Groups
FOCUS: Mass
Content Descriptors
MG - Use scaled instruments to NA - Calculate numbers that are 10, 100 and SP - Interpret the difference between
measure and compare masses, 1000 times bigger and smaller than a given two data values (VCMSP180)
capacities, volume and value (VCMNA153)
temperatures to the nearest
graduation
(VCMMG165)
KEY IDEAS
Mass - The amount of matter or substance in an object; not to be confused with the idea of ‘weight’, which refers
to the pull of gravity upon that matter or substance.
The standard unit of mass is kilogram.
Comparison: students need a firm concept of an attribute through comparison activities in step 1 before they
move through the remaining steps of the measurement process.
1) Comparing objects
a. Perceptually - they look the same or they look different
b. Directly - they are placed next to each other
c. Indirectly / transitivity - a third object, e.g. a tool such as a piece of string or a balance scale is
used to compare the objects
2) Choose a unit:
a. Non-standard - paper clips, Unifix, etc.
b. Standard - metric units.
3) Compare the object to the unit
4) Find the number of units:
a. Counting
b. Using instruments
c. Using formulas - it is important that students see how formulas are derived.
5) Report the number of units and the unit of measure
Combo game: Groups of 4. Teach game to students then give them a chance to have a go.
1) Students make a list of objects that they would measure with kilograms
which are found in their kitchen at home, bedroom and classroom. Small focus group of students. Model
measuring the materials in cups and
Students investigate the mass of different objects that are less than one kilogram placing into the bags.
and discover if cupfuls of different materials have the same mass. - Which material do you think
- Have 6 materials that may be found at home and in the classroom. will weigh more/less? Why?
Suggestions: rice, flour, cotton buds, lego, magnets, pebbles.
1) Have students fill a cup with the first material, then place the cupful into a Provide students with a blank data
plastic bad and close shut (ziplock). Place all 6 materials in separate bags. chart to record their data in. Discuss
2) Students compare two bags at a time by holding one in each hand. Which how we could record efficiently.
bag is lighter and which bag is heavier? (repeat for other bags) - What do you notice as you
3) Students needs to order bags from lightest to heaviest and record the order are holding up a different
in a data chart. material in each hand?
Questions:
1) What was the order of the materials from the lightest to the heaviest?
2) How do you know which was the heaviest or the lightest material? EXTENSION
3) Did any bags seem to be about the same mass when you lifted them up at
the same time? Which ones and why? Ask students to use the data they
have collected and to represent the
- Use kitchen scales for students to check their estimates by measuring the data in another way such as a graph.
bags. They need to calculate the mass to the nearest 50 grams. Record
results in a table.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Questions (KEY IDEAS):
1) Was there any difference in the order of materials when you lifted two
bags and when you measured? Give details. Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:
2) Each bag contained a cupful. Why did the masses differ if the materials Discuss how traditional items may
all took up the same space? have been weighed/measured in
traditional ways of various cultures.
ASSESSMENT:
- How they have recorded the lightest to heaviest materials
- The data chart they have created
- How they have recorded the mass to the nearest 50g. Is it accurate? Are they using a decimal point or whole
number?
Students need to record their information in a table with the following EXTENSION
headings:
Object - Estimated number - Actual no of objects to balance 100 grams Get students to record the
experiment as a multiplication
*Worksheet provided equation.
2. Students choose three different objects from their collection and measure Create and record their own
the mass of each object to the nearest 10 grams. They draw or write the experiment measuring and
objects and record the masses. estimating the mass of materials.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
3. Students could repeat these steps to measure 50 grams.
WARM UP: Worded problem - On Saturday, Miss K took 6 bags of 110g chocolates over to Miss Melanaphy’s
house for a party. How much chocolate did Miss Melanaphy have in total to give to her guests?
Indigenous Consideration: A group of two children, acting as brolgas, flew together, and then linked up with
another group of two. If they linked up with another two, two more times, how many times did they link together?
2. Get students to add more cubes to their model until there are 40 EXTENDING
altogether. Have students estimate the mass, then measure and record the
mass in grams in their table. Repeat with 50 cubes and 60 cubes.
Get the students to extend the
number of cubes they use, such as
3. Have students to use these results and estimate the mass of the following: higher thousands and tens of
- 100 cubes thousands, or provide students with
- 200 cubes the following numbers for estimating
- 400 cubes the mass (3):
- 1000 cubes - 1370 cubes
- 2540 cubes
4. Students decide on the number of cubes to use and build three more - 6890 cubes
models. Ask students to estimate and record the mass of the models in a
Can they estimate the mass to
table.
where it is reasonably accurate?
Questioning: OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
- Were your estimates reasonably accurate?
- Did you use other measurements from this activity to help you
estimate? Give details. Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:
Non-verbal Aboriginal pedagogy.
*Very practical and hands-on
activities provided.
Content Descriptors
MG - Use scaled instruments to NA - Calculate numbers that are 10, SP - Interpret the difference between
measure and compare masses, 100 and 1000 times bigger and smaller two data values (VCMSP180)
capacities, volume and temperatures to than a given value (VCMNA153)
the nearest graduation
(VCMMG165)
Capacity - The total amount a container will hold, often relating to liquids or gases (ACARA 2012). The standard
unit of capacity is the litre.
Volume - The amount of space taken up by a three-dimensional (3D) object. The standard unit of volume is the
cubic metre.
WARM UP:
1) Quick facts
2) Reading from scales:
Students use the images of the scale to show a particular weight. (Worksheet provided as entry pass)
Final task:
1) Ask students to now make a building with the volume of 10cm3, EXTENSION
20cm3 and 30cm3
2) Get students to draw their building in their books and calculate the Can you create a building with the
volume. volume of 33 cubic units?
- 38 cubic units
Reflection: - 41 cubic units
1) Did you understand the task? If not, why? If so, what was your - 53 cubic units
understanding?
Make sure to draw your building and
show your working out.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
Are students identifying the different factors of the shape, such as height, width and length?
How are the students calculating the volume of each shape?
What vocabulary are they using to describe the shape?
Ask students to then upload it to their Maths folder on their Google Drive. Ask students to create two different
buildings that are not square or
Once students are complete, display some of their work on the board and rectangular and have them move
through the lesson steps again,
ask the students to explain what they can see.
however with two different shapes.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT:
Use the annotated images in their Google Drive as assessment on how they measure volume, how they responded to the
questions and if it is accurate.
FOCUS: Time
Content Descriptors
MG - Use am and pm notation and MG - Calculate the time NA - Apply understanding of place value up to
calculate differences in time between elapsed between two events tens of thousands to add and subtract numbers
two events (VCMMG168) within one day (VCMMG168) using efficient strategies (VCMNA153)
KEY IDEAS
Time:
The standard unit of time is the second. All key Ideas except conservation are applicable to Time. The attribute
of time can be explored through the following elements:
1) Duration of time: Sensing the extent of a period of time, e.g. a minute.
2) Time telling: Using an instrument to measure time whether it be analogue or digital.
3) Time elapsed: Calculating time from a starting point to an end point.
4) Time span:
- Daily events: Morning/afternoon/evening
- Tools: calendar or timetable
- Social/cultural phenomena, e.g. Easter and Christmas
- Time cycles: millennia, centuries, decades, years, seasons, months, weeks, days
Place Value:
1) Quantity: The ‘manyness’ associated with the number or an understanding of an amount.
2) Subitising: The immediate and correct recognition of a quantity.
3) Number triad relationships: Linking the number name to the visual representation and to the symbol.
4) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 154 = 15 tens and 4 ones
or 14 tens and 14 ones
5) Base 10 system: Recognising that our number system is based on grouping quantities in tens. Each
place has a value that is 10 times greater than the place to its right and one tenth of the value to its left.
6) Digit position: The place of a digit determines its value, including recognising zero as a place holder.
7) Benchmarks: Using reference points to compare the size of a number with another number, e.g. 0, 5, 10,
50, 100, 1000, 10 000.
Discuss the class schedule sheet: Ask students to answer the questions
1) What information is the class schedule showing? showing their working out. Once they have
2) How do we read the information on the timetable? completed the sheet, ask students to
3) How might we work out the difference between two different create their own timetable. This can be
classes? done online or in their books and will need
to have a specific focus, such as a bus or
Provide students with the remainder of the lesson to complete both train timetable or work schedule.
worksheets. If they are finished early then they can go onto study
ladder to complete elapsed time activities. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
Use the worksheet as an indicator of where the students understanding is currently at.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
Provide students with a blank number line with a worded question above it. Ask students to work it out on the
sheet as an exit pass.
LESSON THREE: ELAPSED TIME
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
Assess the worded questions that each student created and how they worked out the answers, and whether or
not they produced the correct answer with the correct notation.
TERM FOUR MATHEMATICS PLANNER - GRADE 4
Content Descriptors
NA - Investigate and use the properties NA - Calculate the change to the NA - Apply understanding of place
of odd and even numbers nearest five cents from one purchase value up to tens of thousands to add
(VCMNA151) (VCMNA160) and subtract numbers using efficient
strategies (VCMNA153)
KEY IDEAS
Addition:
Meaning of the numbers - When two or more addends are combined the result is a sum, i.e. addend + addend =
sum.
1) Combining: Joining of two or more collections
2) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 10 is 5 and 5, 6 and 4, 5
and 4 and 1, etc.
3) Part-whole: when part of the quantity or the whole quantity is unknown, e.g. 3 +_ = 7 and _ + 4 = 7
4) Role of Zero - identity property: Recognising that adding 0 has no effect on the addend, e.g. 5 + 0 = 5 pr
0+8=8
5) Commutative property: The order in which two numbers are added does not affect the sum, e.g. 6 + 3
gives the same sum as 3 + 6
6) Associative property: Allows for purposeful grouping of three or more addends without affecting the sum,
e.g. 2 + 9 + 8 could be solved by (2+8) + 9 or 2 + (8+9).
7) Relationship to subtraction: Recognising the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, e.g. 7
+ 2 = 9 and 9 - 2 = 7
Subtraction:
Meaning of the numbers - When one part (subtrahend) is taken from the total (minuend), the result is the
difference, i.e. minuend - subtrahend = difference.
1) Separation (subtract, ‘take away’): Separating a quantity from a given collection, e.g. 7 take away 3 is 4.
2) Comparison: Two quantities can be compared by noting the difference between them, e.g. the difference
between 7 and 3 is 4.
3) Part-whole: When part of the quantity or the whole quantity is unknown, e.g. 7 - _ = 4, _ - 3 = 4, 7 - 3 = _
4) Role of zero: Recognising that subtracting 0 from the minuend has no affect on the difference, e.g. 5 - 0 =
5
5) Relationship to addition: Recognising the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, e.g. 7 +
2 = 9 and 9 - 2 = 7
Place Value:
1) Quantity: The ‘manyness’ associated with the number or an understanding of an amount.
2) Subitising: The immediate and correct recognition of a quantity.
3) Number triad relationships: Linking the number name to the visual representation and to the symbol.
4) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 154 = 15 tens and 4 ones
or 14 tens and 14 ones
5) Base 10 system: Recognising that our number system is based on grouping quantities in tens. Each
place has a value that is 10 times greater than the place to its right and one tenth of the value to its left.
6) Digit position: The place of a digit determines its value, including recognising zero as a place holder.
7) Benchmarks: Using reference points to compare the size of a number with another number, e.g. 0, 5, 10,
50, 100, 1000, 10 000.
TUNING IN:
Provide students with a number on the board. Ask students to work out how many ways the number can be
‘broken up’ to give the most number of different odd and even numbers. They can’t have the same number twice.
For example: 41 can be broken up into 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 giving a total of 41 with 4 evens and 3 odd
numbers.
Discuss how the students got their numbers. Are they able to find any other possibilities? Can they use only
even numbers or only odd numbers? Why/why not?
Once students have found one pathway with an odd total, challenge them
to find others. There are multiple ways through the maze which provide an Have students design their own number
odd total. Ask students to use a different coloured pencil for each path maze in a 3 x 3 or 4 x 4 grid. They need
to make sure that they use both odd
they discover.
and even numbers.
Get the students to respond to the
*Discuss the ways that they can add the numbers as they move through following questions:
the maze. What strategies could they use? 1) How many pathways can you
find that give an odd total?
Pose the question: 2) How many pathways can you
1) Is it possible to know that your pathway will have an odd total find that give an even total?
without actually adding all the numbers? How do you know? 3) Does it matter where the odd
2) Is it possible to go through every number in the maze and finish and even numbers are placed?
with an odd total? 4) Does it matter how many odd
and even numbers are in the
3) Can you finish a path that will produce an even total? Justify how
grid?
you know whether the total will be odd or even.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
Pose the question:
1) Can you come up with a generalisation for adding odd and even numbers?
Assess the strategies they used to calculate the totals for each pathway in their maze.
Share comments to the rest of the class and draw them to the addition of place value.
Once they are completed provide them with a challenge: Have students design their own number
maze in a 3 x 3 or 4 x 4 grid. They need
to make sure that they use both odd
- This time begin at one of the end number totals you have worked
and even numbers.
out and start from 14 to work your way backwards to 105. Do you Get the students to respond to the
still get the same number at the start? following questions:
5) How many pathways can you
find that give an odd total?
6) How many pathways can you
find that give an even total?
7) Does it matter where the odd
and even numbers are placed?
8) Does it matter how many odd
and even numbers are in the
grid?
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
EXTENSION
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
WARM UP:
TUNING IN:
EXTENSION
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
Content Descriptors
NA - Calculate the change to the NA - Estimate the answer to NA - Read, write and recognise
nearest five cents from one purchase multiplication and division problems by numbers to at least tens of thousands
(VCMNA160) rounding to nearest 10/100 and using (VCMNA152)
place value knowledge (VCMNA156)
KEY IDEAS
Money:
1) Money thinkers: Have a good understanding of the first two decimal places and may view decimals as
two numbers separated by a dot, the first possibly representing dollars and the second cents. Avoid
teaching decimals through money.
2) The amount of value attributed to coins and notes to measure financial value. The value of each coin or
note is a social convention.
Multiplication:
1) Concept of equal groups: recognising that the number in each group is the same.
2) Notion of a composite unit: recognising a collection of single items as a group, e.g. 6 ones is one group of
6.
3) Commutative property: the order in which two numbers are multiplied does not affect the product, e.g. 3 x
6 gives the same product as 6 x 3.
4) Role of zero - Null factor property: Recognising that the product will always be zero when a number is
multiplied by zero, e.g. 5 x 0 = 5
5) Identity property: recognising that when a number is multiplied by one, the quantity does not change, e.g.
5 x 1 = 5.
6) Factors and multiples:
- A factor is a whole number that divides exactly into another number, e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 6 are factors
of 6
- A prime number is a whole number greater than one with exactly two factors, itself and one
- A composite number is a whole number that has factors other than 1 and itself (ACARA 2012)
- A multiple is the result of multiplying whole numbers, e.g. the multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,
etc
7) Relationship to division: recognising the inverse relationship between multiplication and division, e.g. 3 x
4 = 12 and 12 / 4 = 3
Meaning of the numbers: In a multiplication number sentence where multiplier x multiplicand = product, the
multiplier indicates the number of groups, jumps or rows and the multiplicand indicates the quantity in each of
those sets.
Division:
1) Concept of equal groups: recognising that the number in each group is the same
2) Relationship to multiplication: Recognising the inverse relationship between division and multiplication,
e.g. 12 / 4 = 3 and 3 x 4 = 12
3) Division with remainder: A quantity cannot always be shared into equal groups and sometimes there will
be leftovers; making sense of the remainder.
Place Value:
1) Quantity: The ‘manyness’ associated with the number or an understanding of an amount.
2) Subitising: The immediate and correct recognition of a quantity.
3) Number triad relationships: Linking the number name to the visual representation and to the symbol.
4) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 154 = 15 tens and 4 ones
or 14 tens and 14 ones
5) Base 10 system: Recognising that our number system is based on grouping quantities in tens. Each
place has a value that is 10 times greater than the place to its right and one tenth of the value to its left.
6) Digit position: The place of a digit determines its value, including recognising zero as a place holder.
7) Benchmarks: Using reference points to compare the size of a number with another number, e.g. 0, 5, 10,
50, 100, 1000, 10 000.
WARM UP: NAPLAN questions. Provide student with 2 minutes per question to work out the best possible
answer and record in their books. Work through 4 different questions and then discuss the students thinking as a
class.
ASSESSMENT
- Identification of factors of 24
- Use of different operations to create an equation for 24
- Different ways they created 24 and the numbers they used (24 template sheet)
- The working out. How did they know that they got 24?
WARM UP: Quick Facts - write 36 on the board and put 1 minute on the timer. Ask students to record in their
books, as many factors that they know for that number. Share as a class. Do the same for 56 and 72.
TUNE IN: Provide students with a worded multiplication problem. Ask students to solve the problem using 2
different strategies. Share as a class and discuss how you would be able to visually represent that question.
10 minutes: Provide students with the image on the board. Ask students to
Focus group:
record in their books all of the maths that they would be able to identify
Work with the students to identify
within the image. Share as a class.
the different maths that they can
see in the image. What questions
15 minutes: Ask students to use the image and write their own money
can they already see? Model
worded problems. Model an example for students and show how they can
examples.
work it out.
Share and discuss: once the students have completed their worded EXTENSION
questions, ask students to “pair and share” with another student. Remind
students to show their working out in their books.
Ask students to create worded
questions using all of the operations
and decimals.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
- Are they able to identify all of the maths that is shown in the image?
- Are they able to create worded problems involving all 4 operations?
WARM UP: 24
TUNING IN:
MAIN LESSON ENABLING
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT
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