X on load change.

CD

O

CM

O

=1

O

07

TEMP .IN F

\= 5

o

CO

ID.

10.00 0. DO 10.00 20.00 30.00

TI M E IN MIN.

with varying \ on load change.

o

o

to

o>.

o

o

O

CD

\=5

CO,

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

varying \ on set point change.

o

o

in

o>.

IN F

TEMP

,=l

X=5

o

00,

10.00 0.00 10.DD

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 4.18. Second order Dahlin algorithm (Equation 4.25) with

varying ^ on set point change.

Gradually Increasing X and observing response to small set point

Summary

derived from the first order model. The second order algorithms

192.00

Equation

190.00

4.17 A

IN F.

/ PID

Equation 4.25

186.00

TEMP

85.00

.

0 00 10.00 30.00

T I M E IN M I N

03

130.00

IN F.

185.00

TEMP

PID

Equation 4.25

Equation 4.17

180.00

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 4.20. Comparison of algorithms on set point change (X-l)•

Literature Cited

Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963.

Book Company, Inc.

Instruments and Control System (June 1968), pp. 77.

Prentice-Hall, In., Englewood Cliffs, N. J.

(

Chapter V

Introduction:

Controller

s+1 t 0 s +1

ontroller ontroller

T.s+l

Process 1 Process 2

Controller

Assuming the dynamics of Process 1 are somewhat faster than

or slave controller.

JL C J*

Figure 5.2. Some disturbances enter the inner loop, and others

Master Slave

improves the compensation of disturbances entering the outer

inner loop.

simple (3):

of the modes for the various controllers. For the inner loop,

(set point)

Feed

overflow

i (set point)

Slave (TRC O

Products

cooling

water

outlet temperature). Use of proportional action in the inner

loop makes the inner loop faster, which should lead to an easier

some cases.

order plus dead time model is fitted to the response of the outlet

re \ - -0.0237 e~°,34s .

G(s) " 4.67 s + 1 (5'2)

c

jacket temperature response is shown in Figure 5.5.

1 22 .0 0

120.00

RESPONSE CURVES

True response

Model 5.2

116.00

IN F.

- 300

116.00

TEMP

1 R .00

112.00

T I M E IN MIN.

controller in manual.

o

o

rvi

o

o

CM-

Q

CO

U_

TIME IN MIN.

automatic.

automatic. Another two-parameter search is made to minimize

, 0.3234 e"°-94s

G(s) ° ~ 8~ 8"s +"l <5 '3>

minimize the ITAE for both PI and PID control (12) are given in

Table V-l.

Cascade Responses

the one with PI algorithm tuned to a second order plus dead time

overshoot.

o RESPONSE CURVES

o

05,

ll_

True response

Model 5.3

ATSP = 7 . 1

00-

o

o

(0

03

0.00 1 0 .0 0 30.00 50.00

T I M E IN MIN.

controller in automatic.

i

Table V-l

Algorithm Settings

G(s) =■

4.67 s + 1

03234 e“0*9^8

G(s) = 6

8.68 s + 1

PI Kc 12.678 ph , Kc = 9.0

Td = 0.1

o JPI

FI cascade

IN

TEMP

to

o

to

to-

0.00

T I M E IN MIN.

for feed rate change.

OJ,

•— I

o

I cascade

PI

a

to-

1Q.QD 20.00

TIME IM MIN.

Figure .7. Comparison of cascade PI arid conventional PI controller

temperature set point change.

ea

o

m

CM

o>

PI

PI cascade

- 1 0 . DO 0 .00 30. 00

T I M E IN M I N .

for step change in cooling water temperature.

Table V-2

Standard Controllers

Cascade FI 58.8

Standard PI 189.3

Cascade PI 9.4

Standard PI 110.0

Cascade PI 107.5

Standard PI 163.6

control behaves better than a simple feedback loop with a PID

load change to the system. Using the PID algorithms in Chapter II,

the responses are shown in Figure 5.9 for a step change in feed

to

CD

cn

li

en

- 1 0 .0 0 1 0 .0 0

T I M E IN MIN.

tZJ

ta

CD

to

to

cm

CD.

to

to 0.5

af

CD

10.00 0.00

T I M E IN MIN.

3 3

concentration from 9.0 lb/ft to 9.5 lb/ft and Figure 5.10

3

steady-state which is quite different from 3.6 lb/ft . In most

Gain Matrix

feed rate W.

ci

in the system, it is a matter of common sense to say that the

s

cn

23

Ota

Oin

m

1 0 .0 0 10.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

o

ca

in

07,

ATSP “ -5

10*00

T I M E IN MTN

Figure 5.10. Response for step change in temperature set point.

The matrix representation of these equations is

I

“ br bT

m

8* c

W W_

(5.8)

be

AC __a m

a

w VT

o

■» * m «

or in matrix form

C = M m (5.9)

£h

where i,j element of M is bC^/brn^ J This is typically

2

n-output system there will be n of them.

Figure 5.11. Schematic interacting action of multivariable

control system.

partial of each controlled variable with respect to the manipulated

on manual and impose a change AW on the feed rate into the reactor

c

C& and T, say, A a n d AT, can be obtained from the response of

c

constant, the partials with respect to W can be evaluated as

follows:

bC | AC

aI a

■ I, m <5ao)

Wc

AT

- W (5.11)

W

c

most systems are nonlinear which means that the final answer

evaluated.

- 20.00 0.00 20.00 10.00 60.00

T I M E IN MIN.

CM

o>,

,o

JN F

o

TEMP

tO

m * -loo

Vi

T I M E IN MIN.

Figure 5.12. Open loop response to step change in feed rate

o

u_

a.o

lO

*3»- “■

- 20.00 .

0 00 HO. 00

T I M E INI MIN.

o

o

CVJ

03

- 300

u>

CQ.OQ

T I M E IN M IN .

water rate.

variables. From Table V-3, bT/tHf| ^ is much greater than

c

6T/6tfc | yet it will be wrong to pair the temperature with the

variables.

(17,18).

For multivariable systems, the above gains are not the only

the control system will vary the reactor feed rate W to maintain

£L

change in W c will not be given by tfT/tWc J as developed above.

c ! ca

flow rate at constant reactor concentration.

&C.,

150

Table V-3

Gain

c IW

W

W

W

Gain Matrix

W w

c

-.0101 .020869

M =

.000078 .001256

W W

c

887 .113"! T

twC _

8

REACTOR a

I

Controller

In principle, experimental tests (Figure 5.9) analogous

L = (M'V (5.13)

terms are the elements of the matrix and are found from:

To facilitate the pairing of manipulated variables and

gains as follows:

2 n

In

c

2 2n

c

n nn

determined.

The gain matrix and the relative gain matrix for this

Tuning

feedback controllers often proves to be unsatisfactory. In

tune one of the loops and then tune the other. Generally no

with

feedback of the second loop. The value of the first loop gain

from the original gain for which the loop was tuned, its per

to be interacting.

Controller

SYSTEM

Controller

SYSTEM

Controller

in Manual (FCIM).

ontroller

k > 4

SYSTEM

"2

Controller

in Automatic (FCIA).

systems.

increase the reaction rate* calling for more feed to maintain

0.001256

0 0 " UT s +v 2 t£ s + 1 ' <5-«>

where

t - 2.361

c = 0.772

The standard FID settings determined from the model are given

in Table V-4.

overdamped second order plus dead time model. Using the same

RESPONSE CURVES

O

CO

CO

U.

Model 5.15

True response

- 100

o

m

n

.DC 60.00

T I M E IN MIN.

temperature controller in maual.

Table V-4

Load Change

Underdamped Model

G(s) 0.001256

2.36 12s 2+2x 2 .361x0.772s+l

K = 2619.4

c

- 1.488

Ti

« 1.571

Td

Overdamped Model

rf ^ = 0.001247 e"°*lls

(3.66s+l)(0.72s+l)

K - 2488.4

c

Tt - 1.453

Td - 0.788

0.001247 e"0,lla

(5.16)

G(8) " (3.668+1)(0.728+1)

Figure 5.17. The standard PID settings determined from the model

the ITAE for both the methods are the same as shown in Table V-5

RESPONSE CURVES

o

CD

CO

O

CO True response and Model 5.16

co

U.

Q

C L-o

co

Zco"

M

TI M E IN MIN.

controller in automatic.

o

CD

to

T I M E IN MIN.

03

O

o

-IU.00 0.00

T

I

tuning; temperature controller on manual.

Otn

T I M E IN M I N . -

*—I

D

fl_ .

111°>-

to

03

- ; a . oa 1C.QQ

FCIA tuning; temperature, control on manual.

Table V-5

Comparison of Two Tuning Methods

___________ v af ' Temp. Cone.

_________& N af Temp. Cone.

o

CD

CO

U_

Uncoi

FCIM controller

T I M E IN MIN.

O

O

=r

o>.

Multivariable control

Q

to

CD'

T I M E IN MIN.

in feed concentration FCIM tuning.

Uncontrolled

co

z cn

T I M E IN M I N

O

zr

03,

fl_ -

11103"

Multivariable control

to

10.00

T i m e i n m i i '.

Figure 5.20b. Multivariable control responses to step change in

feed concentration FCIA tuning.

166

co

3 o

rj r*

^co'

Q

21

3 Uncontrolled

O

0.0

to

Z to‘

FCIM controller

O o

O m

co

- 10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

o

o

in

o>.

o

aft Single variable control

2 2

I ■ |W -

Multivariable control

o

o

ID'

. o . oa ea.aa

time in m i n .

Figure 5.21a. Multivariable control responses to step change

in temperature set point, FCIM tuning.

167

co

to

U.

3 0

O ^

*n .co “

Q

Uncontrolled

cn

FCIA. controller

D o

CJin

ro

10.00 30.00

T I M E IN MIN.

o

ca

in

o».

M

Single variable control

Multivariable control

ca

o

o

to

10.00 30.00

IME IN MIN.

Figure 5.21b. Multivariable control responses for temperature

set point change, FCIA tuning.

In this particular case, much of the discrepancy between

the tuning methods can be traced to the fact that the model

for the FCIM case was underdamped, whereas the model for the

Literature Cited

Technical Bulletin Number TX119-1, Minneapolis, Honeywell

Philadelphia, 1960.

and Control. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa., 1967.

Automatic Controller", Transactions AS ME . (Nov. 1942), p.759.

Tuning of Proportional Digital Controllers", Instruments and

Control Systems, (Oct. 1968), p. 97.

Instruments and Control Systems (Feb. 1969), p. 89.

Chemical Engineering. Vol. 14, No. 11 (Nov. 1969), pp. 1552-1555.

Controllers for Set Point Changes", Instruments and Control

Systems (Dec. 1969), p. 67.

Based on Integral Performance Criteria", Instrumentation

Technology. Vo.. 16, No. 11, Nov. 1967, p. 57.

Instrument and Control Systems. Vol. 43, No. 8 (Aug. 1970),

pp. 101-102.

Numerical and Statistical Problems", J.A.C.M.. no. 2, Vol. 8,

1961.

12. Adkison, B. M. and Kohler, G. K., "Optimum Tuning of a

Generalized Three-mode Digital Control Algorithm", Paper

70-512. Proceedings of the 25th Annual ISA Conference.

Advances in Instrumentation. Vol. 25, 1970.

Feedback Control of Two Product Qualities of a Distillation

Column", Paper 32.b, Third IFAC, London, 1966.

Control Engineering. Jan. 1970.

Control System Design", Paper 70-562. Proceedings of the 25th

Annual ISA Conference. Advances in Instrumentation. Vol. 25,

Part 1, 1970.

variable Process Control," IEEE Transactions on Automatic

Control. Jan. 1966, pp. 133-134.

Towers", Oil and Gas Journal. July 20, 1969.

Azeotropic Distillation", Chemical Engineering. Sept. 23,1968.

New York, 1967.

Chapter VI

CONCLUSIONS

and are functions of the time constants of the models and the

that this result applies to a more general model, even one with

large dead time. While the reset time and and derivative time are

increasing dead time. This also assumes that all poles in the

than the first order model, tuning using the second order model

is always superior than the first order model. The FID algorithm

for set point changes whereas, the original algorithms are more

order model.

APPENDIX A

First Order Plus Dead Time Model:

K e ' es

G<*> - H > T

HG (z ) “ “ --------------------^

(1-vz )

where

K = gain

0 = dead time

T = time constant

0 = (N + 6 )T

T - sampling time

f = 1 - exp(-hmT)

g = exp(-hmr)-exp(-hT)

h * 1/t

m “ 1 - 6

v ■ exp(-hT)

Deadbeat Algorithm

-N-l

D(z) - 1 • Z

HG (z) . -N-1

1 "Z

(l-vz . 1

mm 1 1

K(f+gz A) 1-z W 1

D(z)

K(f+gz-1)(l-z"1)(l+z_1+z“2+. ..-z"N)

Removing all the poles on the left side of the z-plane, we have

1 • tt-v s'1)

D<Z> " K(W-l) (ftg) (1_2-1)

KK

c (N+l) (ffg)

1 - v

T/T

i v

G(s) - K e~°S

(Tl8+1) (T2 s +1)

Pulse Transfer Function

HB-W ( c ^ - V e z - 2)

(1-xz )(1-yz )

where

x « exp (-aT)

y =• exp(-bT)

a = 1/Tj

b - 1/t2

xx = exp(-amT)

yy = exp(-bmT)

c = [1 + bxx-ayy J

a - b

e •» £(a-b)xy+bxxy-ayyxj|/(a-b)

Deadbeat Algorithm

D(z) „ Is"* ±.£f < 2)

' ' -1 -2 -N-l

K(c+dz +ez )(l-z w )

° (Z) K(N+1)(c+d+e) (1-z“l)

(x+y)-2xy

KK

c (N+l)(c+d+e)

t/t . lzfr*7)*EL

i (x+y)-2xy

t /t « .*y

Ad/A (x+y)-2xy

VITA

EXAMINATION AND THESIS REPORT

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