0 views

Uploaded by CRT Services

A hydrocarbon measurement technical document from CRT Services professional library housed at https://crt-services.com.

A hydrocarbon measurement technical document from CRT Services professional library housed at https://crt-services.com.

© All Rights Reserved

- Schem 220CGen2
- Spam 66
- SM D31EX,PX-22_SEN04343-09.pdf
- 1000 & 1200 series Perkins.pdf
- Cat.dcs.Sis.controller
- Control Elevador Zetadyn 1dv (1)
- Electricity
- NFPA Stipulations on BMS Logic System
- 252b hidraulico.pdf
- CAT 320 320 GC Hyd. System
- como leer esquemas electricos vw
- Panasonic-Multi-Range-Analog-Timers.pdf
- 03_03Annunciator Relays Units
- Pnoz x4 Cat4_en954-1
- honeywell-sensing-micro-switch-gla-limit-product-sheet-002408-2-EN (1).pdf
- Sistem Hidrolik Cat 320D
- Control of Pneumatic Systems Exp-51
- TN2531-00_EN-GB
- 32ac155en
- Cilindros Acero Inox. Parker

You are on page 1of 7

Library

As A Service to the

HydroCarbon Measurement

Industry, CRT-SERVICES

Curates this collection of

Digital resources.

Conroe, Texas 77302

www.crtsupply.com (713) 242-1190

OPERATION & PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PROVER DETECTOR SWITCHES

Class #4100

Plantation Pipe Line Co.

1435 Windward Concourse

Alpharetta, GA 30005

INTRODUCTION

In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In

order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and

repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design

problems associated with the prover detector will affect the prover’s performance. This paper will review critical

parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability.

The areas that will be covered are:

• Prover detector mechanical repeatability.

• Prover detector electrical repeatability.

• Prover detector performance due to prover sphere contact length.

• System accuracy and repeatability.

Prover detector accuracy is one of the parameters that governs the performance of a prover system. Small

imperfections or variations in the detector’s dimensional tolerances can have a significant impact on the prover’s

volume. In addition, changes in these tolerances due to normal operations impacts the prover’s ability to

accurately determine a meter factor. Therefore, it is very important to have a program or procedure to check the

dimensional tolerances of each detector component or to check the overall dimensional tolerance of the complete

detector. This is necessary on initial detector installation and subsequent calibrations.

Sphere type prover detectors typically use some type of plunger or probe inserted into the pipe that contacts the

sphere as the sphere passes by the detector. When the sphere first contacts the detector, the plunger or probe

starts moving the electrical switch. Typically, the switch point is usually somewhere between initial contact with

the sphere and the point where the rod or probe reaches the edge of the prover pipe. In order to understand this

relationship, we need to review the equation that governs the sphere verses detector movement. This equation

is,

ΔX = ( D + d )( I 1 ) − I 12 − ( D + d )( I 2 ) − I 22

Where:

D = Diameter of Sphere or Inside Diameter of the pipe prover

d = Diameter of actuator detector probe

I1= maximum detector actuation depth

I2 = minimum detector actuation depth

I1-I2 = Range of detector actuation repeatability

ΔX = sphere position repeatability or range of sphere positions

The subscripts 1 and 2 represent the switch maximum and minimum switch points. The difference

between these two points is the range of detector repeatability. A visual representation of the sphere to detector

relationship can be found in Figure 1.

871

As seen from the equation, the key variables that impact the sphere to detector relationship are prover sphere

diameter, detector plunger diameter, and plunger insertion depth. When these values are known, this equation

can be a very useful tool for determining a prover’s sensitivity to changes in detector dimensions. When a

detector is replaced with a new style of detector, the equation can also give an estimate of the new prover

volume.

When a detector is chosen and the dimensional tolerances are known, the mechanical repeatability of the

detector can be used to determine the prover accuracy. By using the equation above, we can calculate the linear

accuracy of the sphere from the detector repeatability. Once the linear accuracy of the sphere with respect to the

detector is known, the accuracy of a prover can be determined from the equation:

ΔX N Det

Pa =

L

Where:

Pa = Prover Accuracy

NDet = number of times a detector is actuated during a calibration run (unidirectional = 2 for a single

pass, bidirectional =4 for two passes)

L = Length of the calibrated section of the prover

Conversely, if the desired prover accuracy is known, the minimum prover length for a given detector

accuracy can be determined by:

ΔX N Det

L min Det =

Pa

Where:

LminDet = Minimum calibrated section length based upon the prover detectors

Due to the mathematical relationship between the sphere and the detector, several important points should be

noted. First, to minimize proving error caused by detector uncertainty, the detector actuation depth should be as

long as practicable without interfering with the movement of the sphere. A graph showing the importance of

detector insertion depth is found in Figure 2.

One important relationship the equation provides is detector error and its impact on sphere position repeatability

and minimum prover size. A detector with a given repeatability error can increase the sphere position

repeatability by several times depending on the insertion depth. With most provers, this range is between 3 - 6

times greater. In addition, as the detector insertion depth is decreased, the sphere position repeatability error is

even greater. This will require the prover length to be increased in order to obtain a resolution of 1 part in 10,000.

A graph of this can be found in Figure 3.

The real value of this equation becomes evident when trouble shooting prover system accuracy and repeatability

problems. If a proving system is not performing properly, the detector actuation variance can be checked and

used in the above calculation to determine if the error is greater than 1 part in 10,000 of the prover volume. If it is,

a detector with a higher precision and closer tolerances is necessary.

Prover detector mechanical repeatability is determined by the detector’s physical dimensions (mass), the number

of its interconnected parts, and its construction tolerances. During a typical meter calibration, prover spheres will

travel between 2.5 and 10 feet per second. When the sphere actuates the detector at these speeds, the detector

is required to travel from its resting to its activating position in a few milliseconds. If the detector is designed to be

light and of few moving parts, the true position of the sphere will be detected. However, if the detector is massive

with many moving parts, the dynamic effects of the additional mass may impact the true position of the sphere.

872

Many interconnected parts or special actuation geometry increase the overall dimensional tolerance of the

detector. In most cases, increases in dimensional tolerances will decrease the detectors ability to determine the

sphere’s true position. Based on the equation in the section above, additional detector dimensional tolerance will

result in an error that could be larger than the minimum resolution of the prover. In new prover design, large

dimensional tolerances may require a larger prover volume. The goal of a good detector design should be to

reduce the number of parts thereby reducing the detector tolerance error.

Construction dimensional tolerances also have a significant impact on a prover’s repeatability. A detector

designed with adequate clearances and the capability to flush debris from the moving parts will likely provide

many years of service. If this is not the case, the true position of the sphere will be misrepresented due to the

detector binding or trash preventing switch actuation. In switches where the detector plunger passed through the

detector body to actuate an electrical switch, if the plunger or the seal wears, leaks could occur which could

cause environmental problems.

Another factor that can affect detector mechanical repeatability is the type of materials used to construct the

detector. Parts that contact each other and that are under high impact loads should be case hardened or made

out of a harder material. Lower cost mild steel components wear faster and should not be substituted for case

hardened parts. In one case, as mild steel parts wear form normal use, the detector tolerance went from .016” to

.125”. This resulted in a significant change in the prover volume.

Even though any prover detector will work if the prover is large enough, a prover designer or measurement

technician will usually obtain better proving results and less maintenance problems with a detector that has fewer

moving parts, close dimensional tolerances, and higher quality materials.

Though often overlooked, prover detector electrical component repeatability can have a significant impact on

prover repeatability. The switching time for both detector electrical switches and any switch relays (electronic or

electro-mechanical) connected between the detector and the flow computer or prover counter, should have a total

switching time less than 1 part in 10,000 of the total time for the proving run. If not, then at a minimum, any

replacement switches should be selected and tested to insure their switch times do not vary more that 1 part in

10,000 from the parts they are replacing. An equation that can be used to determine the time component is,

Ts = L / 10,000 x VSph

Where:

Ts = Switch Timing

VSph = Maximum velocity of the sphere

L = Length of the calibrated section of the prover

A good practice is to test each component’s time constant and mark the constant on each component before

installation on a prover. Then, if a component needs replacing, a component with a similar time constant can be

chosen. One test method that the writer has found successful is described below using detector switches and

relays with double throw switches:

• Connect a signal generator to the detector switch and a high speed counter. The circuit should be wired so

that the signal to the counter is shorted through the switch except when the switch is in transition from

normally open to normally closed.

• Set the signal generator to a fixed frequency, (20-30 kHz) and activate the detector switch.

• Record the number of pulses and divide by the signal generator frequency to determine the time for the

switch to change position

• Test each component and mark the pulse count on the component.

Using components tested with this procedure will reduce the chance of the switching speed of the electrical

components affecting the prover calibration or meter proving.

873

PROVER SPHERE CONTACT LENGTH

Prover sphere contact length can be very important to the performance of a sphere detector. In order to

understand the affect of the sphere contact length, imagine a sphere inflated to a diameter equal to the prover

internal diameter. At this inflation only a very small band of the sphere a few thousands of an inch wide would be

contacting the pipe wall. As the sphere is inflated, the width of the band contacting the pipe wall increases. The

relationship between the sphere inflation and contact length can be determined from the equation below.

3

L = 2/3d[(1+i%) - 1]

Where,

L = contact length

d = internal diameter of pipe

i% = percent increase in sphere diameter and/or circumference (e.g., 2% = 0.02)

On a typical 16 inch sphere at 2% inflation, the contact length with the pipe wall is approximately .622 inches.

However, the average size hole for a prover detector is approximately 1.25 inches. Since the sphere contact

length is less than the diameter of the detector hole, leakage past the sphere will occur. Under normal operations

the amount of time for this leak to occur is very small. Therefore, the amount of leakage will be negligible.

However, if this leak occurs when the prover is water drawn, the very slow movement of the sphere as it

approaches the detector can greatly increase the leakage rate.

In the above text, we covered specific areas that would affect the performance of a proving system. The

equations provided can be used to determined component error that would affect the proving system resolution

by 1 part in 10,000. These should be very useful tools in analyzing prover detector problems. However, it is

important to note that when examining proving system performance, the affect of all of these components

combined should be used to determine a prover’s overall performance.

874

Actuator Movement

Pipe Wall

A2

I2

A1 I1

R

r

ΔX

B1

O1 O2

X2

X1

875

1.4

1.2

0.125 in. Insertion

1 Depth

0.25 in. Insertion

0.8 Depth

Depth

0.4 0.5 in. Insertion

Depth

0.2

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

DETECTOR MOVEMENT (Inches)

(Figure 2) – Sphere versus Detector Relationship at Various Insertion Depths for a 12” Prover with a 0.75”

Diameter Detector Ball

250

200

150 0 .1 2 5 in . In s e rtio n

D e p th

0 .2 5 in . In s e rtio n

Deph

100 0 .3 7 5 in . In s e rtio n

D e p th

0 .5 in . In s e rtio n

D e p th

50

0

0 0 .0 1 0 .0 2 0 .0 3 0 .0 4 0 .0 5 0 .0 6

D E T E C T O R R E P E A T A B IL IT Y (In c h e s )

(Figure 3) Prover Length versus Detector Repeatability at Various Insertion Depths for a 12”

Unidirectional Prover with a 0.75” Diameter Detector Ball

876

- Schem 220CGen2Uploaded bypaul5791
- Spam 66Uploaded bykpr_02161371
- SM D31EX,PX-22_SEN04343-09.pdfUploaded byAbdur Rasyid
- 1000 & 1200 series Perkins.pdfUploaded byJaffer Hussain
- Cat.dcs.Sis.controllerUploaded byramadan ali
- Control Elevador Zetadyn 1dv (1)Uploaded byRoman Ortega
- ElectricityUploaded byjaythakar8887
- NFPA Stipulations on BMS Logic SystemUploaded byJawahar
- 252b hidraulico.pdfUploaded byJose Carmona
- CAT 320 320 GC Hyd. SystemUploaded byeshopmanual baru
- como leer esquemas electricos vwUploaded bypablo
- Panasonic-Multi-Range-Analog-Timers.pdfUploaded byAdrian Catanoiu
- 03_03Annunciator Relays UnitsUploaded byceleritas81
- Pnoz x4 Cat4_en954-1Uploaded byCristian Smarandache
- honeywell-sensing-micro-switch-gla-limit-product-sheet-002408-2-EN (1).pdfUploaded byKj_bd
- Sistem Hidrolik Cat 320DUploaded byZeryn Acr
- Control of Pneumatic Systems Exp-51Uploaded byRajesh Kumar
- TN2531-00_EN-GBUploaded byPedro Campos
- 32ac155enUploaded byLukman Fauzi
- Cilindros Acero Inox. ParkerUploaded byFeli Alcoser
- Speed-Monitor.pdfUploaded byTimothy Fields
- Hydraulic System 336D2 L ZCT00797Uploaded byAnthony Inca Mayta
- Electronic Remort Switch projectUploaded byMuhammad Ibrahim
- LH1540 - HIGH VOLTAGE - SOLID STATE RELAY OPTOCOUPLER.pdfUploaded byraco2013
- doc_2017-08-09.pdfUploaded byCane Setiawan
- 1ZSC000562-ABD enUploaded byFernandoMartínIranzo
- SwitchesUploaded byZavdiel
- 367570369-Demo-Teaching-eim.docxUploaded byRalph Divina
- EEX Electromechanical Level Measuring System-3.pdfUploaded byRosita Kurnia
- Plano eléctrico 797FUploaded byJorge Mejia Miranda

- SCADA Systems 3070Uploaded byCRT Services
- Wet Gas Metering by Isokinetic Sampling (1)Uploaded byCRT Services
- promass_80_coriolisUploaded byCRT Services
- omni_3000_6000_modbus_database_4BUploaded byCRT Services
- Effects of Abnormal Conditions on Accuracy of Orifice MeasurementUploaded byCRT Services
- DOT Qualification Training for Measurement and Control Technicians 8040Uploaded byCRT Services
- Measurement Station Inpsection Program and Guide 1210.1Uploaded byCRT Services
- Meter SelectionUploaded byCRT Services
- Preparing a Prover for a Water Draw Calibration 4190Uploaded byCRT Services
- Recent Innovations in Spread Spectrum Radio Technology for Gas Measurement 3155.1 (1)Uploaded byCRT Services
- Techniques of Gas Spot Sampling 5290Uploaded byCRT Services
- Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters and Provers 4060 (1)Uploaded byCRT Services
- The Role of BLM in Oil and Gas MeasurementUploaded byCRT Services
- Fundamentals of Catalytic Heaters in Measurement Applications 8270Uploaded byCRT Services
- Ethernet for Scada Systems 3125 (2)Uploaded byCRT Services
- Theory and Application of Pulse Interpolation to Prover Systems 4140Uploaded byCRT Services
- Fundamentals of Liquid MEasurement III - DynamicUploaded byCRT Services
- The Impact of Greenhouse Gas MeasurementUploaded byCRT Services
- Fundamentals of Gas Measurement III 1160 (1)Uploaded byCRT Services
- Gauging , Testing and Running of Lease Tanks 2200Uploaded byCRT Services
- Viscosity Compensation of Helical Turbine Metrs 2480.1Uploaded byCRT Services
- Cameron Ball (3)Uploaded byCRT Services

- INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION 1 - אוטומציה תעשייתית 1Uploaded byMichael
- Caterpillar Cat EP20T 36V Forklift Lift Trucks Service Repair Manual.pdfUploaded byfjkskkdhsjmdn
- CAX series.pdfUploaded byAtika Anjum
- Proteus SDKUploaded byReigel Aldo
- HGM6100A-6120AUploaded byThao Nguyen Xuan
- Bender_VMD461_Anleitung_EN.pdfUploaded byAlexandru Ion
- Socomec Delphys Gp 2.0 500kva control panelUploaded bysharifmousavi
- PSAN Digital Pressure Sensor ManualUploaded byrnordell
- Motor Protection Circuit Breaker MPCB OMRON MAKEUploaded byVIJAY MOHAN DAVE
- cy-600-800gii.pdfUploaded byArmando Rivera
- AESA Catalogue LV 05-05.pdfUploaded bytroyel99
- RELAYD~1_(2)Uploaded byamirtha_s2238
- [object XMLDocument]Uploaded byAnkur Rao
- Linde 7919040041 & 7919040042 JoystickUploaded byRunnTech
- event_presentation_final_20150322.pdfUploaded byvanessa quispe
- LOSB9521 ManualUploaded byadelyser
- 1SCC011010K0201Uploaded bytybq
- 7SD Relay CatalogUploaded bySivakumar Natarajan
- BFT_LIBRA_C_MAUploaded bymcil
- CA 6250 User Manual.pdfUploaded bybogdy00733054
- SG60KTL User ManualUploaded byrbalaji1987
- Div 23 HVAC List of ItemsUploaded byAnonymous yniiLti
- Project Ideas 1Uploaded bySyam Mohan
- 21331098_Feedback_DOC_V30_enUploaded byErdinc
- Push&SwitchUploaded bybigopost
- RWC-RWR-bassaUploaded byapi-3769211
- Judo_profimat Jpf Dn65Uploaded byToni Dlabac
- EOT Presentation for MCBsUploaded bySupriya Nanda
- Power+system+Protection.pdfUploaded byBala Murugan
- Cooper CF3000 User Manual.pdfUploaded byThếSơnNguyễn