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A Pedal Study of Johann Sebastian Bach’s Orgelbüchlein

A document proposal submitted to the

Graduate School
of the University of Cincinnati

in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS

in the Keyboard Division

of the College-Conservatory of Music

April, 2013

by

Yoonnah L. Lee

BM, Ewha Womans University, Korea, 2002

MM, University of Cincinnati, 2005

Committee Chair: Roberta Gary, DMA


ABSTRACT

This study explores diverse figures in the pedal passages in Johann Sebastian Bach’s

Orgelbüchlein in order to improve pedal technique by a more effective practice style. The

Orgelbüchlein has been thought to include easy pieces that are usually played by beginning

students. One of the reasons for this belief is that the pieces are short. In fact, however, none of

the chorale settings in the Orgelbüchlein are easy to play. Their various levels of difficulty and

styles prove Bach’s pedagogical purpose. I will take full advantage of the obbligato pedal writing

in the Orgelbüchlein to develop a pedal technique for music composed before 1750. This study

provides pedal exercises according to level of difficulty with directions for practicing included.

These pedal exercises based on the Orgelbüchlein will challenge organ students in the great

variety they include.

ii
Copyright © 2013 by Yoonnah L. Lee.

All rights reserverd.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My long journey of graduate studies at CCM would not have been possible without the

support of many people. I would like to acknowledge my advisor, Dr. Roberta Gary. Her

teaching and mentorship throughout the completion of my studies will always be remembered

with a profound gratitude. Dr. John Deaver was generous with his time in careful reading the

present work. Professor Michael Chertock willingly served as one of committee members for my

document. I wish to thank James Walton for generously accepting my request to be a proof

reader. I would also like to thank Dr. bruce mcclung, my lecture recital advisor, for his kind

teaching of writing skills and encouragement.

I am incredibly grateful to my parents for their sacrifices, love, and support every step of

the way. The constant encouragement of my precious siblings has also been invaluable to me.

My husband, a most understanding and loyal partner, not only encouraged me to finish but also

waited patiently for me. I wish to thank my friends who can share golden memories in Cincinnati.

Specially, I am also deeply indebted to my church community group and all who prayed for me.

Lastly, but certainly most importantly, all thanks and praise belong to God Almighty for

the completion of my studies. To God alone, be the glory.

iv
LIST OF EXERCISES

Exercise

1. BWV 617, m. 1 and 12 ..................................................................................................... 10

2. BWV 628, mm. 8–10 ....................................................................................................... 11

3. BWV 628, mm. 1–4 ......................................................................................................... 11

4. BWV 637, mm. 9–11 ....................................................................................................... 12

5. BWV 602, mm. 1–4 ......................................................................................................... 12

6. BWV 625, mm. 6–7 ......................................................................................................... 13

7. BWV 627, mm. 1–3 ......................................................................................................... 13

8. BWV 627, mm. 58 and 60–61 ......................................................................................... 14

9. BWV 615, mm. 7–9 ......................................................................................................... 14

10. BWV 642, mm. 1–2 ......................................................................................................... 15

11. BWV 630, mm. 1–4 ......................................................................................................... 16

12. BWV 635, m. 18 and 11 .................................................................................................. 16

13. BWV 606, mm. 6–8 ......................................................................................................... 17

14. BWV 599, mm. 4–7 ......................................................................................................... 17

15. BWV 601, mm. 1–3 ......................................................................................................... 18

16. BWV 612, mm. 12–14 ..................................................................................................... 19

17. BWV 610, mm. 13–14 ..................................................................................................... 19

18. BWV 616, mm. 13–15 ..................................................................................................... 20

19. BWV 604, mm. 8–9 ......................................................................................................... 20

20. BWV 606, mm. 1–3 ......................................................................................................... 21

v
21. BWV 612, mm. 1–2 ......................................................................................................... 21

22. BWV 602, mm. 7–9 ......................................................................................................... 22

23. BWV 610, mm. 3–6 ......................................................................................................... 23

24. BWV 601, mm. 7 and 10–11 ........................................................................................... 23

25. BWV 617, mm. 2–6 ......................................................................................................... 24

26. BWV 627, mm. 35–37 ..................................................................................................... 24

27. BWV 643, mm. 5–8 ......................................................................................................... 25

28. BWV 615, mm. 60–63 .................................................................................................... 26

29. BWV 640, mm. 9–10 ....................................................................................................... 26

30. BWV 630, mm. 24–26 ..................................................................................................... 27

31. BWV 613, m. 5 ................................................................................................................ 28

32. BWV 614, mm. 7–9 and 11–12 ....................................................................................... 29

33. BWV 618, mm. 15–21 ..................................................................................................... 29

34. BWV 605, mm. 1–3 ......................................................................................................... 30

35. BWV 613, mm. 2–3 ......................................................................................................... 31

36. BWV 622, mm. 5–6 ......................................................................................................... 31

37. BWV 622, mm. 23–24 ..................................................................................................... 32

38. BWV 605, mm. 17–19 ..................................................................................................... 32

39. BWV 609, mm. 7–10 ....................................................................................................... 33

40. BWV 613, mm. 11–13 ..................................................................................................... 33

41. BWV 611, mm. 4–5 ......................................................................................................... 35

42. BWV 623, mm. 9–11 ....................................................................................................... 36

43. BWV 600, mm. 14–18 ..................................................................................................... 36

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44. BWV 631, mm. 5–6 ......................................................................................................... 37

45. BWV 600, mm. 2–9 ......................................................................................................... 38

46. BWV 624, mm. 15–16 ..................................................................................................... 39

47. BWV 619, mm. 10–12 ..................................................................................................... 39

48. BWV 622, mm. 5–6 ......................................................................................................... 40

49. BWV 605, mm. 1–3 ......................................................................................................... 40

50. BWV 641, mm. 4–5 ......................................................................................................... 41

51. BWV 603, mm. 7–9 ......................................................................................................... 41

52. BWV 624, mm. 7–8 ......................................................................................................... 42

53. BWV 619, mm. 5–9 ......................................................................................................... 43

54. BWV 627, mm. 41–45 ..................................................................................................... 43

55. BWV 607, mm. 9–12 ....................................................................................................... 44

56. BWV 607, mm. 1–4 ......................................................................................................... 44

57. BWV 608, mm. 10–13 and 27–30 ................................................................................... 45

58. BWV 626, mm. 1–2 ......................................................................................................... 46

59. BWV 629, mm. 10–12 ..................................................................................................... 46

60. BWV 609, mm. 7–10 ....................................................................................................... 47

61. BWV 620, mm. 8–12 ....................................................................................................... 47

62. BWV 621, mm. 1–4 ......................................................................................................... 48

63. BWV 611, mm. 14–15 ..................................................................................................... 49

64. BWV 639, mm. 10–11 ..................................................................................................... 49

65. BWV 635, mm. 14–16 ..................................................................................................... 50

vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF EXERCISES ............................................................................................................... v

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1

CHAPTER

1. Basics in Pedal Playing for Music Composed Before 1750 ................................................ 3


A. Shoes and Clothing ........................................................................................................ 3
B. Position at the Pedals ...................................................................................................... 4
C. Economy of Movement .................................................................................................. 5
D. All-toe Pedaling .............................................................................................................. 6
E. Registrations .................................................................................................................... 7
F. Care of Organs ................................................................................................................. 8

2. Pedal Exercises Derived from Orgelbüchlein ...................................................................... 9


A. Alternate Toes ................................................................................................................. 10
B. Crossing the Feet .............................................................................................................. 28
C. One Foot on Successive Notes ........................................................................................ 35

3. Charts of Pedaling and Musical Characteristics in All Orgelbüchlein Chorale Settings ..... 51

CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................... 68

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................... 70

APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................. 74

viii
INTRODUCTION

During the Baroque period, chorale settings were a popular genre of organ music. Many

German composers, such as Samuel Scheidt, Nikolaus Brühns, Johann Adam Reincken,

Dieterich Buxtehude, and Johann Sebastian Bach, wrote various types of chorale settings for

organ including chorale variations, chorale fantasias, chorale fugues, and chorale preludes. J. S.

Bach composed more chorale-based works for the organ than did any of his contemporaries,

including the Orgelbüchlein, Great Eighteen Organ Chorales, the “Schübler” chorales, and

Clavierübung III. His unpublished Orgelbüchlein, which he planned in Weimar, was intended

for pedagogical purposes.1 The title page of the manuscript in the collection certainly illustrates

Bach’s didactic intention:

Little Organ Book, in which guidance is given to a beginning organist in how to set a
chorale in all kinds of ways, and at the same time to become practiced in the study of
pedaling, since in the chorales found therein the pedal is treated completely obbligato.
For the highest God alone in his honor; for my neighbor, that he may instruct himself
from it.2

His original plan, not completed, was to write 164 settings of 161 chorale melodies. Bach

finished only forty-six chorale settings including two settings of Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier. All

but one of the chorale preludes in this collection is in a four-part texture. Bach usually presents

the chorale melody once in the soprano.3

An organ’s pedal board is a unique feature compared to other keyboard instruments.

Because the use of the pedal in organ music became more frequent and complex during the
1
Robert L. Marshall and Robin A. Leaver, “Chorale Settings,” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians, 2nd ed., ed. Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan, 2001), 5:759–60.
2
Russell Stinson, Bach: The Orgelbüchlein (New York: Schirmer, 1996): 31.
3
Corliss Richard Arnold, Organ Literature: A Comprehensive Survey, 3rd ed., vol. 1, Historical Survey
(Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003), 100.

1
eighteenth century, organists required better skills in playing the pedals. The purpose of this

document is to provide various pedal exercises at each level of difficulty and practical guides to

playing pedals. All exercises will be based on the pedagogical Orgelbüchlein (c. 1713–1717), by

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750). Many organ method books include a part or a chapter for

pedal studies, but most of their pedal exercises use the same meter and rhythm, sometimes even

the same key signature. The pedal exercises from Orgelbüchlein will challenge organ students

with their great variety. Furthermore, the organists who practice these pedal excerpts based on

the Orgelbüchlein will find them most helpful to their performance of the chorale preludes in

themselves, among the most popular of organ pieces. This document intends to set forth pedal

technique requiring as much skill as that for manual playing. These studies will prepare the

students to play the pedals more confidently in their performances of Baroque organ music.

2
CHAPTER 1

Basics in Pedal Playing for Music Composed Before 1750

A. Shoes and Clothing

It is necessary to wear a pair of shoes made especially for organ playing. The bottom of

the shoe is the most significant factor to be examined. Both heel and sole should be made of

leather,4 specifically soft leather. Suede is particularly good for sliding and silent playing on the

organ pedals. In order to feel one’s way across the pedalboard, the soles of the shoes should be

thin.5 Heels that are solid mass and shaped straight and wide allow for firm contact with the

pedals. Shoes with high heels should be avoided. A heel height of one-and-one-fourth to one-

and-a-half inches will prevent an organist from straining muscles and is appropriate for legato

playing. However, the use of heels will not be discussed in this document. An organist’s shoes

should be narrow but comfortable. Wide shoes will lead the organist to press the correct pedal

key and the adjacent key at the same time, which is undesirable. Lightweight shoes will help the

organist move quickly. The organist should wear these shoes only when playing the organ. If the

shoes are wet or dirty because of outside wear, they will harm the pedalboard, making the

wooden keys sticky and dusty.6 In addition, wearing organ shoes outside can be dangerous due to

the slippery soles.

Wearing clothes can influence the organist’s pedal playing. Trousers with wide bottoms

4
George Ritchie and George Stauffer, Organ Technique: Modern and Early (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1992), 74.
5
Ibid.
6
Peter Hurford, Making Music on the Organ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), 50.

3
at the ankle may obstruct the view of the player and interfere with efficient playing. Tight or long

dresses can also get in the way. Wearing shorts often makes the organist’s thighs stick to the

bench, which brings a sense of unease to the performer. Trousers or dresses made of slippery

fabrics should be avoided to prevent the organist from slipping on the bench. When playing the

organ, it does not matter at all whether the performer wears pants or skirts. What is important is

that the organist should be able to feel comfortable in his or her clothing.

B. Position at the Pedals

Finding a comfortable posture on an organ bench is always a concern. The placement of

the bench is the first contributing factor. The bench should be centered and parallel to the

console and pedalboard. The proper height for the bench will be different depending on both the

organist’s height and leg length. A mechanical lever will adjust the height of the bench. If the

bench does not have a mechanical lever, wooden blocks may be used to raise the bench legs.

When the bench is at the proper height, the feet should be poised just over the pedalboard.7 The

angle between the upper and lower legs should be at least 90 degrees. The appropriate distance

of the bench from the console will allow the organist’s feet to reach the center black keys

without difficulty. When playing music composed before 1750, the bench should be placed a

little higher and closer than the regular position.8

After the position of the bench is set, the organist should sit in the center of the bench,

keeping the upper half of the thighs in comfortable contact with the bench.9 The abdominal

7
Ritchie and Stauffer, 3.
8
Hurford, 48.
9
John Brock, Introduction to Organ Playing in 17th and 18th Century Style, 2nd ed. (Colfax, NC: Wayne
Leupold Edition, 2002), 67.

4
muscles should be used to support the balance of the body on the bench.10 To avoid pain and

discomfort during long-term practice and playing, the organist’s back should be straight. While

playing, the organist’s legs and knees should be positioned naturally. Even when intervals of a

fifth or less are played, it is not necessary to force the knees or heels together. However, the

knees should always be angled inward rather than outward. The feet should be relaxed, not tense,

even in playing fast passages, allowing the shoes to lie flat on the keys, not twisted. When

practicing the pedal exercises in this document or playing any pedal solo, I suggest that the

organist rest the hands lightly on the edges of the lowest manual. This provides the closest

approximation to the normal organ playing position when using both manuals and pedals.

C. Economy of Movement

The organist should always aim for economy of movement to facilitate better playing.

Unnecessary movement of the legs and knees is counter-productive. Large movements are not

needed to depress and release the keys on the pedalboard. Only a minimum amount of motion is

required for the feet to move downward to depress the pedal keys.11 When playing the white

keys, the feet should be placed about one-inch away from the black keys, in order to minimize

the distance they will have to travel between both. In the same vein, do not move the foot over

the upper half of the black keys when playing them.

The principle of economy of movement in pedal playing is closely related to pedal

preparation. The organist should prepare to play the next pedal note immediately after releasing

10
Joyce Johns, Pedal Mastery for Organ (Alfred Publishing Co., 1996), 4.
11
Nicholas Thistlethwaite and Geoffrey Webber, eds. The Cambridge Companion to the Organ
(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 96.

5
the previous one. Pedal preparation does not mean playing the next key as soon as the foot is

ready; rather, it means placing the foot on the key in advance, and waiting in position until the

right moment. The benefits of pedal preparation are accuracy and stability. The habit of pedal

preparation also reduces the loitering time of the feet. This time-saving method directly connects

to the distance-saving method of moving the feet. Ultimately, economy of movement in pedal

playing lowers the possibility of mistakes from an organist’s wandering feet on the pedalboard.

D. All-Toe Pedaling

Not as much has been written about pedal playing in the seventeenth and eighteenth

centuries as on manual playing. The use of the heel in Baroque organ music remains an issue.

Even though some evidence suggests that organists in the eighteenth century used toe-heel

pedaling, the use of all-toe pedaling has been generally accepted for historically informed

performance practice.12 Treatises from the Baroque period show the organs of that time having

shorter pedals arranged in a flat, straight pedalboard, rather than the modern concave and

radiating one.13 In addition to the shape of the pedal keys, the weight needed to depress them is

heavy and often makes the use of the heel impractical or impossible. The music of the period is

nearly always playable with all-toe pedaling.14 The other important reason to use only toes is for

the “ordinary touch,” which can be described as an articulated legato and is at the core of early

technique. Techniques such as glissando and substitution will not be necessary because the

12
Brock, 66.
13
Oswald G. Ragatz, Organ Technique: A Basic Course of Study (Bloomington and London: Indiana
University Press, 1979), 7.
14
Brock, 66.

6
ordinary touch is achieved by detached notes.15 Moreover, the use of toes exclusively can easily

express the ordinary touch in pedal playing. When the performer releases each note with the

ordinary touch, the use of only toes will prove much easier than the use of heels.16Marie-Claire

Alain, a famous French organist, described the early technique in playing the organ as follows:

Most of the time, substitution is useless. Giving it up greatly facilitates playing and
produces the breathing that is necessary to musical discourse. The same applies to the
pedal. By abandoning the general use of the heels, one produces an articulation that
resembles the bowing of a cello…. I have noticed that switching from Romantic fingering
to more straightforward early fingerings results in a great simplification of my entire
position on the manuals, and abandoning the excessive use of the heels leads to a better
equilibrium on the pedalboard.17

Bach was the most significant composer to write organ works in the Baroque period. I will

provide a guide for pedal studies based on his Orgelbüchlein by using all-toe pedaling, the heart

of early technique.

E. Registrations

In organ music of the common practice period, the registrations for the pedal part of the

organ generally include 16ˈ and 8ˈ pitches. In these exercises for pedal alone, however, a clear

sound is required rather than a loud one. Therefore, a 16ˈ stop may be used for pedal exercises.18

What I recommend, however, is 8ˈ pitch alone or a combination of 8ˈ and 4ˈ. The use of too

many stops obscures the clarity of the sound. One or more couplers, such as Great to Pedal or

Swell to Pedal, could also be added.

15
George Ritchie and George Stauffer, Organ Technique: Modern and Early, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1992), 168.
16
Brock, 66.
17
Marie-Claire Alain, “Why an Acquaintance with Early Organs Is Essential for Playing Bach,” in Johann
Sebastian Bach as Organist, ed. George Stauffer and Ernest May (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 51.
18
Brock, 68.

7
F. Care of Organs

Many instruments including organs are affected by climate changes, such as temperature

and humidity. For this reason, organs need to be tuned frequently. Tuning regularly is important;

however, do not ignore everyday maintenance and care. Organs are certainly one of the largest

instruments. For this reason, many organists tend to treat the organs like a kind of furniture. In

contrast, many players of small-sized instruments value their own instruments very highly.

Organists also need to have a high regard for the organs which they use at home as well as in

practice rooms or churches. Several details must be addressed to protect organs. Do not hang

anything on the pipes. All beverages must be kept away from the instrument. If you use an eraser

on your music score, the powder of the eraser must not be allowed to drop onto the organ keys.

A dry and clean pedalboard is essential, and the use of organ shoes is encouraged. Above all, the

area in which the organ is located should be kept clean and dry. Dirt and dust are very harmful to

the organ pipes.

8
CHAPTER 2

Pedal Exercises Derived from Orgelbüchlein

I explored the various patterns found in the pedal part of Johann Sebastian Bach’s

Orgelbüchlein and grouped them into three categories according to the pedaling: passages using

alternate-toes; passages for crossing feet; and passages using one foot for successive notes. Each

category contains a number of exercises with instructions; the total is sixty-five pedal exercises.

The pedaling I have recommended in each exercise could be modified somewhat depending on

the student’s foot size and length of legs. I arranged the exercises in each group in order of

difficulty, from easy passages to more difficult ones. Factors such as repetition, interval, rhythm,

number of accidentals, and range were considered in evaluating the difficulty of each exercise.

All examples are from the chorale preludes in Orgelbüchlein. The sign ˄ above a note designates

right toe, ˄ below a note means left toe. Play the exact notes, as accuracy is essential from the

very beginning of practice. If a student cannot master both rhythm and pitch at the same time,

read the pitch first, then combine with the correct rhythm later. Practice each exercise slowly at

first to avoid mistakes and gradually build to a moderate tempo. These pedal exercises will help

the students master not only the pedal technique but also the choice of pedaling.

9
A. Alternate Toes

In the organ music of the Baroque period, alternate-toe pedaling is the most commonly

used pedaling.19 It essentially means using left and right toes in alternation. J. S. Bach’s only

independent pedal exercise, BWV 598 ‘Pedal-Exercitium’ showed that the technique of the

composition is based almost entirely on alternate-toe pedaling.20 By means of these thirty pedal

exercises, students can build a solid foundation in this most basic pedal technique in early music.

Exercise 1

This is an exercise for syncopated rhythm by tie. To count the rhythm exactly is the point in the

exercise. In each measure, the last note of the previous beat is connected to the first note of the

next beat by a tie. In every beat, the beginning note goes down an octave and back to the original

note again. Each beat is a palindrome. Keep the feet in constant contact with the pedals. The

second note of each beat, played by the left foot, should not be accented, but rather soft. In both

measures, the intervals between the left foot and the right foot are an octave. Be careful not to let

your knees turn outward while working on this exercise.

* This exercise is excerpted from Herr Gott, nun schleuss den Himmel auf, BWV 617.

19
Ragatz, 7.
20
Lincoln, 4.

10
Exercise 2

Immediate preparation of the next note is one of the most important factors in basic organ

technique. In this exercise, that preparation is especially clear. The left foot must move from low

E to A-sharp. At that moment if students use the position of the right foot as a guide they can

play more safely. To cover A-sharp, move the left foot to the black key adjacent to the right foot,

which is playing B. The preparation should be done before the right foot moves up to the middle

E. A similar case happens in measure 2. Even though long rests intervene between the notes,

prepare the right foot for the key B as soon as the E at measure 1 is released.

* This exercise is excerpted from Erstanden ist der heil'ge Christ, BWV 628.

Exercise 3

This exercise features the intervals of a fourth and a fifth. Counting the rests accurately is quite

important before playing the notes in the left foot. The left foot moves each time to a fourth

below followed by the right foot, which moves to the key previously played by the left foot. The

distance the right foot moves as well as the interval between the feet will be either a fourth or a

fifth. The left foot should play its quarter notes lightly.

* This exercise is excerpted from Erstanden ist der heil'ge Christ, BWV 628.

11
Exercise 4

This exercise is from BWV 637. The intervals of a diminished seventh are prominent in the

pedal part of BWV 637, a widely known example of Affekt. The falling of the pedal illustrates

the relationship between music and text, specifically the Fall of Adam.21 The diminished seventh

between the feet requires a lot of practice. Do not hurry in playing the exercise; there will be

sufficient time to prepare the next notes during the rest.

* This exercise is excerpted from Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt, BWV 637.

Exercise 5

This exercise, featuring the interval of a second, presents the least technical challenge. The

elements such as quarter notes with ties, stepwise motion, a small number of accidentals, and

repetition, allow students to play this exercise easily even though it includes many sixteenth

notes. When playing the interval of a second with alternate-toe pedaling, the students should

move the right foot back so that the big toe joint of the right foot fits into the arch of the left foot.

At the point of the third beat in measure 3, the positions of the feet will be opposite: the left foot

will have to move back in order to fit into the arch of the right foot.

21
Williams, 304–5.

12
* This exercise is excerpted from Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott, BWV 602.

Exercise 6

This exercise which is for the interval of a second is very similar with Exercise 5. The intervals

between the feet are all seconds. And, each foot also moves down a second. However, this

exercise proceeds without repetition. When playing the interval of a second with alternate toes, if

both notes are white keys, one foot needs to go a little forward than the other to avoid collision

between two feet. In this exercise, the big toe joint of the right foot should fit into the arch of the

left foot because the left foot will be playing the black key B-flat earlier than the right foot in

measure 1. Notice that measure 2 begins with the same six notes as measure 1, in a different

rhythm.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christ lag in Todesbanden, BWV 625.

Exercise 7

This four-note motive, consisting of a quarter note, two sixteenth notes, and one eighth note,

repeated several times in this exercise, occurs throughout BWV 627, Variation 1. The last note of

one motive is often the same as the first note of the following motive. Although these two

13
successive notes are the same key, I have recommended alternate toe pedaling, as changing feet

can emphasize the syncopated rhythm. Furthermore, it also gives positional comfort to both feet

in preparation for the following notes. As a result, the left foot plays two groups of four

descending notes in stepwise motion, D–C–B–A and G–F–E–D. I suggest that the left foot is

behind the right foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christ ist erstanden, BWV 627.

Exercise 8

This exercise includes oscillation passages using alternate-toe pedaling in the alternation pattern

of a stationary tone in one foot and a moving voice in the other. While the right foot stays on E in

measure 1, the left foot moves from D to C-sharp and back to D again. In measure 2, the left foot

is also moving. In both measures, keep the right foot in back of the left foot to reach the

accidentals easily when playing the intervals of seconds between the feet, except for the last beat

of measure 2.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christ ist erstanden, BWV 627.

Exercise 9

14
Exercise 9 is for intervals of a second, third, and fourth. After alternating toes in measure 1, I

assigned G, the first note of measure 2, to the left foot instead of the right foot, because it is the

last note of the phrase. This allows an easy, almost automatic, breathing before continuing. The

second half of this exercise is a motive which appears several times in the pedal part of BWV

615. The motive is also found in Exercise 29, but on a different pitch.

* This exercise is excerpted from In dir ist Freude, BWV 615.

Exercise 10

This exercise consists of the beginning two measures of BWV 642, the only chorale prelude in

the Orgelbuchlein containing thirty-second notes in the pedal part. The variety of rhythm and the

small-note values in this exercise may take a great deal of practice. Take care not to hurry the

thirty-second notes. Count the beats with an eighth note unit instead of a quarter note at first. The

practice of clapping or tapping the rhythm before actually playing on the pedalboard will be

helpful for students who are not familiar with the complex rhythm. However, once students are

accustomed to the rhythm completely, the intervals moved by one foot and also between the feet

are all seconds or thirds except for one octave leap at the third beat in measure 1.

* This exercise is excerpted from Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten, BWV 642.

15
Exercise 11

This exercise is for leaps of a fourth and fifth by the left foot. While the left foot makes the leaps,

the right foot plays either stepwise motion or the interval of a third. One must count the rests at

the beginning of the exercise exactly. The starting point is not the first note, but the first rest.

When the quarter note approached by a leap from the previous note lies on the beat, one should

prolong the quarter note. For example, play a quarter note at the third beat in each measure, E-

flat at measure 1, F at measures 2 and 3, a bit longer than other quarter notes. In addition, the

previous note will be shorter in order to prepare for the leap, as in the B-flat quarter note in

measure 2 and C eighth note in measure 3.

* This exercise is excerpted from Heut triumphieret Gottes Sohn, BWV 630.

Exercise 12

This exercise including oscillation passages using alternate-toe pedaling has three stationary

tones in one foot. The stationary tone in the right foot changes every half measure. The second

half of measure 1 is a connecting passage in which both feet move. In the oscillation passages,

the notes in the moving line played by the left foot should be felt as leading the notes in the

stationary line. Not only the stationary notes but also the moving notes played by the right foot in

16
this exercise should not be played too heavily.

* This exercise is excerpted from Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot, BWV 635.

Exercise 13

In this exercise, every strong note, the first note of each beat, is played by the right foot. The

successive four-note groups from the beginning, B–high B–F-sharp–G, low G–G–C-sharp–F-

sharp, D–A–F-sharp–B, and F-sharp–G-sharp–C-sharp–F-sharp, can be regarded as a pattern of

suspirans. Play every beginning note in each motive with a light touch. Every second note is the

peak of the motive, so play it a little bit longer. Every ending note will be played lightly for

finishing the motive although the notes are on beats.

* This exercise is excerpted from Von Himmel hoch, da komm ich her, BWV 606.

Exercise 14

This exercise contains either stepwise motion or the interval of a third, all with dotted rhythms

and in a slow tempo. At measure 1, the left foot moves down in stepwise motion, playing on

every beat. The half note F in measure 2 will be played like a dotted quarter note in order to

prepare the octave leap. After the right foot plays the last note E at measure 1, move the right

17
foot one key higher, to F and stay until the left foot arrives on that F. This will guide the left

foot’s safe arrival from the low F. Clearly jumping down the interval of a fifth at measure 3,

from C to low F in the left foot and from E to low A in the right foot, is not easy. However,

noticing that both feet move the same interval and in the same direction is helpful. Note the

sudden change of the rhythm pattern on the last beat at measure 3; it is not a dotted rhythm but

two equal eighth notes.

* This exercise is excerpted from Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 599.

Exercise 15

In this exercise, the beginning of BWV 601, a five-note rhythmic motive is presented four times.

The motive begins with a sixteenth rest. This motive is extended from a four-note figure,

suspirans, which is found frequently in the manual in BWV 601. All of the four motives in the

exercise have a similar melodic contour. In each motive, the first eighth note, which is the

highest pitch, is the goal. These notes are played slightly longer than the next notes, which are an

octave lower. This exercise requires a quick shifting of the body between the first motive and

second one. One will need to turn the hips slightly toward the right side. When turning the left

hip to the right, both hips will turn together.

* This exercise is excerpted from Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottessohn, BWV 601.

18
Exercise 16

This exercise consists of continuous eighth notes using alternate toes. While the left foot plays in

stepwise motion, the right foot moves a third or a fourth. The line played by the left foot ascends

by step every half measure, G–A–B-flat–C–C-sharp–D. Play these notes stronger than the other

notes. The three notes by the left foot in each half-measure have the same path. The beginning

note in each half-measure moves to the upper neighbor tone and back down to the original note,

such as G–A–G, all played by the left foot. The right foot will have to move back in order to fit

into the arch of the left foot when playing the D-natural at measure 2 and the E-natural at

measure 3.

* This exercise is excerpted from Wir Christenleut, BWV 612.

Exercise 17

Position the right foot on the first note C a little bit far from the black keys compared to the usual.

At measure 1, keep the right foot on the C and do not move it. Both measures include the

grouping of at least three adjacent keys, including black keys. The notes B-flat –A–B natural in

measure 1 are played by one foot. The left foot has to stay close to the keys, touching the next

key without much movement. This helps to ensure accuracy. Before beginning measure 2, the

19
whole body should turn slightly to the left. Extend the legs to play the keys in the lower part of

the pedalboard. At measure 2, the three notes G–A-flat–F-sharp will be played alternate-toes.

The heels need to be lifted a little more so that the toes have room to be so close together.

* This exercise is excerpted from Jesu, meine Freude, BWV 610.

Exercise 18

The notes in this exercise move higher and lower with an alternate-toe pedaling. The left foot

will lead and the right foot will follow in the sixteenth notes ascending passage. While the

quarter note A by the right foot on the third beat will be prolonged, the quarter note low A on the

last beat by the left foot will be shorter to allow for a breath. The direction of the body should be

turned slightly toward the left side of the pedalboard between measures 1 and 2. The descending

sixteenth notes in measure 2 are the retrograde version of the sixteenths in measure 1, but played

an octave lower. The right foot will lead the descending passage.

* This exercise is excerpted from Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin, BWV 616.

Exercise 19

20
Suspirans is the main motive in this exercise, and is heard four times: three have the same

melodic contour and the other one is in the opposite direction. Depending on the melodic contour,

the pedaling is changed. The four notes in each suspirans will be played by alternate toes. The

first eight sixteenth notes comprise a double-suspirans figure. Playing the first note E at measure

1 with left foot rather than the right foot allows us to hear each suspirans more effectively.

* This exercise is excerpted from Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ, BWV 604.

Exercise 20

Alternate toe pedaling is perfect for most parts of BWV 606, from which this exercise is derived.

In this exercise, the strong note of each beat is played by the left foot. From the beginning, each

four-note group D–B–E–A, A–D–E–A, C-sharp–low D–D–G, and B–E–A–D can be understood

as a separate unit. Around the second half of measure 2, the whole weight of the body will move

onto the right hip. Another approach to practice is to play only the notes assigned to each foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Von Himmel hoch, da komm ich her, BWV 606.

Exercise 21

This alternate-toe exercise starts in the center of the pedalboard and moves both feet toward the

21
left, to the lower part of the pedalboard. The weight of the body will move onto the right hip to

support extending the legs to the bottom of the pedalboard. The moment of shifting the weight of

the body is between the first and second beats of measure 2. The B-natural played by the left foot

on the third beat of measure 2 needs to be placed a little back to allow room for the right foot’s

next note C.

* This exercise is excerpted from Wir Christenleut, BWV 612.

Exercise 22

This exercise may be divided into two groups: from the beginning to the low F at measure 2 and

from the second note of measure 2 to the end. Both groups outline a descending figure. The first

group descends with repetitions, while the second group proceeds without repetitions. Playing at

the extremely low or high registers of the pedalboard with both feet is not easy. The use of the

right foot at the very low end of the pedalboard in this exercise requires a shift of weight onto the

right hip.

* This exercise is excerpted from Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott, BWV 602.

22
Exercise 23

This exercise looks complex at first, but only two rhythmic motives appear, and the tempo is

slow. Furthermore, each rhythmic motive uses the same pedaling. However, the many accidental

signs should be carefully observed. When playing white keys in the interval of a second with

both feet, the position of the feet is influenced by the key each foot played before or will play

next. For example, the right foot which plays the second note D will be closer to the black keys

than the left foot which plays the first note C. The reason is that the right foot will play the black

key E-flat after releasing D. Make a clear separation after playing the first note C at measure 2.

* This exercise is excerpted from Jesu, meine Freude, BWV 610.

Exercise 24

This exercise consists of two groups, each with several suspirans proceeding without a break.

Learning to hear each suspirans will be an effective practice method. For example, on the last

beat of measure 1, the first note F-sharp is the end of the previous suspirans and the second F-

23
sharp is the beginning of the next one. The two F-sharps will be played differently.

* This exercise is excerpted from Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottessohn or Herr Gott, nun sei

gepreiset, BWV 601.

Exercise 25

The intervals of a third and an octave between the left foot and the right foot alternate. As shown

above, most three-note groups are a palindrome in this pedal part of BWV 617. Pay special

attention to the leaps of the left foot in this exercise. While the right foot usually moves in

stepwise motion, the left foot leaps a fourth, fifth or seventh. Memorizing the feel of the interval

of an octave between the feet can be very helpful.

* This exercise is excerpted from Herr Gott, nun schleuss den Himmel auf, BWV 617.

Exercise 26

Measures 1 and 2 have the same rhythm and the same melodic contour. Therefore, I have applied

24
the same alternate-toe pedaling to both measures. The only difference in the pedaling occurs on

the quarter note on the third beat of each measure, which is tied to a sixteenth note. The reason

for the difference is the interval between the adjacent notes. In measure 1, the interval between

the note C-sharp and the following note D is smaller than the interval between the C-sharp and

the previous note B-natural. Therefore, I suggest that the right foot play the C-sharp and also the

next note. For the same reason, I suggest the use of the left foot in playing the B-flat in addition

to the previous note A.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christ ist erstanden, BWV 627.

Exercise 27

The pedal part of BWV 643 consists of a five-note motif, a variation of suspirans. A sixteenth

rest followed by three sixteenth notes and two eighth notes can be seen as an extended suspirans.

In each group of three sixteenth-notes, the first and third notes are the same. The second note is

the lower neighbor. All of the motives in this exercise have the same pedaling. The first, third,

and fifth notes are played by the right foot and the second and fourth notes are by the left foot. I

recommend that students not play the two eighth notes too long.

* This exercise is excerpted from Alle Menschen müssen sterben , BWV 643.

25
Exercise 28

This exercise is for intervals of a second and third. Articulate after playing B on the second beat

at measure 1. The trill on the third beat at measure 1 should be played with the pedaling shown in

the example below. Place the left foot behind the right foot, and do not rush while playing the

trill. Articulate after the end of the trill. The remaining notes comprise the motive which occurs

throughout the pedal in BWV 615. This motive is also found in Exercise 9. I suggest that if

possible the students use the same pedaling for this motive even though different pitch levels are

involved.

* This exercise is excerpted from In dir ist Freude, BWV 615.

Exercise 29

This exercise includes many sixteenth notes with several black keys. It requires the feet have

quick forward and backward movements between black keys and white keys. The various

intervals increase the complexity of this exercise. The sizes of the leaps from the first beat to the

26
second of measure 1 and from the first two notes to the next two on the third beat of measure 1

are greater than the others. The left foot moves a fifth above and the right foot a sixth in both

cases. In the first half of measure 1, the feet move to the same color key: the right foot moves

from the white key to the white and the left foot moves from the black key to the black. On the

third beat, on the contrary, both feet move to the opposite color: the right foot moves from the

black key to the white and the left foot moves from the white key to the black.

* This exercise is excerpted from In dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr, BWV 640.

Exercise 30

A wide range of register and continuous eighth notes make the exercise difficult. The exercise

starts in the middle of the pedalboard, moves to the upper part, to the lower part, and back to the

middle during only three measures. Except for the very beginning and ending, the direction of

the melodic line is descending. Although the notes played by the right foot are on every beat, the

left foot leads the body to the lower part of the pedalboard. To turn the body, push off with the

right foot to the left22 after the intervals of larger than a third. Appropriate pushing off points will

be first B-flat, G, D, or low B-flat in measure 2. Frequent necessary shifts of body weight will

demand careful practice.

* This exercise is excerpted from Heut triumphieret Gottes Sohn, BWV 630.

22
Jon Laukvik, Historical Performance Practice in Organ Playing: An Introduction Based on Selected
Organ Works of the 16th–18th Centuries, Vol. 1, 3rd revised ed., translated by Brigitte and Michael Harris (Stuttgart,
Germany: Carus, 1996), 21.

27
B. Crossing the Feet

Foot-crossing pedaling is another version of alternate-toe pedaling. It is necessary to

cross the feet in certain types of scale passages. In the following ten exercises for foot-crossing,

the position of the foot is crucial. When deciding the relative position of each foot, students

should think about both economy of movement and the path of the other foot. The existence of

accidentals will be a significant factor for deciding which foot is in front of the other foot.23

Exercise 31

Except for the first two Bs, this exercise is an ascending chromatic scale from C-sharp to A. The

pedaling of the ascending chromatic passage is quite simple: all black notes will be played by the

left foot and all white notes by the right foot. For frequent occurrences of black keys in the

middle of the pedalboard, such as in this exercise, the use of foot crossing is more efficient. Pay

attention to the E-sharp on the second beat. This E-sharp is an accidental, but it is not a black key,

and will be played by the right foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen, BWV 613.

23
Brock, 78.

28
Exercise 32

The exercise begins with a descending chromatic scale. The white notes are assigned to the left

foot and the black notes to the right foot in the first measure. In measure 2, consider the melodic

line as G–A–D instead of G–E–A–D. Therefore, play E, the second note at measure 2, lightly

and play the next note, A, firmly. Separate well after playing the cadence, A–D. From the

ascending chromatic figure to the end, all black notes are played by the left foot. To articulate the

first note C of measure 3 well, I suggest to playing the next note B-natural with the left foot. It is

the opposite of the pedaling of the beginning descending chromatic scale.

* This exercise is excerpted from Das alte Jahr vergangen ist, BWV 614.

Exercise 33

This exercise is the ending passage of BWV 618, a canon at the fifth between the alto and the

pedal, and is part of the chorale melody. In this passage, which includes the black key B-flat, the

notes almost always move in stepwise motion. The foot crossings occur on weak beats between

the longer notes. I have recommended crossing the feet when playing the eighth-note passages in

this exercise. As a result of the foot crossing, every B-flat is played by the left foot. When the

right foot plays the A, just to the left of B-flat, it will be somewhat behind the left foot so as not

29
to obstruct the movement of the left foot from B-flat to G. However, the A played by the left foot,

the first note in measure 5, should be depressed at the nearest point to the black keys. The attack

position on the same key may be different according to the position of the feet relative to each

other.

* This exercise is excerpted from O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig, BWV 618.

Exercise 34

One of the methods of playing this descending G major scale is to use foot crossing. Because the

left foot plays the black key F-sharp in measure 1, I recommend that the position of the left foot

continue to be forward when it plays the following notes D and B. In other words, the right foot

will be somewhat back compared to the left foot. Also, the heel of the left foot should be lifted

rather than leaving the sole parallel to the pedalboard in order to make a space, allowing the right

foot to pass under the left heel. I suggest playing the first note A of measure 2 shorter than its

notated length to emphasize the change of direction and the leap. The last two notes D and G

outline the cadence.

* This exercise is excerpted from Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich, BWV 605.

30
Exercise 35

If an exercise includes many accidentals, more use of foot crossing is appropriate. The foot

which crosses over the other should be angled to the pedalboard in order to avoid crowding.

When the right foot plays A-sharp at measure 1, the right toe will turn slightly to the left. In the

same manner, the left toe will angle towards the right to play C-sharp in measure 2. The playing

points for the two Bs are worthy of notice. I recommend playing towards the back of the key

when playing the first B of measure 2. That allows enough room for the left foot to move from F-

sharp to C-sharp easily. The second B will be played near the black keys for economy of

movement.

* This exercise is excerpted from Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen, BWV 613.

Exercise 36

This exercise represents a variation of a descending E-flat major scale accomplished by crossing

the feet. Another pedaling for the same excerpt is shown in Example 48. In this exercise, the left

foot takes care of all the white notes while the right foot plays the black ones. To turn the right

toe slightly left on the E-flat in measure 1 will help the students play with ease. When the right

foot moves from E-flat to B-flat by crossing over the left foot, be careful not to interfere with the

motion of the left foot. To do this, turn the right toe about 30 degrees left to reach B-flat, the last

31
note of measure 1.

* This exercise is excerpted from O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde gross, BWV 622.

Exercise 37

The ascending chromatic passage shown in the middle of the exercise is for practicing crossing

feet. Excluding the keys in the lower part of the pedalboard, I distributed the role of each foot:

the left foot for the white keys and the right foot for the black keys. The slight turning of the

right toe on A-flat and B-flat in measure 1 will facilitate comfortable movement of the left foot.

If necessary, angle the right heel up about 30 degrees left, while playing A-flat, the first note of

measure 2, so as not to block the next movement of the left foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde gross, BWV 622.

Exercise 38

Most of the exercises using foot crossing include black keys. This exercise, however, does not

have any black keys. It presents crossing the feet on white keys in the middle of the pedalboard. I

suggest that the left foot cross over the right foot to play the first D in measure 2. For the most

efficient way to play this passage, the right foot should be back of the left foot. Keep the left foot

32
in front of the right foot while playing the next D. Move the right foot from C to E and return to

C behind the left foot to cross feet. Students might also use the alternate pedaling of one foot on

successive notes instead of crossing the feet in measure 2.

* This exercise is excerpted from Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich, BWV 605.

Exercise 39

Another pedaling for this same excerpt will be found in Exercise 60, the use of one foot for

successive notes. If students feel uncomfortable using one foot for several successive notes,

crossing the feet may be helpful. By playing the two F-sharps with the opposite foot by crossing,

the successive notes by one foot are interrupted. In the lower part of the pedalboard in which the

left foot is normally used, the F-sharp in measure 1 is played by the right foot. Conversely, in the

upper part of the pedalboard in which the right foot plays successive notes, the F-sharp at

measure 2 may be played by the left foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich, BWV 609.

Exercise 40

The exercise begins with a descending scale passage based on E. Count the rests and first note E

33
carefully. The two black keys C-sharp and G-sharp are assigned to the right foot. When playing a

black key by crossing, the slight turning of the first foot will be helpful for the movement of the

other one. The angle of the turn will depend on the distance from the center of the pedalboard.

For example, the angle of the turn on G-sharp is bigger than that on C-sharp. Breathe after

playing G-sharp, the first note of measure 2. Then, make a small separation after the stepwise

ascending notes E–F-sharp–G-sharp–A.

* This exercise is excerpted from Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen, BWV 613.

34
C. One Foot on Successive Notes

Although alternate toe pedaling is appropriate for a large portion of Baroque organ music,

it is often comfortable and efficient to use the same foot for successive notes.24 The proper use of

the other foot will still be beneficial in this case. While one foot plays successive notes, the other

foot should not wander but should move to the next key to be played. Always keep the feet in

contact with the pedals. With the following 25 exercises, students can move one step closer to

the goal.

Exercise 41

This exercise consists of repeated rhythmic motives. The rhythmic motive shown three times in

the exercise is the main motif of BWV 611. The direction of the rhythmic motive is either

descending or ascending. Only descending motives are found in this exercise. All eighth notes

played by the left foot—low E at the first beat in measure 1, A at the third beat in measure 1, and

D at the first beat in measure 2—are ending notes of the rhythmic motives. Those would be

tossed toward the next note. I have recommended using the same pedaling in each motive

because each rhythmic motive in this exercise is a five-note descending scale in stepwise motion,

consisting of white keys in the middle of the pedalboard. The pedaling I suggest gives the first

24
Brock, 76.

35
two notes to the right foot and the next three notes to the left foot. Students also may use the

right foot on the third notes of each motive instead of the left foot, if desired.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christum wir sollen loben schon, BWV 611.

Exercise 42

Bach used a rhythmic ostinato technique in the pedal part of BWV 623. In this exercise, the

ostinato appears three times with the same melodic contour but different notes. In each ostinato,

the beginning note is the same pitch as the third, which is decorated by the lower neighboring

sixteenth note. When the player presses the lower neighboring tone with the left foot, the right

foot can remain positioned on the first note. The three successive ascending notes played by the

right foot are all white keys, so one should just move to the next right white note. For the leaps of

the left foot within the ostinato and of the right foot between two ostinatos, the students need to

practice the interval of a fifth.

* This exercise is excerpted from Wir danken dir, Herr Jesu Christ, dass du für uns gestorben

bist, BWV 623.

Exercise 43

36
BWV 600 is the only chorale for which Bach provided registration indications in the

Orgelbüchlein. His indication for the pedal is Trompete 8ˈ.25 The range of the pedal in this

chorale is up to high F. However, most organs in Bach’s time had no fˈ in the pedal, which is

why a 4ˈ stop would have been chosen to play the pedal part an octave lower than written.26 The

exercise is notated an octave lower than the original score to assist in easy practice. This is an

exercise for successive playing by the left foot. All notes are white keys, and move in stepwise

motion in the lower part of the pedalboard. Therefore, all notes in this exercise will be played by

the left foot. This chorale prelude features a canon between the soprano and bass. The chorale

melody is heard in the soprano and appears again in the pedal after exactly one measure. If

students can play this exercise easily, try it together with the soprano part. The right hand will be

the leader and the feet the follower.

* This exercise is excerpted from Gott, durch dein Güte or Gottes Sohn ist kommen, BWV 600.

Exercise 44

The pedal part of BWV 631 punctuates the third eighth note of every beat. Count exactly each

group of two eighth rests, which comes before the eighth note. Move to the next key as soon as

the key that is playing is released, even though there are two eighth rests. All eighth notes will be

25
Peter Williams, The Organ Music of J. S. Bach, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003),
240–41.
26
Johann Sebastian Bach, Historical Organ Techniques and Repertoire: An Historical Survey of Organ
Performance Practices and Repertoire, Vol. 2, J. S. Bach-Basic Organ Works, ed. Quentin Faulkner (Boston, MA:
Wayne Leupold Edition, 1997), 12.

37
played lightly, but not too short. While playing the right foot, it is better to stay on low G and

wait until the G comes again.

* This exercise is excerpted from Komm, Gott Schöpfer, Heiliger Geist, BWV 631.

Exercise 45

This exercise is notated an octave lower than the original to assist in easy practice. See Exercise

43, for the same reason, playing the pedal part an octave lower than written on a 4ˈ stop would

have been done.27 Remember that this chorale prelude is a canon: the pedal part that plays the

chorale melody follows the soprano part one measure later. All the notes in this exercise are

white keys and have no large leaps. The notes below B will be played by the left foot and the

notes above C will be played by the right foot. The pedaling I have suggested is that B and C

could be played by either the left foot or the right one depending on the situation. When the right

foot plays D in measure 5, prepare to put the left foot on C.

* This exercise is excerpted from Gott, durch dein Güte or Gottes Sohn ist kommen, BWV 600.

27
Bach, ed. Quentin Faulkner, 12.

38
Exercise 46

This exercise is for the left foot for successive notes. However, there is no difficulty in the left

foot playing, as the intervals between the notes played by the left foot are not larger than a third.

One thing to remember in this exercise is the timing for moving. The right foot has to move from

high D to E-flat while the left foot is playing. It is always suggested to move as quickly as

possible, and this exercise shows a clear reason to follow the rule. The leap between the notes is

a seventh, and it is not easy to leap a large interval with one foot. However, the location of the

other foot provides good assistance. When the left foot is playing D, the quarter note in measure

1, the next black key on right side of the D is E-flat, which is the next key to be played by the

right foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Hilf Gott, das mir's gelinge, BWV 624.

Exercise 47

This exercise presents successive notes played in both feet. Both feet play six successive notes.

The first six notes played by the right foot are in the middle and right sides of the pedalboard and

the next six notes played by the left foot are on the left side of the pedalboard. There is a

controversial point in the pedaling; it would be C-sharp, the first note at measure 2. The C-sharp

39
is actually not on the right side of the pedalboard; however, the reason I assign the right foot to

the C-sharp involves the interval sizes between the adjacent notes. The interval between D and

C-sharp is smaller than the interval between C-sharp and low A. As a result, both feet play the

same five descending scales in stepwise motion, A to D, but in different registers.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christe, du Lamm Gottes, BWV 619.

Exercise 48

This exercise represents a variation of a descending E-flat major scale with successive note

playing. Another suggested pedaling for the same excerpt is shown in Exercise 36. In such a

descending scale with black keys played by one foot on successive notes, the foot should not

move back and forth in the black key area. The pedaling I have advised allows both feet to move

only one way from the black key to the white key, without returning to a black key. This way of

pedaling will reduce unnecessary movement.

* This exercise is excerpted from O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde gross, BWV 622.

Exercise 49

40
A descending G major scale can be played with more than one pedaling. The pedaling of this

exercise is for playing successive notes with both feet. I suggest changing from left foot to right

foot between the keys C and D. In order to avoid a conflict of the right foot with the left at the

last beat of measure 1, the left foot should be ready to press on C while slightly back of the right

foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich, BWV 605.

Exercise 50

The successive notes played by the right foot are interrupted by the octave leaps. If a student

memorizes the distance of an octave between the feet the playing will become more comfortable.

Large leaps by both feet from the previous notes occur at the third beat of measure 1: the left foot

jumps up from low E to the middle C and the right foot from D to the high C. In the beginning

and the second half of measure 1, the right foot has the same four-note figures, G–G–F-sharp–E

and C–C–B–A. In these figures, play the second repeated note longer than the first one.

* This exercise is excerpted from Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein, BWV 641.

Exercise 51

41
The five-note motive, which is shown in each measure in the exercise, is the main motive in the

pedal part of BWV 603. This exercise is for successive note playing by the right foot. The

motive includes syncopation. Except for each beginning note, the following four notes are played

by the right foot. Each four-note group played by the right foot has a descending shape, while

each group ascends by step at each appearance. Play the beginning note of every measure lightly

with a left foot, like tossing a ball.

* This exercise is excerpted from Puer natus in Bethlehem, BWV 603.

Exercise 52

The first half of the exercise is for the right foot and the second half is for the left. In measure 1,

the left foot provides a more convenient pedaling by interrupting the right foot. At measure 2, the

right foot hands over to the left foot. Following an octave leap and the syncopation, play the first

note high D not too long. While playing the left foot, prepare the right foot for the last note of the

exercise. Just move to the left to the next white note, from high D to high C. Do not let the right

foot wander over the pedalboard during the playing of the left foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Hilf Gott, das mir's gelinge, BWV 624.

42
Exercise 53

This exercise includes the practice of the right foot for successive notes and the interval of a fifth

for the left foot. Play the B-flat by the right foot after counting the quarter rest at the beginning.

Move the right foot to the C, a fifth above the F at measure 1, after releasing the F. The left foot

has to move a fifth down from D. Although both feet move a fifth, it is in contrary motion. Make

short breaths before new phrases beginning with the right foot in measure 2 and 3. For the third

phrase, just move the right foot one step higher, from G to A.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christe, du Lamm Gottes, BWV 619.

Exercise 54

In this exercise, both feet alternate their successive note playing. Two eighth notes followed by a

quarter note are repeated continuously. The left foot begins by playing three descending notes in

stepwise motion. Then, the right foot ascends three notes in stepwise motion. Leave the right foot

on C, which is the next note it will play. The next alternations are six successive notes in each

43
foot. Take note of the first long note at measure 2. Do not hurry in the leap of the left foot at the

connection of measures 2 and 3, low D to A.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christ ist erstanden, BWV 627.

Exercise 55

This exercise is for an ascending scale. The G natural minor scale ascends eleven notes from low

G up to high C. The five low notes are assigned to the left foot and the other notes to the right

foot. Move the left foot back to the white key C after playing the D in measure 1. Keep both feet

in constant contact with the pedals. It is necessary to breathe briefly at the end of the ascending

scale. The last note C in measure 2 can be thought of as a bridge note connecting the two

ascending G minor scales, but the second scale is much shorter than the first. The last note D of

the second scale will be played a little shorter because of the following cadence figure.

* This exercise is excerpted from Von Himmel kam der Engel Schar, BWV 607.

Exercise 56

This exercise is for a descending scale. The descending line should be connected without any

notice even at the point of switching feet. Move the right foot back to the white key D after

44
playing C on the third beat of measure 1. Do not let the right foot wander while playing the left

foot. Between the low D played by the left foot and the D an octave higher played by the right

foot at measure 2, a very brief time is needed for the change in direction and the octave leap.

Touch lightly the last note D of measure 2. It is the connecting note of two descending scales. In

measure 3, move the left foot onto C, beside the right foot, to prepare while the right foot is still

on the D. Notice that the left foot will be placed a little back of the right foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Von Himmel kam der Engel Schar, BWV 607.

Exercise 57

The range of the pedal in this chorale is up to high F-sharp. However, organs in Bach’s time

rarely had the high F and never a high F-sharp in the pedal. It is intended that we play the pedal

part an octave lower than the original score with a 4ˈ stop. Therefore, I notated this exercise an

octave lower than the written score to assist in easy reading. BWV 608 is a double canon

between soprano/bass and alto/tenor. In the bass part, the pedal follows the soprano one measure

later. I suggest that a single foot play measures 1–2 and 5–6, according to the register. In

measures 3–4 and 7–8, however, crossing feet is a suggested pedaling. Both segments consist of

rather small-note values in the center of the pedalboard and include a black key. When you are

45
playing a black key, using the other foot can help in moving quickly without hesitating.

* This exercise is excerpted from In dulci jubilo, BWV 608.

Exercise 58

Play the first note A with the left foot short and lightly following the eighth rest. The next note C

will be played as a syncopation with a strong touch, but in constant contact with the pedal. The

left foot can prepare its last note, B, by moving to it from A while the right foot is playing. There

are two quarter-note Bs, both of which are played by the right foot in measure 2. However, they

will be played in a somewhat different manner. The first B will be played longer than the second

B as the climax of the exercise. The second B will be played shorter because of the octave leap,

even though the last note is played by the left foot.

* This exercise is excerpted from Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod überwand, BWV

626.

Exercise 59

This exercise is the third phrase of BWV 629, which is a canon at two octaves between the

soprano and the pedal. The chorale melody is presented in the soprano part one measure ahead of

46
the pedal part. Most of the intervals between adjacent notes are seconds in this exercise. When

playing the two quarter notes in measure 3, pay attention to depressing the keys by moving the

ankle, not the whole leg.

* This exercise is excerpted from Erscheinen ist der herrliche Tag, BWV 629.

Exercise 60

The beginning note D ascends two octaves through a walking bass line. This exercise includes

only a few leaps. Each foot moves stepwise until the peak note high D in measure 2. The pedal

line is moving up; therefore, both A and B in measure 1 will be played lightly by the left foot. If

the use of only the right foot for seven successive notes is not easy at measure 2, the left foot

may help by playing the black key F-sharp, instead of using the right foot. The second part of the

exercise, from the last note of measure 2 to the end, is a repetition of the first part of measure 1,

though the melodic direction is changed.

* This exercise is excerpted from Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich, BWV 609.

Exercise 61

This exercise is from BWV 620, which is a canon at the octave between the top voice and the

47
pedal: the soprano leads, and the pedal follows. In the exercise, all notes move in a stepwise

motion. In the case of rhythm, however, the dotted rhythm appears twice. I suggest that the right

foot assist with the dotted rhythms although the left foot plays almost all of the exercise. The

right foot should play behind the left foot, which is the main player in this exercise.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christus, der uns selig macht, BWV 620.

Exercise 62

This exercise is for successive syncopation playing by the right foot, and leaps with the left foot.

Syncopation involves a shift of accent and makes a beat or beat division, normally weak, into a

strong one. A tiny break before playing each tied note can create a clear syncopation. The same

process will be applied to the whole chain of syncopations. Each note with a tie will have to be

released just slightly before its written value in order that we can hear the shifted accent clearly

on the following tied note. The use of the left foot often makes the pedaling more comfortable.

Both Es, the last notes of measures 1 and 2, are the lower neighboring tones. By playing them

with the left foot, the right foot can stay on F rather than moving somewhere else.

* This exercise is excerpted from Da Jesu an dem Kreuze stund, BWV 621.

48
Exercise 63

BWV 611 contains the only example of double-pedal in the Orgelbüchlein. This exercise is the

passage appearing at the very end of the chorale prelude. Play the two quarter notes at measure 1

deeply with the left foot. While the lower voice is played by the left foot, the right foot plays a

five-note ascending motive. As soon as the last note of the motive in the upper pedal part is

heard, another ascending motive is played by the left foot in the lower part, like a canon. The

half note, A, in the right foot at measure 1 will be played shorter than its notated value. The right

foot has to play E, the last note of the second rhythmic motive. Pay attention to the quarter rest in

measure 2, and do not play it as an eighth rest.

* This exercise is excerpted from Christum wir sollen loben schon, BWV 611.

Exercise 64

Playing more than ten successive notes by one foot is not easy. First of all, students should relax

the foot. Every key in this exercise is repeated and then moves down one step until arriving at the

low D. To minimize the movement of the foot, the toe should be placed near the edge of the

black keys for playing both the black and white keys. When moving to the lower part of the

pedalboard with the left foot, the knee will turn slightly inward naturally.

49
* This exercise is excerpted from Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ, BWV 639.

Exercise 65

According to the pedaling, the left foot is supposed to play more than ten successive notes. The

notes to be played by the left foot include not only the repetitions of the same note, but also the

black keys. When playing adjacent notes near the bottom of the pedalboard, it is easier to use the

toe of the left foot rather than alternate toes. Relax the foot and move lightly over the keys. To

avoid acceleration, hold the first note of each half-measure, C, G, and B-flat, a little longer.

* This exercise is excerpted from Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot, BWV 635.

50
CHAPTER 3

Charts of Pedaling and Musical Characteristics in All Orgelbüchlein Chorale Settings

I classified the different types of pedaling needed for all forty-six chorale preludes in the

Orgelbüchlein. The following tables list the proper pedaling I have recommended and the major

musical characteristics, such as rhythmic patterns, melodic pitch, or motives, used in each

chorale prelude. These tables could be used in selecting excerpts for practice of a certain

pedaling or musical figure. The measure numbers in the tables coincide with those of the

Bärenreiter edition.28

BWV 599 Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland

Measure(s).Beat Pedaling and Musical Characteristics

1–2 Alternate toes


Crossing feet

3–6 Alternate toes in dotted rhythms

7– 8.1 Alternate toes


The interval of a third

8.2–10 Alternate toes


Right foot for three successive notes

28
Johann Sebastian Bach, Orgelwerke, Band 1, Orgelbüchlein; Sechs Choräle von verschiedener Art
(Schübler-Choräle); Choralpartiten, ed. Heinz-Harald Löhlein (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1983).

51
BWV 600 Gott, durch dein Güte or Gottes Sohn ist kommen

1–9 One foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

11–18 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

19–22 One foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

23–26 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

BWV 601 Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottessohn or Herr Gott, nun sei gepreiset

1–10 Alternate toes


Five-note rhythmic motives

BWV 602 Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott

1–9 Alternate toes in sixteenth notes


The interval of a second

BWV 603 Puer natus in Bethlehem

1–5 Right foot for descending successive notes

6 Alternate toes

7–9 Right foot for descending successive notes

10 Alternate toes

11–13 Left foot for descending successive notes

15 Alternate toes

52
BWV 604 Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ

1–11 Alternate toes

BWV 605 Der Tag, der ist so freudenreich

1–2.1 Crossing feet


or
One foot for successive notes

3–4 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

5 Alternate toes

6–10 One foot for successive notes

11 Crossing feet

12 Two notes in each foot, in alternation

18 Crossing feet
or
One foot for successive notes

19 Left foot for successive notes

BWV 606 Von Himmel hoch, da komm ich her

1–8 Alternate toes in various intervals

9 Right foot for successive notes

53
BWV 607 Von Himmel kam der Engel Schar

1 Right foot for descending successive notes

2 Left foot for descending successive notes

3–5 Right foot for descending successive notes

6–7 Left foot for descending successive notes

9 Left foot for ascending successive notes

10 Right foot for ascending successive notes

13–14 Right foot for ascending successive notes

15 Right foot for descending successive notes

16 Alternate toes

17–18 Right foot for ascending successive notes

BWV 608 In dulci jubilo

2 Left foot for repeated successive notes

3–5 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

6 Left foot for repeated successive notes

7–11 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

12–13 Crossing feet

14–16 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

17–19 Right foot for successive notes

20–21 Crossing feet

22–25 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

54
27–28 Left foot for repeated successive notes

29–30 Crossing feet

32–37 Left foot for successive notes

BWV 609 Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, allzugleich

1 One foot for successive notes


or
Crossing feet

2–3 Alternate toes

4–5.1 Left foot for successive notes

5.2–6 Right foot for successive notes

7 Left foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

8 Right foot for ascending successive notes


or
Crossing feet

9–10 Alternate toes

BWV 610 Jesu, meine Freude

1–13 Alternate toes

55
BWV 611 Christum wir sollen loben schon

1–10 One foot for successive notes


Octave leaps
Frequent syncopations

11–12 Left foot for successive notes in dotted rhythms

14–15 One foot for successive notes


Double pedal

BWV 612 Wir Christenleut

1–8 Alternate toes

11–16 Alternate toes with the left foot moving stepwise

BWV 613 Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen

2.3–3.2 Crossing feet

3.3–4 Left foot for successive notes


The interval of an octave

5 Crossing feet

6–8 Crossing feet


Alternate toes

9 Alternate toes

10 Left foot for successive notes

11–14 Crossing feet

15 Alternate toes

56
BWV 614 Das alte Jahr vergangen ist

1 Crossing feet

2 Alternate toes

3–4 Crossing feet

5–6 Two notes in each foot, in alternation

7–12 Crossing feet

BWV 615 In dir ist Freude

1–6 Alternate toes


Ostinato technique

7 Left foot for successive notes

8 Alternate toes in the interval of a third

9–23 Alternate toes


Ostinato technique

24 Left foot for successive notes

25 Alternate toes in the interval of a third

26–33 Alternate toes


Ostinato technique

34–36 One foot for successive notes

37–43 Alternate toes


Ostinato technique

45–46.1 Left foot for descending successive notes

46.2–47 Right foot for descending successive notes

57
48 Alternate toes
Crossing feet at trill

49–50 Alternate toes

BWV 616 Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin

1–15 Alternate toes


Frequent sixteenth notes in the interval of a third

BWV 617 Herr Gott, nun schleuss den Himmel auf

1–24 Alternate toes


The intervals of a third and an octave
Frequent ties

BWV 618 O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig

2 Left foot, in repeated successive notes

3–4 Right foot for successive notes

5–6 Crossing feet

9–11 Right foot for repeated successive notes


Alternate toes

12–13 Right foot for repeated successive notes

15–21 Crossing feet

58
BWV 619 Christe, du Lamm Gottes

3–4 One foot, descending successive notes in stepwise motion

5–7 Right foot for descending successive notes in stepwise motion


Leaps of the interval of a fifth by the left foot

10–12 Right foot for descending successive notes by stepwise motion


Crossing feet
Left foot for descending successive notes by stepwise motion

14 Left foot for ascending successive notes by stepwise motion

BWV 620 Christus, der uns selig macht

1–2 Right foot for repeated successive notes

10–12 Left foot for successive notes in the lower part of the pedalboard

13 Right foot for repeated successive notes

14–15 Left foot for successive notes

16–17 Right foot for successive notes

BWV 621 Da Jesu an dem Kreuze stund

1–4 Right foot for descending successive notes in syncopation


Leaps in the interval of a fifth by the left foot

7–8 Right foot for descending successive notes in syncopation


Crossing feet

9 Left foot for successive notes

10–11 Right foot for descending successive notes in syncopation


Alternate toes

59
BWV 622 O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde gross

1–4 One foot for successive notes

5.3–6.1 One foot for successive notes


or
Crossing feet

7.3–10.3 Left foot for successive notes in the lower part of the pedalboard

11.3–13 One foot for successive notes


or
Crossing feet

15.2–15.4 Right foot for successive notes

18.3–19.2 Crossing feet in ascending chromatic passage

19.4–22.2 Alternate toes

22.3–23.2 Left foot for successive notes of chromatic passage


or
Crossing feet in chromatic passage

23.3–24 One foot for successive notes


or
Crossing feet

BWV 623 Wir danken dir, Herr Jesu Christ, dass du für uns gestorben bist

1–12 Alternate toes in the interval of a second


Right foot for three successive notes moving stepwise motion
An octave leap

13–18 Two notes in each foot, in alternation


Interval of a second

60
BWV 624 Hilf Gott, das mir's gelinge

1–3 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

4–6 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

7 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

8–9.2 Left foot for successive notes

9.3–10.3 Right foot for three successive notes

10.4–11.1 Crossing feet

11.2–12 Alternate toes

13–14 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

15–16 Left foot for successive notes

BWV 625 Christ lag in Todesbanden

1–13 Alternate toes in the interval of a second in descending motion

BWV 626 Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod überwand

1–2 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

3–6.2 Alternate toes

6.3–7.2 Left foot for successive notes

7.3–9 Alternate toes

61
BWV 627 Christ ist erstanden

1–18 Alternate toes in syncopation rhythm


The intervals of a second and third

19–40 Alternate toes

41–44 Alternation of successive note groups by two feet

45–46 Alternate toes with a sixteenth rest

47–50.2 Crossing feet

50.3–51 Two notes in each foot, in alternation

52–56.2 Alternate toes with a sixteenth rest

56.3–57.3 Left foot for successive notes

57.4–61 Alternate toes in sixteenth notes

BWV 628 Erstanden ist der heil'ge Christ

1–16 Alternate toes, long rests between intervals of a fourth and fifth

BWV 629 Erscheinen ist der herrliche Tag

1–4 One foot, successive notes in stepwise motion

5–9 Alternate toes

10–19 Left foot for successive notes

62
BWV 630 Heut triumphieret Gottes Sohn

1–27 Alternate toes in ostinato

BWV 631 Komm, Gott Schöpfer, Heiliger Geist

1–2 Right foot for successive notes

5 Right foot for successive notes

6 Left foot for successive notes

BWV 632 Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend

2–6 Left foot for successive notes in stepwise motion

7–8 Right foot for successive notes

11.3–12 Left foot for successive notes

BWV 633 Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier

1–3 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion


Interval of an octave

4–5 Left foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

6–8 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion


Interval of an octave

9–10 Left foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

63
BWV 634 Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier

1–3.2 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion


The interval of an octave

3.3–5 Both feet for three successive notes


Alternate toes

6–8 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion


The interval of an octave

9–10 Left foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

BWV 635 Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot

1–6 Left foot for repeated successive notes


Right foot for successive notes

7–9 Left foot for successive notes


Right foot for repeated successive notes

10 Left foot for repeated successive notes

11 Alternate toes in oscillation passage

12 Left foot for repeated successive notes

13 Right foot for repeated successive notes

14–15 Left foot for successive notes

16 Right foot for repeated successive notes

17 Left foot for repeated successive notes


Crossing feet

18 Alternate toes in oscillation passage

19–20 Left foot for repeated successive notes

64
BWV 636 Vater unser im Himmelreich

1–12 Alternate toes

BWV 637 Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt

1–12 Alternate toes in leaps of a diminished seventh

BWV 638 Es ist das Heil uns kommen her

1–5 Alternate toes


Right foot for successive notes

6 Left foot for successive notes

7–8 Alternate toes


Right foot for successive notes

9–10 Left foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

BWV 639 Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ

1 Right foot for repeated successive notes

2 Left foot for repeated successive notes

3 Right foot for repeated successive notes

4 Right foot for successive notes in stepwise motion


Alternate toes

65
5–6 Left foot for repeated successive notes
Alternate toes

7–9.2 Right foot for repeated successive notes

9.3–11 Left foot for repeated successive notes

12–14 Right foot, repeated notes


Left foot, repeated notes

BWV 640 In dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr

1–10 Alternate toes, repeated rhythmic patterns

BWV 641 Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein

1–3.2 Right foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

3.3–5 The interval of an octave


Right foot for successive notes

6–8.3 Alternate toes


Right foot for successive notes

8.4–9 Left foot for successive notes


Alternate toes

66
BWV 642 Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten

1–2 Alternate toes in 16th and 32nd notes

3–5 Alternate toes


The intervals of a third and an octave

6–10 Alternate toes

BWV 643 Alle Menschen müssen sterben

1–12 Alternate toes


Five-note rhythmic ostinato

BWV 644 Ach wie nichtig, ach wie flüchtig

1–10 Alternate toes, interval of an octave


Ostinato: an eighth rest followed by three eighth notes

67
CONCLUSION

Although J. S. Bach composed several works for pedagogical purposes, his

Orgelbüchlein from which all sixty-five exercises for pedals in this document were excerpted has

been regarded as the cornerstone of Bach’s pedagogical plan in the genre of chorale preludes as

well as in organ playing.29 According to the title page of the autograph in the Orgelbüchlein,

Bach especially intended to help beginning organists in their study of the pedal.30 His only pedal

solo work, Pedal Exercitium, is another example that shows Bach attached great importance to

pedal practice. Pedal playing may have certainly been one of the challenges to most organists

since Bach’s time.

Before presenting the actual pedal exercises, I wrote briefly about pedal playing basics in

Chapter 1. The discussion of topics such as shoes and clothing, position at the pedals, economy

of movement, all-toe pedaling, registration, and care for organs, will provide useful information

not only for those who try the pedal exercises in this document but also for all beginning

organists who play music composed before 1750. I excerpted all sixty-five pedal exercises from

the Orgelbüchlein and categorized them into three groups according to the type of pedaling. The

numbering of the exercises in each category progresses in order of difficulty. Each exercise

includes the suggested pedaling and a practical guide, focusing on economy of movement. The

tables I provide showing the different pedaling for all chorale preludes in the Orgelbüchlein

could be used as tools to find a part or parts for a specific exercise for pedals.

29
Yearsley, 146.
30
Ibid.

68
BWV 598, the Pedal Exercitium, which is known as the first pedal solo composition31 is

the only pedal exercise Bach wrote. It contains breathless sixteenth notes and jagged leaps

covering almost a two-octave compass.32 Therefore, it looks virtuoso and perhaps played a

significant role in Bach’s teaching. In his book Bach’s Feet, however, Yearsley states that “the

core of Bach’s organ pedagogy was the Orgelbüchlein.”33 The Orgelbüchlein, which holds an

important position in the history of Baroque organ music, remains a good pedagogical source.

The sixty-five pedal exercises excerpted from this notable collection will be helpful to students

who want to build a solid foundation in pedal playing in music composed before 1750. I offer

these pedal exercises particularly to beginning organists who, when they play the chorale

preludes from the Orgelbüchlein, cannot apply what they already learned because of nervousness

after mastering other pedal methods including exercises using typical patterns and rhythms, yet

always in the same key signature. What is more, through the various kinds of pedal exercises in

this document, I believe that students can learn to find the proper pedaling for themselves and

sufficient pedal technique to play those parts with precision and confidence when they study

organ works other than the Orgelbüchlein.

31
Lincoln, 4
32
Yearsley, 262.
33
Ibid., 263.

69
BILBIOGRAPHY

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Dickinson, Clarence. The Technique and Art of Organ Playing. New York, NY: The H. W. Gray
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Dunham, Rowland W. Pedal Mastery: A Manual for Organists. Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore
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NY: Dover Publications, 2003.

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Yearsley, David. Bach’s Feet: The Organ Pedals in European Culture. Cambridge, UK:
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Articles

Barkworth, J. E. “Organ Pedal Technique.” The Musical Times 59 (November, 1918): 506+512.

Custard, Reginald Goss. “Organ Pedal Technique.” The Musical Times 60 (February 1919): 75

Ellingford, Herbert F. “Pedal Technique.” The Musical Times 59 (July 1918): 311–2.

71
Jevons, R. A. and Enid Morris. “Organ Pedalling.” The Musical Times 70 (April 1929): 344–5.

Williams C. F. Abdy and Herbert F. Ellingford. “Pedal Technique.” The Musical Times 59
(August 1918): 359.

Dissertations

Friesen, John Charles. “A History of Compositions for Solo Organ Pedal.” DMA diss.,
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Bach, Johann Sebastian. Historical Organ Techniques and Repertoire: An Historical Survey of
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––––––. Orgelbüchlein. Edited by Robert Clark and John David Peterson. St. Louis: Concordia
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––––––. Orgelwerke. Band 1, Orgelbüchlein; Sechs Choräle von verschiedener Art (Schübler-
Choräle); Choralpartiten. Edited by Heinz-Harald Löhlein. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1983.
Score.

Recordings

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Das Orgelbüchlein. Murray Forbes Somerville, organ. Recorded on the
Flentrop Organ at Adolphus Busch Hall, Harvard University: Titanic. CD. 1994.

72
––––––. Orgelbüchlein and More Works by J. S. Bach. Robert Clark and John David Peterson,
organ. Recorded on the Fritts Organ at Arizona State University. CD. 1996.

––––––. Orgelbüchlein BWV 599–644. Simon Preston, organ. Recorded at the Sora Abbet in
Denmark: Deursche Grammophom. CD. 1992.

––––––. Orgelbüchlein Plus: J. S. Bach Organ Works. George Ritchie, organ. Recorded on the
Fritts organ at Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA. CD. 2002.

––––––. Organ Works, Vol. 3. Gerhard Weinberger, organ. Recorded on the Joachim Wagner
Organ at Trondheim, Norway: Georgsmarienhütte. CD. 1999.

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APPENDIX: BWV 589, Pedal Exercitium

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