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Manufacturers and Exporters of Planetary Reduction Gears and


Planetary Gearbox.

Quality for us is not just a promise made to our customers


but a commitment we always stand by. We are
manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of Planetary
Reduction Gears, Planetary Gearbox, High Ratio Gearbox
and Helical Gearbox.

Planetary Reduction Gears


Planetary Gearbox
Helical Gearbox

High Ratio
Gearbox
Bevel Helical
Gearbox
Extruder
Gearbox
Planetary Gearbox

For any given application, a Planetary gear box is much more compact
and of considerable lesser weight compared to a conventional Warm or
Helical gear.

Design and Working Principle


The heart of the planetary gearbox is the reduction group composed by
the sun pinion (1) and three or more satellites (2) mounted on pins (4)
which are supported by the satellite carrier (5). The sun pinion transmits
it's motion to the satellites. The satellites then turn inside the ring gear
(3) which is static. As consequence the satellite carrier rotates. The
motion of the carrier can be transmitted to an output shaft or to another
reduction group. The reduction obtained is determined by the relation
between the number of teeth on the sun pinion (Z1) and the number of
teeth on the ring gear (Z2).

The ratio can be calculated using the shown formula [I=Z2/Z1+1]

Advantages
The planetary gear box offers a set of advantages which makes it an
interesting alterative to traditional gear types such as helical and parallel
shafts gear boxes. Especially in applications requiring: high reduction
ratios, high torque transmission, high radial on output shaft in the
following we shall explain why.

High Reduction Ratios


Given the same number of teeth Z1 and Z2 the planetary gear offers a
higher ratio than the parallel shaft gear. This makes it possible to obtain:
• Higher rations with a smaller
number of stages

• Stronger dimensions and thereby


higher torque handling capacity
• High Torque Transmission
In a planetary gear the number of teeth in contact
is higher than in a spur gear. Therefore. the
planetary gear has a superior relation between
torque handling capacity and dimensions

• High Radial Loads on the Shafts


In the planetary gear the internal forces are
balanced, i.e. the resulting force is zero. The input
and output shafts therefore, are only transmitting
torque. In a parallel shaft gear, however; the
internal forces are not balanced and he shafts
must, therefore, support the internal loads. With
the planetary gear it is, therefore, possible to have
higher external radial loads on the shafts.
Additional Advantages
• Low Noise level
Despite the higher number of engaged teeth the noise level
remains low as on traditional gear types because the smaller
dimensions give lower peripheral velocity on the pitch diameter.
Using input stages with grinded teeth on pinions and satellites
combined with nitrated ring gears makes it possible to minimize
the noise level of an in-line gearbox.
• High Efficiency
Despite the higher number of engaged teeth the smaller tooth
size makes it possible to obtain efficiencies – typically 0.98 per
gear stage.

• Flexible Ration
The ration of a planetary stage can easily modified by changing
the sun gear and reduction group. The ratio of a multistage gear
can easily be adjusted by changing the ration of one or more
stages.
Note: - A new range of products is being introduced and the range
includes Helical and Bevel Helical Gearboxes - Ratio starting from 1.12:1
up to 500.0:1 and Nominal Power rating up to 11914 kW.

6. TYPES OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Mechanical Transmission

• Gear

• Friction Clutch

• Belt and Pulley

• Chain and sprocket.

Hydrodynamic Transmission

• Fluid coupling

• Torque converter

Electrical Transmission

• DC electrical

• AC/DC electrical

• AC electrical

• Linear motor etc.


7. PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION
In this system of transmission, a clutch and a multi ratio gearbox are
employed. The multi ratio gear box consists of several gear trains. The engine power
is transmitted through one gear pair at a time. As the engine is rigidly connected to
the wheels through a fixed gear ratio in each gear, the vehicle speed varies directly
with the engine speed. As the power output of the engine is proportional to the
engine speed, the power delivered by the vehicle also varies with the engine speed.
The transmission efficiency of the mechanical transmission is the highest,
as there is no conversion of energy during the power transmission process. But the
other parameters are inferior when compared with other types of transmission
systems.

8. PRINCIPLES OF HYDRODYNAMIC TRANSMISSION


In hydrodynamic mode of transmission the velocity / the momentum of the fluid is
the contributing factor for transmission of power. The rate of change of
momentum of the fluid from driving to the driven member decides the amount of
torque being transmitted in this system. Hydrodynamic drives are of two types.

FLUID COUPLING

HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER.

Fluid coupling
It is a device employed in a power transmission system simply to transmit
torque from one end to the other through a fluid medium. There are two principle
members. Those are-
1 Impeller or pump, generally connected to the input side of
the power transmission system.
2 Turbine or runner, connected to the output side.
All the blades or wings in both the members are straight and radial. In most
of the cases, these two elements are produced by Aluminium castings.
Working principle:
The power output of the engine is supplied to the impeller. The speed of
every particle of the fluid that passes through the rotating impeller increases. In a
turbine the reverse action takes place. The high speed fluid exerts a push on the
turbine blades. This causes the turbine to produce an output power. In this way, the
coupling transmits power to the external load.
The two members of the coupling are identical with respect to the inside to
their inside and outside diameters, design and positioning of blade diameters etc.
Therefore, the kinetic energy or torque absorbed by the impeller is equal to that
released in the turbine. Hence, there can be no torque conversion in a fluid coupling,
and impeller torque is always equal to the turbine torque.
Slip
This is the difference between impeller and turbine speeds. When there is
no slip, there is no transfer of fluid from impeller to the turbine and hence no torque
is transmitted. This is because the turbine sets up a head of fluid equal and opposite to
the head of the fluid set up by the impeller. To transmit any torque, a fluid coupling
must necessarily have some slip depending upon its size and speed. Torque can be
transmitted either way depending upon the speeds of its two members. The higher
speed member automatically becomes the torque receiving or input side.
Hydraulic torque converter
The principle components are three. Those are-
1. Impeller or pump, connected to the input side of the transmission system.
2. Turbine or runner, connected to the output side.
3. Reaction member or guide-wheel, which is placed in the fluid circuit to
guide the fluid coming from the turbine into the impeller, and is normally
connected to the casing. This remains stationary.
The general working principle and the basic characteristics are very similar to
those of fluid coupling, as described above, but for the following variations.
The principle members are not identical in construction and the wings or blades
provided in them are shaped and positioned to form various angles with respect to
the axis of rotation to obtain required performance. The torque condition of the
impeller and turbine are not the same due to the existence of a reaction member in
the fluid circuit. Therefore, the impeller torque undergoes a change in turbine, and is
either increased or decreased according to the speeds of the two members.
Some facts about torque converter
1. In transmitting power, a torque converter behaves like a gearbox
having infinite gear ratios, and hence provides a stepless variation
of torque at the turbine end for a constant input torque. This
inherent characteristic suits very well with the output torque
requirement of a locomotive.
2. Due to the conversion of energy from mechanical to hydraulic in
the impeller, and hydraulic to mechanical in turbine, there is a loss
of power in the transmission. Hence its transmission efficiency is
poorer than a mechanical transmission. However, it compares well
with the electrical transmission.
3. For a definite output speed, its transmission efficiency is superior,
when working under part load. Hence, it is ideal for shunting
locomotives.
4. It does not transmit shocks and vibration from either side due to the
presence of a hydraulic medium.
5. It permits the selection of a high-speed diesel engine as its prime
mover. Thus, it reduces its gross weight of the locomotive.

9. APPLICATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC TRANSMISSION


REVERSIBLE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION (VOITH TRANSMISSION)

Advantages of reversible transmission


1. Separate torque converters are provided for each direction of running of
locomotive. A change in the direction of travel of locomotive is effected
by filling /emptying the appropriate converter.
2. Mechanical components such as claw/clutches, external/internal splined
components, shifting fork, slide blocks, pneumatic cylinders and linkage
mechanism, tooth on tooth safety devices etc. are dispensed with.
3. While the vehicle is in motion, by engaging the converter intended for
the opposite direction of the travel, hydrodynamic braking can be
achieved till the vehicle comes to a standstill position. The retardation of
the vehicle will be very smooth, and sharp without any wear and tear of
brake blocks, brake-rigging components.
4. The controls and monitoring devices in the locomotive are much
simplified when compared with the conventional type of mechanical
reversible transmission.
5. The transmission can be instantaneously switched on to either direction
of travel at any time, while the locomotive is stationary or is moving,
unlike in mechanical reversible transmission where the shifting of the
claw clutch is to be carried out only when both the primary and the
secondary rotating components are absolutely standstill.

MERITS OF HYDRODYNAMIC TRANSMISSION OVER CONVENTIONAL


ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION

Efficiency
Transmission efficiency of any hydraulic transmission using torque converter is
comparable to any electrical transmission. The efficiency of hydro-mechanical
transmission is about 10 % higher. The comparative saving in fuel costs will be
substantial especially in high horsepower super-fast train locomotive.
Power to weight ratio
The horsepower to weight ratio of a diesel hydraulic locomotive is comparatively
higher due to the use of high-speed diesel engine and lower weight of transmission.
For example, the power to weight ratio of the WDM2. (Electrical transmission) is 23
hp/tonne, as against 33 hp/tonne for the WDM3 (hydraulic transmission). One of the
main reasons is that the hydraulic transmission permits use of high-speed (low
weight) diesel engine, as power absorbing capacity of the torque converter is
proportional to the cube of its impeller speed. In case of an electrical transmission,
the peripheral speed of the generator -armature becomes a limitation for choosing the
engine speed.
Adhesion
Coefficient of starting adhesion is comparatively higher owing to coupled axles of the
diesel hydraulic locomotives as against the independently driven axle hung traction
motors of the diesel electric locomotives.
Part load efficiency
The part load efficiency of the hydraulic transmission, whether using a converter, or
using a coupling, is comparatively higher at lower vehicle speed than electric
transmission, where generator and traction motor efficiency remain more or less
constant, and independent of horse power transmitted. This advantage is predominant
especially in shunting locomotives, where the diesel engine operates most of the time
at part notches at low vehicle speeds.
10. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION

GENERAL
Most of the Diesel Electric Locomotives serving in Indian Railways are single
engined with one D.C. self ventilated, separately excited, single bearing main
generator.
This supplies power to six nose suspended, force ventilated, series wound D.C.
motors connected in three series pairs.
Power for electrically driven auxiliaries and control circuits is obtained from a self-
excited, self ventilated auxiliary generator mounted on the end of main generator.
This also supplies the battery charging current. Output of auxiliary generator is
maintained constant at different speed by a voltage regulator. It also takes care about
the limit of current going out to avoid damage to the generator. 8 lead acid batteries in
series with four cells per battery, being provided for starting the engine by motoring
the main generator, and to supply all the control circuits and the locomotive lighting.
The locomotive is provided with electrical end jumper cables to enable it to work in
multiple with a number of other locomotives.

POWER CIRCUITS
The main generator is separately excited with or without a differential series field to
give the required characteristic form.
Each traction motor has separate reversing switch contacts for reversing the field
current, and field diverting arrangements.
Wheel slip sensing arrangement is provided between all three motor pairs using three
relays. Ground fault sensing arrangement is provided in the generator circuit using a
relay, to avoid damage to the electrical machines and circuits.
FIELD WEAKENING AND TRANSITION
As has already been mentioned the series type dc motors are used as traction motors.
This type of motor draws a high current at low speed and a low current at high speed.
If its load is heavy, it runs at low speed; if light, it runs at high speed.
The generator delivers electrical power. When the load resistance is low, the amperes
are high and when resistance is high, the amperes are low. To achieve maximum fuel
efficiency, the engine should be loaded in such a way so that it gives constant
horsepower for a particular speed setting, and accordingly the fuel for each throttle
setting is scheduled.
So to get most of the engine, one should stay on the constant horse power curve. As
the traction motors are the load, and current changes with change in speed of the
motor, the voltage also changes accordingly power being constant.
When the train accelerates, i.e. the motor speed increases, the voltage output of main
generator goes on increasing and at a particular train speed, generator voltage reaches
its limit and horse power is reduced by the excitation system. With this situation more
train speed can't be achieved.
To get higher train speed, either the motor fields are weakened or the motors are
rearranged in the circuit. This increases traction motor current. With higher current
now the motor speed starts increasing.
Normally the motor field is made weak, connecting resistor in parallel to the field,
and rearrangement is done by changing the motors from series-parallel to parallel
grouping. An automatic regulator, on getting signal about locomotive speed does the
change in motor circuit.
Figure 24-3. Torque Converter Construction and Principles of Operation

Mechanical gearboxes
The engine of a motor vehicle generates sufficient power within a particular speed range
only. Therefore, it should always run in the proper speed range for the different driving
speeds or load conditions to prevent it from being overloaded. From this we can conclude
that, while the engine power remains the same, a greater force should be available for the
driving wheels. A motor vehicle may move the faster the less force is required for rotating
the wheels. This is the reason why motor vehicles are equipped with gear-change boxes.
Earlier these had three gears but today they are ever more stepped in order to allow
engines of a low power to be used. Large and heavy vehicles today have as many as 8 to
10 gear steps. The gear unit is housed in a casing and generally forms an assembly
including the clutch bell and the engine. The individual parts are screwed to each other.
The gear unit can be operated either from a steering-column or floor-type gear shift.
Steering-column gear change is mainly used in passenger cars. The power train is
illustrated in Fig. 1/5.

Figure 2/1 Gear box (for rear-axle drive)

1 drive shaft; 2 mainshaft; 3 countershaft; 4 reversing gears

In rear-axle driven vehicles the power is transmitted from the crankshaft via the
clutch to the drive shaft, the countershaft and the main shaft (Fig. 2/1) from
where it is transmitted via the propeller shaft to the final drive with the differential
gear and on to the wheels by full-floating axle shafts. Fig. 2/2 shows a gearbox
for a front-driven vehicle.

Figure 2/2 Gear-change box (for front-axle drive)


Intermediate gears permit the backward driving of the car. The gear unit should
have a high wear resistance, run very smooth and be easily shiftable. The
automatative industry still uses mainly the mechanical toothed gear unit. Its
construction is simple and sturdy, and it features a high efficiency. Fig. 2/3 shows
the power train in a mechanical four-speed gearbox for the individual gears. It is
a two-shaft gear unit. The unit shown in Fig. 2/1 is a three-shaft unit with
additional shaft and reversing gears.

The two-shaft gearbox is a sliding-mesh gear box. The driving gear of the
countershaft and the third gear have helical teeth contributing essentially to the
low noise of the gear unit.

Figure 2/3 Power transmission in a four-speed gear-change box

I. first gear;

II. second gear;

III. third gear;


IV. fourth gear

With straight-toothed gears a clicking noise is heard due to the clearance


between the gears. For selecting the different gears the sliding gears are
positioned axially on the grooved main shaft, the grooves causing them to rotate
positively. The toothed gears of the countershaft are fixed on it (incorporated or
pressed on). The gear shafts are held by antifriction bearings in the gearbox
casing and run in oil. Gears are changed (Fig. 2/4) in mechanical toothed gear
units by shifting a lever connected to a ball-shaped assembly.

Figure 2/4 Gear changing mechanism

1 gear shifting lever; 2 joint; 3 shift arbor; 4 shift plate; 5 main shaft; 6 shifting
fork; 7 shifting fork detent

The shift forks displace the gears as required for the desired speed. In most
cases the shift forks are guided by shifter shafts. An interlock prevents the shifter
shafts from moving uncontrolled. In addition, interlocks are incorporated to
prevent simultaneous engaging of two gears.
The interlock consists of small balls which are forced against the shifter shaft by
springs. The shifter shaft is provided with several despressions. The centre
depression is for idling. To engage the reserve gear of a vehicle, another detent
has to be overcome.

2.1.1. The sliding-mesh claw-clutch gearbox


The sliding-mesh claw-clutch gearbox (Fig, 2/1) provides for even greater noise
reduction and easier gear shifting. All toothed gears, except the first and reserve gear, are
helicaltoothed and in constant mesh. The gear shafts are carried in several roller bearings
positioned in the casing. Rotary shaft seals are used to seal off the gear box casing. With
this type of gear unit the gears are shifted by displaceable claw clutches which couple the
gears to the main shaft. The claws are rugged and have a low circumferential speed as a
result of their small diameter. They are also moved by shift forks.
The claws are of a robust design and not easily damaged even by wrong shifting.

2.1.2. The synchromesh gear unit

The shiftability of the sliding-mesh claw-clutch gearbox may be improved


by synchronisation (synchronous = running at the same speed). It
facilitates shifting and eliminates the shifting noise. This increases the
life of the individual gears and the unit as a whole. A locking ring is
provided to enable gear selection only after full synchronism between
shaft and gear has been obtained.
The gears of a gearbox are mainly subjected to surface wear and flexural
stress. They are made of alloyed case hardened steel. The tooth profiles
are hardened and ground. The following parts of the gear unit are
particularly liable to wear

tooth profiles of the gears shift forks and claws of the sliding sleeves gear
shaft bearings gear casing seals

Wear of the listed parts may give rise to various troubles in the gear unit:

Roaring of a gear unit is mainly due to gear errors or excessive wear of the teeth.

Toothed gears wear heavily when they are only partly in mesh. The surface load
is then too high and teeth are broken. If the main shaft and the countershaft are
not positioned parallel to each other in the gearbox casing, the gears will mesh
only insufficiently, increasing wear and resulting in damage of the gear unit. Other
errors include pitch errors, helix errors and profile errors. They have their cause
in the manufacture of the toothed gears and cannot be eliminated by reworking
the gears. Toothed gears showing such flaws have to be replaced.
If a gear unit runs with a knocking noise this is mostly due to broken or heavily
damaged teeth or to distorted gear shafts. This fault can only be eliminated by
replacing the defective parts. Other problems are poor shiftability of gears and
the uncontrolled, the disengagement of gears. The causes may be found even in
the clutch. If it is not properly thrown out, i.e. if the play is too large or the facing
heavily worn, it is difficult to change gears. The seat of the sliding gears or the
sliding claw may be too tight, The gears may not be in line. The play of the
antifriction bearings may be too large, or the profiles of the shift forks may be
worn down by continuous rubbing along the shift claw. The shift forks may also
be distorted which may be caused by engaging a gear forcibly. Other gear
troubles may be due to improper synchronisation, the causes being weak
pressure springs, excessive clutch segment play or excessive wear of the keys
and lock pins. The defective parts should be replaced to eliminate such faults.

Another source of trouble may be excessive wear of the sliding grooves, with the
following causes being possible:

The car is always started too quickly or is subject to heavy load by jerks and jolts.
If worn gears have to be replaced, this should also be done with the grooved
shaft,

The gear unit blocks because the synchron


segments are jammed. The film of oil
between the segments is broken causing
their surfaces to rub on each other until they
get stuck. They can no longer be used and
have to be replaced with new ones. With
synchromesh gear units, care should be
taken when shifting that the working point
is not passed too quickly as this would
increase wear of the toothed gears.The
working point is the point where the
synchronizing clutch (Fig. 2/5) becomes
effective and the detent springs are forced
out of the sliding claw. This is seen in
section A - A.
Figure 2/5 Synchronizing clutch A-A: section

The seals of mechanical gear-change boxes must be constantly checked for


leakage to prevent gear oil from leaking. If, a leakage occurs, the oil level drops
which leads to sticking of the gears, overheating of the antifriction bearings or
burning of the rotary seals. A technical inspection should, there force, include not
only the oil level of the engine but also that of the gearbox and the other gear
units such as the transfer box and differential unit.
2.1.3. The planetary gear unit

Figure 2/6 Planetary gear unit (cross section)

Another type of gearbox is the planetary gear unit, also called epicyclic gear (Fig.
2/6). The name has been derived from the planet pinions rotating around a sun
gear. The planet pinions are fixed on a common holder and rotate in a ring gear.
The planetary gear unit permits the selection of two speeds. For the first speed,
the holder is moved and the ring gear remains stationary, the sun gear thus being
turned at a particular speed.

For the second speed, the holder is moved and the sun gear remains stationary
so that the planet pinions have to rotate around the sun gear. As a result, the ring
gear rotates at another particular speed.

The planetary gear unit is often used for semi-automatic or automatic gear units.
In this case, several gear units are usually mounted one after the other. The
Wilson gear is an example of that.
Figure 2/7 Planetary gear unit (longitudinal section)

1 first gear; 2 second gear; 3 third gear; 4 fourth gear; 5 reverse gear; 6 braked
As shown in Fig. 2/7, the Wilson (planetary) gear unit consists of several
epicyclic units. The gears are preselected with a small lever in the driver's cabin
and engaged by depressing a pedal. This pedal is used instead of the clutch
pedal. The preselected gear is engaged by blocking the ring gear through a
brake which is operated mechanically or electromagnetically. Only the ring gear
of the selected gear is blocked.

2.2. The freewheel

This paragraph deals once more with the mechanical gear-change box but with
regard to the freewheel provided in some cases.

The freewheel (Fig. 2/8) is positioned between the drive shaft and the main shaft
of the mechanical gear unit. Its function is to separate the drive from the driven
wheels should they be forced to rotate faster than is possible by the power of the
engine. This occurs when driving down hills. The car can thus utilize the natural
drive. This saves fuel and spares the engine.

Operation of the freewheel:

The drive shaft of the gear unit is provided with a toothed star member. Loose
rollers between the teeth in their bottom position when the vehicle is at rest or the
star member rotates slowly. If the drive shaft is rotated, the rollers shift to their
top position carrying the casing with them. The power is transmitted to the gear
unit. If the freewheel is now blocked by a lever the rollers cannot return to the
bottom position when the driven wheels rotate faster: the engine is made use of
as an additional brake (the braking force is, however, very small with two-stroke
engines).

Figure 2/8 Free wheel of a gearbox

I Free wheel trown in;


II free wheel thrown out

2.3. The transfer box

Another mechanical gear unit shall be deal with in this paragraph: the auxiliary
gearbox or transfer box.

Normally, it is only used for special vehicles that are driven on difficult terrain or
have to climb steer gradients. This gear unit often incorporates an additional low
range of gears with a respective speed ratio. Gears are changed by levers
located in the driver's cabin. Some designs of this gear unit feature a power take-
off shaft for additional units such as a hydraulic pump for tilting the floor or the
side wall of a truck or for driving agricultural machines. The transfer box is
designed so that either all axles of a vehicle can be driven or only the rear axle.
Generally, the transfer box is driven by a propeller shaft mounted behind the
gearbox.

Fig. 2/9 shows the gears of a transfer box. It serves for an additional speed
reduction.
Figure 2/9 Transfer box

1 to shifting lever; 2 power from gear-change box; 3 driven side for accessory
units; 4 drive for front axle; 5 drive for rear axle

The force of the driven wheels is increased but the speed reduced.
Any gear of the gearbox can be selected even-if the transfer box is engaged. If
the engine is needed for operating an additional unit, the transmission of power
to the axles of the vehicle may be interrupted by a shift claw. Only the additional
unit is then driven by the engine, the vehicle remains stationary. The transfer box
is equipped with helical gears to keep the noise within limits. It is used for derrick
wagons and as drive unit for hydraulic pumps.
2.4. Fluid gear units

From the gear units described so far it was obvious that they were not
infinitely variable. In this paragraph, the infinitely variable gear units
shall be dealt with briefly.
According to their principle of operation they are classified into:

infinitely variable mechanical gear units, hydraulic gear units, infinitely


variable electric gear units. In the following, especially the hydraulic gear
unit shall be dealt with. As the name denotes, a hydraulic fluid is used,
The hydraulic gear unit has been developed on the basis of the hydraulic
clutch. It is used to drive heavy vehicles such as rail buses and heavy
lorries but also larger passenger cars.
A turbine wheel incorporating three different blade rims is fitted on the
drive shaft of the gear unit. Two other blade rims are positioned on the
inside of the casing. They are used as fluid reciprocating blades. When
the pump impeller begins to rotate, the centrifugal forces carry the fluid
to the first system of the turbine wheel. The stationary blade rim in the
casing reverses it, and it flows into the next blade rim. After the next
change in the flow direction by the next stationary rim blade the fluid
reaches the third system of the turbine wheel and is again in the centre.
The process begins anew. With this system the clutch and be used to
adjust the speed steplessly within a wide range.

the stator and impeller in the housing. The turbine is not fastened to the impeller but is free to turn
independently. Oil is the only connection between the two. 4. Stator—designed to improve oil
circulation inside the torque converter. Increases efficiency and torque by causing the oil to swirl
around the inside of the housing. The primary action of the torque converter results from the action of the
impeller passing oil at an angle into the blades of the turbine. The oil pushes against the faces of the turbine
vanes, causing the turbine to rotate in the same direction as the impeller (fig. 4-25). With the engine
idling, the impeller spins slowly. Only a small amount of oil is thrown into the stator and turbine.
Not enough force is developed inside the torque converter to spin the turbine. The vehicle
remains stationary with the transmission in gear. During acceleration, the engine crankshaft, the
converter housing, and the impeller begin to move faster. More oil is thrown out by centrifugal
force, turning the turbine. As a result, the transmission input shaft and vehicle starts to move, but with
some slippage. Figure 4-25.—Torque converter in fluid coupling stage. At cruising speeds, the impeller and turbine
spin at almost the same speed with very little slippage. When the impeller is spun fast enough,
centrifugal force throws oil out hard enough to almost lock the impeller and turbine. After the oil has
imparted its force to the turbine, the oil follows the contour of the turbine shell and blades so that it
leaves the center section of the turbine spinning counterclockwise. Because the turbine has absorbed
the force required to reverse the direction of the clockwise spinning of the oil, it now has
greater force than is being delivered by the engine. The process of multiplying engine torque has
begun, Torque multiplication refers to the ability of a torque converter to increase the amount of
engine torque applied to the transmission input shaft. Torque multiplication occurs when the impeller is
spinning faster than the turbine (fig. 4-26). For example, if the engine is accelerated quickly, the engine
and impeller rpm might increase rapidly while the turbine is almost stationary. This is known as stall speed.
Stall speed of a torque converter occurs when the impeller is at maximum speed without rotation
of the turbine. This condition causes the transmission fluid to be thrown Figure 4-26.—Torque converter in
torque multiplication 4-28
the stator and impeller in the housing. The turbine is not fastened to the impeller but is free to turn
independently. Oil is the only connection between the two. 4. Stator—designed to improve oil
circulation inside the torque converter. Increases efficiency and torque by causing the oil to swirl
around the inside of the housing. The primary action of the torque converter results from the action of the
impeller passing oil at an angle into the blades of the turbine. The oil pushes against the faces of the turbine
vanes, causing the turbine to rotate in the same direction as the impeller (fig. 4-25). With the engine
idling, the impeller spins slowly. Only a small amount of oil is thrown into the stator and turbine.
Not enough force is developed inside the torque converter to spin the turbine. The vehicle
remains stationary with the transmission in gear.

Figure 4-25.—Torque converter in Up Next


fluid coupling stage. Construction Mechanic Basic Volume 02 - Planetary
Construction methods and practices Gearsets

off the stator vanes at tremendous speeds. The greatest torque multiplication
Figure 4-27.—Stator assembly.
occurs at stall speed. When the turbine speed nears impeller speed, torque multiplication drops off.
Torque is increased in the converter by sacrificing motion. The turbine spins slower than the impeller
during torque multiplication. If the counterclockwise oil were allowed to continue to the center
section of the impeller, the oil would strike the blades of the pump in a direction that would hinder its
rotation and cancel any gains in torque. To prevent this, you can add a stator assembly. The stator (fig.
4-27) is located between the pump and the turbine and is mounted on a one-way clutch that allows it
to rotate clockwise but not counter- clockwise. The purpose of the stator is to redirect the oil returning
from the turbine and change its rotation back to that of the impeller. Stator action is only needed
when the impeller and turbine are turning at different speeds. The one-way clutch locks the stator
when the impeller is turning faster than the turbine. This causes the stator to route oil flow over the
impeller vanes properly. Then, when turbine speed almost equals impeller speed, the stator can
freewheel on its shaft so not to obstruct flow. Even at normal highway speeds, there is a certain amount of
slippage in the torque converter. Another type of torque converter that is common on modern
vehicles is the lockup torque converter (fig. 4-28). The lockup torque converter provides increased
fuel economy and increased transmission life through the elimination of heat caused by torque
converter slippage. A typical lockup mechanism consists of a hydraulic piston, torsion springs, and
clutch friction material. In lower gears, the converter clutch is released. The torque converter
operates normally, allowing slippage and torque multiplication. However, when shifted into high or
direct drive, transmission fluid is channeled to the converter piston. The converter piston pushes the
friction discs together, locking the turbine and impeller. The crankshaft is able to drive the
transmission input shaft directly, without slippage. The torsion springs assist to dampen engine
power pulses entering the drive train. Figure 4-28.—Torque converter

Figure 4-27.—Stator Up Next


assembly. Construction Mechanic Basic Volume 02 - Construction Clutches and
methods and practices Bands
PLANETARY GEARSETS A planetary gearset (fig. 4-29) consists of
Figure 4-29.—Planetary gearset.
three members-sun gear, ring gear, and planetary carrier which holds the planetary gears in proper
relation with the sun and ring gear. The planetary gears are free to rotate on their own axis while they
"walk" around the sun gear or inside the ring gear. By holding or releasing the components of a
planetary gearset, it is possible to do the following: Reduce output speed and increase torque (gear
reduction). Increase output speed while reducing torque (overdrive). Reverse output direction (reverse
gear). Serve as a solid unit to transfer power (one to one ratio). Freewheel to stop power flow (park or
neutral). Figure 4-30 shows the simplest application of planetary gears in a transmission. With the
application shown, two forward speeds and neutral are possible. High gear or direct drive is shown.
The clutch is holding the planet carrier to the input shaft, causing the carrier and sun gear to rotate as a
single unit. With the clutch released, all gears are free to rotate and no power is transmitted to the output
shaft. In neutral, the planetary carrier remains stationary while the pinion gears rotate on their axis
and turn the ring gear. Should the brake be engaged on the ring gear, the sun gear causes the
planetary gears to walk around the inside of the ring gear and force the planet carrier to rotate in the same
direction as the sun gear, but at a slower speed (low gear). To provide additional speed ranges or a
reverse, you must add other planetary gearsets to this transmission. A compound planetary gearset
combines two planetary units into one housing or ring gear. It may have two sun gears or a long sun gear
to operate two Figure 4-30.—Simple planetary gear application. 4-30