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FULLY WORKED SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER

1 FUNCTIONS

Focus on STPM 1
1 (a) g(x) = 16 − x2
For g(x) to be defined, 16 − x2  0
3 First, consider only g(x) = 1 x − 2 . The
2 ∣ ∣
(4 + x)(4 − x)  0 graph of g(x) is as shown below.
y

y=− 1x+2
x 2
−4 4 y= 1x−2
2
2
Hence, the domain of g is
x
{x | - 4  x  4, x P }. O 4
−2
(b) y The graph of g(x) is
actually part of a circle

5
− 1 x + 2,  x < 4,
with the equation
y 2 = 16 − x 2 ⇒ x 2 + y 2 = 42.
2
4 Thus, g(x) =
y = 16 − x 2
1 x − 2,  x  4.
2
−4 O 4
x
Next, consider only h(x) = 1 x + 2 . The
2  
(c) The range is { y | 0  y  4, y P }. graph of h(x) is as shown below.
y
y= 1x+2
2 (a) f : x  x2 − 9 2

f (x) = x2 − 9 y=− 1x−2


2
For f (x) to be defined, x2 − 9  0 2

(x + 3)(x − 3)  0 −4 O
x

5
− 1 x − 2,  x < − 4,
x 2
−3 3 Thus, h(x) =
1 x + 2,  x  − 4.
Hence, the domain of f  is 2
{x | x  -3 or x  3, x P }.
(b) y Therefore,

y = x2 − 9 • for x < − 4, f (x) = − 1x + 2 − − 1x − 2


2 2 1 2
=4
−3 O 3
x 1 1
• for − 4  x < 4, f (x) = − x + 2 − x + 2
2 2 1 2
(c) The range is { y | y  0, y P }. = −x

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• for x  4, f (x) = 1x − 2 − 1x + 2
2 2 1 2 The range of g is
{ y | y  , y ≠ 0}.
= − 4 (b) g ° f  = g[f (x)]
4,   x < - 4, = g[(x + 1)2 + 2]
Hence, f (x) = - x,  
5
- 4  x < 4,
- 4,  x  4.
= 1
(x + 1)2 + 2 − 2
1 , x ≠ -1
=
(x + 1)2
(a) The graph of f (x) is as shown below.
The domain of g ° f is
y
{x | x  , x ≠ -1}.
y=4
4
The range of g ° f is
{ y | y > 0, y P }.
y
y = −x
4
x
−4 O
y = g f(x)

= 1
(x + 1)2
−4
y = −4 x
−1 O

(b) The range of f is 5 (a) (i) f (x) = x − 2


{y | - 4  y  4, y P }. y

4 (a) (i) f (x) = (x + 1)2 + 2 y= x−2

y
x
O 2
y = (x + 1)2 + 2
3
The domain of f is
(−1, 2)
{x | x  2, x P }.
x
O The range of f is
{ y | y  0, y P }.
The domain of f is {x | x  }. (ii) g(x) = x2 − 3
The range of f is y

{ y | y  2, y P }.

(ii) g(x) = 1
x−2
x
y O
y = x2 − 3
−3
y= 1
x−2
x
The domain of g is
O
−1
2 {x | x  }.
2
The range of g is
{ y | y  -3, y P }.
The domain of g is (b) g ° f  exists because Rf  Dg.
{x | x  , x ≠ 2}.
g ° f  = g[f(x)]

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= g 1  x − 22 7 (a) (i) f (x) = 1
x−2
= 1 x − 2 22 − 3 y
=x-5
(c) For f ° g  to be defined, Rg  Df  .
Rg Df 

{
{
x2 − 3  2
x
O
x2 − 5  0 −1
2
2
1x + 521x − 52  0
Hence, the required set of values of x is
{x | x  - 5 or x  5, x P }.
The domain of f is
6 (a) (i) f (x) = 25 − x2 {x | x  , x ≠ 2}.
y The range of f is
{ y | y  , y ≠ 0}.
(ii) g(x) = 2
5

x+4
y = 25 − x 2 y

x
−5 O 5
1
2 x
The domain of f is −4 O

{x | -5  x  5, x P }.
The range of f is
{ y | 0  y  5, y P }. The domain of g is
(ii) g (x) = x2 − 5
{x | x  , x ≠ - 4}. ... 1
y The range of g is
{ y | y  , y ≠ 0}.
(b) f ° g = f  [g(x)]

O
x
= f   2
x+41 2
= 1
y = x2 − 5
−5
 12 −2
x+4 2
The domain of g is {x | x  }. x+4
The range of g is =
2 − 2(x + 4)
{y | y  -5, y P }. x+4
  = - +  , x ≠ -3 ... 2
x 4
(b) f ° g does not exist because Rg  Df  . =
-6 - 2x 2x + 6
(c) For f ° g to be defined, Rg  Df  . Combining 1 and , the domain of
2
Df Rg Df f ° g is {x | x  R, x ≠ - 4, x ≠ -3}.
}
}
}

−5  x2 − 5  5 x
0   x2   10 8 (a) For f: x  , the domain is
x +1
Hence, the required set of values of x is
{x | -  10  x  10, x P }. {x | x Î , x ¹ -1}.

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x+2 (d) h ≠ g  f because the domain and the
For g: x  , the domain is
x range of g  f are not the same as the
{ x | x ∈, x ≠ 0}. domain and the range of h.

(b) g  f = g f ( x ) = g  
x
x −1
9 f: x 
1
x
, x ∈  \ {0} means  ≠ 0
x g : x  2 x − 1, x ∈ 
+2
= x +1 f  g = fg ( x )
x
x +1 = f ( 2 x - 1)
x + 2 ( x + 1) =
1
,x ¹
1
= 2x - 1 2
x
3x + 2 The domain of f  g is
=  1
x  x | x ∈ , x ≠  .
2  2
= 3+ ,x ≠ 0
x 10 (a) Let  y = f  −1(x)
Other than x ≠ 0, the domain of g  f f (y) = x
also has to follow the domain of f, 2+ y−1 =x
i.e. x ∈ , x ≠ −1. y−1=x−2
Hence, the domain of g  f is y − 1 = (x − 2)2
y − 1 = x2 − 4x + 4
{ x x ∈ , x ≠ 0, x ≠ -1}. y = x2 − 4x + 5
2 [ f   (x) = x2 - 4x + 5
-1
If x ≠ −1, then g f ( x ) ≠ 3 + , i.e.
( −1) The domain of f  −1 is the same as the
g f ( x ) ≠ 1. range of f, i.e. {x | x  2, x P }.
The range of f  −1 is the same as the
Thus, the range of g  f cannot
domain of f, i.e. {y | y  1, y P }.
take the value 1. Other than that,
(b) The graphs of y = f (x) and y = f  −1(x)
based on the graph in (c), the
are as shown below.
range of g  f also cannot take the y
value 3. Hence, the range of g  f if y = f −1(x)

{ y | y ∈ , y ≠ 1, y ≠ 3}.
5
y = f (x)
2 4
(c) For h : x → 3 + , the domain is 3 The graph of y = f −1(x) is
x 2 the reflection of the graph of

{x x Î , x ¹ 0} and the range is


y = f (x) in the straight line y = x.
1
x
O1 2 3 4 5

{ y y ∈ , y ≠ 3}. y
=
x

h(x) = 3 +
2
x
The point of intersection of the graphs
of y = f (x) and y = f  −1(x) is the same as
3
the point of intersection of the curve y
x
= f  −1(x) = x2 − 4x + 5 and the straight

2
3
O
line y = x.
y = x2 − 4x + 5 ... 1
y = x... 2

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x2 − 4x + 5 = x 12 (a) y

x2 − 5x + 5 = 0
x = −(−5) ± (−5) − 4(1)(5)
2

2(1)
5± 5 1
x=
2 x
x = 1.38 or 3.62 0

x = 1.38 is not accepted


 x = 3.62 As seen from the graph, f is not a
 y = x = 3.62 one-to-one function. Therefore, f has
Hence, the required point of no inverse.
intersection is (3.62, 3.62). (b) k = 0
11 (a) The graph of y = f (x) = x2 − 3x is as (c) Let f −1 ( x ) = a ⇒ f ( a ) = x
shown below. 1 a
y 2
( e + e-a ) = x
e a + e -a = 2x
y = f(x) = x 2 − 3x
e 2 a - 2 xe a + 1 = 0
x
O 3
2x ± 4x2 - 4
ea =
2
(112 , −2 14 )
ea = x + x2 - 1
f  −1 does not exist because f is not a a = ln é x + x 2 - 1 ù
ë û
one-to-one function.
(b) In order for f −1 to exist, the domain f -1 ( x ) = ln é x + x 2 - 1 ù ,
ë û
of f must be restricted to only
xP , x  1
5x | x  1 1 , x P  .
2 6 e − e−x e2x − 1
x
13 (a) f ( x ) = = ,
Let y = f  −1(x) ex + e−x e2x + 1
f (y) = x as x → −∞, f ( x ) → −1
y2 − 3y = x
y2 − 3y − x = 0 e x − e − x 1 − e −2 x
f (x) = = ,
−(−3) + (−3)2 − 4(1)(−x) e x + e − x 1 + e −2 x
y=
2(1) as x → ∞, f ( x ) → 1
3 + 9 + 4x Range of f = { y | –1 < y < 1}
y=
2 (b) y

3 + 9 + 4x
[ f -1(x) =
2 1

The domain of f  −1 is the same as 0

the –1

range of f, i.e.

5
 x | x  -2 1 , x P  .
4 6 
As seen from the graph, f is a one-
to-one function. Therefore f has an
inverse.

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éa + 2 a + 1ù
-1
(c) Let f ( x ) = a Þ f ( a ) = x Range of g  f is ê
, ..
ë 3 2 úû
ea - e-a
=x ( x − 1) + a + 1
2

ea + e-a h( x ) = ,0 < x <1


( x − 1) + 2
2
e2a - 1
=x
e2a + 1 a -1
h( x ) = 1 +
e 2 a - 1 = xe 2 a + x ( x - 1)2 + 2
(1 - x ) e 2 a = 1 + x For x2 > x1 , h( x2 ) > h( x1 ).
1+ x Hence, h is an increasing function.
e2a =
Since ( x - 1)  0"x, both ( x - 1) +
2 2
1- x
a + 1 and ( x - 1) + 2 > 0 "x .
2
1 1+ x
a = ln
2 1- x
( ) So h(x) > 0 "x . Hence h is an increasing
1 1+ x function.
f - 1 ( x ) = ln
2 1- x
, ( ) y

15 (a)
x P , −1 < x < 1
y
14  (1, 3)
MATHS FILE
x Only one-to-one
0
2
function has an
y = f(x) y = ff–1(x) inverse.
1

f ( x ) = x - 2 x + 3
2
y = f–1(x)

= ( x - 1) - 1 + 3
2
0 1 2
x

Range of f, Rf is [1,2] and domain of g, = ( x - 1) + 3
2

Dg is [0,3]. f is not a one-to-one function.


As Rf ⊆ Dg , the composite function g  f  For f -1 to exist, f must be a one-to-
exists. one function.
The greatest value of k is 1.
g  f ( x ) = g( x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) -1
Let f ( x ) = a,
x2 − 2x + 2 + a f ( a ) = x,
=
x2 − 2x + 2 + 1
( a - 1)2 + 2 = x,
( x − 1) + a + 1
2

= a =1± x - 2
( x − 1) + 2
2
By inspection, a = 1 - x - 2 ,
Domain of g  f is the same as the
∈ , ,xx 2 2
∴ f -1 ( x ) = 1 - x - 2 , x P
domain of f, that is 0 < x < 1.
(b) Range of f, Rf is [3, ∞] and domain
( 0 - 1) + a + 1 a + 2
2

gf ( 0 ) = = ; of g, Dg is [1, ∞].
( 0 - 1) + 2
2
3
As Rf ⊆ Dg , the composite function
(1 - 1) + a + 1 a + 1
2
g  f exists.
gf (1) = =
(1 - 1) + 2
2
2

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(c) g  f ( x ) = g ( x 2 − 2 x + 3 )
17 4 x 2 - 3x - 7

= ln ( x 2 − 2 x + 3 ) − 1
2
)
x + 5 4 x - 3x + 13x 2 + 30 x + 9
4x 4
4 3

+ 20 x 2
-3x3 - 7 x 2 + 30 x
= ln ( x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) -3x3 -15x
-7 x + 45x + 9
2

= ln ( x − 1) + 1
2
  -7 x 2 - 35
45x + 44
∴ g ° f(x) = ln∙(x − 1)2 + 1∙, x e ,x 1
Remainder is 45x + 44
Range of g  f is { y | y 0}. 18 Let p(x) = (x – 1)(x + 1)q(x) + ax + b,
where a and b are real numbers.
16 (a)  y
Given p(1) = 4 Þ a + b = 4 ... 1
and p(–1) = –2 Þ a – b = – 2 ... 2
g –1( x) 2
1 + 2
g( x) 1 2a = 2, a = 1, MATHS FILE
In2
x
b=3 When p(x) is divided by
0 2
In2 1 quadratic expression,
Therefore,
the remainder is ax + b.
remainder is
x + 3.
−1
Let g ( x ) = a, MATHS FILE
19 Since (x − 2) is a factor of p(x) = qx3 −
Since g is a one-
g( a ) = x, to-one function, rx2 + x − 2,
ln( 2 − a ) = x, g-1 exists. p(2) = 0
  q(2) − r(2) + 2 − 2 = 0
3 2
2 − a = ex , 8q − 4r = 0
a = 2 − ex 2q − r = 0 ... 1
∴ g –1 ( x ) = 2 – e x , x ∊
p(x) has a remainder of −12 when it is
P .
divided by (x + 1).
−1
Range of g ( x ) is { y | y < 2} p(−1) = −12
The graph of g–1 is the reflection of the q(−1) − r(−1) − 1 − 2 = 0
3 2

graph of g in the straight line y = x. −q − r = 3 ... 2


1 − 2:
(b) gh( x ) = g ( )
3 − x = ln 2 − 3 − x  2q − r = 0
− −q − r = 3
∴ gh( x ) = ln [2 – 3 – x ] , –1 < x  3   3q = −3

  q = -1
Range of gh is { y | y < ln 2} From 1 , 2(−1) − r = 0
r = -2
(c) Take note that g(x) = ln(2 – x),  p(x) = −x + 2x + x − 2
3 2

g(x – 1) = ln[2 –( x – 1)] = ln(3 – x)


20 Since q(x) is divisible by x2 + x − 6 =
∴ 3 – ln(3 – x ) = hg( x – 1) (x −2)(x + 3), then it is also divisible by
(x − 2) and (x + 3).

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q(2) = 0 p(−2) = [2 × (−2) − 1](0)q(x) + (−2a + b)
m(2)3 − 5(2)2 + k(2) + 54 = 0 = −1 −2a + b = −1... 2
8m + 2k = −34 Solving 1 and 2 , a = 1, b = 1.
4m + k = −17... 1 Hence, the remainder when p(x) is
q(−3) = 0 divided by 2x2 + 3x − 2 is ax + b = x + 1.
m(−3)3 − 5(−3)2 + k(−3) + 54 = 0
23 x3 + x − 2
−27m − 3k = −9 x2 − 4 2 x5 − 3x3 − 2x2 − 4x + 8
9m + k = 3 ... 2 x5 − 4x3
2 − 1 : 5m = 20 ⇒ m = 4 x3 − 2x2 − 4x + 8
From 1 , 4(4) + k = −17 ⇒ k = -33 x3 − 4x
− 2x
2
+8
21 Since (x + 2) is a factor of p(x), then − 2x2 +8
 p(−2) = 0 0
(−2)3 + 4(−2)2 − h(−2) + k = 0 The remainder is 0.
2h + k = −8 Since the remainder is 0, (x2 − 4) is a
 k = −2h − 8... 1 factor of p(x).
When p(x) is divided by (x − h), the  p(x) = (x2 − 4)(x3 + x − 2)
remainder is h3. Let q(x) = x3 + x − 2.
p(h) = h3 If x = 1, q(x) = 13 + 1 − 2 = 0
h3 + 4h2 − h2 + k = h3  (x − 1) is a factor of q(x).
3h2 + k = 0 ... 2  p(x) = (x2 − 4)(x − 1)(x2 + x + 2)
Substituting 1 into 2 , When p(x) = 0,
3h2 − 2h − 8 = 0 x2 − 4 = 0  or  x − 1 = 0  or  x2 + x + 2 = 0
(3h + 4)(h − 2) = 0 x = ± 2, x = 1,
x + x + 2 = 0 has no real solutions
2

h = - 4 or 2 because
3
b2 − 4ac = 12 − 4(1)(2) = −7 (< 0)

3 3 1 2
When h = − 4 , k = −2 − 4 − 8 = - 16
3
The roots of p(x) are ±2 and 1.
24 (a) x2 − 1 = (x − 1)(x + 1)
When h = 2, k = −2(2) − 8 = -12 p(1) = 12n − (m + 2)(1)2 + m + 1
=1−m−2+m+1=0
22 When a polynomial p(x) of degree n  2 Thus, (x − 1) is a factor of p(x).
is divided by 2x2 + 3x − 2 = (2x − 1)(x + p(−1) = (−1)2n − (m + 2)(−1)2 + m + 1
2), the remainder is an expression in the =1−m−2+m+1=0
form ax + b, where a and b are constants. Thus, (x + 1) is a factor of p(x).
i.e. p(x) = (2x − 1)(x + 2)q(x) + (ax + b) Since (x − 1) and (x + 1) are factors of
When p(x) is divided by (2x − 1), the p(x), then (x − 1)(x + 1) = x2 − 1 is a
remainder is 3 . factor of p(x).
2
(b) When m = 8,
p 1 2
1
2 2 1 2
= (0) + 2 q(x) + 1 a + b = 3
1
2 2 p(x) = x2n − (8 + 2)x2 + 8 + 1
a + 2b = 3... 1 = x2n − 10x2 + 9
When p(x) is divided by (x + 2), the Since (x − 3) is a factor, then
remainder is −1. p(3) = 0
32n − 10(3)2 + 9 = 0

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32n = 81 Therefore, ( x − 1) is another factor of
32n = 34 p(x).
2n = 4
x2 - 4
n=2
Hence, p(x) = x 4 − 10x2 + 9 )
x - 1 x - x2 - 4x + 4
3

  = (x2 − 9)(x2 − 1) (
- x3 - x 2 )
= (x + 3)(x - 3)(x + 1)(x - 1) - 4x + 4
25 (a) p ( x ) = x + ax − 7 x − 4 ax + b
4 3 2
- ( -4 x + 4 )
Since x + 3 is a factor of p(x), 0
p(−3) = 0 Hence,
( −3)4 + a ( −3)3 − 7 ( −3)2 − 4a ( −3) + b = 0 p ( x ) = ( x + 3) ( x − 1) x 2 − 4( )
81 − 27a − 63 + 12a + b = 0 = ( x + 3)( x - 1)( x + 2)( x - 2)
−15a + b = −18 ... 1
When p(x) is divided by ( x − 3) , the 26 (a) p ( x ) = 2 x + 4 x +
3 2 1
x−k
remainder is 60. 2
Therefore, p (3) = 60 Since ( x + 1) is a factor of p(x), then
p ( −1) = 0
34 + a (3) − 7 (3) − 4 a (3) + b = 60
3 2

1
2( -1) + 4 ( -1) + ( -1) - k = 0
3 2
81 + 27a − 63 − 12a + b = 60  2

15a + b = 42 ... 1 1
-2 + 4 - - k = 0
1 + 2 , 2b = 24 2
b = 12 3
From 1 , -15a + 12 = -18 -k=0
2
a=2
3
∴ p( x ) = x + 2 x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 12
4 3
k=
2
x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 1 3
(b) p ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + x −
)
(b) x + 3 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 12 2 2
(
− x 4 + 3x 3 ) 2x2 + 2x −
3

)
2
− x − 7x2
3
1 3
x + 1 2 x3 + 4 x 2 + x −
(
− − x 3 − 3x 2 ) 2 2
− 4 x 2 − 8x (
− 2x + 2x
3 2
)
(
− −4 x 2 − 12 x ) 1
2x2 +
2
x
4 x + 12
(
− 2x2 + 2x )
− ( 4 x + 12)
3 3
0 −x−

 
2 2
3 3
Let f ( x ) = x 3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 − − x−
2 2
f (1) = 1 − 1 − 4 (1) + 4 = 0
3 2
0

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Hence,
(
p ( x ) = ( x + 2) ( x − 2) 6 x 2 − 7 x − 3 )

p( x ) = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 2 x −
3
2
 = ( x + 2)( x - 2)(2 x - 3)( 3 x + 1)

= ( x + 1)  4x2 + 4x − 3
2
 (b) p ( x ) = ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ( 2 x − 3) (3 x + 1)

= ( 2 x − 3)( x + 2)( x − 2)(3 x + 1) 


1
= ( x + 1)(2 x + 3)(2 x - 1)
2 (
= ( 2 x − 3)  x 2 − 4 (3 x + 1) )
27 (a) Since ( x + 2) is a factor, then
(
= ( 2 x − 3) 3 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x − 4 )
p ( −2) = 0
= ( 2 x − 3) (3 x 3 − 41 + 37
 +x
2

 12x )
6 ( −2) − a ( −2) − b ( −2) +
4 3 2
q( x )
28 ( −2) + 12 = 0 q ( x ) = x 2 - 12 x + 37
96 + 8a − 4b − 56 + 12 = 0 = x 2 - 12 x + ( -6 ) - ( -6 ) + 37
2 2

8a − 4b = −52
= ( x - 6) + 1
2

2a − b = −13  ... 1
Since ( x − 2) is a factor, then 28 By carrying out long division x 2 + x + 3
p ( 2) = 0 x2 + x + 3
6 ( 2) − a ( 2) − b ( 2) +
4 3 2
)
x 2 - 4 x 4 + x3 - x 2 - 2 x - 17
x4 - 4x2
28 ( 2) + 12 = 0 x + 3x 2 - 2 x
3

x3 - 4x
96 − 8a − 4b + 56 + 12 = 0
3x 2 + 2 x - 17
−8a − 4b = −164 3x 2 - 12
2a + b = 41  ... 2 2x - 5
1 + 2: 4 a = 28 ∴ p( x ) = ( x 2 – 4)( x 2 + x + 3) + (2 x – 5)

a= 7
2
(a) q( x ) = x + x + 3
From 1 , 2( 7 ) - b = -13 2 2
1 1
b = 27
p ( x ) = ( x + 2) ( x − 2) g ( x )
= x+
2 ( ) () –
2
+3
2
1 11
6x2 − 7x − 3 = x+ ( ) +
)
x − 4 6 x − 7 x − 27 x 2 + 28 x + 12
2 4 3 2 4

(−)6x4 − 24 x 2 1
2

− 7 x 3 − 3x 2 + 28 x + 12
Since x +
2( )
 0 ∀ x.

∴ q( x ) > 0∀ x
( − ) − 7x3 + 28 x
(b) p(x) < 2x – 5
− 3x 2 + 12
( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + x + 3)
( − ) − 3x 2 + 12
+ ( 2x − 5) − ( 2x − 5 ) < 0
0
( x 2 - 4 )( x 2 + x + 3) < 0

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As q(x) > 0, x 2 – 4 < 0 Letting x = −1, 8 = A + (−B + C)(−2)
Solution set is {x | –2 < x < 2, x P } 8 = 2 + (−B − 1)(−2)
8 = 2 + 2B + 2
29 (a) p( x ) = ax + bx + 2 x - 2
4 2
2B = 4
p(1) = 0 ⇒ a + b = 0 ... 1 B=2
p(2) = – 10 ⇒ 4a + b = –3 ... 2 4x2 − x + 3
+ 2x - 1
2
 ≡
2 – 1 : 3a = –3 x3 − 1 x - 1 x2 + x + 1
a = –1 31 Since the remainders when p(x) is divided
b=1 by (x + 1) is 0, p(−1) = 0.
(b) p( x ) = - x + x + 2 x - 2
4 2
p(−1) = 0
= ( x - 1) ( - x3 - x 2 + 2 ) (−1)3 + m(−1)2 + 15(−1) + k = 0
−1 + m − 15 + k = 0
        = - ( x - 1 ) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)
2
m + k = 16 … 1
(c) Quadratic factor is – (x2 + 2x + 2) Since the remainders when p(x) is divided
(i)  - ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = - é( x + 1) + 1ù by (x + 2) is − 4, p(−2) = − 4.
2

ë û p(−2) = − 4
< 0" x (−2)3 + m(−2)2 + 15(−2) + k = − 4
(ii) Maximum value is –1 when −8 + 4m − 30 + k = − 4
x = –1 4m + k = 34 … 2
(d) p( x ) > ( x - 1) (1 - 6 x )
2 − :
2 1 3m = 18 ⇒ m = 6
From 1 : 6 + k = 16 ⇒ k = 10
– ( x − 1)2 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) > ( x − 1)2
(1 − 6 x )  p(x) = x3 + 6x2 + 15x + 10
Since the remainders when p(x) is divided
( x − 1)
2
(x 2
+ 2 x + 2 ) + ( x − 1)
2
by (x + 1) is 0, (x + 1) is a factor of p(x).
(1 − 6 x ) < 0 x2 + 5x + 10
x + 12 x + 6x2 + 15x + 10
3
( x - 1) éë x 2 + 2x + 2 + (1 - 6x )ùû < 0
2

x3 + x2
( x - 1) ( x 2 - 4x + 3) < 0 5x2 + 15x
2

5x2 + 5x
( x - 1) ( x - 1)( x - 3) < 0
2
10x + 10
( x - 1) ( x - 3) < 0 10x + 10
3

0
Î }
Solution set is {x | 1 < x < 3, x P
 p(x) = (x + 1)(x2 + 5x + 10)
4x2 − x + 3 x+7 x+7
30 4x 3− x + 3 ≡
2

x −1 (x − 1)(x2 + x + 1) p(x) (x + 1)(x2 + 5x + 10)
Bx + C
A Bx + C ≡ A + 2
≡ + x + 1 x + 5x + 10
x − 1 x2 + x + 1 x + 7 ≡ A(x2 + 5x + 10) + (Bx + C) (x + 1)
4x2 − x + 3 ≡ A(x2 + x + 1) + (Bx + C) Letting x = −1, 6 = 6A ⇒ A = 1
(x − 1)
Letting x = 0, 7 = 10A + C
Letting x = 1, 6 = 3A ⇒ A = 2
7 = 10(1) + C
Letting x = 0, 3 = A + C(−1)
3=2−C C = −3
C = −1 Letting x = 1, 8 = 16A + 2B + 2C
8 = 16(1) + 2B + 2(−3)

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2B = −2 x2 − 6x + 5
0
B = −1 x
x+7 (x − 1)(x − 5)
 x 0
(x + 1)(x2 + 5x + 10)
− − − +
−x − 3
≡ 1 + 2
x−5 0

x+1 x + 5x + 10 − − + + x−1 0

≡ 1 − 2 x+3 − + + +
x  0
x + 1 x + 5x + 10 x
− 0 + 1 − 5 +
32 −16  x3 − 4x2 + 4x − 16  0
When     −16  x3 − 4x2 + 4x − 16, The required set of values of x is
x3 − 4x2 + 4x  0 {x | x < 0 or 1  x  5}.
x(x2 − 4x + 4)  0
x(x − 2)2  0 We write ‘<’ and not
‘’ because x ≠ 0.
Since (x − 2)2  0,
in order that x(x − 2)2  0, then x  0
… 1 34 x −x 3 < 4
When x3 − 4x2 + 4x − 16  0, |x|
<4
we let f (x) = x3 − 4x2 + 4x − 16. |x − 3|
f (4) = 43 − 4(4)2 + 4(4) − 16 = 0 |x| < 4|x − 3|
Thus, (x − 4) is a factor of f (x). x2 < 16(x − 3)2
x2 < 16x2 − 96x + 144
x2 + 4
0 < 15x2 − 96x + 144
x − 42 x − 4x2 + 4x − 16
3
0 < 5x2 − 32x + 48
x3 − 4x2
0 < (x − 4)(5x − 12)
4x − 16
4x − 16 − + +
5x − 12  0
0
− − +
x−4 0
x − 4x + 4x − 16  0
3 2
x
   (x − 4)(x2 + 4)  0 + 12 − 4 +
5
Since x2 + 4 > 0, ∀ x,
in order that (x − 4)(x2 + 4)  0, then Hence, the required set of values of x is
x − 4  0 ⇒ x  4 …2 5
x | x < 12 or x > 4 .
5 6
Combining 1 and ,
2
the required set of values of x is Alternative method
{x | 0  x  4}. − 4 < x < 4
x−3
3x − 5 For the left-end For the right-end
33 x−3 inequality, inequality,
x
3x − 5
−x+30 − 4 < x x <4
x x−3 x−3
3x − 5 − x2 + 3x x + 4 0 x −4<0
0 >
x x−3 x−3
−x2 + 6x − 5 x 4(x − 3) x − 4(x − 3)
0 + > 0 <0
x x−3 x−3

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x 4x − 12 −3x + 12 The x-coordinate of point A is
+ > 0 <0
x−3 x−3 −3 + 5
        x = .
5x − 12 3(−x + 4) 2
> 0 <0
x−3 x−3 Based on the graphs, the solution set of x
for which |x + 2| > 1 is
− − +
x−30 + + − x+1
−x + 4  0
-3 + 5
− + +
5x − 12  0
x
− + +
x−30 5
x | x < -1 or x >
2
. 6
x
12 3 3 4
+ − + − + −
5
This is the set of values of x where the
graph of y = |x + 2| is above the graph of
 x < 12 or x > 3 …1 1
5 y= .
x+1
 x < 3 or x > 4 …2
Combining 1 and 2 :
x < 3 or x > 4
36 y

x < 12 or x > 3
5 y=x−1
x
12 3 4 y = −x − 1 y= x +1
A
5 1
x
The required set of values of x is −1 O 1 3
−1
5
x | x < 12 or x > 4 .
5 6
1 To determine the x-coordinate of point
35 The graphs of y = |x + 2| and y = is
x + 1 A, solve
as shown below.
y
        y = x − 1 …1
        y = x + 1 … 2
y=x+2
y = −x − 2
2
Substituting 1 into 2 ,
A y= 1
x+1 x−1= x+1
x
−2 −1 O (x − 1)2 = x + 1
x2 − 2x + 1 = x + 1
x2 − 3x = 0
x(x − 3) = 0
y = x + 2 …1 Thus, the x-coordinate of point A is x = 3.
1 The part of the x-axis where the graph of
y= … 2 y = x + 1 is above the graph of
x+1
Substituting 1 into 2 , y = |x| − 1 is −1  x  3.
Hence, the required set of values of x is
     x + 2 = 1
x+1 {x | -1  x  3}.
x2 + 3x + 2 = 1
x2 + 3x + 1 = 0 37 p(x) = 2x3 + hx2 + kx + 36
−3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) Since (x − 3) is a factor, then
        x = p(3) = 0
2(1)
−3 ± 5 2(3)3 + h(3)2 + k(3) + 36 = 0
        x = 9h + 3k = −90
2

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3h + k = −30… 1 9p − 3q = 33
p(x) = (x + 2) f (x) − 30 means that the 3p − q = 11 …2
remainder when p(x) is divided by (x + 2)          p − 2q = −23… 1
is −30.         −6p − 2q = 22 …2 ×2
p(−2) = −30         −5p     = − 45
2(−2)3 + h(−2)2 + k(−2) + 36 = −30          p       = 9
4h − 2k = −50 From 1 : 9 − 2q = −23 ⇒ q = 16
2h − k = −25… 2
1 + 2 : 5h = −55 ⇒ h = -11  p(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 16x + 6
From 1 : 3(−11) + k = −30 x2 + 4x + 6
k=3 2x + 12 2x + 9x2 + 16x + 6
3

Therefore, p(x) = 2x − 11x2 + 3x + 36.


3
2x3 + x2
2x2 − 5x − 12 8x2 + 16x
x − 32 2x − 11x2 + 3x + 36
3
8x2 + 4x
2x3 − 6x2 12x + 6
−5x2 + 3x 12x + 6
−5x2 + 15x 0
−12x + 36
−12x + 36 Let q(x) = x + 4x + 6
2
2 2
0
2 12 12
= x2 + 4x + 4 − 4 + 6
2
Therefore, p(x) = (x − 3)(2x2 − 5x − 12)
= (x + 2)2 + 2 [> 0] [Shown]
= (x - 3)(2x + 3)(x - 4)
p(x) = (2x + 1)(x2 + 4x + 6)
Since x2 + 4x + 6 is positive for all real
x
values of x, then p(x) < 0 only if
−3 3 4
2 2x + 1 < 0 ⇒ x < − 1.
2
The sets of values of x such that p(x)  0
5
Hence, the solution set is x | x < - 1 .
2 6
5
is x | - 3  x  3 or x  4 .
2 6
1
38 p(x) = 2x3 + px2 + qx + 6 39 Sketch the graphs of y = x − 2 and y = .
x
Since (2x + 1) is a factor of p(x), then y

2 1 2
p − 1 = 0
y=
1
3 2 x

1 2
1 1
1 2
 2 −  + p −  + q −  + 6 = 0
2 2
1
2 1 2 y = −x + 2
2 y=x−2
1 1 1
−  +  p −  q + 6 = 0 P
4 4 2 Q
− 1 + p − 2q + 24 = 0 O
x
1 2
p − 2q = −23… 1 1
y=
When p(x) is divided by (x + 3), the x 1+ 2

remainder is −15.
p(−3) = −15
2(−3) + p(−3) + q(−3) + 6 = −15
3 2

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To determine the x-coordinates of the
points of intersection of the graphs of x− 2 <
1
x
{
is x | 0 < x < 1 + 2 , x ≠ 1 . }
1
y = x − 2 and y = , solve the following
x
This is the range of values of x where
simultaneous equations.
the graph of y = |x − 2| is below the
Case 1 (for point P) 1
graph of y = .
x
1
y= ... 1
x 4
40 y =
y = − x + 2 ... 2 x −1
 4
Substituting 1 into 2 :  x − 1, x > 1.

 
1 y=
= −x + 2
x  − 4 , x < 1.
 x − 1
1 = − x2 + 2x
x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 As y → ±∞, x − 1 → 0
x →1
( x − 1)2 = 0
x =1 Thus, x = 1 is the asymptote.
As x → ±∞ , y → 0.
Case 2 (for point Q)
3
1 y = 3−
y= ... 1 x
x
As y → ±∞ , x → 0.
y = x −2 ... 3 Thus, x = 0 (the y-axis) is the asymptote.
Substituting 1 into 3 : As x → ±∞ , y → 3.
1 Thus, y = 3 is the asymptote.
= x−2
x y

1 = x − 2x
2
4
y=
x−1
x − 2x − 1 = 0
2

− ( −2) ± ( −2)2 − 4 (1) ( −1) 3


y=3−
x
x=
2 (1) 4

3 A 3
2± 8 2±2 2 y=−
4 y=3−
= = x−1 x
2 2
= 1± 2 x
O 1 3

x = 1 − 2 is not accepted because x must


be positive.
∴ x = 1+ 2 The x-coordinate of point A is obtained
by solving the following equations
Hence, the solution set for the inequality simultaneously.

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42 (a) p( x ) = ax + x + bx + 4
4 2
4
y=  ... 1
x −1 p( −2 ) = −16 ⇒ a( −2 )4
3 +( −2 )2 + b( −2 ) + 4 = −16,
y = 3−  ... 2
x 8a - b = -12  ... 1

4 3 p(1) = 8 Þ a(1) + (1) + b(1) + 4 = 8,
4 3

= 3− x
x −1 a+b=3 ... 2
4 3x − 3 1 + 2 : 9a = –9
= x a = – 1, b = 4
x −1
∴ p( x ) = – x 4 + x 2 + 4x + 4
(3x − 3) ( x − 1) = 4 x
(b) By using factor theorem,
3x 2 − 6 x + 3 − 4 x = 0
p( −1) = −( −1)4 + ( −1)2 + 4( −1) + 4 = 0
3 x 2 − 10 x + 3 = 0
⇒ (x + 1) is a factor of p(x).
(3x − 1) ( x − 3) = 0
p( 2 ) = −( 2 )4 + ( 2 )2 + 4( 2 ) + 4 = 0
1
x = or 3 ⇒ (x – 2) is a factor of p(x).
3
p(x) = (x + 1)(x – 2)q(x), where q(x)
1 is a quadratic factor.
x= is not accepted.
3 p(x) = (x2 – x – 2)(– x2 + cx –2)
Thus, x = 3 Compare the coefficient of
x : 2 – 2c = 4,
The solution set for which c = –1
4 3 q(x) = - x - x - 2
2
> 3 − is given by the part of
x −1 x (c) q(x) = - x 2 - x - 2
4
the graph where the curve y =
x −1  2
1 1
2

−( x + x + 2 ) = −  x +  −   + 2 
2

3  2 2 
is above the curve y = 3 − , that is
x  1  7
2
{x | 0 < x < 1 or 1 < x < 3}. = −  x +  + 
 2  4 
2
1 7
41
x

x+1 x+1
1 As x + ( 2
)
+ > 0∀x, ∴q( x ) is
4
x 1 always negative for all real values
− − +
− 0 x−1⩾0 of x.
x+1 x+1 − + + (d) p(x) > 0 becomes (x + 1)(x – 2) < 0
x+1>0
x−1 since q (x) < 0.
0 −1 − 1
x
x+1 + + Solution set is { x | -1 < x < 2, xx∈P} }
Hence, the required set of values of x is 43 p(x) = 2 x3 + 9x 2 + 16 x + 6.
{x | x < −1 or x  1}
Let 2x + 1 = 0, MATHS FILE
1 If (x + a) is a
x=– factor of p(x),
2
then f(–a) = 0.

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 1  1  1
3 2
x+3
p −  = 2 −  + 9 −  =
 2  2  2 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 )( x + 3)
 1 1
+ 16  −  + 6. =

 2 ( 2 x + 1)( x − 2 )
1 9 1 h k
= - + -8+6 = 0 º +
4 4 ( 2 x + 1)( x - 2 ) 2 x + 1 x - 2

∴ (2x + 1) is a factor of p(x).
1 º h( x - 2 ) + k ( 2 x + 1)
p(x) = 2 x3 + 9x 2 + 16 x + 6.
Substitute x = 2,1 = k ( 4 + 1)
= ( 2 x + 1) ( x + ax + 6 )
2
1
k=
Comparing the coefficient of x : 16 5
= a + 12, a = 4 1 æ 5ö
Quadratic factor of p(x) is ( x + 4 x + 6 ) Substitute x = - , 1 = ç - ÷
2
2 è 2ø
2
( x + 2 ) − 22 + 6
2
h=-
5
= ( x + 2 ) + 2 > 0∀x.
2
x+3 1 2
º- -
p(x) < 0 becomes ( 2 x + 1) < 0 since
p( x ) 5( x - 2) 5(2 x + 1)

(x 2
+ 4 x + 6 ) > 0. (d) p(x) > 4x(x – 2)(x +3)
(2x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 3) > 4x(x – 2)(x +3)
2x + 1 < 0 ,
(2x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 3) – 4x(x – 2)(x
1
x<- +3) > 0
2
(2x + 1 – 4x)(x – 2) (x + 3) > 0
1 (1 – 2x)(x – 2)(x + 3) > 0
Solution set is {x | x < - , x P }
2 Solution set is
44 (a) p(x) = (2x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 3) 1
{x | x < – 3, < x < 2, x Œ  }
2

( 2x + 1) ( x 2 + x − 6 )
= 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 12 x + x 2 + x − 6 STRATEGY
Do not simplify the
= 2 x 3 + 3 x 2 - 11 x - 6 common factors

(b) (x – 3) is a factor of p(x) + ax 45


⇒ p(3) +3a = 0 y
y = 2(x – 3)
(6 + 1)(3 – 2)(3 + 3) + 3a = 0, y = –2x + 6
a = – 14 y = –x – 3
B
y=x+3

x+3
(c) 6 A
p( x ) 3
STRATEGY
x
Simplify the expression –3 0 3
before expressing in partial
fractions.
To find the x-coordinate of B, solve
equations y = x + 3 and y = 2(x – 3).

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(c) y
STRATEGY

y= x+3 = { x + 3, x > -3
- ( x + 3 ), x < -3

y = 2 x-3 = { 2 ( x - 3 ), x > 3
-2 ( x - 3 ), x < 3
−1 O
x

y = −ln (−x)

2x – 6 = x + 3, x = 9
1
To find the x-coordinates of A, solve − 
48 x 2
+ 2x−1 = 15
equations y = x + 3 and y = – 2(x – 3). 1 2
+ 2 1x 2
1
−  − 
x + 3 = 6 – 2x, x = 1  x 2 2
= 15
1 − 
1
Inequality x + 3 > x - 3 becomes Let x =u 2
2
u + 2u2 = 15
|x + 3| > 2|x – 3|
2u2 + u − 15 = 0
Referring to the graph, solution set is
(2u − 5)(u + 3) = 0
{x | 1 < x < 9, x Œ  }
u = 5 or u = −3
46 y 2
When u = 5, When u = −3,
2
1 1
x = 5
−  − 
y = e −x
2 y = 2e − x 2
x 2 = −3
1 2
x 2
[Not possible because
−1 O
−2
x−1 = 5
2 12
− 
1
x 2 > 0 for all real
y = −e −x − 1
1 = 25 values of x.]
y = −e −x x 4
x= 4
25
47 (a) y

49 8x + 6(8−x) = 5
y = |ln x| 8x + 6x = 5
8
x
O 1 Let 8x = u
u+ 6 =5
u
u2 + 6 = 5u
(b) y
u2 − 5u + 6 = 0
(u − 2)(u − 3) = 0
y = ln (−x) y = ln x
u = 2 or u=3
x
8 = 2
x
8x = 3
−1 O 1 2 =2
3x 1
x lg 8 = lg 3

3x = 1 x = lg 3
lg 8
x = 1 x = 0.528
3

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50 log2 x − logx 8 + 2log2  h + h logx 4 = 0 2
52 Simplify first.
log2 8 log2 4 log 2 a
log2 x −
log2 x
+ h + h  1
log2 x
=02
2 2
=
log2 23 log2 22 log 2 a 1
y−
y
+ h + h 
y 1 =0 2 log a 2
y−3+h+h 2 =0
y y 12 = 2 log a 2

y − 3 + hy + 2h = 0
2 = log a 22
= log a 4
y 2 + hy + 2h - 3 = 0
[Shown] 2
log − 44 aa )) +
log a ((33 xx − + log = 2
log a 33 xx =
a a log
log 22 aa
1 2
When h = − 1, y 2 − 1 y + 2 − 1 − 3 = 0
− 22aa ))
log a ((11 −
4 4 4 +
+ log a
4y − y − 14 = 0
2
log − 44 aa )) +
log aa ((33 xx − log aa 33 xx =
+ log log aa 44
= log
(4y + 7)(y − 2) = 0
+ log
+ − 22aa ))
log a ((11 −
y = − 7 or 2
a

4 log aa 33 xx ((33 xx −
log − 44 aa )) = log aa 44 ((11 −
= log − 22aa ))
− 44 aa )) =
33 xx ((33 xx − − 22aa ))
= 44 ((11 −
Given y = log2 x, then x = 2y.
7
− 
When y = − 7, x = 2 4 = 0.297. 99 xx 2 −
2
− 12 ax +
12ax + 88aa −
− 44 =
= 00
4
When y = 2, x = 22 = 4. − ( −12a ) ± ( −12a)2 − 4 (9) (8a − 4)
x=
2 (9)
51 2 logc x − 3 logx c = 5
12a ± 144 a 2 − 288a + 144
logc c =
1
2 logc x − 3
logc x 2
=5 18
12a ± (12a − 12)2
2 logc x − 3 1 log1 x 2 = 5
c
=
18
12a ± (12a − 12)
Let logc x = u =
18
12
2u − 3 1 = 5
u =
24 a − 12
or
12
2u2 − 3 = 5u 18 18
4a − 2 2
2u2 − 5u − 3 = 0 = or
3 3
(2u + 1)(u − 3) = 0 1 4a − 2
For 0 < a < , x = is not accepted
u = − 1     or u=3 2 3
2 because when it is substituted into the
logc x = − 1 logc x = 3 given equation, it produces log a ( − ve )
2
1 which is undefined.
−  1
x = c 2 = x = c3 2
c ∴x =
3

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53 log a 
x
a2
= 3 log a 2 − log a ( x − 2a )
y
In the non-modulus form,
y = |sin x| is

0  x  p,


sin x,
y = sin x y = −sin x f (x) =
x −sin x, p  x  2p.
log a 2
= log a 23 − log a ( x − 2a ) 1
a
x
log a
a2

+ log a ( x − 2a ) = log a 8
O
p
2
p 3
2
p
2p
x


 x
 a
 ( 
log a  2 x − 2a ) = log a 8

The graph of y = sin x for
0 < x < 2p is as shown below.
x y
( x − 2a ) = 8
a2
x ( x − 2 a ) = 8a 2 1

x − 2ax − 8a = 0
2 2

( x + 2a ) ( x − 4 a ) = 0 O
p p
x
3 2p
x = −2a or 4 a 2 2
p

x = −2a (is not accepted) –1


∴ x = 4a

54 (9 - log 2 x ) log 2 x 8 = 2.
Hence, the function f (x) = |sin x| − sin
STRATEGY x in the non-modulus form is:

{
Use log with base 2
sin x − sin x, 0 < x < p
f (x) =
æ log 2 8 ö −sin x − sin x, p < x < 2p
(9 - log 2 x ) ç ÷ = 2.
  
æ
è log 2 2 x ø
log 2 23 ö
f (x) = {
0, 0 < x < p
-2 sin x, p < x < 2p
(9 + log 2 x ) ç ÷ = 2. (b) Hence, the graph of y = f (x) = |sin
è log 2 2 + log 2 x ø
x| − sin x for 0 < x < 2p is as shown
æ 3 ö below.
(9 - log 2 x ) ç ÷=2
è 1 + log 2 x ø y
  
3(9 - log x ) = 2 (1 + log 2 x )
  2 2
27 - 3 log 2 x = 2 + 2 log 2 x

   5 log 2 x = 25 y = f (x )

      log 2 x =5
∴ x = 25 O x
p p
       = 32 3
p
2p
2 2
55 (a) The graph of y = |sin x| is as shown
The range of f (x) is
below.
{y | 0 < y < 2, y P }.

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(c) By using the horizontal-line test, sin2 q
=
there are two intersection points sin q − sin q cos q
between the horizontal line and
1 − cos2 q
the graph of y = f (x) = |sin x| − sin =
sin q (1 − cos q)
x. Hence, f (x) is not a one-to-one
function. (1 + cos q)(1 − cos q)
=
y sin q (1 − cos q)
Two intersection points

2 = 1 + cos q
sin q
1 + cos q tan q
= ×
sin q tan q
y = f (x )
tan q + sin q
=
O
p p 2p
x sin θ tan q
3
p
2 2 = RHS
sin q tan q tan q + sin q
56 (a) LHS = cos4 q + sin2 q [  [Proven]
tan q - sin q sin q tan q
= 1cos2 q22 + sin2 q
= 11 − sin2 q22 + sin2 q 58 LHS = tan (P + Q) − tan P
= 1 − 2 sin2 q + sin4 q + sin2 q sin (P + Q) sin P
= sin4 q + 1 − sin2 q = −
cos (P + Q) cos P
= sin4 q + cos2 q
cos P sin (P + Q) − sin P cos (P + Q)
= RHS =
cos P cos (P + Q)
[ cos4 q + sin2 q  sin4 q + cos2 q
 [Proven] cos P (sin P cos Q + cos P sin Q) −
sin P (cos P cos Q − sin P sin Q)
(b) LHS = sin (q + a) + cos (q − a) =
= sin q cos a + cos q sin a + cos P cos (P + Q)
cos  q cos a + sin q sin a cos P sin P cos Q + cos2 P sin Q −
= sin q cos a + cos q cos a + sin P cos P cos Q + sin2 P sin Q
=
sin  q sin a + cos q sin a cos P cos (P + Q)
= cos a(sin q + cos q) + cos2 P sin Q + sin2 P sin Q
=
sin a(sin  q + cos q) cos P cos (P + Q)
= (sin q + cos q)(cos a + sin a)
sin Q (cos2 P + sin2 P)
= RHS =
cos P cos (P + Q)
[ sin (q + a) + cos(q - a)
sin Q ? (l)
 (sin q + cos q)(cos a + sin a) =
cos P cos (P + Q)
 [Proven]
sin Q
sin q tan q =
57 LHS = cos P cos (P + Q)
tan q − sin q
sin q = RHS
sin q  1cos q 2 \ tan (P + Q) – tan P
=
sin q sin Q
− sin q   [Proven]
cos q cos P cos (P + Q)

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+ sin C cos A cos B
=
cos A cos B cos C
cos C sin ( A + B ) + sin C cos A cos B
=
cos A cos B cos C
cos C sin (180° − C )
59 LHS = csc 2q − cot 2q + sin C cos A cos B
=
= 1 − cos 2q cos A cos B cos C
sin 2q sin 2q cos C sin C + sin C cos A cos B
=
1 − cos 2q cos A cos B cos C
=
sin 2q sin C (cos C + cos A cos B )
=
cos A cos B cos C
= 1 − (1 − 2 sin q)
2

sin 2q sin C{cos [180° − ( A + B )]


2 sin2 q + cos A cos B}
= =
2 sin q cos q cos A cos B cos C
sin q sin C{− cos ( A + B ) + cos Accos B}
= =
cos q cos A cos B cos C
sin C (sin A sin B − cos A cos B +
= tan q
cos A cos B )
= RHS =
cos A cos B cos C
[ csc 2q - cot 2q  tan q [Proven] sin A sin B sin C
=
tan 22.5° = csc 2(22.5°) − cot 2(22.5°) cos A cos B cos C

1 1
= tan A tan B tan C [Shown]
= −
sin 45° tan 45°
(b) sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2C
= 1 −1 = sin 2 A + sin 2C + sin 2 B
1 1
2

= 2 - 1[Shown]
= 2 sin 
2 A + 2C
2
cos  
2 A − 2C
2
+ 
sin 2 B
= 2 sin ( A + C ) cos ( A − C ) + sin 2 B
60 Since A, B and C are angles of a triangle,
then A + B + C = 180°. = 2 sin (180° − B ) cos ( A − C ) + sin 2 B
= 2 sin B cos ( A − C ) + sin 2 B
(a) tan A + tan B + tan C

= 2 sin B cos ( A − C ) + 2 sin B cos B
sin A sin B sin C = 2 sin B[cos ( A − C ) + cos B ]
= + +
cos A cos B cos C

=
sin A cos B cos C + sin B cos A cos C
+ sin C cos A cos B

= 2 sin B  2 cos


A−C + B
2

cos A cos B cos C
cos C (sin A cos B + sin B cos A) 
cos
A− B −C 
2



+ sin C cos A cos B
=
cos A cos B cos C
cos C sin ( A + B ) + sin C cos A cos B

= 2 sin B  2 cos


A+ B −C
2

=
cos A cos B cos C
cos C sin (180° − C ) 
cos
A−(B +C) 
2



 
+ sin C cos A cos B
=  180° − C − C
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cos A cos First
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B cos CFourth Edition = 2 sin B  2 cos
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© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. 2015 sin C cos A cos B
cos sin 2018
=

= 2 sin B  2 cos


A+ B −C
2

cos A−(B +C) 
2



 
62 cos 3x = cos2 x
 180° − C − C
= 2 sin B  2 cos 4 cos x − 3 cos x = cos2 x
3

 2 4 cos x − cos2 x − 3 cos x = 0


3

 
cos x (4 cos2 x − cos x − 3) = 0
A − (180° − A)  cos x (4 cos x + 3)(cos x − 1) = 0
cos 
2  cos x = 0, − 3 , 1

 
4
 180° − 2C When cos x = 0,
= 2 sin B  2 cos
 2 x = 90°, 270°

cos 
2 A − 180° 
2


 When cos x = − 3 ,
4
x = 138.6°, 221.4°
= 4 sin B cos ( 90° − C ) cos ( A − 90° )  When cos x = 1,
= 4 sin B [sin C sin A] x = 0°, 360°
= 4sin A sin B sinC [Shown ] [ x = 0°, 90°, 138.6°, 221.4°, 270°, 360°

1 p4 2 cos 1A + p4 2
61 (a) LHS = 2 sin A + 63 sin 3q + sin2 q = 2
p sin 3q = 3 sin q − 4 sin3 q
= sin 2 1A + 2
4
p (3 sin q − 4 sin3 q) + sin2 q − 2 = 0
= sin 12A + 2
2 4 sin3 q − sin2 q − 3 sin q + 2 = 0
p p (sin q + 1)(4 sin2 q − 5 sin q + 2) = 0
= sin 2A cos + cos 2A sin
2 2
= (sin 2A)(0) + (cos 2A)(1) sin q + 1 = 0 or 4 sin2 q − 5 sin q + 2 = 0
= cos 2A When sin q + 1 = 0
= RHS          sin q = −1
p p             q = 270°

\ 2 sin A +
4 + 
cos A +
4 + For 4 sin2 q − 5 sin q + 2 = 0, there are
; cos 2A [Proven] no real roots because b2 − 4ac = (−5)2 −
p p
(b) LHS = 2 cos B +

41 2
cos B −
4 1 2 4(4)(2) = −7 (< 0)
[ q = 270°
p p
1
= cos B + + B −
4 4
+ 2 4 sin2 q − 5 sin q + 2
p p sin q + 1 2 4 sin3 q − sin2 q − 3 sin q + 2
3
cos B + − B −
4 4 1 24 (−) 4 sin3 q + 4 sin2 q
p
= cos 2B + cos −5 sin2 q − 3 sin q
2
= cos 2B + 0 (−) −5 sin2 q − 5 sin q
= cos 2B
= RHS 2 sin q + 2
p p (−) 2 sin q + 2
\ 2 cos B + 4
cos B -+ 4  + 0
; cos 2B [Proven]

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64 tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2 x 5 3
cos A + cos A
sin x cos x 66 LHS = 2 2
+ = 8 cos 2 x 3 A
cos x sin x sin A + sin
2 2
sin 2 x + cos 2 x
sin x cos x
1
= 8 cos 2 x

=
2 cos
1
2
 5
2
3
A + A cos
2
 
1 5
2 2
3
A− A
2

   
= 8 cos 2 x
sin x cos x 1 3 1 1 3 1
2 sin A + A cos A− A
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= 8 cos 2 x
2 sin x cos x 1
2 cos 2 A cos A
2 = 2
= 8 cos 2 x 1
sin 2 x 2 sin A cos A
1 = 4 sin 2 x cos 2 x 2
cos 2 A
1 = 2 ( 2 sinn 2 x cos 2 x ) =
sin A
1 = 2 sin 4 x
cos 2 A − sin 2 A
1 =
sin 4 x = sin A
2 2
cos A sin 2 A
p If 0 < x < p, then = −
Basic ∠ = 0 < 4x < 4p sin A sin A
6
cos A
1 5 13 17 = cos A − sin A
4x = p , p , p , p sin A
6 6 6 6
= cot A cos A − sin A
1 5 13 17
x = p, p, p, p = RHS
24 24 24 24
5 3
65 sin 3 x sec x = 2 tan x cos A + cos A
∴ 2 2 ≡ cot A cos A - sin A

sin 2 x sin x  1
cos x
= 2 tan x
3
[Proven]
2
1
sin A + sin A
2
sin 2 x tan x = 2 tan x cos 2 A − 2 cos 4 A + cos 6 A
sin 2 x tan x − 2 tan x = 0 67 LHS =
cos 2 A + 2 cos 4 A + cos 6 A
(
tan x sin 2 x − 2 = 0 ) cos 6 A + cos 2 A − 2 cos 4 A
=
tan x = 0 or sin x = 2
2
cos 6 A + cos 2 A + 2 cos 4 A
When tan x = 0,
x = 0 or p
2 cos  6A + 2A
2
 cos
6A − 2A
2

− 2 cos 4 A
=
   
When sin 2 x = 2,
6A + 2A 6A − 2A
sin x = ± 2 2 cos cos
2 2
[sin x = ± 2 is not possible because it is + 2 cos 4 A
out of the range of −1  sin x  1]. 2 cos 4 A cos 2 A − 2 cos 4 A
=
Hence, x = 0 or p. 2 cos 4 A cos 2 A + 2 cos 4 A
2 cos 4 A (cos 2 A − 1)
=
2 cos 4 A (cos 2 A + 1)
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cos 2 A + 1
2 cos 
6A + 2A
2
cos  
6A − 2A
2

+ 2 cos 4 A
2 cos 4 A cos 2 A − 2 cos 4 A
=
2 cos 4 A cos 2 A + 2 cos 4 A
2 cos 4 A (cos 2 A − 1) The largest value of the expression occurs
= when sin θ = – 1.
2 cos 4 A (cos 2 A + 1)
2
1 19
=
cos 2 A − 1
cos 2 A + 1
Largest value = –1 – ( 2
) +
4
=7

1 − 2 sin 2 A − 1 The smallest value of the expression


= 1
2 cos 2 A − 1 + 1 occurs when sin θ =
−2 sin 2 A 2
= 2
1 1 19 19
2 cos 2 A
− sin 2 A
Smallest value = –
2 2
+
4(=
4 )
=
cos 2 A
70
= − tan 2 A
1 + t2
= RHS 2t
cos 2 A - 2cos 4 A + cos 6 A
∴ = – tan 2 A
cos 2 A + 2cos 4 A + cos 6 A q
[Proven] 1 − t2

68 sin x − sin 3x + sin 5x = 0 (a) LHS = csc q − cot q


sin 5x + sin x − sin 3x = 0 1 t2 1 − t2
5x + x 5x − x = + −
2 sin 12 2
cos
2 1− sin 3x = 0 2 2t 2t
1 t2 − 1 + t2
2 sin 3x cos 2x − sin 3x = 0 = +
sin 3x (2 cos 2x − 1) = 0 2t
= 2t 2

sin 3x = 0  or  cos 2x = 1 2t


2
=t
When sin 3x = 0
q
3x = 0°, 180°, 360°, 540° = tan
2
x = 0°, 60°, 120°, 180°
= RHS
q
When cos 2x = 1 , [ csc q - cot q ; tan
2
2
2x = 60°, 300° (b) LHS = sec q − tan q
x = 30°, 150°
= + 2 − 2t 2
1 t2
[ x = 0°, 30°, 60°, 120°, 150°, 180° 1−t 1−t
[ x = 0, 1 p, 1 p, 2 p , 5 p, p 1 + t 2 − 2t
6 3 3 6 =
1 − t2
p
= t − 2t +2 1
2
x° = x × rad.
180 1−t
69 sin2 q - sin q + 5 (t − 1)2
=
2 2 (1 + t)(1 − t)
1 1
(
= sin θ –
2 ) ( ) –
2
+5
=
(1 − t)2
(1 + t)(1 − t)
2
1 19
(
= sin θ –
2 ) +
4
=
1−t
1+t

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p q 73
tan− tan 8 sin q − 3 cos q =
4 2 4
=
p q
1 + tan tan 73 sin (q − 20.56°) = 73
4 2 4
p q 1
= tan 1−
4 2 2 sin (q − 20.56°) =
4
= RHS q − 20.56° = 14.48°, 165.52°
p q q = 35.0°, 168.1°
[ sec q - tan q ; tan 4 - 2+ [Correct to the nearest 0.1°]
csc q − cot q = sec q − tan q 72 Let 4 sin q − 3 cos q ; r sin (q − a)
q p q r = 42 + (−3)2 = 5
First quadrant tan 2 = tan 4 − 2 1 2
q p q q p q
12
a = tan−1 3 = 36.87°
4
= − or = p +
2 4 2 2

4 2 1 2 [ 4 sin q − 3 cos q = 5 sin (q - 36.9°)
Third quadrant 4 sin q − 3 cos q = 3
p
q= or q = 5 p 5 sin (q − 36.87°) = 3
4 4
sin (q − 36.87°) = 3
71 8 sin q − 3 cos q = r sin (q − a) 5
= r(sin q cos a − cos q sin q − 36.87° = 36.87°, 143.13°
a) q = 73.7°, 180.0°
= r sin q cos a − r cos q
sin a 73 Let cos x + 3 sin x ≡ r cos( x – α ) , where
By comparison, r > 0 and α acute angle.
r cos a = 8 …1 cos x + 3 sin x ≡ r cos x cos α
r sin a = 3 …2 + r sin x sinα

Squaring and adding 1 and 2 : Rearrange,
r 2 (cos2 a + sin2 a) = 82 + 32
r 2(1) = 73 cos x + 3 sin x ≡ r cos α cos x + r sinα sin x
r = 73 Comparing the coefficient of
cos x: r cos α =1
2 r sin a 3
: = Comparing the coefficient of
1 r cos a 8
sin x: r sin α = 3
tan a = 3
8 ( r cos α )2 + ( r sin α )2 = 4 ⇒ r = 2

a = tan−1 3
8 12 r sin α 3
⇒ tan α = 3 ,
= 20.56° r cos α 1
[ 8 sin q − 3 cos q = 73 sin (q − 20.56°) π
α=
= 73 sin (q - 20.6°) 3
[Correct to the nearest 0.1°] π
The maximum value of 8 sin q − 3 cos q
cos x + 3 sin x ≡ 2 cos x –( 3 )
is 73.
The minimum value of 8 sin q − 3 cos q Equation cos x + 3 sin x = 1 becomes
is −  73. π
(
2 cos x –
3
=1 )

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π 1 ∴ b = 4 2 + 32 = 5

(
cos x –
3 )
=
2 b sin α 3
and tan α = =
b cos α 4
x – π = π π , 2π – π
3 3 3 ∴ f ( x ) = 7 + 5sin( 2 x + a )
2π (a) f(x) is greatest when sin( 2x +a ) =1.
x= , 2π
3 Greatest value of f(x) = 7 + 5 = 12
74 cos(A + B) = cosA cosB – sinA sinB (b) f(x) is least when sin( 2x +a ) = –1.
cos 2x = cos(x + x) Least value of f(x) = 7 – 5 = 2
= cos 2 x - sin2 x y

= cos 2 x - (1 - cos 2 x ) 12
10
= 2 cos 2 x - 1 8
1
∴ cos 2 x = ( 1 + cos2 x ) 6

2 4

1 2
cos 2 x = (1 + cos 2x ), x
2 0 3 2

1 2 2
1 - sin2 x = (1 + cos 2 x )
2
75
1
sin2 x = 1 - (1 + cos 2 x ) y

2
1
= (1 - cos 2 x )
2
f ( x ) = 10 cos 2 x + 4 sin2 x
1 y = cos 2x

+ 8 sin x cos x y= 1
2

1  x
= 10  (1 + cos 2 x )  O π π π 3π 7π π

  2  8 4 2 4 8

1  1  −1
+ 4  (1 − cos 2 x )  + 8  sin 2 x 
2  2 
  = 5(1 + cos 2x) + 2(1 – cos 2x)
cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x − 1
+ 4sin2x
= 7 + 3 cos 2x + 4 sin 2x 2 cos 2 x = 1 + cos 2 x
4 sin 2 x + 3 cos 2 x ≡ b sin( 2 x + α ) 2 2 cos 2 x = 2 + 2 cos 2 x

≡ b cos α sin 2 x + b sinα cos 2 x 2 2 cos 2 x  1 + 2 becomes
Compare the coefficient of sin 2x : 2 + 2 cos 2 x  1 + 2
b cos α = 4 .
1
Compare the coefficient of cos 2x : cos 2 x 
bsin α = 3 . 2

ACE
ACE AHEADMathematics
AHEAD Mathematics(T)(T)First
FirstTerm
TermSecond
FourthEdition
Edition
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. 2018
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. 2015 27
1 1
when cos 2 x = cos 2 x =
2 2
p p p p p p
2x = , 2p − 2 x = , p − , p + , 2p −
4 4 3 3 3 3
p 7p p p 2 5
x= , x = , , p, p
8 8 6 3 3 6
∴ Solution set is Solution set is
p 7p p p 2 5
{x 0  x  ,  x p} {x 0 < x < , < x < p , p < x < p }
8 8 6 3 6 6
y
76

y = 2cos 2x
2

1 y=1

x
0 3–––
– –
4 2 2

ACE AHEAD
ACE AHEAD Mathematics
Mathematics(T)
(T)First
FirstTerm
TermFourth
SecondEdition
Edition
28 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. 2018
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. 2015