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INTRODUCTION

Over the years, leadership has been viewed and interpreted from various aspects and in

different extents. It has gained the interests of almost all walks of life, profession, race and

callings. And because of that mere reason, it has become a major research object for students of

different courses as well as for graduate studies. It has always been and remains an intriguing

topic for centuries during which academicians and even great leaders themselves have

formulated many definitions and theories of leadership. Many scholars and practitioners alike are

convinced that effective leadership is required to meet most, if not all, organizational challenges,

goals and objectives. Thus, many programs in leadership and management schools now

emphasize the development of such skills.

The influence of leadership on organizational outcomes is now clearly recognized and

acknowledged in related areas, with evidences suggesting that effective leadership improves

individual, team and organizational outcomes (Muchiri and Cooksey, 2011). Organizations,

establishments and institutions nowadays need a leader with a strong leadership style that is

responsive to the dynamic changes of environments, may it be governance, business oriented or

even health oriented, and to be more service focused and not only for profit. Leaders in most

institutions are faced with notable tasks of adapting to new models and paradigms of leadership

while leading employees from diverse backgrounds. Leaders should not select their leadership

style haphazardly and arbitrarily, but a clear attention to culture is required since it will influence

how followers will react and respond (Maloney, 1982). In addition, the long-standing success of

leadership development initiatives calls for an organization culture that considers developing

future leaders as a long-term strategy priority. According to Deng and Gibon (2008), over 350

definitions exist for the term leadership. Effectiveness of leader refers to the ability of
supervising and managing subordinates (Enshassi and Burgess, 1991). To achieve high

organizational outcomes, there is a growing tendency towards examining and testing the main

traits of a successful leader. Research on the traits of leaders has not been able to demonstrate

that any combination of physical and psychological characteristics guarantee an individual will

be an effective and good leader in all situations (Jabeen., 2012).

However, it seems that there is a set of traits and characteristics that differentiate

successful leaders from the less successful. Moreover, the national culture has been considered

as a crucial and significant factor in deciding the most effective leadership style and components

of a successful leader. For instance, one study revealed that Asian managers preferred leaders

who were competent decision makers, supportive and caring of employees, and effective

communication, both task and people-oriented, and participation to direction (Swierczek, 1991).

There have been several programs and projects to explore various dimensions, competencies, and

aspects of leadership in the developing countries. However, there is relatively having a very little

empirical evidence about the main characteristics of the successful leader in the Philippine

setting. And being a leader to any field in the country poses a great challenge considering the fact

that the country is on its verge of development as well as the different challenges that it is facing.

Wherever you are, may it be in the government, or in private institutions, the key doesn’t always

rely on the leader, but with the members or subordinates as well, but the initiative and

maintenance of the vision on tract always rely on how the head manages the institution.

Being a leader carries the responsibility to teach and support his or her people, to act as a

role model and to be ready to serve as well as lead, which has very little difference in between.

Some people find being a leader a naturally easy while others would need to work on and for it.

Good leaders communicate effectively and are tough enough to face unpleasant situations
which may arise. They know that part of effective leadership is to put out fire and build fire and

passion in their people to become better. This is done through effective communications and

good leaders are good communicators. Leadership is not a title. And neither is it an entitlement;

leadership is not a right, it is a responsibility, thus, we all need to handle it well, Kong (2016).

REFERENCES

Deng, L., Gibson, P., (2008). Mapping and modeling the capacities that underlie effective cross-
cultural leadership, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 16(4), pp.
347 – 366 retrieved from https://www.coursehero.com/file/17142771/WK-4-Deng-and-
Gibson-2009/ on November 05, 2018

Enshassi, E., Burgess, R., (1991). Managerial effectiveness and the style of management in the
Middle East: An empirical analysis, Construction Management and Economics, 9(1):79-
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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240239789_Managerial_effectiveness_and_the
_ style_of_management_in_the_Middle_East_An_empirical_analysis on November 06,
2018

Jabeen, F., (2012). Developing oneself as a leader, Journal of Management Development, 32(1)
retrieved from https//: DOI: 10.1108/02621711311287080} on November 06, 2018

Kong, F., (2016). Thoughts on leadership, The Philippine Star, March 5, 2016 issue.

Maloney, J., (1982). A Theoretical Consideration of Leadership and the Global Heterarchy
retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/107179199400100403 on November 05, 2018

Muchiri, M., Cooksey, R., (2011). “Examining the effects of substitutes for leadership on
performance outcomes”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(8), pp.
817‐836 retrieved from
https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/01437731211265241?fullSc=1&jo
urnalCode=lodj on November 5, 2018.

Swierczek, F., (1991). Leadership and Culture: Comparing Asian Managers, Leadership &
Organization Development Journal, 12(7), pp.3-10, retrieved from
https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001165 on November 06, 2018