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# TERM THREE MATHEMATICS PLANNER - GRADE 4

Groups

## WEEK 8 - Measurement and Geometry

FOCUS: Mass

Content Descriptors

MG - Use scaled instruments to NA - Calculate numbers that are 10, 100 and SP - Interpret the difference between
measure and compare masses, 1000 times bigger and smaller than a given two data values (VCMSP180)
capacities, volume and value (VCMNA153)
temperatures to the nearest
(VCMMG165)

## NA - Apply understanding of SP - Order data from smallest to largest values

place value up to tens of to find the range (VCMSP180)
numbers using efficient strategies
(VCMNA153)

KEY IDEAS

Mass - The amount of matter or substance in an object; not to be confused with the idea of ‘weight’, which refers
to the pull of gravity upon that matter or substance.
The standard unit of mass is kilogram.

Comparison: students need a firm concept of an attribute through comparison activities in step 1 before they
move through the remaining steps of the measurement process.
1) Comparing objects
a. Perceptually - they look the same or they look different
b. Directly - they are placed next to each other
c. Indirectly / transitivity - a third object, e.g. a tool such as a piece of string or a balance scale is
used to compare the objects
2) Choose a unit:
a. Non-standard - paper clips, Unifix, etc.
b. Standard - metric units.
3) Compare the object to the unit
4) Find the number of units:
a. Counting
b. Using instruments
c. Using formulas - it is important that students see how formulas are derived.
5) Report the number of units and the unit of measure

## Unit of Measure - Recognising:

- The unit used to measure an attribute must be uniform in order for the measurement to be meaningful
- The larger the unit, the smaller the measure
- A system of regularly spaced intervals, i.e. a scale beginning with informal units such as paper clips or
cubes, moving towards formal instruments such as rulers, thermometers, clocks
- A measurement instrument replaces the need for using units of measure.

## LESSON ONE & TWO: READING SCALES

Warm-up: Number Triads to recall multiplication and division facts
- Use multiplication facts. Begin with an easy number e.g. 4 x 6 = _ , 5 x 8 = _

Combo game: Groups of 4. Teach game to students then give them a chance to have a go.

## Tune In: Entry Pass - Reading Scales

5 minutes: 5 scales with different measurements - students need to read the scales and record the measurement
(testing how they are reading scales, can they identify the increments the scales increase by?).

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

1) Students make a list of objects that they would measure with kilograms
which are found in their kitchen at home, bedroom and classroom. Small focus group of students. Model
measuring the materials in cups and
Students investigate the mass of different objects that are less than one kilogram placing into the bags.
and discover if cupfuls of different materials have the same mass. - Which material do you think
- Have 6 materials that may be found at home and in the classroom. will weigh more/less? Why?
Suggestions: rice, flour, cotton buds, lego, magnets, pebbles.
1) Have students fill a cup with the first material, then place the cupful into a Provide students with a blank data
plastic bad and close shut (ziplock). Place all 6 materials in separate bags. chart to record their data in. Discuss
2) Students compare two bags at a time by holding one in each hand. Which how we could record efficiently.
bag is lighter and which bag is heavier? (repeat for other bags) - What do you notice as you
3) Students needs to order bags from lightest to heaviest and record the order are holding up a different
in a data chart. material in each hand?

Questions:
1) What was the order of the materials from the lightest to the heaviest?
2) How do you know which was the heaviest or the lightest material? EXTENSION
3) Did any bags seem to be about the same mass when you lifted them up at
the same time? Which ones and why? Ask students to use the data they
have collected and to represent the
- Use kitchen scales for students to check their estimates by measuring the data in another way such as a graph.
bags. They need to calculate the mass to the nearest 50 grams. Record
results in a table.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Questions (KEY IDEAS):
1) Was there any difference in the order of materials when you lifted two
bags and when you measured? Give details. Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:
2) Each bag contained a cupful. Why did the masses differ if the materials Discuss how traditional items may
all took up the same space? have been weighed/measured in

## What items may they have found

locally?

ASSESSMENT:
- How they have recorded the lightest to heaviest materials
- The data chart they have created
- How they have recorded the mass to the nearest 50g. Is it accurate? Are they using a decimal point or whole
number?

## Tune In: Which one is closer to 1 kg? 7 apples or a loaf of bread?

Display two images on the board. Ask students to identify and justify which one they believe is closest to 1kg.
What do they know that makes it easier to estimate which is closer to 1 kg?
MAIN LESSON ENABLING
Provide students with a variety of different small objects (use objects from
the maths room).
Small focus group of students:
Students need to estimate how many of each object is needed to equal a
mass of 100 grams. Provide students with just one object
to measure the mass of such as
Materials: marbles.
- Balance scales, if not use kitchen scales
- Weights to balance the scales Use prompting questions:
- Objects to weigh: erasers, pencils, unifix cubes, marbles, etc - How much do you think one
marble weighs?
1. Students select one object and compare the mass of the object with a - If you hold up one marble
with a kg weight, what feels
kilogram weight by hefting.
heavier and why?
They: - What would happen if I
a) Estimate how many of this object would be needed to equal added more marbles on one
100 grams and record their estimate in the table (below). side of the scales with the kg
b) Measure and record the actual number of objects using weight in the other side?
balance scales

Students need to record their information in a table with the following EXTENSION
Object - Estimated number - Actual no of objects to balance 100 grams Get students to record the
experiment as a multiplication
*Worksheet provided equation.

2. Students choose three different objects from their collection and measure Create and record their own
the mass of each object to the nearest 10 grams. They draw or write the experiment measuring and
objects and record the masses. estimating the mass of materials.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
3. Students could repeat these steps to measure 50 grams.

## Discuss with students: Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

- What they discovered Non-verbal Aboriginal pedagogy.
- What objects did they need more/less of to equal 100 grams *Very practical and hands-on
- What did they notice as they were reducing the amount of mass they activities provided.
were measuring?

## ASSESSMENT: Balanced Scales worksheet

How did they record their information? Was their estimate accurate or not? What strategies did they use to estimate more
accurately?

## LESSON FOUR: ESTIMATING MASS

WARM UP: Worded problem - On Saturday, Miss K took 6 bags of 110g chocolates over to Miss Melanaphy’s
house for a party. How much chocolate did Miss Melanaphy have in total to give to her guests?

Indigenous Consideration: A group of two children, acting as brolgas, flew together, and then linked up with
another group of two. If they linked up with another two, two more times, how many times did they link together?

## TUNING IN: Reasonable estimates with mass worksheet

Students need to connect the mass to the object by reasonably estimating which one belongs with which.

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Materials:
- Unifix cubes (or any other interlocking block)
Small focus group -
- Kitchen scales or balance scales 1. Students build a model using
5 unifix cubes.
1. Students build a model using 20 unifix cubes, they estimate the mass of 2. Students double the amount
their model and record their estimate. Then measure the mass in grams and of cubes they have.
record in a table. 3. Have students use the
results they have and
estimate the mass for 40, 50
and 60 cubes.
Number of cubes Estimate Measure
20 ..........g ..........g Work gradually through the lesson
with the students.
Discuss as a class: Was your estimate close to the actual mass?

2. Get students to add more cubes to their model until there are 40 EXTENDING
altogether. Have students estimate the mass, then measure and record the
mass in grams in their table. Repeat with 50 cubes and 60 cubes.
Get the students to extend the
number of cubes they use, such as
3. Have students to use these results and estimate the mass of the following: higher thousands and tens of
- 100 cubes thousands, or provide students with
- 200 cubes the following numbers for estimating
- 400 cubes the mass (3):
- 1000 cubes - 1370 cubes
- 2540 cubes
4. Students decide on the number of cubes to use and build three more - 6890 cubes
models. Ask students to estimate and record the mass of the models in a
Can they estimate the mass to
table.
where it is reasonably accurate?
Questioning: OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
- Were your estimates reasonably accurate?
- Did you use other measurements from this activity to help you
estimate? Give details. Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:
Non-verbal Aboriginal pedagogy.
*Very practical and hands-on
activities provided.

## ASSESSMENT - Assess how they are ordering their data values

- Can they recognise the difference in models and estimate accurately?
- Are they using efficient strategies to record and work out their data?

## FOCUS: Volume & Capacity

Content Descriptors

MG - Use scaled instruments to NA - Calculate numbers that are 10, SP - Interpret the difference between
measure and compare masses, 100 and 1000 times bigger and smaller two data values (VCMSP180)
capacities, volume and temperatures to than a given value (VCMNA153)
(VCMMG165)

## NA - Apply understanding of place

value up to tens of thousands to add
and subtract numbers using efficient
strategies (VCMNA153)
KEY IDEAS

Capacity - The total amount a container will hold, often relating to liquids or gases (ACARA 2012). The standard
unit of capacity is the litre.

Volume - The amount of space taken up by a three-dimensional (3D) object. The standard unit of volume is the
cubic metre.

## LESSON ONE & TWO: WHAT IS VOLUME?

WARM UP:
1) Quick facts
Students use the images of the scale to show a particular weight. (Worksheet provided as entry pass)

## TUNING IN: What is volume?

1) Get each student to write their understanding of volume on a post-it-note and display these on the board.
2) Discuss some of the students responses and clarify understanding
3) Create a definition: Volume is the amount of space a 3D object takes up. It is measured in cubic units.
Cm3 or m3.

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

1) Show students a 3D image of a shape with cubes. Have students
try and work out the volume of the shape. How did they come up
Small focus group:
with the answer? Is there an easier way to calculate the volume? Use MAB blocks and have each
2) Display the link below on the board: student make a building 3 blocks high
http://www.interactivestuff.org/sums4fun/3dboxes.html and 3 blocks long (6).
4) Model how to calculate the volume. Show another cube and get the - How many blocks are there
class to work out the volume in their books. altogether?
5) Provide the class with 1 cm cubic blocks (MAB blocks). Tell the - How do we know this?
students that they are going to be architects this session and they Indicate which is the length, width and
will need to design as many buildings as they can, only using 6 height using the blocks. Have students
blocks. Each side of the cube must connect to the other. They must draw it in their books and label their
diagram.
draw their designs and show how they calculated the volume of
- Can you calculate the volume
each. using a formula?
If they are struggling then model how to
Discuss: calculate the answer and then give
1) Is building 6 blocks high the same as building 6 blocks long? them another example to do
2) What is similar and different about the buildings you have made? themselves.

1) Ask students to now make a building with the volume of 10cm3, EXTENSION
20cm3 and 30cm3
2) Get students to draw their building in their books and calculate the Can you create a building with the
volume. volume of 33 cubic units?
- 38 cubic units
Reflection: - 41 cubic units
1) Did you understand the task? If not, why? If so, what was your - 53 cubic units
understanding?
Make sure to draw your building and

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

Non-verbal Aboriginal pedagogy.
*Very practical and hands-on activities
provided.
ASSESSMENT
How did they calculate the volume of their buildings? Were the calculations accurate or not?
How did they show their thinking?

## WARM UP: NAPLAN questions

These questions will begin to prepare students for the types of questions present in Grade 5 NAPLAN. Use one
question at the beginning of each lesson. Give students 5 minutes to answer the question in their books and then
discuss and share ideas as a class.

## TUNING IN: What’s the volume of that shape?

Display an image of a 3D shape and get students to answer the following questions:
1) How did you work out the answer?
2) Can you make another shape with the same volume?

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Provide students with 24 cubes.
Focus group. Use the 1 cm cubes
1) How many ways can they put them together? during instruction to provide students
2) How could you describe each shape that you make? with the visualisation of each building.
Students need to record how many cubes high, wide, etc. gradually work to larger numbers. Use
They can record using photos or in a table. the cubes as well as drawing and ask
Use the word layers - how many layers? Bottom is an array - height the the students to follow along with you.
‘cubes’
EXTENSION
Investigation: Make that building!
Tell students that they are going to be an architect and their job is to Comparing volumes - provide students
create new buildings. They have been given the following brief: with three different shapes and ask
- The city requires 3 new buildings students to work out which one has the
- Building 1 is to be 12 cubes, building 2 is to be 24 cubes and most volume. They then need to work
building 3 is 48 cubes. out what the difference is between the
Students need to design it in their books or create using the blocks and volumes.
take a photo and describe the building. They then need to work out the
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
total volume of all three buildings.
- Students need to get thinking about the length, width and height of
their buildings. Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:
- Are they able to calculate the total volume of the shape? Non-verbal Aboriginal pedagogy.
*Very practical and hands-on activities
provided.

ASSESSMENT
Are students identifying the different factors of the shape, such as height, width and length?
How are the students calculating the volume of each shape?
What vocabulary are they using to describe the shape?

## WARM UP: NAPLAN questions

These questions will begin to prepare students for the types of questions present in Grade 5 NAPLAN. Use one
question at the beginning of each lesson. Give students 5 minutes to answer the question in their books and then
discuss and share ideas as a class.

## TUNING IN: Finding the Volume

Provide an image of a 6x2 array. Ask students to work out the area of that shape. If the shape had 5 more layers
- what would the volume be?
*Students need to visualise that volume is layers. Naming the height as layers.
MAIN LESSON ENABLING
Comparing Volumes:
Provide students with unifix cubes and ask the students to create two
Provide students with two lower
different buildings with different volumes. For example: one building has a numbers for creating two buildings.
volume of 34 and the other one has the volume of 18.
These can be 8 and 18.
Using an iPad each, ask students to take a photo of the two buildings next
to each other and then upload it to the app ‘Skitch’ or ‘Explain Everything.’ Work through the annotation with the
students showing them the steps as
Ask students to annotate their image by answering the following you go.
questions:
1) What is the volume of each shape? How did you work it out? Discuss the volume of the shape and
how they know it.
2) Create a multiplication equation for each shape.
3) What is the difference between the shapes? Show this in two EXTENSION
different ways.

buildings that are not square or
Once students are complete, display some of their work on the board and rectangular and have them move
through the lesson steps again,
ask the students to explain what they can see.
however with two different shapes.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

Non-verbal Aboriginal pedagogy.
*Very practical and hands-on activities
provided.

ASSESSMENT:
Use the annotated images in their Google Drive as assessment on how they measure volume, how they responded to the
questions and if it is accurate.

## WEEK 10 Measurement and Geometry

FOCUS: Time

Content Descriptors

MG - Use am and pm notation and MG - Calculate the time NA - Apply understanding of place value up to
calculate differences in time between elapsed between two events tens of thousands to add and subtract numbers
two events (VCMMG168) within one day (VCMMG168) using efficient strategies (VCMNA153)

KEY IDEAS
Time:
The standard unit of time is the second. All key Ideas except conservation are applicable to Time. The attribute
of time can be explored through the following elements:
1) Duration of time: Sensing the extent of a period of time, e.g. a minute.
2) Time telling: Using an instrument to measure time whether it be analogue or digital.
3) Time elapsed: Calculating time from a starting point to an end point.
4) Time span:
- Daily events: Morning/afternoon/evening
- Tools: calendar or timetable
- Social/cultural phenomena, e.g. Easter and Christmas
- Time cycles: millennia, centuries, decades, years, seasons, months, weeks, days

Place Value:
1) Quantity: The ‘manyness’ associated with the number or an understanding of an amount.
2) Subitising: The immediate and correct recognition of a quantity.
3) Number triad relationships: Linking the number name to the visual representation and to the symbol.
4) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 154 = 15 tens and 4 ones
or 14 tens and 14 ones
5) Base 10 system: Recognising that our number system is based on grouping quantities in tens. Each
place has a value that is 10 times greater than the place to its right and one tenth of the value to its left.
6) Digit position: The place of a digit determines its value, including recognising zero as a place holder.
7) Benchmarks: Using reference points to compare the size of a number with another number, e.g. 0, 5, 10,
50, 100, 1000, 10 000.

## WARM UP: Skip Counting

Begin with a student in the classroom and choose a number to skip count by. Using a ball, each student skip
counts by the chosen number and passes the ball around the room. If they get the answer wrong then they sit

## TUNING IN: What is Elapsed time?

Write elapsed time on large piece of paper and ask students to write what they think elapsed time is on a post-it-
note and provide an example. Stick it on the piece of paper once each student is complete.
Share the comments written down on the notes and provide a class definition. Have students write it in their
books.

## Provide students with the worksheet on elapsed time. Ask students

Work through the class timetable first as a
to move through the questions, reading the timetable first and then
group. Have an enlarged sheet so that you
can work together through the questions as
a small focus group.
Both sheets focus on elapsed time and the difference between
events.
Draw the students attention towards the
information they can clearly see and
Discuss the bus timetable:
discuss the strategies that they can use to
1) What is the purpose of a timetable?
2) What information does the timetable show?
3) How do we read the information presented on the EXTENSION
timetable?

1) What information is the class schedule showing? showing their working out. Once they have
2) How do we read the information on the timetable? completed the sheet, ask students to
3) How might we work out the difference between two different create their own timetable. This can be
classes? done online or in their books and will need
to have a specific focus, such as a bus or
Provide students with the remainder of the lesson to complete both train timetable or work schedule.
worksheets. If they are finished early then they can go onto study
ladder to complete elapsed time activities. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

Discuss and identify how various traditional
cultures kept time.

ASSESSMENT
Use the worksheet as an indicator of where the students understanding is currently at.

## WARM UP: Multiples Quick Facts

Ask students to stand in a circle and then beginning with the first student ask them to count up from one moving
around the circle. Each time they get to a multiple of a chosen number, the student whose turn it is needs to bob
down at that multiple. For example: multiples of 3 - students bob down at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, etc.

## TUNING IN: My School Day

Provide students with a number line. On the number line, have the students record their school day on the
number line beginning at 8:45am and finishing at 3:20pm. After 5 minutes, bring a blank number line up on the
interactive whiteboard and have different students label the number line with the school timetable. Discuss what
is on the board and then ask students to work out what time has elapsed throughout the school day. Share

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Elapsed time worded problems.
Focus Group:
Ask students what are the different ways that we can work out what
- Ask students to come to the ground
time has elapsed between two events. Record the different
if they are having difficulty with the
strategies and then state that today we will be looking at the
worded questions.
strategy of number lines.
- Provide them with the opportunity
to move back to their seats when
Provide an example elapsed time problem on the board and ask
they believe they are able to
students to have a go using a number line to work it out.
continue on their own.
- Work through the first question
slowly on a large piece of paper
- What do we need to have on our number line?
questioning the students as you
- What ways are we going to be able to work out the time the
move through it.
quickest?
-
Provide students with a set of worded elapsed time questions and EXTENSION
then have students move through them using the problem solving
process and the strategy of a number line.
Once students are complete. Ask them to
Students can check answers with a partner to confirm thinking. create their own elapsed time problem and
then swap it with another student. Ask
them to provide feedback to each other

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

Discuss and identify how various traditional
cultures kept time.

ASSESSMENT
Provide students with a blank number line with a worded question above it. Ask students to work it out on the
sheet as an exit pass.
LESSON THREE: ELAPSED TIME

## WARM UP: Multiples Quick Facts

Ask students to stand in a circle and then beginning with the first student ask them to count up from one moving
around the circle. Each time they get to a multiple of a chosen number, the student whose turn it is needs to bob
down at that multiple. For example: multiples of 3 - students bob down at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, etc.

## TUNING IN: Creating a worded problem.

Ask students what are the things we might need to include in an elapsed time worded problem?
Have students record a list of topics that they would include.

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Provide students with a range of times. E.g.:
- 2:15am to 3:15am the following day
Focus group:
- 6:47am to 5:29pm
- Provide students with whole
- 12:30pm to 8:10pm
number times, for example, 9 am till
12 pm.
Ask students to create at least 5 different worded problems from
- Ask students what they know might
those times presented on the board.
happen during those times. E.g.
class, appointment, etc.
Once they have created their worded questions, ask students to
- Write an example question using
swap with a partner. They need to work out their worded questions
the event and times, then ask
using a problem solving strategy.
students to have a go at creating
their own.
Share questions as a class. Ask students to then select their
- Provide feedback to each student.
favourite question and then using an iPad, they need to write it up
and work it out using the app or program of their choice.
EXTENSION
Save it in their Google Drive.

## Ask students to create an elapsed time

problem that goes longer than just one or
two days. This can be the option of a week
or longer. Students will then need to work it
out using an efficient problem solving
strategy.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

Discuss and identify how various traditional
cultures kept time.

ASSESSMENT
Assess the worded questions that each student created and how they worked out the answers, and whether or
not they produced the correct answer with the correct notation.
TERM FOUR MATHEMATICS PLANNER - GRADE 4

## WEEK 1 - Number and Algebra

Content Descriptors

NA - Investigate and use the properties NA - Calculate the change to the NA - Apply understanding of place
of odd and even numbers nearest five cents from one purchase value up to tens of thousands to add
(VCMNA151) (VCMNA160) and subtract numbers using efficient
strategies (VCMNA153)

## NA - Partition, rearrange and regroup

numbers to at least tens of thousands
(VCMNA153)

KEY IDEAS
Meaning of the numbers - When two or more addends are combined the result is a sum, i.e. addend + addend =
sum.
1) Combining: Joining of two or more collections
2) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 10 is 5 and 5, 6 and 4, 5
and 4 and 1, etc.
3) Part-whole: when part of the quantity or the whole quantity is unknown, e.g. 3 +_ = 7 and _ + 4 = 7
4) Role of Zero - identity property: Recognising that adding 0 has no effect on the addend, e.g. 5 + 0 = 5 pr
0+8=8
5) Commutative property: The order in which two numbers are added does not affect the sum, e.g. 6 + 3
gives the same sum as 3 + 6
6) Associative property: Allows for purposeful grouping of three or more addends without affecting the sum,
e.g. 2 + 9 + 8 could be solved by (2+8) + 9 or 2 + (8+9).
7) Relationship to subtraction: Recognising the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, e.g. 7
+ 2 = 9 and 9 - 2 = 7

Subtraction:
Meaning of the numbers - When one part (subtrahend) is taken from the total (minuend), the result is the
difference, i.e. minuend - subtrahend = difference.
1) Separation (subtract, ‘take away’): Separating a quantity from a given collection, e.g. 7 take away 3 is 4.
2) Comparison: Two quantities can be compared by noting the difference between them, e.g. the difference
between 7 and 3 is 4.
3) Part-whole: When part of the quantity or the whole quantity is unknown, e.g. 7 - _ = 4, _ - 3 = 4, 7 - 3 = _
4) Role of zero: Recognising that subtracting 0 from the minuend has no affect on the difference, e.g. 5 - 0 =
5
5) Relationship to addition: Recognising the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, e.g. 7 +
2 = 9 and 9 - 2 = 7

Place Value:
1) Quantity: The ‘manyness’ associated with the number or an understanding of an amount.
2) Subitising: The immediate and correct recognition of a quantity.
3) Number triad relationships: Linking the number name to the visual representation and to the symbol.
4) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 154 = 15 tens and 4 ones
or 14 tens and 14 ones
5) Base 10 system: Recognising that our number system is based on grouping quantities in tens. Each
place has a value that is 10 times greater than the place to its right and one tenth of the value to its left.
6) Digit position: The place of a digit determines its value, including recognising zero as a place holder.
7) Benchmarks: Using reference points to compare the size of a number with another number, e.g. 0, 5, 10,
50, 100, 1000, 10 000.

## WARM UP: Candy Pairs and Trios Game (played in pairs)

Provide each pair a game sheet. In pairs the students take turns to colour in 2 or 3 numbers that add to 19. The
numbers can be anywhere on the board and do not have to be in adjoining squares. The last player who can
colour in a pair or a trio that add to 19, is the winner. Students play until complete.

TUNING IN:
Provide students with a number on the board. Ask students to work out how many ways the number can be
‘broken up’ to give the most number of different odd and even numbers. They can’t have the same number twice.
For example: 41 can be broken up into 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 giving a total of 41 with 4 evens and 3 odd
numbers.
Discuss how the students got their numbers. Are they able to find any other possibilities? Can they use only
even numbers or only odd numbers? Why/why not?

## MAIN LESSON - The Maze ENABLING

Present students with a ‘Number Maze’ sheet.
Focus group:
Their aim is to move from the 105 at the start through to 14 at the end by - For the students that are
adding together the numbers of each box they pass through an to finish at struggling with the sums, focus
the end with an odd total. on the addition first by
partitioning the larger numbers
They can move horizontally, vertically or diagonally throughout the maze. to gradually add to the smaller
ones.
Provide students with 10 minutes to explore the maze. As they are - Discuss the odd and even
working through the maze, discuss some of the strategies that they are numbers that they are choosing
using. as they move through the
board. How do they know they
are odd/even?
Ask students to record their pathways on a seperate piece of paper
to show their working out. EXTENSION

Once students have found one pathway with an odd total, challenge them
to find others. There are multiple ways through the maze which provide an Have students design their own number
odd total. Ask students to use a different coloured pencil for each path maze in a 3 x 3 or 4 x 4 grid. They need
to make sure that they use both odd
they discover.
and even numbers.
Get the students to respond to the
*Discuss the ways that they can add the numbers as they move through following questions:
the maze. What strategies could they use? 1) How many pathways can you
find that give an odd total?
Pose the question: 2) How many pathways can you
1) Is it possible to know that your pathway will have an odd total find that give an even total?
without actually adding all the numbers? How do you know? 3) Does it matter where the odd
2) Is it possible to go through every number in the maze and finish and even numbers are placed?
with an odd total? 4) Does it matter how many odd
and even numbers are in the
3) Can you finish a path that will produce an even total? Justify how
grid?
you know whether the total will be odd or even.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

ASSESSMENT
Pose the question:
1) Can you come up with a generalisation for adding odd and even numbers?
Assess the strategies they used to calculate the totals for each pathway in their maze.

## WARM UP: NAPLAN Warm Up Questions

To prepare the students for Grade 5 NAPLAN, present a question on the board that is an example NAPLAN
question. Provide up to 5 minutes for the students to complete the question and then work through the answer
together on the board.

## TUNING IN: Who’s that number?

Place four A3 sheets of paper around the classroom with a different large number in the middle of each sheet.
Ask students to move around the classroom and write one comment (students write name next to comment)
about that number on each piece of paper.
9036 4281 12 570 23 945
- It needs to be different to what is already on the piece of paper.
- No two comments can be the same.
- Guide them to comment on the place value of that number.

Share comments to the rest of the class and draw them to the addition of place value.

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Continuation of lesson one.
Focus group:
Ask students to answer the following questions in their books as they - For the students that are
move through each: struggling with the sums, focus
1) Is it possible to know that your pathway will have an odd total without on the addition first by
actually adding all the numbers? How do you know? partitioning the larger numbers
2) Is it possible to go through every number in the maze and finish with an ones.
odd total? - Discuss the odd and even
numbers that they are choosing
3) Can you finish a path that will produce an even total? Justify how you as they move through the
board. How do they know they
know whether the total will be odd or even.
are odd/even?
4) Can you come up with a generalisation for adding odd and even EXTENSION
numbers?

Once they are completed provide them with a challenge: Have students design their own number
maze in a 3 x 3 or 4 x 4 grid. They need
to make sure that they use both odd
- This time begin at one of the end number totals you have worked
and even numbers.
out and start from 14 to work your way backwards to 105. Do you Get the students to respond to the
still get the same number at the start? following questions:
5) How many pathways can you
find that give an odd total?
6) How many pathways can you
find that give an even total?
7) Does it matter where the odd
and even numbers are placed?
8) Does it matter how many odd
and even numbers are in the
grid?

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT

## TUNING IN: Place Value Questions

Record the number on the board: 29174. Ask students to respond the the questions below using the digits from
the number on the board.
1. What is the largest number you can make?
2. What is the smallest number you can make?
3. Create a place value table in your book and make a list of all the numbers you can make using the digits
above.
4. Which number is closest to 3000?
5. Which numbers have 9 hundreds?

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Provide students with a A3 sheet

EXTENSION

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islander:

Discuss and identify how children in
communities would use money or use
symbol and images to represent
money. Are there alternatives to
money?

ASSESSMENT

WARM UP:

TUNING IN:

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

EXTENSION

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ASSESSMENT

## FOCUS: Multiplication & Division

Content Descriptors

NA - Calculate the change to the NA - Estimate the answer to NA - Read, write and recognise
nearest five cents from one purchase multiplication and division problems by numbers to at least tens of thousands
(VCMNA160) rounding to nearest 10/100 and using (VCMNA152)
place value knowledge (VCMNA156)

KEY IDEAS
Money:
1) Money thinkers: Have a good understanding of the first two decimal places and may view decimals as
two numbers separated by a dot, the first possibly representing dollars and the second cents. Avoid
teaching decimals through money.
2) The amount of value attributed to coins and notes to measure financial value. The value of each coin or
note is a social convention.

Multiplication:
1) Concept of equal groups: recognising that the number in each group is the same.
2) Notion of a composite unit: recognising a collection of single items as a group, e.g. 6 ones is one group of
6.
3) Commutative property: the order in which two numbers are multiplied does not affect the product, e.g. 3 x
6 gives the same product as 6 x 3.
4) Role of zero - Null factor property: Recognising that the product will always be zero when a number is
multiplied by zero, e.g. 5 x 0 = 5
5) Identity property: recognising that when a number is multiplied by one, the quantity does not change, e.g.
5 x 1 = 5.
6) Factors and multiples:
- A factor is a whole number that divides exactly into another number, e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 6 are factors
of 6
- A prime number is a whole number greater than one with exactly two factors, itself and one
- A composite number is a whole number that has factors other than 1 and itself (ACARA 2012)
- A multiple is the result of multiplying whole numbers, e.g. the multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,
etc
7) Relationship to division: recognising the inverse relationship between multiplication and division, e.g. 3 x
4 = 12 and 12 / 4 = 3

Meaning of the numbers: In a multiplication number sentence where multiplier x multiplicand = product, the
multiplier indicates the number of groups, jumps or rows and the multiplicand indicates the quantity in each of
those sets.

## Advanced strategies for the extension students:

- Doubling and halving, e.g. 18 x 5 = 9 x 10
- Splitting or chunking (distributive property), e.g. 43 x 2 = 40 x 2 and 3 x 2

Division:
1) Concept of equal groups: recognising that the number in each group is the same
2) Relationship to multiplication: Recognising the inverse relationship between division and multiplication,
e.g. 12 / 4 = 3 and 3 x 4 = 12
3) Division with remainder: A quantity cannot always be shared into equal groups and sometimes there will
be leftovers; making sense of the remainder.

Place Value:
1) Quantity: The ‘manyness’ associated with the number or an understanding of an amount.
2) Subitising: The immediate and correct recognition of a quantity.
3) Number triad relationships: Linking the number name to the visual representation and to the symbol.
4) Partitioning: Recognising that numbers can be ‘broken up’ in many ways, e.g. 154 = 15 tens and 4 ones
or 14 tens and 14 ones
5) Base 10 system: Recognising that our number system is based on grouping quantities in tens. Each
place has a value that is 10 times greater than the place to its right and one tenth of the value to its left.
6) Digit position: The place of a digit determines its value, including recognising zero as a place holder.
7) Benchmarks: Using reference points to compare the size of a number with another number, e.g. 0, 5, 10,
50, 100, 1000, 10 000.

## LESSON ONE AND TWO: THE ‘24’ GAME

WARM UP: NAPLAN questions. Provide student with 2 minutes per question to work out the best possible
answer and record in their books. Work through 4 different questions and then discuss the students thinking as a
class.

## TUNING IN: 24 - Number facts

● What do we know about making 24 with numbers?
Brainstorm the numbers that can make 24
● Record all of the ways you can make 24. 2 minutes. Use any factor.
Ask students to “think, pair and share” what they know about factors and to identify the numbers that they have
recorded on the board.

## MAIN LESSON ENABLING

Draw students attention to the different numbers that have been recorded
on the board. Share ideas and thinking as a class.
Focus Group
Work with students in a small group
15 minutes: Introduce 24 and let the students use their own number
to identify numbers that they could
sheets to play the game in the class. Students work in pairs to play the
use to make 24. Begin with the
game, identifying the different possible ways that they can make 24 using
factors and ask students to create
4 numbers and any operation.
an equation using 4 of the factors of
24.
Provide students the opportunity to move up levels with the cards:
Use ‘24’ cards with the group and
1 dot: beginning level
share the possibilities. Record on a
2 dots: medium level
sheet in front of them.
3 dots: challenging level
EXTENSION
Bring students in as a class and discuss what they noticed.
- Did you see a relationship between the numbers recorded on the
cards? Using the 2 dot cards and the 3 dot
- What did you find challenging or easy? cards, allow students to move up if they
- What are some strategies that allow you to work out the equation are finding the cards too simple.
Provide students with the opportunity to
faster?
create their own 24 game. Build the
game up to 36, 48, 52, etc.
Day 2: Students create their own 24 cards using the template provided. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Ask students to record 4 different ways to create 24 using 4 numbers and
different operations in each. Once the students have completed their own
Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander:
templates, let the students pair with another student. Ask students to swap
sheets and work out the equations for each template. Use real life context to identify how 24
is made up using objects or items that
Discuss as a whole class, the possibilities of creating 24 with just 4 are relevant.
numbers.

ASSESSMENT
- Identification of factors of 24
- Use of different operations to create an equation for 24
- Different ways they created 24 and the numbers they used (24 template sheet)
- The working out. How did they know that they got 24?

## LESSON THREE: MONEY PROBLEM SOLVING TASK 1

WARM UP: Quick Facts - write 36 on the board and put 1 minute on the timer. Ask students to record in their
books, as many factors that they know for that number. Share as a class. Do the same for 56 and 72.

TUNE IN: Provide students with a worded multiplication problem. Ask students to solve the problem using 2
different strategies. Share as a class and discuss how you would be able to visually represent that question.

## MAIN LESSON - reSOLVE Fruit Shop Image ENABLING

10 minutes: Provide students with the image on the board. Ask students to
Focus group:
record in their books all of the maths that they would be able to identify
Work with the students to identify
within the image. Share as a class.
the different maths that they can
see in the image. What questions
15 minutes: Ask students to use the image and write their own money
worded problems. Model an example for students and show how they can
examples.
work it out.

Share and discuss: once the students have completed their worded EXTENSION
questions, ask students to “pair and share” with another student. Remind
students to show their working out in their books.
questions using all of the operations
and decimals.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

## Aboriginal/ Torres Strait Islanders:

ASSESSMENT
- Are they able to identify all of the maths that is shown in the image?
- Are they able to create worded problems involving all 4 operations?

## LESSON FOUR: MONEY PROBLEM SOLVING TASK 2

WARM UP: 24

TUNING IN:
MAIN LESSON ENABLING

## 1) Ben has five coins in his pocket.

How much money might he have?
List all possibilities.
2) EXTENSION
3)

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

ASSESSMENT