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6.1 Sand Cone Test

6.8.1 Purpose
After all compaction procedure have executed and to obtain level of solidity on site,
so shall perform Sand Cone Test for solidity which executed by Buma (third parties).
Sand Cone Test applies to every layer compaction with thickness of 300mm
compacted layers.

6.8.2 Apparatus Required Sand Cone Test

a. Sand Cone apparatus which consist of a one gallon plastic bottle with a
metal cone attached to it
b. One-gallon plastic can with cup.
c. Balance sensitive to 1 g
d. Base plate
e. Tools for excavating a hole in the ground such as hammer, scoop, spoon
and brush.
a. Ottawa sand
b. Proctor compaction mould without attached extension.
c. Plastic air-tight bag carrying wet excavated soil from field to oven at site
d. Metal tray with hole in the centre.
e. Stove and work.

6.8.3 Method of Sand Cone

Metode Sand Cone

Obtaining the unit weight of the sand use

a. Weight proctor compaction mould before filled by Ottawa sand
a. Pouring ottawa sand into the proctor compaction mould and making the
surface flat using straight edge (ruler).
b. Compaction mould fill out with sand and weight of proctor mould + sand.

Calibration Cone
a. Weight of plastic gallon + cone + Sand
b. Close the valve of the cone attached to the cone then turn the cone and
gallon upside down.

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c. Open the valve, sand flows from the gallon to the cone, after the flows stop
close the valve and take the gallon +cone + from the tray.
d. Weight of plastic gallon + Cone + sand (after use)

Field Test
a. Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (before use)
b. Go to the field where the soils unit weight is to be measured and place the
metal tray and fasten the 4 screw.
c. Dig up a hole about 10 to 15 cm deep. And put the retrieved soil into the
plastic bag in order that the soil does not lose moisture.
d. All of the soil is collect into the bag and also the soft soil at the bottom of the
hole is poured into the bag as well with brush.
e. Care must be taken to ensure are excavated particles are corrected.
f. After all of the soil is transferred into the bag then having the valve closed
turn the gallon +cone upside down and place the cone in the centre hole of
tray and open valve so that sands flows and plastic bag should be kept
g. After flow of sand stops close the valve and pick the assembly up, the sand
in the cone will be poured into the tray.
h. The sand in the hole and overflow sand will be left in the field, collect all
parts using scoop, brush, and spoon the get back to the laboratory.
i. Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (after use).
j. Weight the evaporating dish and weight the evaporating dish + wet soil from
the field ( before direct heating)
f. Put the evaporating dish + wet soil after will be dried with frying on stove,
and then weigh it again.

6.8.4. The result will be used as baseline data for reference purposes Water Content Test (Refer to ASTM D-2216)

Purpose :
The item of this test is to determine the water content of soil. Water content means
the ratio between weights of water to weight of dry soil, in percentage. Equipment
a. Oven (Temp. 110 ± 5° C)
b. Container
c. Scale no.4, 10, 40

Page 2 of 15 Testing Sequence
a. Material sample to be tested is stored in the container and in the container weighing
b. Put the same sample into the microwave to an adequate length of time to completely
dry the sample (usually to a minimum of 3 hours.)
c. Weighing the dried sample material (W2)
d. Weighing the container (W3) Calculation
Water content (w) = ( W1-W2)
X 100%
( W2-W3)

Where :

W1 = weight of container + wet sample (gram)

W2 = weight of container + dry sample (gram)

W3 = weight of container (gram)

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