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Tips & Tricks 2.

Complete rabbet
by sawing tongue
to final width.

JiOP tf P 1. Saw tongue to thickness

Perfect tongue- with tongue between
fence and blade.

and-groove fits
Project plans often call for
rabbeting the edges of a panel
in order to create a tongue that ---
Tunnel under auxiliary
slips into a drawer or rail groove. ·-.- fence prevents
This is often done with a router trapped offcuts.
bit or tablesaw dado head, with
the work fed flat on the table.
Unfortunately, done this way,
'-..._ Featherboard ensures
any inaccuracy in the thickness consistent cuts.
of the stock is transferred to
the thickness of the tongue, against the fence. Set up the first a thick auxiliary fence, raising
creating an ill fit in the groove. cut to rip the tongue to thickness, it enough to create a tunnel for
One way to ensure a perfect feeding the panel on edge with the freed offcut to fall away
tongue-and-groove fit is to the tongue face against the fence. without being pinched between
create the rabbet by making two Use a featherboard to ensure the blade and fence, eliminating
intersecting cuts on the tablesaw, consistency of cut. Now set up to violent ejection of the piece.
feeding the edge to be rabbeted make the intersecting cut against -Harvey Mickelson, Reno, Nevada

Dowel as Share a Slick Tip.

Kerf end of
dowel to hold E
- mini drum Win Cash or a Prize!
sander Here's your chance to help someone become
a better woodworker and get rewarded for the
effort. Next issue's Top Tip will receive a Rockwell
When smoothing
BladeRunner, along with the Picture Frame
concave edges,
Cutter and Circle Cutter accessories for a total
particularly in
value of $243.00. Runners-up will receive $125
confined areas, I find
for an illustrated tip; $75 for an unillustrated
that a dowel wrapped
one. Winning entries become the property of
• in sandpaper and
Woodcraft Magazine. Send your original ideas to:
chucked in a drill
Tips & Tricks, Woodcraft Magazine, P.O. Box 7020,
serves as a great mini drum sander of sorts. To
Parkersburg, WV 26102-7020 or email editor@
make one, bisect one end of a short length of stout Important: Please include
dowel using a handsaw or handsaw, and insert
your phone number, as an editor will need to call
a strip of sandpaper into the kerf. Then chuck
you if your trick is considered for publication.
the other end in a drill. The rotation of the drill ..
as you work causes the paper to wrap around
the dowel, creating the drum sander effect.
The real beauty of this is that, when the paper
wears, you simply tear off the used section to
expose new grit and quickly get back to work.
-Bob Howard, Saint Louis, Missouri

18 April/May 2013

.. Laminate

Adjust bit height

just above surface
adjacent to plug.

Flush-routing plugs • •
From the Inventors
I've found that a router equipped plug projection that remains is of Biscuit Joinery...
with a straight or spiral flute easily sanded or scraped away.
bit does a much faster (and free A laminate trimmer works best
of tear-out) job of cutting plugs because of its maneuverability
flush than does the old saw- and small footprint. However,
and-chisel approach. I simply sometimes adjacent plugs prevent
adjust the tip of the router bit setting the subbase completely
shy of the workpiece surface by onto the work surface. In that
about the thickness of a sheet case, you may have to trim a few
of loose-leaf paper, and then tilt plugs the old-fashioned way to
the router to lower the spinning create a landing pad for the base.
bit onto the end of the plug. The -George Aspinall,
few thousandths of an inch of Tacoma, Washington Lamello
Classic X
The ONLY Biscuit Joiner
with a flush-sided
Met baseplate,
swiveling front stop and
stop square for exact
positioning from
· ta 1••-1~ '------i

Drill Straight - Every Time!
Can be used on flat surfaces,
round parts and corners.

Illustrations: Chris Glowacki April/May 2013 19

Tips & Tricks

Vise-assistance from Nestle work Cozy winter

between sanding
sanding sponges . . .
sponges 1n vise Jaws.
When I started making --- ) During cold weather, I rely
wooden spoons using gouges, ..... - . . on space heaters to keep my
spokeshaves, and a ~------:-~---,.:_ - - garage shop comfortable.
drawknife, the biggest When I turn off the heat, the
problem was clamping temperature quickly drops
the curved spoon blanks in to outdoor levels. Since many
my vise for shaping. As I was glue-ups fail when done in
smoothing a completed spoon one temperatures below 50°F, I
day, I realized that the sanding cover end-of-day assemblies
sponge I was using might do with an old electric blanket.
double-duty to help hold the Running the blanket is safer
workpiece in the vise. Sure with grit on both faces work even and much cheaper than
enough, I found that sandwiching better. Obviously, this technique heating the whole shop
the spoon blank between two can help when clamping any overnight for the sake
sponges (grit against the wood) number of odd shapes in a vise. of a few boards.
considerably increased the grip -Alejandro Ba/bis, -Jeff Day, Perkasie,
of the vise on the work. Sponges Longueuil, Quebec Pennsylvania

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Same Great Products

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Mfg. in Switzerland by Scies Miniatures, a Division of Grobet USA, Carlstadt, NJ 07072

20 April/May 2013

Squaring up a ....__
hollow chisel -~
1. Place rare-
When setting up a hollow chisel ,,...;;.::i--=~-- earth magnet
against front
mortiser to make a cut, it's -... of chisel.
important that the chisel be set
square to the machine fence.
If it's cocked, your mortise
.__ 2. Place steel rule
wall won't be flat and smooth, against rear of chisel.
compromising the strength of I
the joint. To set larger chisels, ~-- .
it's easy enough to press a small ' 3. Measure from ends of
machinist's square against - magnetized rule to fence
the fence and chisel to check to check parallelism.
the angle. However, getting a •
read on a smaller chisel this
way can be difficult, especially against the outward face of to the fence. Simply measure to
for weak or mature eyes. the chisel. Then place a steel the fence from each end of the
Instead, try this: First, 6" rule against the inward ruler, rotating your chisel as
secure your fence at the desired face. The ruler serves as a long necessary to bring the rule and
distance from the chisel, and reference surface for gauging fence into perfect alignment.
place a small rare-earth magnet parallelism (and thus square) -Paul Anthony, senior editor

\ l'U r:

April/May 2013 21

By Mario Rodriguez

any of us remember this box offers several low- shot. You can shorten the sides
Dad's toolbox and how it always risk opportunities to practice and handle to compensate.
seemed to have everything traditional joinery, including I chose mahogany for the body
needed to repair a broken chair through dovetails and wedged of the box because it's a friendly
or hang a screen door. Wanting tenons. If you make a mistake and forgiving wood-perfect for
to build my own all-purpose when cutting the dovetails, don't hand-cut joinery. As an added
tool tote, I decided to take fret. Just use the metal template bonus, it takes on a beautifully
Dad's nailed-together box up to retrace your tails on a new rich, deep color as it ages. For
a notch to ensure that it will piece and try again. If you mess the handle, I chose red oak,
be around for the grandkids. up the pins on the bottom board, not only for strength, but also
Aside from its obvious utility, cut them off and give it another because if offers a nice contrast.

22 April/May 2013

Figure 1: Tool Tote Exploded View

Round edges for comfort -

~ S wedge
Saw cuts .
for wedges '

% 11
deep m rtise mortise

#8 x 11h" flathead screws '- %x ~ x 3~" tenon, centered
- Y4" bead

Start with the ends to lay out the first half of the end the opposite half. Now lay out
1 From ~A"-thick stock, cut the profile, as shown in Photo A, the location of the through-
ends (A) and bottom (B) to the then flip the pattern and trace mortise for the handle (D).
sizes listed in the Cut List. Also
cut ~,4"-thick material for the sides
(C) and handle (D), but leave these
parts oversized in length for now.
(You'll trim them to final length
after cutting the dovetails.)
2 Using the pattern on page 28,
make a half-pattern of the end
(A) from l,4"-thick plywood. Use it

Tip Alert
To prevent the pattern from
slipping, drive a few finish nails
through the plywood, and then
nip the nails so that only a small
Ltip remains. Lay out the ends of the tote using a half-pattern,
which guarantees perfect symmetry.

Photos: Paul Anthony; Illustrations: Melanie Powell April/May 2013 23

Score the baseline with a utility knife, and then
cut the tail cheeks using heavy-duty scissors. Trace the tail pattern onto the bottom of both end
The waste should snap off with a little bending. boards. A marking knife produces a crisp line.

Cut the dovetails tails on both ends. The template visibility, you can run a fine-
1 Make a master template of a also allows testing the look of the tipped pencil over the knife lines.)
single pin socket from aluminum dovetails without wasting wood.) 3 Clamp the board at a
flashing to suit your desired 2 Set a marking gauge about 1/M-" comfortable height in a face
angle and pin width. (You may wider than the thickness of your vise and cut the tails, as shown
also use the pattern provided stock, and then scribe baselines in Photo D. Focus on executing
on page 28.) Using this master on both faces of the end (A) and clean cuts that are perpendicular
template, make a full-width bottom (B) boards. Next, align the to the face of the board. (Because
dovetail template on a 7'1h"-wide dovetail template with the scribed you will use this piece to lay out
strip of aluminum flashing line on the outside face of an end the mating pins, it's OK if your
(available at home supply and trace the tails, as shown in vertical angle is a little off.)
stores). Then carefully cut the Photo C. Use a square to extend 4 To remove the waste between
template, as shown in Photo B. the tail lines across the end grain. the tails, change saws and start
[Note: Tracing is faster and easier Now repeat the process with by sawing most of it away, as
than individually laying out the the other end board. (For better shown in Photo E. Next, clean out
the remaining material with a
freshly-honed chisel (Photo F).
(You may also want to use a
knife to clean out the corners.)
5 Clamp the bottom (B)
vertically into a vise, position
the end board (A) on top, and
then lay out the pins, as shown
in Photo G. Make sure that the
edges of both pieces are flush
and that the baseline on the
end aligns with the inside face
of the bottom. (For reaching
between the tails, I prefer
using a thin-bladed carving
knife.) Remove the end board,
and then use a small square to
As you saw to the layout lines, let your dovetail saw extend the pin marks down to
do the work. Stop just a hair shy of the baseline. the baseline on both faces.

24 April/May 2013

Finish the tails with a chisel. When paring down
Use a jeweler's saw to remove the bulk of the waste to the baseline, rest the back of the chisel
between the tails. Stay just above the scribed baseline. against your non-dominant hand, as shown.

6 Clamp the bottom (B) in your to the baseline. (I prefer (Note: Don't assemble/
bench vise and saw the pins. As sawing my pins a bit fat, disassemble more often
before, use a dovetail saw to cut and then paring them for a than absolutely necessary.
down to your baseline, remove perfect fit.) Test the fit, make Too many test-fits can create
the bulk of the waste with a any needed adjustments, and gaps or cause damage
jeweler's saw, and then pare then repeat the operation to a pin or tail.)
away the remaining wood on the opposite end.

Tip Alert
Wedged To Perfection When laying out the pins and
If you d iscover a gap or two in Next, cut a strip of wood from a when test-fitting the joint, be sure
your dovetail joints, don't fret- matching piece of scrap to fit the to use the matching end panel.
there's an easy fix. First, glue up kerf. Glue in the strip, allow time
the joint. After the glue dries, to dry, and then trim it flush.
saw along the offending gap. (For a super-tight patch, cut
the filler piece slightly oversize
in thickness, and compress it
in a vise. It will swell up in the
gap when you add the glue.)

Use the tails to lay out the pins on

the bottom. Make sure that the
edges of both pieces are flush.

April/May 2013 25

Drill overlapping holes to establish Rest the chisel's corner on the Use a block to guide your chisel
the mortise for the sides. Use a scribe line, and pivot the tool to and to prevent it from cutting
fence to keep the holes aligned. create a clean-walled mortise. past your layout lines.

Lay out and cut outside your lines. Next, (I prefer cutting my tenons a
the mortises stack the two end pieces bit fat, and then trimming the
1 Using a marking gauge, lay together using double-faced cheeks to fit with a shoulder
out the side mortises on the tape to keep them aligned, plane.) At the handsaw, cut
inside faces of the end boards and then sand the pair on an the curved profile and the
(A). Chuck a !/a" brad-point oscillating spindle sander. kerfs for the wedges.
or Forstner bit in your drill 5 Use a spokeshave to remove
press, and remove the bulk of Custom-fit the saw marks on the handle,
the waste for the sides (C) and handle and sides refine the curve, and round
handle (D), where shown on 1 Crosscut the sides (C) and over the sharp edges. You can
Figure 1 and as seen in Photo H. handle (D) to fit your tote. choose to leave tool marks, or
When drilling the 1 A"-deep Adjust the length of the handle if you wish, you can continue
holes for the sides, use a fence so that the shoulder-to-shoulder smoothing the handle with a
to ensure perfect alignment. distance is equal to the tote's scraper and sanding blocks.
Position a backer board under inside dimension, and the tenons 6 You're now ready to dry-fit
the end to prevent blow-out protrude past the ends by 1,4". your tote. The trick here is to
when drilling the through 2 Using a table-mounted take your time. Starting with
mortise for the handle. router and beading bit, rout one corner, attach one end (A)
2 Using freshly-honed chisels, the bottom edge of the side to the bottom (B) and carefully
clean up the drilled mortises in panels (C), where shown in drive the dovetails just short of
the ends (A). To pare the sides Figure 1. (Even though this is a home (Photo K). (Work slowly
of the shallow blind mortises, light cut, I routed the profile in while watching and listening
I used a 1"-wide chisel, as two passes to prevent tear-out.) closely for any splitting.)
shown in Photo I, and a ~/1"­ 3 Using the pattern provided Next, insert the sides (C) and
wide chisel to pare the mortise on page 28, create a half- handle (D) and then test-fit
ends. To clean up the though pattern for the handle, and then the opposite end (Photo L).
mortise for the handle, clamp a trace the curve on your stock. 7 Carefully disassemble your
guide block against your layout Double-check the shoulder-to- tote. If you're so inclined, now's
line, as shown in Photo J. shoulder length for a tight fit. the time to sand the inside
3 Cut the curves on each 4 Outfit your tablesaw with a surfaces. Just remember to
end board (A) separately on dado head, and cut the tenon go easy around the joinery to
the handsaw, staying slightly shoulders on the handle (D). avoid introducing any gaps.
26 April/May 2013
Set the sides and handle
Use light taps when attaching the end to the bottom. If the parts require in place before attaching
too much persuasion, remove the end and pare the offending pins. the opposite end.

Assembly and finish

1 Make a few 5° wedges from
scrapwood. Now, apply glue to
the tails, pins, and tenons, and About Our Author
reassemble your tote. Pull the A custom furnituremaker for over
assembly together with clamps, 35 years, Mario Rodriguez now
and leave them in place until spends much of his time teaching
the glue cures. Brush glue in the aspiring woodworkers at the
handle kerfs and tap the wedges Philadelphia Furniture Wo rkshop.
into the handle (B). Finally, He is the author of Traditional
secure the sides to the bottom Woodwork and Building Fireplace
with countersunk 11h "-long Mantels (Taunton Press).
screws where shown in Figure 1.
2 Trim the wedges with a
flush-cut saw, and then smooth Craftsman's Tool Tote Cut List
the dovetail joints and handle Part Thickness Width Length Qty. Mat'I
ends with a block plane. Work
A Ends ~4 11 7lh 11 12 11 2 M
carefully, taking light cuts until
the surfaces are perfectly flush. B Bottom ~A ll 7Yi 11 25~
1 p

Finally, finish-sand the outside C* Sides JA,11 411 24~

2 M
of the tote through 220 grit. D* Handle 3.All 211 254A.11 2 RO
3 Finish isn't necessary, * Indicates parts that are initially cut oversized . See instructions.
but it shows off your work and Materials: M=Mahogany, P=Plywood, RO=Red Oak
offers a little extra protection. Hardware: (6) #8 x 1 ~ flathead screws, aluminum flashing
I applied three coats ofWaterlox,
allowing the finish a few days Convenience-PLUS BUYING GUIDE ,
to cure before rubbing it out 0 1. • Whit eside Edge Beading Router Bit
with 0000 steel wool. Finally, 1 11 11
. / . bead (l,4 SH)
#814384 $36.49
I applied a coat of wax.
0 2. Waterlox Original Sealer Finish, 1 qt. #37J21 $26.99
4 Pack your tote with
tools, and tackle the next Above it ems are available at Woodcraft stores, or by calling (800) 225-1153.
Prices subject to change without not ice.
chore on your list. •
April/May 2013 27
Handle Pattern Half-sized End Pattern Half-sized

- I

. - -. •

,,' i• I ;•
• ... . ." •

--· -



- ,,

- -

-· ,,

:" ~

- -- ,_ -


- ~ - -- ~





' ~ - ·-= ~

t .dJ

Dovetail Master Half-Sized


Enlarge 200% 1square=1 11

Fu lt=.Si7e.d p.atter~v_ai l ;:i,bJ fo r do\A1nJoad
on 80°

28 April/May 2013

Arts & Crafts Set
This lamp project
complements other pieces
in the magazine's Arts
& Crafts line, including
coffee and end tables, a
TV stand, and a bookcase.
Find these designs as paper
plans or downloads at

Overall dimensions: 17"w x 17"d x 215A"h

30 April/May 2013

Figure 1: Lamp Exploded View

Shaft Detail
Note: Shaded areas
receive dadoes.

Amber mica - 1
• 11" cap nut

.--..___ Two-light
pull-chain cluster

1." dado, V. deep,
8 11
- ,, ..--- 11" chamfers
centered ""' at ends only

Angle dado set at h" channel, .

VB" chamfer
~" deep
fl!." notch, '-h" deep - - - - - - - 33Vt align top
; made after
- corner of set with veneer is added.
alignment mark
and cut 1,.4," deep.

Leg Detail
~"chamfers --------:

.4r" shank holes


-.....- __-....._,_ #8 x 1¥2" flathead

screw, countersunk
Bf." brass-plated
1 , , , . , - -

%" counterbore
washer with %6 hole11
-......________ 2" dado, 31." deep, on bottom
centered face with 1"/s1t"
through hole
1111 chamfers

a;." female bushing - - ---- ,.,,.,-

Brown twisted lamp ~---/_,,,,_,,_,
cord with plug

Build the base first to face, aligning the channels. the edges of the veneers and
1 Mill enough quartersawn oak Wipe off any squeeze-out. Let shaft halves flush. You goal is to
stock for the shaft halves (A), dry, and then joint and plane achieve a 1\.~ x 1'1h" shaft that
corbels (C), legs (D), and feet (E) both glue-joint faces to end up displays quartersawn figure
to the thicknesses in the Cut List. with a 1 1,4 x 11h" shaft blank. all around. Cut the lamination
2 Cut two ~,4"-thick pieces to 3 Resaw and plane two 1/1"- to the final shaft length.
1~le" wide x 16" long for the shaft thick shaft veneers (B) from 4 With a dado set and miter
halves (A). Now, rout 1h" channels quartersawn oak stock. Laminate gauge extension fence, cut the
f.t." deep on one face of each piece the veneers to the glue-joint centered !,4" notches 1h" deep in
where shown in the Shaft Detail shaft surfaces. (See the Shaft the top end of the shaft (A/B) as
in Figure 1. Glue the pieces face Detail in Figure 1.) Now, sand shown in Photo A. Make one cut,

Opening photo: Larry Hamel-Lambert; Project photos: Eric Stashak: Illustrations: Christopher Mills April/May 2013 31
Use a triangular scrap piece to keep the shaft With a !A" blade, stack-cut the corbels at the
snug to the fence while cutting the notches. bandsaw, staying just outside the line.

:orbe Half- Sized 'atter 11 1

~ chamfer - - .,. ~

Use the jig handles to safely move the curved base against the bit's
bearing as you flush-trim the corbel, cutting with the grain.

Figure 2: Corbel Jig

~;. x 1 x 4 11
• Stop
#8 x 1~ flathead • ~14 x 1 x 21h11
screw (to secure I •'
rough-cut corbel)
__/ ' I


/. x 1 x 14Y2 11

% 11 chamfers <r:--./ -~


#8 x 11h - -- Base
~ 14~
flathead screw x5x
I .

Note: Use corbel pattern to :: u11-s i2Pd- 0-a ttP( n ;::u _a iJ~ b Ie.fn ::.. d-0'"' oJo.c .cl

scribe and cut curve. on woodcraftmagazine. com/mag patterns.

32 April/May 2013

Drill pilot holes in the lamp
Employ a pair of customized spacers to hold the corbels corbels while guiding off the
in place during the gluing and clamping operation. shank holes in the legs.

turn the shaft 90° so an adjacent remaining three pieces. Use the exposed edges of the base parts
face is against the fence, and corbel shape in the jig's base to lay (feet, legs, shaft, and corbels),
make the second cut. Note that out the narrow chamfered ends where shown in Figure 1. Center
the extension fence prevents of the corbels. Finally, handsaw and glue the feet (E) onto the legs
tear-out on the trailing shaft face. and disc-sand the ends to the line. (D) so they extend !/•" beyond
5 Cut four pieces of ~A"-thick 8 Cut two legs (D) to size from the edges and ends. Now apply
oak to 3 x 11". Stack the pieces ~1'"-thick oak. Using a dado set glue in the cross-lap dadoes
together using double-faced and miter gauge extension and clamp the legs together.
tape, aligning the ends and fence, cut the 2" cross-lap 13 With a pair of!i/t1"-thick
edges. Either adhere a copy dadoes 3/~" deep in the legs, spacers that have 'S/1~" rabbets
of the Corbel Pattern on the where shown in Figure 1. /e" deep along one edge, glue
top piece aligning it at one end 9 Drill centered -S/~" shank holes and clamp the corbels (C) onto
and one edge, or cut out the in the legs (D), where shown the shaft (A/B), ensuring the
pattern and scribe it onto the in the Leg Detail in Figure 1, parts are centered and flush at
piece as I did. Now, stack-cut the countersinking the holes on the the bottom end (Photo D). Use
corbels (C) to rough shape at the bottom faces for #8 screws. a moderate amount out of glue
handsaw, as shown in Photo B. 10 From s;~" stock, cut four to avoid squeeze-out. Let it dry.
6 Make the Corbel Jig in Figure feet (E) to size, and then 14 Clamp the shaft/corbel
2. First, tran sfer the Corbel rout 1/s"chamfers along three assembly (A/B/C) upside down
Pattern along one edge of a 5 x of four top edges, where in a bench vise. Add the legs/feet
141h" base piece where shown shown in Figure 1. Leave the assemblies (D/E) at the bottom
and handsaw it to rough shape. chamfering setup for Step 12. end of the shaft. Now, insert
Now, sand to the line at the 11 Return to the drill press and, the threaded steel nipple in the
oscillating spindle sander for a using a 7/8 Forstner bit, drill a
shaft, and temporarily add the
smooth, clean edge, replicating h"-deep counterbore centered washers and hex nuts at the top
the pattern exactly. Cut the other in the bottom face of the unglued and bottom of the lamp base to
parts. Drill the holes in the fence feet assembly. Switch to a 3/a" clamp the assemblies together.
where shown and glue and pin- brad-point bit, and drill a through Align and center the top faces
nail the fence and stop to the hole at the same location. Enlarge of the legs over the corbels, and
base. Screw on the handles. the hole to 1 ~h~" using a twist bit. tighten the nuts. Guiding off the
7 Separate the four corbels (C), (If your brad-point bit collection countersunk holes drilled earlier,
and screw one of them in the includes the less common 13/~2" drill ~h:l" screw pilot holes in the
jig for a firm hold. Now, with a bit size, skip drilling the 3/e" hole corbels, as shown in Photo E.
top-bearing flush-trim bit, flush- and drill the 1 ~h~" hole with it.) Remove the hardware. The two
trim the corbel at the router 12 At the router table, cut assemblies will be screwed
1/s" chamfers on the outside or
table (Photo C). Repeat for the together later after finishing.

April/May 2013 33

Test-cut rabbets in the ends of the mating frame
parts, using a notched hold-down stick and stop Hold two mating frame pieces together, rabbet
to safely control the part during the cut. to rabbet, to confirm a flush half-lap joint.

Figure 3: Shade Exploded View

4-_4" rabbet,
5 11
h6 rabbet, i;." deep
% deep

Silicone caulk
(to hold mica 50° ...
panels in place) Half-lap joint
beveled edges
(set miter gauge
angle at 22~ )

Build the shade display quartersawn figure miter gauge 40° to the right or
1 Mill enough stock for the on the parts' outside faces. left of 90° as needed. Hold two
upper rails (F), lower rails (G), 2 Lock in the miter gauge and mating pieces together, as shown
side rails (H), and shade supports extension fence to 40° from 90°. in Photo G, to test the fit. Adjust
(I) to the widths and thicknesses Referring to Figure 3, miter-cut the rabbet depth and/or the saw
in the Cut List. Mill enough the shade frame pieces-plus fenceifneeded.Then,proceed
extra material for test cuts and extras-for the upper rails (F), rabbeting the shade frame parts
setups. Precision is critical here. lower rails (G), and side rails (F, G, H), cutting one end of
Note: Prior to cutting the 50° (H). Use stops and make test each piece at one setting. Then
miters on the shade parts, cuts on the extra pieces to sneak adjust the miter gauge angle
orient the cutting stock to up on the exact part lengths. to rabbet the opposite ends.
3 Install a dado set in the 4 Build the Shade Frame
tablesaw, and raise the blade Clamping Jig in Figure 4. Apply
Tip Alert to ~/9", Set the saw fence 1,4it-" glue in the rabbets, and clamp
Bevel the inside end of the miter from the dado set to prevent an upper rail (F), lower rail (G),
gauge extension fence at 50° for gouging its face. Using a miter and side rails (H) together in the
zero-clearance support at the saw gauge extension fence, cut test jig to create one shade frame,
fence. Dado-cut the frame parts rabbets on the scrap pieces to as shown in Photo H. Wipe
twice to counter any deflection. the needed width and depth, as away any squeeze-out with a
shown in Photo F, adjusting the clean, moistened rag. Let the

34 April/May 2013

Fit the frame parts in the clamping jig, and use a Set up the depth stop and a beveled fence
pair of spring clamps to hold them tightly in place. stop on your drill press, and bore out the
Then use C-clamps to snug the half-lap joints lower corners in the rabbeted frames .

Using a stop with a compound cut

With the saw set up precisely, fit the shade frame against the stop- against the frame's beveled edge,
outside face up-and bevel-cut the left-hand edges of the shade frames. bevel-cut the opposite side edge.

glue dry, and repeat the process Figure 4: Shade Assembly Clamping Jig
to make the other three shade
frames. Sand the joints smooth. Base
5 Using a rabbeting bit and ~ x 181' x l lh" 3
,4" plywood
bearing having the appropriate I t
diameter, rout the 5hf>" rabbets
h " deep in increments around
the inside faces of the shade 7~"
50° '
frames (F/G/H). Clean up
the lower rabbeted corners ---~y-~-~-~--
',- -.......
_ - 17" --
with a 3A"-diameter Forstner I
bit, as shown in Photo I.
Clean up any unevenness in 11
1 pin na ils
the corners with a chisel.
6 At the tablesaw, tilt the blade

at 221h 0 • Using a 40° angled stop Spacer

l,4 x 1llfs x 73/4 11
and a stiff, long, miter gauge
extension fence angled at 40°
from 90° in the appropriate slot,
bevel-cut the left side edges of

April/May 2013 35

Apply glue along the beveled shade frame
edges, and hold the frames snugly together Use a utility knife and the plywood template to
using spring clamps (and pin nails if needed). cut out pieces of sheet mica for the lamp shade.

the shade frames as shown in and assemble the lamp shade as Make the cuts in the top faces
Photo J. Here, you want to keep shown in Photo L. Wipe up any of the shade supports, where
the outside faces up and make squeeze-out. After the glue dries, shown in Figure 1, keeping
sure the blade cuts right along sand the shade assembly smooth. the short legs of the notches
the outside corner of the side (H). 9 From 1h " stock, cut the shade to the outside ends. Note that
7 Working from the other miter supports (I) to size. Cut 3,4" the bottom angled edges of the
slot and using the same miter dadoes, 1,4" deep at the center shade's lower rails (G) must seat
gauge setting and blade angle, flip on the opposing faces of each in the corners of the notches
the frames top to bottom, placing piece. Temporarily assemble the established by the marks.
their outside faces down. Now, supports, and place the shade 10 Disc-sand 1/e" chamfers
bevel-cut the frame's opposite on the assembly, centering it. on the ends of the supports
side (H), as shown in Photo K. Mark exactly where the shade (I). Temporarily fit the pieces
8 Working on a flat surface, contacts the supports. Next, together, and test their fit in the
apply glue to the beveled edges angle the dado set at 3 31h 0 and notches at the top end of the
of the shade frames (F/G/H), adjust the height to cut 1,4" deep. shaft. Rest the shade assembly

To wire your lamp, sockets. Insert the lamp

cut the threaded steel cord through the nipple Lamp Wiring Diagram
nipple to 17", and and into the housing.
then insert it into the Now, as shown at right, Light socket ·

shaft. Add a washer, strip 1" of insulation

hex nut, and bushing off the neutral braided Wire nut
at the bottom. Fit on wires and the hot
the shade supports (I) braided wires. Twist the Neutral Hot wires
over the protruding wire ends clockwise- wires
nipple and into the hot to hot, neutral to
notches at the top of neutral-creating two
the shaft. Add another groupings. Cap the Underwriters . -
Laboratories knot
washer and hex nut connections with wire
and screw on the two- nuts. Add the lid. Top
Wire housing
light pull chain cluster. it with the 1" " steel
Remove the lid to the nipple and brass nut.
wire housing exposing Add two 40-watt bulbs
the wires for the light and test the lamp.

36 April/May 201i

on the supports. Carefully Arts & Crafts Table Lamp Cut List
sand the pieces as needed. Part Thickness Width Length Qty. Mat'I
11 Glue the shade supports (I)
together. After the glue dries,
A*t Shaft halves !!~II 13~11 11
use a brad-point bit to drill the 15% 2 QRO
centered 13/3~" through hole, B Shaft veneers 1,4" 111211 155-4
where shown in Figure 1. 11
c Corbels !!J4" 2112 10 11 4 QRO
12 Finish-sand, stain, and
finish the lamp assemblies. D Legs !IJ4" 2" 10 11 2 QRO
(I used General Finishes E Feet %" 2~1.11 2!!f." 4 QRO
Water-Base Stains in black
cherry and mahogany in Shade

a one-to-one mixture and F* Upper rails "!!J4 II '!lf4 II 4 1~A6

three coats of a satin lacquer 11
G* Lower rails !IJ4" !IJ4" 17 4 QRO
finish.) Assemble the base.
13 Measure the size of the H* Side rails !!~II ~~II 11\.\i" 8 QRO
rabbeted opening in the shade I Shade supports Vi" '!!J4" 17~" 2 QRO
frames, and cut and sand a piece
Materials: QRO - quartersawn red oak
of scrap plywood to fit in the
*Indicates parts that are initially cut oversize. See instructions.
opening. Now, use the plywood t Shaft halves combine with the shaft veneers to make up a 1s;1 x 1s1'" square shaft.
template and a guide to cut out Hardware/Supplies: Silicone caulk; (6) #8 x 1~" flathead screws;
four pieces of sheet mica, as (2) #8 x 1V. flathead screws.
shown in Photo M. Round the - - - - -

corners of the mica at a disc Convenience-PLUS BUYING GUIDE

sander. Next, lay down beads of 1. Freud 7-Pc. Rabbeting Bit Set w/Bearings, #828705 ' $57.47 I

silicone and fit the pieces in the h CL (% 11 SH)

1 11 '

rabbeted shade frames (F/G/H). 2. Freud Top Bearing Flush Trim Bit, #845409 $35.47
14 Wire the lamp as described 11 11
~.4 D, l 11 CL (% SH)

at left. Then find a place for this

3. General Finishes Water-Base Stain, #818821 $15.99 I

charming home accent. • Black Cherry, 1 qt.


4. General Finishes Water-Base Stain, #812153 $15.99

Brown Mahogany, 1 qt.
About Our Designer/Builder
5. Watco Lacquer, Satin, Spray, 16 oz. #146950 $8.50 I

Since 1980, custom furniture I

maker Tom Svec Above items are available at Woodcraft stores, or by calling (800) 225-1153.
Prices subject to change without notice.
has maintained
a workshop and 06. 1
/8 11 IPS Brass Hex Nut, 2 needed NU424 .• $ .10 ea.

studio on Great 07. 1

/8 11 IPS Female Bushing BG201B $ .10
Island, just east
08. ~J4" x 'li6 11 Hole Brass-Plated Washer, 2 needed WABP0-3/4 $ .07 ea.
of Lock Haven,
Pennsylvania. 09. 10' Brown Twisted Cord Set w/Molded Plug WICTlOBR I $10.00
It's here where 1 11
;8 IPS Hex Head Acorn Cap Fll/2HEX $ .38

010. I

he creates
011. Two-Light Pull Chain Cluster, Antique Brass CLSAB2PW $10.00
and builds his

signature lines of 012. ~J4" x V. 11 IPS Steel Nipple NI0-3/4Xl/8 . $ .10


tables, benches, beds, and

Cl 13. 18 11 x l;! 11 IPS Steel Nipple Nl18-0X1/8 $1.95
home accents, many in
Above items are available at Grand Brass Lamp Parts, or by calling (212) 226-2567.
the contemporary style, Prices subject to change without notice.

using local hardwoods. For

014. Mica, Amber, .030"-thick, 18 x 36 11 sheet $28.00
more, visit his website at
I Above item is available at Asheville-Schoonmaker Mica Co., or by calling (800) 385- I
7311. Prices subject to change without notice. '


April/May 2013 37

orta le . eas r1o s ,o be · h cap ble of o1d1 up o
30 lbs Co ' tV\r a sa • orses a 1d et! e t e I ho d up to 2,000 I s
encl ~ca e onnac d tog h ta 1or a rorks tion 1n u ca co ect as 1an'
b c s as ec s r t c a b ch si ed to o r sp c c: eeds. uIB C s rfac
meas es 30 ' 2 d s 2· n h 1g ht E ch b nch as a 2 °- ' b r nt 1 se a a
5r-a ircuit p~ t d o er us four lasti be c og-.;.

u ck And sy Setup
We ghs J t 23 lbs.

Connect And Create L rge

lorksurfaces To Suit Any Need

Far A :Free CBtalQg Or To rid Your ocal Woodortlft Store s wDOdcrattcom Dr C.aU 800-225 153.
Far lnlonnat1an 011 !Wbodcrall eta IF ncNlso ti i t woodcr f frat

Use the match-maker chart
for all of your glue-up needs
By Joe Hurst-Wajszczuk

Unless your woodworking Eventually, you'll start There are dozens of choices,
projects are limited to in on a project only to find but selecting a suitable adhesive
knockdown furniture and that your go-to glue may not needn't be dizzying. I've divided
timber-frame barns, you are satisfy the bonding needs of the woodworking glues into a few
already quite familiar with a the materials or task at hand. basic catego ries and provided
variety of tubes, bottles, bags When that happens, you'll a side-by-side comparison to
and jugs of this sticky stuff. find yourself at the mercy of help you quickly weigh your
Over the years, you've probably catalogs and home centers options. In addition to the
grown used to working with looking for the perfect product. quick-reference chart on page
a few favorites, and even 40, you'll find adhesive advice
learned some tricks to deal focusing on common problems,
with less-desirable qualities. as well as valuable suggestions
destined to stick with you.

Photos: Larry Hamel-Lambert April/May 2013 39

Glue Slmp1e uncompo ded Compound Com ound Compou d
f>Olyv ~etate {P\l ) :A P\IA PVA

e 0 ~m e.s m nule!. ut
00 mlruJlr aa u~ i
4 2 hou

Ch: Ila br ,4'

Cleanup w r

ad mv
nee ype II)

2 nd 1ni

Cost B for fi o l lb.


b ~ ... r. a ad t Sarn1uf.:1r.ion ~nu aut• tt a ... 1r1 din'

n l -~. 10-~d o ·• and I .•tao1: ., 1 101?.!ur catrte:t

Pot I I rl I u l ti Cl t11p lt tl t tl 1 u l1t

I nt lJ ·o
I I 0, - !J.
1e lue SS
l •J1 asst n bl • 710 I L n c!a -. •n f, 1 tJ( •

40 April/May 2013



1- --

Uqu Pol urethane Urea ~rmaJde Cyanoacr~ate

/A D

D m 1nLJl .. ~


l.!J •

1 :ear
SS ror sa • 2 mla
8 t tee for wet Be far q paer
~d nd lbe n Kt.el~aa\or or
mnus bo 'MOc1d to nst11 t bonds... Kt.ep
Lllck no11 wood • bottle Of dei>aDder
n6f ar 1tt1den I

Cure time: The time it takes for a glue joint glues to spoil prematurely. Under ideal
to achieve full 100% bonding strength. conditions, adhesives remain useable for
Shelf life: The period of time that glue longer time periods. If a glue appears
remains useable. (Note: Excessive heat, humidity, abnormal, test first, or toss it in the trash.)
or repeated freeze/thaw cycles will cause

April/May 2013 41

Under the ideal situations, all working time, and weather In some cases, several glues
woodworking glues are capable resistance. Here's a quick-pick can fit the bill. Study the
of creating bonds stronger than guide to help you select the right working properties of each
the wood. Selecting the "best" glue for new work or old, indoors glue in the chart to see if you
adhesive depends on other or outside, and the variety of can use what you have on hand,
factors, including temperature, materials woodworkers use. or if it's time to go shopping.

Fl ox
ec ss G a •es, r splr: tors. o es,, nd
I e dece t
av en , b t I re c-oocern d
btl l
daesn t na
' I r
p )ect.s, e:r:e p e ns • b e
u I nes nd a ,
I m n o s th t os st1a e I I
true res. c e p can cp-eJ 0 n fa lu
D ta a
Avoid! t lue 1ost. b
c n er Ion -te I rls
0 1 re po
h s ore co
c t
t ep ' ·:S st nee. A
n,~ , po nt ot b nfe, •

p t

e, of n ace tor. sbo d tit~. ureth n a low
ork1n • n n tv. 1 ., co 1fort b •ork n m
ndcu 5; Uri • fClir com I c t d I -ups
lreae o on e nutes, b b t keep tl1 la r p:s on unn
0 e con d r bl s r ngtt1. n I c re o th · f o c
ca s o n s ro open. o
Slo on Il l ncl liqu d llU (
o en hd 0 n
u - flo •er n tu r
Fast! Hot tt d gl e tac s time_. t •II :so bu ' or n e.
utesr ut " • ad d b f

42 April/May 2013

11 mpe nsi p
'J p:a he s:pac .. a ur llin&
th s h v less tlian
c: C() [j to S. a. need tc
Avoid: I,\ . f\11 ost o th · re r qu re .em er: 0 " so 0
1 • n lo I • ns l 1 p r t r
fel b la tis I mper tu e nd tt aa wtl I kel I
5_ es • ut ii? r
l Inc 111 1 c:~nd . 0 :St OU C n 5 cf a
to h Ip po>:v c n., tebond J t 1; n no
b us ~ lf u d t I t • , d
f OU t e sed 1 ca d r ~ eath r. or fO 0
rl d
a - I

AYO d! DI r
I her: ·s d ff renc d nta ew a I <:ur
t proof onser t o~ pr
ter--r s st l I ~ t va• -otd.

su ted for. con st n a _r ca t Gt c ses, he

tl1 n testi b t fort 1
c o t Im h
n ec I w ..

urea orm de '·- ·'-~'""""" II I D ' fu WO U

..... r ..... r o n. or pro, Cls tl o t toe b sh
pas - o- od ~ont ct. I
atebon I IL. (60-...u.... Bl'' ..,,
;io., . .. . . .

0 en ebo d Ill ,._,,...,.,

en cho ce fo s1
Avo d: V te d 1d
an u d bo
I ot 2 ter. J h s n n orm dd

Custom PVA Blends

s Ion gu r t sefu
o p 'e gl e c b· te o d r~ lam n e.
s h name .__ _
:o In
'"r'"'• m ng
u .. It
I Dark c

Illustrations: Shayne Hiles April/May 2013 43

here are few things that without appearing oversized benches shown here) while
compare with the simple joy or undersized. She wanted incorporating gentle curves
of sitting down for a nice meal something with the kind of and inward slanting legs to
outdoors with the sun shining subtle grace that is usually provide comfort and a touch
and a gentle breeze blowing. lacking in commercial outdoor of style. To ensure durability,
While this alfresco dining set furniture, and made of material I used naturally weather-
can't do a lot to guarantee you that would withstand the resistant cedar, joining the
the perfect weather, it does elements and accommodate the parts with strong, but easily
provide a great place to enjoy it. kind of extreme movement that made "loose" tenons fixed in
When my client approached wood encounters outdoors. place with waterproof glue.
me with this commission, the To suit the bill, I designed the Topping all this off with a tough
goal was to design a dining top to allow a variety of seating finish guarantees that this
table-and-bench set that would arrangements (some requiring furniture will be part of the
accommodate up to eight people extra chairs in addition to the family for a long time to come.
44 April/May 2013
Figure 1: Table Exploded View

Loose tenon t_4 x 23.46 x 2" ~.,

3~" rabbet !/ig" deep - --._

#8 x 2" flathead screw

#8 x 2V2" flath ead screw

Ji/ II
• /I


Lay out taper after

cutting notches.

2" --
Floor glide Dry-assemble leg between rails (E&H)
#8 x 1Vt" stainless to determine location of leg notches.
steel roundhead screw

Tabletop Mortise Layout Detail


centerline - 1"

Rail Curve Detail

I . ~ II
~ 2

-- I 2"
_,. i!l~ll
1 I
> tenon

1Ya" -..121A"t



Opening photo: Paul Anthony; Project photos: Ken Burton; Illustrations: John Hartman April/May 2013 45
V.-20 knob with
through hole
----- Top 1314 x 3 x 14"

~-20 threaded insert

- Riser 1314 x 31h x 14"

1" Drill holes to

-- suit desired
horizontal fence
V..-20 x 2%" locations.
carriage bolt

V.-20 x 1'h"
hex bolt

Mark out the long rail edges with

the locations of the crosspieces 6 x 1111."
and the widths of the mortises. Vertical fence _/ 1h" Toggle
!f. x 2V. x 9" clamps
Make the tabletop
1 Lay out your nicest looking
1111. x 3 x 21"
.I·...._I 'h" - B
f.-16 X 3~"
carriage bolt
stock for the long rails, end rails, Horizontal fence
and crosspieces (A, B, C). As both ~;. x 31h x 14"

cedar and redwood are most

commonly available as 2x lumber Mortising Jig
for the construction trades, the This mortising jig will hold are square to each other. To
parts for this table were designed workpieces horizontally or do this, run the glued-up top/
to make the most of these vertically to allow edge- or riser/base assembly face down
dimensions. Keep in mind that end-mortising for making loose over your jointer to ensure
you can hide any waney edges tenon joints. It is equipped with the front face is all one plane.
by orienting them downward. toggle clamps for securing the Then run the jig upside down
2 Cut the pieces (A, B, C) to the pieces and adjustable stops with the front face against the
sizes shown in the Cut List. to control the length of the jointer fence to square the top
3 Clamp the two long rails (A) mortises. The jig is designed surface to the face. Second,
together with their better faces to work with a plunge router run the whole jig upside down
(the "show faces) oriented equipped with an edge guide. through your tablesaw to
outward, as shown in Photo A. Make the jig as shown, but ensure the rear edge of the top
Mark these faces with an "X to don't sweat the exact dimensions is parallel to the jig's face.
identify their orientation later. or precise placement of the Note: Disregard the ~ x ~ "strip
Now lay out the mortises as well various holes and slots; they screwed to the back edge of the
as the end rail (B) and crosspiece aren't critical. There are only two jig's top in the photos. It was a
(C) edge locations where shown crucial criteria: First, make sure modification for an accessory not
in Figure 1, Mortise Layout the jig's face and top surface used here and can be omitted.
Detail, working from the center
of the long rail outward.
4 Make the mortising jig 5 Clamp one of the long rails (A) lines onto the top of the jig for
shown on this page. Install its to the jig with the marked "show positioning of subsequent cuts.
horizontal fence, and attach face oriented inward. Adjust the Then rout the mortises, as shown
toggle clamps along its length. router's edge guide to center the in Photo B, beginning the cut with
Outfit your plunge router with cut across the thickness of the rail, the router positioned against the
an edge guide and a 1,4" spiral and set the stops to control the right-hand stop (as viewed from
upcut bit, adjusting the router's mortise length. Once you're set the face of the jig), and pulling
depth stop for a 11/11;" -deep cut. up, extend the mortise reference it toward the left-hand stop.

46 April/May 2013

Rout the mortises in several passes, retracting the When routing end mortises, be sure the end of the
bit at the end of the cut before moving the router workpiece is flush with the jig's top surface. Use a
against the opposite stop to begin the next pass. cover of scrap to protect against clamp damage.

6 Mount the second long 10 The mortise on one end mortise on one end of each end
rail (A) onto the jig with its of each end rail (B) will align rail (B) and crosspiece (C), and
show face oriented inward, with the setup you just used to slide them in place, aligning their
and rout all of its mortises. mortise the crosspieces (C). Cut edges with the reference marks
7 Lay out the mortises on both mortises in those particular on the long rails. As you work,
ends of both end rails (B), and one ends of both end rails. Then be sure to keep the show sides of
end of one crosspiece (C), where reposition the stops to mortise all the pieces properly oriented.
shown in Figure 1. Mark the show the two opposite ends. 14 With the assembly standing
face of each piece with an "X''. 11 Mill at least 64" of 1h "-thick on edge, spread glue in the
8 Swap the jig's horizontal x 2s;._""-wide stock for loose opposite mortises of the end rails
fence for the vertical fence, tenons. (When thicknessing the (B) and crosspieces (C). Spread
and screw toggle clamps to the stock, ensure that it fits snugly glue on the rest of the tenons
fence. Clamp the marked-out in the mortises without force.) and tap them in place. Finally,
crosspiece (C) in the jig with While you're at it, cut the same spread glue in the mortises of the
the show side facing inward, amount for each bench you're second long rail. Start attaching
and reposition the stops to suit making. Bullnose the edges of the rail at one end, working
the mortise location. Leave the stock using a 1,4" round- your way along its length. When
the edge guide set as it was. over bit in a table-mounted all the joints are together and
9 Rout the mortise in the end of router. Then crosscut the properly aligned, add clamps to
the crosspiece (C), as shown in individual tenons to 2" long. pull the assembly tight. (Don't
Photo C. Then unclamp it, rotate 12 Enlist someone to help you worry about protecting the edges
it end for end in the jig, and with the glue-up, as there is a from clamp damage, as you'll
rout the other end, still keeping lot of glue to spread and a lot of be cutting them away later.)
the show side against the jig. pieces to align. First, perform a 15 Referring to the Tabletop
Repeat for every crosspiece. complete dry-assembly to check Mortise Layout in Figure 1,
the fits of the joints, to set up
your clamps, and to rehearse
Tip Alert Tip Alert
your assembly procedures.
When cutting mortises with this 13 When you're ready to glue Orienting each workpiece "show"
jig, apply firm pressure with your up, begin by spreading glue in face against the mortising jig
left hand to keep the router flat the mortises of one of the long ensures that the assembled show
on top of the jig and the edge rails (A). Then spread glue on surfaces align regardless of an
guide riding along the jig's edge. that rail's tenons, and tap them off-center machining setup.
home. Spread glue in the mating

April/May 2013 47

Drive in a finish nail outside of the
laid out table corners to serve as Bend the fairing strip against the finish nails. Trace along the
a backstop for a fairing strip. inside of the strip to lay out the tabletop's curved edges.

mark the location of each of 2 Crosscut both ends of the two the four notches, clamp the end
the four corners of the top. end legs (D) to 75°, as shown in legs (D) in place between them.
Then drive a finish nail 1,4" Figure 1. Crosscut one end of Then hold the center runners (F)
outside each of those marks, each of the side legs (G) to 78°. in place to mark them for their
as shown in Photo D. 3 Set up a dado head on your notches, and then cut the notches
16 Bend a strip of 1A"-thick, tablesaw, configuring it for as using the same dado head setup.
straight-grained wood against wide a cut as possible. Adjust the 5 Increase the height of the
the nails, and trace along it to height to :SJi6 Use a miter gauge
• dado blade to exactly half the
lay out the curves, as shown in set at 75° to feed the end legs width of the rails and runners
Photo E. Cut to your layout line (D) over the blade to create the (theoretically 11h "). Referring
with a jigsaw, and sand the curves 3"-wide angled rabbets shown to Figure 1, lay out pairs of
fair and smooth. Round over the in Figure 1. Reverse the miter mating notches where the
edges with a 1,4"-radius round- gauge angle to cut the opposite center rails and runners (E, F)
over bit in a handheld router. sides, as shown in Photo F. intersect the cross rails and
4 While you have the dado head runners (H, I). The distance
Make the table base set up, cut the mating notches between the notches should be
1 Mill the pieces for the legs (D, in the center rails (E). Locate equal to the distance between
G), rails (E, H), and runners (F, I) these notches 4 3Ai" in from ends each pair of runners (and rails)
to the sizes listed in the Cut List. of the stretchers. After you cut with the legs clamped in place

Woods That Weather Well

The type of wood you choose dent easily. For a domestic wood other hand, can be hard to work
for outdoor furniture will largely that's both tough and weather- because of its density. It also
determine how well it holds resistant (but a good deal makes for very heavy furniture.
up. In the U.S., classic domestic heavier), consider white oak. Nonetheless, both woods make
choices include various species Exotic species that do well beautiful outdoor objects.
of cedar, cypress, and redwood. outdoors include teak and Whatever the wood, outdoor
These decay-resistant softwoods ipe. Both are extremely rot- furniture will eventually gray
are fairly lightweight, which resistant but have drawbacks. without a good weather-resistant
is important if you move your Teak is relatively soft and only finish on it. Even then, you'll need
pieces a lot. The downside with moderately heavy, but it contains to maintain that finish to keep the
these woods is that, because silica, which quickly dulls non- pieces looking good. See the main
they are relatively soft, they carbide cutting tools. lpe, on the text for my recommendation.

48 April/May 2013

Make overlapping passes across the dado head to Position the rip fence as a stop to help
create the wide rabbets at the ends of the legs. you keep the spacing of the notches
Use the rip fence as a stop to ensure consistency. consistent on the various pieces.

(theoretically S/t/'). Saw the 9 Lay out the bevels on the

notches, as shown in Photo G. ends of the runners (F, I), where
6 Referring to Figure 1, lay out shown in Figure 1. Then cut the
the notches in the cross rails bevels on the handsaw. Clean up
(H), insetting them 2"-,4" from the the saw marks with a hand plane.
ends. Change the dado height 10 Lay out the curves on the
back to 3/it>", angle your miter ends of the rails (E, H). Make the
gauge to 78°, and use the setup to cuts with a handsaw or jigsaw,
saw the notches in the cross rails and clean up with a sander.
(H). Also, saw the rabbets on the 11 Using an exterior glue, such
angled ends of the side legs (G). as Titebond III, glue and screw the
7 Set up the table base with the end legs (D) in place between the
end legs (D) clamped in place center rails and runners (E, F).
between the center rails (E) and Temporarily place one of the cross
runners (F). Fit one cross rail and runners (I) in its notches to help
one cross runner (H, I) into their the assembly stand upright on
notches in the center rails and your bench as you glue and screw
runners (E, F). Clamp the side legs the cross rails and runners (H, I) Clamp the top of each side leg in its
(G) in place, mark them to length, to the side legs (G) at the opposite upper notch, and mark out where
and mark the rabbet shoulders at end of the base. As you do this, the leg intersects the cross runner.
the lower end of the leg be sure that the cross runners
(Photo H). At the same time, (I) extend through the opening Make the Benchtops
mark one cross runner (I) for between the center rails and 1 Make the parts for the long
the locations of the angled runners (E, F). When assembling rails (J), end rails (K), and
notches that will accept the all of these joints, clamp the crosspieces (L) to the sizes
side legs (G). Use this cross pieces together to hold them tight shown in the Cut List. When
runner as a guide to mark its as you predrill the holes and then milling stock for the crosspieces,
companion. Repeat the process drive the #8 x 2" screws home. work with lengths that can be
at the other end of the base. 12 Once the side legs (G) safely fed through the planer,
8 Saw the rabbets on the bottom are attached to the cross crosscutting the individual
ends of the side legs (G) and the rails and runners (H, I), glue crosspieces to final length as
notches in the cross runners and screw the cross rails and the last step. Mark the show
(I), using a dado head as before. runners into their notches in face of each piece with an "X".
Then revert to a standard saw the center rails and runners 2 Clamp the long rail (J)
blade and cut the legs to length. (E, F) with #8 x 21h" screws. pairs together, and lay out the

April/May 2013 49

Figure 2: Bench Exploded View

1!l,4" notch, V." deep

#8 x 2" flathead screw

'h x 13/t& x 2" loose tenon

1~-4" notch ' ..
1"'" deep 81°
1h" x 11h" mortise, 11/li" deep


Floor glide --......_._

., ......_............
#8 x 1%" stainless steel
roundhead screw

Dry-assemble brace to #8 x 2" flathead screw

determine its length. #8 x 2" flathead screw

·- - 111-4" notch, V. 11

Dry-assemble legs to cleat (N)

to determine mortise placement. ---- •

-........_ 13'4" notch, J.A" deep


Benchtop Mortise Layout

mortises as you did for the tabletop, but referring

to the Benchtop Mortise Layout in Figure 2.
3 Rout the mortises in the long rails as
you did those in the table rails, orienting
+ Ji "' - Loose tenon
the show face against the jig.
4 Lay out a mortise on one end of one crosspiece
(L), and on each end of the end rails (K). Use
the marked pieces to set up the mortising jig
11/1111 ..... 21A" ...... to rout the crosspieces and the end rails in
Mortise the same manner as you did for the tabletop.
_. l
0 Remember to keep the show face against the jig.
1h" )
5 Crosscut tenons from the stock you milled
when making the table. Using waterproof glue,
assemble the benchtops in the same manner as
described for the assembly of the tabletop, and
as shown in Photo I. Like the tabletop, each of
1%" -~ the benchtops involves a lot of pieces to align and
glue to swab, so you may want to enlist a helper.

50 April/May 2013

Mount each leg with its top end
Fit all of the crosspieces and end rails in one of the long rails, and then add flush with the top of the jig. Scrap
the second long rail, starting at one end and working your way across. protects against clamp damage.

6 Once the glue dries, lay out registering the leg against the the Cut List, and saw the bevel
the curves on the ends of the fence, angle it so its end is flush on each end of the beam.
benchtop using your fairing strip. with the top of the jig (Photo J). 8 Set up a dado head on the
The benchtop is narrow enough 5 Rip enough tenon stock to tablesaw and cut 1A"-deep
that there's no need to support the 11h6 to use for joining the bases,
notches in the center of each
strip with nails. Simply brace the and then crosscut them to fit cleat (N) and runner (0),
strip against your leg, and bend it the mortises you just routed. where shown in Figure 2. Cut
with one hand as you trace with Working with each end assembly mating 1A"-deep notches in each
the other. Round over all of the in turn, dry-fit the legs (M) to stretcher (P), and 1 1"1"-deep
edges with a 1/4" round-over bit. the cleat (N), put the runner notches in each beam (Q).
(0) in place, and then mark 9 Glue the leg assemblies
Make the bench bases out the runner mortises based together, as shown in Photo K.
1 Cut the legs (M), cleats (N), and on the positions of the legs. 10 Glue and screw each
runners (0) to size. Crosscut the 6 Rout mortises in the runners stretcher (P) and beam (Q) in
ends of the legs to 81°. Arrange (0) using the mortising jig place with #8 x 2" screws.
the parts for each end assembly outfitted with its horizontal fence. 11 Cut the braces (R) to the
(M, N, 0) in their final orientation, 7 Cut the stretcher (P) and thickness and width listed in the
as shown in Figure 2. Then beam (Q) to the sizes shown in Cut List, but leave them a couple
mark what will be the exterior
face of each part with an "X'' for
orientation in the mortising jig.
2 Lay out the mortises on one of
the cleats (N) and on the upper
end of each of two paired legs
(M), where shown in Figure 2.
3 Cut the mortises in the
undersides of the cleats (N) using
the horizontal fence on your
mortising jig, as you did when
mortising the top rails (J). Mount
the pieces on the jig with the
marked face oriented inward.
4 Change to the vertical fence to
rout a mortise in the upper end Clamping a keystone-shaped wedge between the legs can help
of each leg. However, instead of even out the pressure and allow the joints to draw up tight.

April/May 2013 51

inches oversized in length for
now. Hold one of the braces in
place at a 65° angle, as shown
in Photo L. Mark the piece for
length, and then use it as a guide
as you cut all the remaining
braces on the tablesaw. Glue
and screw the braces in
place with #8 x 2" screws.

1 Apply a clear finish that is
formulated for outdoor use. The The braces add needed strength to the benches
pieces in the lead photo were while echoing the table's angled legs.
treated with Cabot's Australian
Timber Oil. I've found that a Outdoor Table and Benches Cut List .
yearly recoating with this product Part Thickness Width Length Qty. Mat' I
will keep your table and benches Table
looking good, despite whatever A* Long rails 1~/e" 41h" 62" 2 c
Mother Natu re dishes out. B End rails 1!fs" 41/i" 29V." 2 c
2 After the finish is dry, fas ten c Crosspieces ' 13/s" 311411 29V." 14 c

the table base to its top with D End legs 111811 311'11 28%" 2 c
#8 x 31h" roundhead screws E Center rails 13/s" 3" 56" 2 c
counterbored 1h" deep into the F Center runners 1!fB" 3" . 43" 2 c
underside of the center rails '

G* Side legs 1~Is" 3\4" 28'!!i4" 4 c

and cross rails (E, H). Attach
H Cross rails 1i1s11 3" 36" 4 c I

the bench bases to their tops

I Cross runners 13/s" 3" 28
4 c
in the same manner, but with
Benches (Quantity for two benches is provided.)
#8 x 2" roundhead screws.
J Long rails 13/s" 3" 60" 4 c
3 Screw plastic glides to the K End rails . 1•fe" 411;.11 8V." 4 c
undersides of the runners on
both the table and benches L Crosspieces 13/s" 31,411 811." 28 c
11 121!.11 c
M Legs 1118 2lh" 8
to elevate the wood above
the ground or deck. • N Cleats 13/s" 13,4" 13" 4 c
0 Runners 1'/e" 211." 13" 4 c
p Stretchers 1~/e" 11h" 491h" 2 c
About Our Q Beams 1!fs" 3" 56" 2 c
Designer/Builder R* Braces S,4" 2" 18" 8 c
Ken Burton has Materials: C=Cedar
been working with *Indicates that parts are initially cut oversized. See instructions.
wood for more than Supplies: (20) 1 ~" stainless steel (SS) roundhead screws for attaching glides;
(32) #8 x" SS screws: 16 for half laps in table base, 8 for attaching benchtops,
30 years and writing 8 for attaching cleat and beam to bench legs; (60) #8 x 2" roundhead SS screws:
about it nearly as 48 for attaching runners and rails to legs, 12 for attaching braces to benches;
long. Check out his (4) #8 x 3'h" roundhead SS wood screws; (20) 1" round plastic floor glides
website at www. wrwoodworks.
com. You can take classes Convenience-PLUS BUYING GUIDE
with Ken this summer at 01. Toggle Clamp, 6 x 19i4", qty. 5 #143938 $14.19 ea.
Peters Valley Craft Center in
[J 2. Knob, 5 Star with through hole; ~-20 insert, qty. 2 27R13 $1.50 ea.
Layton, New Jersey, and at
Yestermorrow Design/Build CJ 3. Carbide Spiral Bit Yt"D, (~"SH) 03K35 $56.99
School in Warren, Vermont. Above items are available at Woodcraft stores, or by calling (800) 225-1153.
Prices subject to change without notice.

52 April/May 2013

Professional Paint & Urethane Remover
Lead-based Paint, Varnishes & Urethanes
Cabinets • Furniture • Trim • Molding • Brick • Metal

TMttdby Now Available at

- ~

5 o Ogal b1ns.
Po bto th
ca ters.

April/May 2013 53

Add years to the life of your
lawn and patio furniture.
By Marlen Kemmet

Vear after year outdoor

furniture pieces take a brutal
beating from Mother Nature
in the form of intense sunlight,
temperature extremes, moisture,
windblown dirt and pollen,
and insects. To wage the good Before
fight and extend the life of these
cherished pieces, follow along as
I take you step by step through
the rehab of an Adirondack chair,
solving common problems that
afflict most outdoor projects,
and extending its useful life.

Can this project be saved?

In spite of your love affair with
a favorite garden bench that you
built years ago, you may find it's
time to part company with it and
start anew. Over time, all wood
projects reach the point of no
return. But, in the case of this
Adirondack chair, it was worth the
time and effort for me to restore
this weathered old friend. How
can you tell if an outdoor project
has passed its prime? Conduct
a quick and simple evaluation. on the bottom side of a seat If what you are facing is
For starters, check for severe slat revealed sound lumber. a lost cause, you may find it
wood rot, warping, or large Next, check the joints for cheaper and far more time-
checks or cracks in individual further rot, looseness, and saving to simply build a
parts. Looks can be deceiving. hardware issues that undermine sturdier replacement.
At first blush, the Adirondack the project's structural integrity.
chair looked destined for the Are replacement parts or new Common fixes for
landfill. But underneath the grit, hardware in order? With seating failing furniture
lichen, and grime was a perfectly of any kind, these are critical After assessing your furniture
functional piece in need of a for safety. Is the finish flaking piece and deciding that it's
little TLC. Although the wood or otherwise compromised? worth saving, develop an action
appeared badly weathered, Luckily, all the problems with plan. Use these strategies to
a little sanding and scraping our example proved fixable. remedy a variety of problems.
54 April/May 2013
Clean the piece
Lichen, mold, weathering, and
encrusted dirt have attacked
the project, detracting from its
appearance and leading to decay.

Depending upon the severity of
the degradation you have two For badly damaged pieces, a A stiff-bristled brush and
choices. For projects like the power-washer and a cleaning lots of elbow grease clean
chair, I recommend pressure- solution provide the first step. entrenched grime at little cost.
washing the entire piece at a low
setting using a wide-nozzle tip on If you don't have access to a Photo B. Avoid a wire brush as
the wand, as shown in Photo A. power washer, spray the piece the hard stiff bristles may cause
Rinse the entire piece first. Then, down with a garden hose and deep scratches in the wood,
power-wash it with a commercial scrub the grime off, as shown in which will have to be sanded.
solution to clean and brighten
the wood. Or, save a few bucks by
mixing your own solution. I used When power-washing outdoor furniture, start with the lowest setting,
one quart of household bleach, hold the nozzle end of the wand about 18" away to start, and move closer
one-third cup of powdered if necessary. Too high of a pressure setting or a tip held too close can
laundry soap, and three quarts of damage the wood, much like sandblasting. Power-washer spray tips come
water. A raincoat, safety glasses, in different spray patterns, with the range spanning from 0° to 40°. The
and gloves come in handy for wider the angle, the more surface area covered, but with less impact.
protection against splatter.

Disassemble for a complete restoration

Problem Solution
Grit and grime have infiltrated Many outdoor projects, such as
joints and other hard-to-get-at the Adirondack chair, are simply
nooks and crannies. In some screwed together, making
cases, a part or two may need disassembly easy. But this could
to be replaced. Disassembly result in a jumble of similar
may be your best course of pieces. To reattach the parts
action, but getting all of the later without puzzling over
parts back in their proper where they go and for proper
location may be an issue. screw-hole alignments, grab
a camera and take numerous
reference photos before you
Print a digital image of the take the project apart. Label
furniture piece, and label the parts, and transfer the
important measurements for labels onto printed copies of
later reassembly. You can also the photos. Also, keep a tape
use pieces of blue painter's measure handy to record
tape affixed to chair parts for key part locations on the Measure and record important
quick reference later. photos, as shown in Photo C. spacing dimensions for ease in
Re-mark any sanded parts. reassembling the chair later.

Photos: Doug Hetherington April/May 2013 55

Level rough wood surfaces
Problem Solution
Raised grain surfaces that After the furniture piece has
are rough and full of ridges thoroughly dried (I left the
due, in part, to the different chair in direct sunlight for
wear rates of earlywood two days), it's time to smooth
and latewood softwoods. rough surfaces. Since the chair
disassembled easily, sanding the A putty knife helps you push and
individual parts proved much smooth the filler into minor splits
easier than trying to sand the and checks. Sand the area smooth.
assembled chair. It also allowed
me to sand mating areas and
edges. To minimize sanding Fill cracks
time, you can use a variety
of portable sanders to tackle and gaps
different tasks. For larger flat
surfaces, use an orbital sander Problem
to cover a lot of ground fast. For Moisture in the wood of an
curved edges, a palm sander is outdoor piece causes the fibers
my tool of choice, as shown in to swell and then contract
Rely on a palm sander to Photo D. For tight areas on an as they dry out, resulting in
smoothly sand curved edges, assembled project, hand-sanding cracks and checks along the
such as this leg part. may be your only choice. grain and at the ends of parts.

Use a moisture meter for an accurate reading of an outdoor project's The best way to avoid cracking
dampness level before attempting to sand or apply finish. Woods, and checking is to seal the
such as cedar and redwood, should be 12% (or less) moisture content. wood project properly during
construction to keep moisture
out, and then reseal it regularly.
When cracks occur on weathered
Outdoor Screws pieces, fill them as shown in
Considering the number of break more easily than other Photo E, and then sand the
screws needed for an outdoor screws. For ACQ (alkaline copper pieces smooth once the filler
furniture piece, it doesn't make quaternary) pressure-treated dries. For minute cracks filler
sense to skimp on quality. lumber, stainless steel or multi- will do, but for damaged areas
Stainless steel is by far your best coated screws are a good choice. requiring repair or buildup, use
choice, though more costly. The treated wood can accelerate a two-part epoxy-based putty.
For many exterior applications, corrosion of galvanized fasteners. Note, the closer you can shape
the maintenance-free service life the putty to the original surface,
1. Stainless Steel Screw (bugle
of stainless steel screws makes head, square drive) the less sanding you'll have to
it relatively easy to justify their 2. Solid Brass Wood Screw do after the putty hardens.
higher cost compared to plated (Phillips flathead)
products. While brass 3. Triple-Coated Deck Screw (two
layers of coating over a galvanized
screws look good, they undercoating, star drive) For optimal results, choose
4. DECKMATE (polymer-plated, putty that dries hard with
flathead, star drive) minimal shrinkage, such as a
5. Kreg Protec- Kote Deck Screws two-part epoxy-based putty
(flat-bottom head, self-
tapping, square drive)
developed for exterior use.

Replace suspect
Rusty or broken screws, as
well as stripped screw holes,
cause joints to fail; hinges To remove a broken screw, use A flush-trim saw works best
can wear out requiring full a screw extractor to minimize for trimming plugs even with
hardware replacement. damage to the surrounding wood. the surrounding surface.

Solution To eliminate exposed

Extract broken or rusty screws screw heads that are both If replacing old screws and
using a screw extractor, as shown unsightly and serve to collect stripped holes, go up a gauge
in Photo F. When replacing water, counterbore the when returning to the holes.
old hardware, don't skimp on holes and plug the screws, Go with a #10 gauge instead of
the quality of screws, hinges, as shown in Photo G. #8 for a tighter fit.
and other metal fasteners.

Replace damaged or rotted parts

Problem the armrest blanks to shape. pattern cutting bit at my table-
While salvaging your outdoor I adhered the template to a mounted router and guiding off
project, you encountered parts rough-cut armrest with double- the template, I cleaned up the
that proved beyond repair. faced tape. Using a flush-trim edges, as shown in Photo I.
Don't let a few badly
damaged pieces prevent you
from salvaging the project. To mark a blank slightly larger than the needed finished shape of the
replacement piece, hold the pencil perfectly upright, riding the shank
Solution of the pencil against the original furniture piece, as shown in Photo I.
For the chair, the horizontal This will mark the blank 1.4 larger than the original and provide just
armrests took the brunt of enough extra edge stock to be routed when using the template to
weathering. I could have spent rout the armrest to final shape.
a fair amount of effort and
materials filling and sanding
the badly damaged pieces, but
it proved more economical to
simply create new armrests.
To make identical part
replacements, I removed the old
armrests and used one (they're
mirror images of each other) as a
template to trace its shape onto
1,6" plywood. I bandsawed the
plywood to shape and sanded the
edges smooth to create a routing
template. I then traced the
armrest's outline onto two ~A"­ Mark the blank slightly larger by Rout the replacement part to
thick pieces of cedar, as shown holding the pencil upright when final shape with a pattern cutting
in Photo H, and bandsawed running it along the original part. bit and plywood template.

April/May 2013 57

To protect feet bottoms from
future rot, soak them in a container Milk paint (here, acrylic latex) is self-sealing and does not require a primer.
of preservative prior to finishing. If your project allows it, painting individual parts yields the best results.

Seal and finish for long life

Problem to protect it from the elements
Unsealed wood absorbs and to keep it looking good. With a disassembled outdoor
moisture, resulting in a whole Soak the ends of parts that are project, seal and finish the
host of deterioration issues, from in direct ground contact with a parts before reassembling
rapid graying due to intense preservative such as penetrating them, as shown in Photo K.
sunlight, to moisture penetration oil finish, as shown in Photo J. If the parts of a project are
and accelerated rot and decay. Now, check out the finish glued together and cannot be
selections in the box below removed, do the needed prep
Solution and finish your piece. I work and apply the finish to
Now that you've replaced parts, applied two coats of General the assembled piece.
filled cracks, and sanded the Finishes Sage Green Milk
project smooth, finish the project Paint, as shown in Photo K.

Outdoor Finishes
Even the best outdoor finish will need to be refreshed water repellants. Exterior finishes either penetrate
every few years. The best finishes are those that the wood or form a film on the surface. Penetrating
protect against the effects of the sun's rays and finishes tend to give a more natural look to wood
moisture. Typically, they will have UV inhibitors and than film-forming finishes, and they are usually easier

58 April/May 2013

Outdoor Glues
For high-stress areas in an outdoor project, such as a seat/leg
chair joint that is destined to receive a lot of weight and stress,
add extra holding power in the form of an exterior-grade glue.
One such glue is Titebond Ill Ultimate Wood Glue, a water-
resistant polyvinyl acetate (PVA) product that cleans
up easily with water. A second glue is polyurethane-
based Gorilla Glue, a product that chemically reacts
with moisture in the objects being glued or air to
create a rigid, lasting bond. When applied, the glue
expands, providing an exceptionally strong bond. It
can be messy and sticky to work with. For mating
dissimilar materials or for small projects, two-part
slow-set epoxies work great, but ounce for ounce
are more expensive than the other exterior glues.
For more on woodworking glues, see page 39.


About Our Author
0 1. SculpWood Putty, 8 oz. #153781 $15.99
A founding member of the
0 2. Screw Extractor, Eft.~" #124211 $12.99 San Diego Woodworking
Association, Marlen Kemmet's
a 3. Japanese 11 Kugihiki" Flush-Cutting Hand Saw #12F24 $31.99 career in woodworking and
woodworking publications
CJ 4. Flush Trim Router Bit, 'ls"CD l"CL (if."SH) #819071 $17.99
stems back to the early 1980s.
D 5. General Finishes Sage Green Milk Paint, 1 pt. #825767 $13.99 He likes building furniture and
home accents in the Greene
06. Redtree Onyx White Ch ina Bristle Brush, 2" #153813 $9.50 and Greene style for his home
Above it ems are availa ble at Woodcraft stores, or by ca lling (800) 225-1153. in rural Dallas County, Iowa.
Prices subject t o change without not ice.

to reapply as they don't need to be stripped first if cracked and flaking. In such cases, removing the finish
they were used as the original finish. Film-forming to expose bare wood is required before refinishing.
finishes such as paint last the longest, but can be the Shown below are five types of exterior finishes, with
most time-consuming to repair if the original coat is the longevity of the finish increasing from left to right.

Water-Based Milk
Paint (exterior
acrylic latex by
General Finishes)

April/May 2013 wood craftmagazine. com 59

A great plan for teaching
By Jim Harrold and Collin Kidd

n this-the magazine's 3 Stick a couple of small pieces At the scrollsaw, poke the blade
first installment in teaching of double-faced tape on one through the hole and cut out
woodworking to kids-11 year-old end piece, and stack the second the opening. With the same
Collin Kidd from Parkersburg, piece on top, making sure the drill bit, drill the ventilation
West Virginia, and I make a ends and edges are even. Cut hole in the back end where
bluebird house out of decay- out a photocopy of the Bluebird shown in the pattern.
resistant cedar. In the process, House End Pattern. Spray 7 Crosscut a 1h " piece of cedar
I introduce him to a variety the back of the pattern with to 121h " long. Bevel-rip one
of tools and show him how to adhesive, and carefully adhere edge at 35° and the other at
use them safely. I separated it to the top of the stack. 76° to achieve a final width
the tasks so that the more 4 Now, handsaw along the of 6 1/i~". (See Figure 1.) Then,
challenging steps (work done pattern cutlines to make the ends crosscut sides (B) to 6".
at the tablesaw and jointer, for (A), as shown in Photo A. Sand 8 Add pieces of masking tape
instance, and shown here in the edges smooth with a sanding to the front and back ends (A).
blue) are the ones I performed block and 100-grit sandpaper. Now, apply glue to the ends
while Collin did the rest. 5 Use the marks along the edges
of the pattern to drill 1/i(J" nail
Tip Alert
Make the parts pilot holes through the ends (A)
1 Mill a ~A" x 8" x 4' cedar at the drill press. Pilot holes keep Because of the defects common
board to 11h " thick. Mill a the nails from going in crooked in cedar, start with an 8'-long
2'-long piece to 1,4" thick. and the cedar from splitting. board and cut around the knots
2 From 1h " cedar, crosscut Now, pry the ends apart. and other defects to get the
two pieces for the ends 6 Using the pattern, drill two clearest pieces possible.
(A) to 101h " long. 1
fal" holes in the door opening.

60 April/May 2013

Guide off the holes drilled earlier
Cut along the outside edge of the cutline, making sure your in the ends to drill straight
fingers are safely away from the blade on both sides. pilot holes in the sides.

of the sides (B) and tape the Figure 1: Birdhouse Exploded View Bracket Pattern
pieces (A, B) together ensuring (Fu II-Sized)
they are flush. Drill pilot holes
for nails with a cordless drill,
as shown in Photo B. Next, tap #17 x 3/."
nails into the assembly to secure stainless .1,4" rabbet,
the ends. Set the nail heads. steel brad 'A" deep

9 Measure the opening at the

bottom, and check it against
the Cut List and Bluebird 45° bevel
House End Pattern. Now cut
the bottom (C) to size, beveling
Note: Center roof #4x1w.h11 zinc-
the edges at 14° from 90°. planks on house plated finish nails
10 From \,4" stock, rip and for a 1" overhang
at each end.
crosscut the top roof planks 35° bevel
(D) and lower roof planks (E)
to size. Bevel the edges of the
wider top planks at 45° so they
join at the roof peak. Working
from a 1h" piece that is 9" long,
rout a 1,4" rabbet, 1A"-deep on one 76° bevels
edge. Rip the rabbeted edge free,
cutting in 1h" to create the roof
_ 3" dia.
pipe flange
- ••

ridge (F), as shown in Figure 1. \ I

11 Scrollsaw the perch (G). Glue
• #8 x !iifi" flathead
#6 x 1" brass
flathead screw,
and clamp the perch assembly .-./ screw countersunk
(G/H/I) together, making the
back edges even. Let the parts 3
1." galv. pipe
dry; then sand. The back of
the perch assembly needs to
be smooth and even to glue
securely to the birdhouse.

Photos: Jim Osborn; Illustrations: Frank Rohrbach Ill April/May 2013 61
Projects for Kids

Bluebird House End Pattern

Enlarge 200%
Full-sized pattern
available for
download on

V. 11 ventilation hole
in back end only

,_.. ~ blade

Glue and nail on the roof planks, starting at the

-- start hole
in front
bottom; use a spacer to make sure the planks
end only
overhang equally at the front and back ends.

Add the bottom, Locate

f - perch here.

roof and perch

1 Fit the bottom (C) in place. At the drill press, I
drill countersunk pilot holes through the ends
(A) and into the bottom. You also need to drill
clearance holes through the ends, or you will
split the wood. Screw the bottom in place with
#6 x 1" brass screws. The bottom is removable
so you can clean out the birdhouse as needed.
2 Drill pilot holes 11,4" in from the ends of the Angle blade at 14°
/ - from 90° to cut bevels.
roof planks (two at each end), and then secure
the planks with #17 x !f4" stainless steel brads J __ ________________
..___ _.,;.
/ ~

and glue, as shown in Photo C. Set the nail heads.
3 Apply glue to the perch assembly (G/H/I), and \~.~~
clamp it 1" below the door opening and centered.
4 Fill the set nail holes with an exterior- Bluebird House Cut List
grade putty. Let dry, and then sand the '

Part Thickness Width Length Qty. Mat'I

surfaces smooth. Finally, apply an exterior
A Ends ¥211 711 lOV. 11 2 c
finish. (We used Watco's Exterior Finish
B Sides ¥211 63/ifi II 611 2 c
to seal and protect the wood.) •
c Bottom %11 3~.411 611 1 c
D Top roof planks v.11 2~A
911 2 c
E Lower roof planks v.11 21hll 911 4 c
Tip Alert F Roof ridge Yzll ¥211 911 1 c
G Perch \;.11 1 ~ 11 4" 1 c
Mount the bluebird house 4' to 5' above the
H Perch cleat '-! ." l" 2~/4" 1 c
ground on a 3"-diameter threaded galvanized pipe
I Perch brackets V." '!." 1" 2 c
flange that you screw to the bottom. This, in turn,
Materials: C=Cedar
screws onto a !,4" threaded galvanized pipe that is 11
Hardware/Supplies: {12) #4d x 1~ zinc-plated steel finish nails;
sunk in the earth or a concrete footer. (24) 3/l11 x 17 stainless steel brads; (4) #6 x 1 11 flathead brass screws;
Titebond Ill waterproof wood glue; exterior-grade wood filler.

62 April/May 2013

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a all o lud d h
B 5 lor no
ne In n

6 «!ft l -u e..

ure r P'or •
April/May 2013 63
orking wood can be a emerge either ratty or ready, all or performing some fancier
messy business. And I'm not depending on how you handle maneuver using a special jig.
referring to the sawdust, wood them. Here, I'll show you how These simple preventative
chips, and shavings left behind in to guard against tear-out on measures yield big results in the
the wake of a project. I'm talking the tablesaw, whether you're way of clean looking projects,
about the rough, scarred surfaces making a simple crosscut and time saved fixing errors.
remaining on the work itself if
you're not careful to prevent tear-
out during cutting procedures. Know Your Enemy
And the damage can happen Tablesaw tear-out occurs as the saw teeth exit the work, breaking
when performing just about any through and pushing aside the outermost layer of wood fibers
kind of cut, including sawing, rather than severing them cleanly. Tear-out is not really an issue
routing, jointing, and planing. when ripping; it's cuts made across the grain that see damage.
One potential arena of tear- Truth is, tear-out from sawing is unavoidable. Look at a "clean"
out destruction is the tablesaw. crosscut under strong magnification, and you'll see tear-out,
Boards and sheet goods that although minute. And that's the idea-to keep it to a minimum.
pass through this machine can

64 April/May 2013

To minimize tear-out, use a off is that, although a steeper
Tip Alert
tablesaw blade with alternate tooth angle produces a cleaner
top bevel (ATB) teeth. The cut, the tip of the tooth may Before sending a blade out
tooth bevel creates a tip that dull faster. Theoretically, the for sharpening, try cleaning it
shears cleanly through wood cleanest crosscuts will come first. Even a little build-up can
fibers, reducing tear-out. The from a blade with at least 60 compromise the cutting edges
bevel angle may be low or high, ATB teeth, but note that a of a good blade.
with steep angles designated premium quality 40- or SO-tooth
by some manufacturers as blade may cut cleaner than a
"High-ATB teeth. The trade- mediocre 60- or 80-tooth blade.
Alternate Top
Bevel (ATB) ATB _ Hl-ATB
-- ---~ - 10-20° typ. 25-38° typ.

All purpose . / Tear-out free
ripping and crosscutting
crosscutting esp. in plywood

Sometimes you can remove tear-out when making

a subsequent cut. A perfect example of this is
The simplest way to deal with tear-out is to orient when cutting joints in a cabinet side. In that case,
it so it will be hidden in the finished project. dadoes are often used to join shelves and other
Learn to handle your workpieces so that the saw horizontal members to the case side, while a rabbet
teeth will enter the face of the stock that will is usually cut into the rear edges to accommodate
be the most exposed in the finished project. For a back panel. The exit side of a dado (which is
example, when cutting drawer fronts to length, a crosscut) will often produce tear-out. In this
orient the drawer face upward so any tear-out case, the wound is easily removed by making the
will be on the underside/inside of the piece. The long-grain rabbet cut afterward (Photo B).
same holds true for miters or any other end cuts
that will butt against another piece (Photo A).

Perfect post-
rabbet dado
Bottom face Top Face

The cleanly cut right-hand half of this miter joint was A well planned cut sequence can eliminate tear-
sawn with the show face upward, while the left-hand out completely. In this case, a rabbet removes the
half suffered tear-out from being cut upside down. exit tear-out from the previously cut dadoes.

Photos: Paul Anthony, courtesy of The Taunton Press® April/May 2013 65
A zero clearance insert (ZCI) is an Outfitting your miter gauge with cut on the offcut side because
inexpensive accessory that will an auxiliary fence will reduce you need that piece, simply
stand constant guard against tear-out when the fence extends extend the auxiliary fence
excessive tear-out (Photo C). all the way to the blade, as past the blade (Photo F). The
The slot on a ZCI is made by the shown in Photos D and E. In this end of an auxiliary fence that
blade itself, leaving virtually no case, the fence prevents tear-out abuts the blade (or the kerf in a
gap between the saw teeth and at the rear edge of the "keeper" fence that straddles the blade)
the sides of the slot. This means piece, which is held against will also serve as a blade path
that the wood fibers are fully the fence. If you want a clean reference for quick cut setup.
supported on the exit side of the
kerf, resulting in cleaner cuts. (As
a bonus, narrow rippings can t
drop into the throat plate gap.)
You'll want a variety of zero-
clearance inserts to suit various
cutters, including standard
and thin-kerf blades, as well
as dado heads set up for cuts
of different widths. ZCI blanks
are available commercially in a
selection of materials including
UHMW (polyethylene plastic),
phenolic, and laminated plywood.

Tip Alert A fence attached with T-track, cap

An auxiliary miter gauge fence that
A ZCI prevents saw blade tilt, abuts the blade prevents tear-out screws, and wing nuts allows easily
so don't throw away your stock at the rear edge of the workpiece. abutting the fence to the blade.
throat plate, as you'll need it
when making angled cuts.

A ZCI provides workpiece support a

right up to the edges of the blade, A long auxiliary fence that straddles the blade reduces tear-out on
greatly minimizing exit tear-out. both sides of the cut and allows pushing small offcuts past the blade.

66 April/May 2013

The same backup principle that a replaceable sacrificial backer insert. However, the kerf slot
makes zero-clearance inserts (Photo H). Outfitting other jigs may widen over time from
and auxiliary miter gauge just takes a bit of thought and a using different blades, which
fences so effective can be easily few scraps of wood. For instance, somewhat compromises support
incorporated into almost any a commercial tenoning jig used of the wood fibers right next to
tablesaw jig. For example, I always to slot a miter should include a the blade. To reestablish zero-
use a backer on my shop-made backer with a mitered end, rather clearance tolerances, cover
tenoning jig. It's particularly than a squared end (Photo I). the sled with a thin plywood
important to back up heavy, wide In the case of something like or hardboard panel. •
cuts like the open mortises shown a spline miter cradle, design
in Photo G, because the wood the jig to accommodate a
fibers at the cut's exit can really sacrificial 1,4"-thick plywood About Our Author
take a beating. In this case, the backer (Photo J). Senior editor Paul Anthony is the
jig's fence is simply a short, well When cutting joints using a author of Taunton 's Complete
dressed, perfectly aligned length crosscut sled, the sled bottom Illustrated Guide to Tab/esaws.
of wood designed to accommodate serves as a zero-clearance


The unbacked fibers at the end of the open The easily replaceable backer on this
mortise at the bottom tore away. The mortise tenoning jig attaches with two screws
at the top was backed during the cut. driven through the rear of the fence.

Suit the backer to the cut and workpiece. For The rear wall of this splining cradle is covered
example, miter a backer's end to provide full with a thin plywood backer that can be shifted
support for a workpiece's mitered end. to a fresh section when necessary.

April/May 2013 67

Wood Sense

• •
I -
North America~s
do-it-all lumber
By Pete Stephano
Technical Consultant: Larry Osborn

The commercially important History in woodworking turned products such as

birch species found in North Native Americans looked to Shaker pegs, dowels, and
America are but a few of the paper birch's bark for the buttons. It also shows up in
the SO types of birch found sheathing of dwellings and wooden toys, matchsticks,
around the world-from Japan canoes. From the tree's sap came toothpicks-even chopsticks!
to Scandinavia to Russia. The sweet syrup. Its young twigs
native birches most used by provided medicine (the salicylic Where the wood
the U.S. and Canadian forest acid in them was the precursor to comes from
products industry are yellow aspirin). The bark of black birch The largest domestic source
birch (Betula alleghaniensis), proved to be a tough, enduring of birch lumber and veneer
sweet birch (B. lenta), and paper material for woven baskets. is the yellow and sweet birch
birch (B. papyrifera). Of lesser Early woodworkers used that principally grows in the
importance are river birch (B. yellow birch for cooperage, Northeastern and Great Lakes
nigra), gray birch (B. populifolia), wagon hubs, cabinets, chairs, states. While you'll find paper
and western paper birch (B. and desks. In the 19SOs, birch in abundance in the same
papyrifera variety commutata). popular blonde "Scandinavian" range, it's not usually available as
Although somewhat similar furniture was built from it. lumber. Yellow and sweet birch
in appearance and grain Today, most yellow birch (frequently mixed and marketed
texture, the wood of yellow and becomes boxes, cabinets, together) are also found in the
sweet birch tends to be heavy, cooperage, furniture, Appalachian Mountains as far
hard, and strong, with good woodenware, interior trim, south as northern Georgia.
shock resistance while that of flooring, doors, and millwork.
paper birch weighs less, and The wood is also joining ash and What you'll pay
is softer and not as strong. maple as stock for baseball bats. Due to its availability as lumber
Throughout history, the As plywood, yellow birch serves and plywood, yellow birch and
domestic birch family of as flush doors, TV cabinets, and sweet birch will be the focus
hardwoods has made countless office furniture. Despite changes here. FAS boards in 4/4 thickness
contributions to Native in taste and fashion, birch has usually cost less than $S per
Americans, European explorers, been in demand for furniture and board foot, with Select and Better
early settlers, trappers, pioneers, cabinetry for almost a century. (S&B) running about SO cents
and present-day populations of You'll find paper birch less per unit. Figured birch can
the United States and Canada. the common material for reach $8 and up per board foot.

68 April/May 2013

Plainsawn birch plywo

The utility A-2 grade, Sfil" How to select "white"), meaning you'll pay
birch plywood runs about $70 the best stock a premium for color-selected
per 4x8' sheet at home centers. Only specialty wood suppliers stock. Note, too, that yellow birch
The higher face grade AA costs or lumber outlets offer yellow from the northern part of its
more; lesser faces, such as B birch lumber. Birch hardwood growing range will be heavier
and C, cost less. Most lumber plywood, however, is more and contain a finer grain than
outlets carry thinner stock, widely available, although wood from the southern region.
too, for use as panels in frame- not all retail outlets will Birch plywood can also be
and-panel cabinet doors. Baltic carry a wide selection of graded and sold by its color, just
and Finnish birch plywoods are grades and thicknesses. like birch. The highest grade
made in Europe of extra-thin Normally, yellow birch has is white, followed by uniform
(1A~") thickness of void-free a light yellow to nearly white light, and natural. Lower paint
alder and birch plies for the core narrow band of sapwood. The and shop grades cost less. At
and top-notch birch veneers for heartwood ranges from cream a home center, the mid-level
the faces. The Finnish variety to tan to reddish tan, and may grade stock will vary widely
utilizes exterior adhesive for even have tinges of gray or red. in appearance from sheet to
outdoor use. Neither of these For projects, choose boards sheet, and contain minor natural
is available in 4x8' sheets, but for color uniformity, avoiding defects, varying amounts of
rather 60x60" sheets and in those with both heartwood and heartwood and slightly less
thicknesses from 4mm (1/1") to sapwood as these can cause uniform core material. If you're
18mm (S,4") in approximately problems when color-matching. able to sort through the stack for
1 the best-looking sheets, you'll
,4" increments. Apple-ply is the Because commercial demand for
American-made version. It comes light-colored wood is so strong, save some money compared to
in 4x8' and smaller panels and birch, like maple, is often graded buying the top white grades
standard thicknesses (_1,4-11h "). and sold by its color ("sap" or at a hardwood lumberyard.

Working yellow
It's A Fact That ... birch in the shop
The enormous flying boat nicknamed "The Spruce Goose" built by Because yellow birch is nearly
Hughes Aircraft of California in the mid-1940s wasn't really made as hard as sugar maple, it
of spruce. Due to its strength-to-weight ratio, North American dulls cutters, so if you don't
yellow birch was the primary wood in its construction. Solid stock presently use carbide-tipped
became wing and fuselage framing and veneer was laid up in blades and cutters, start now.
laminations for all skin surfaces except those for control (ailerons, Compared to maple, yellow
rudder, etc.), which were fabric covered. The giant seaplane had a birch machines better, because
320' wingspan and weighed 400,000 pounds. It flew only once- it doesn't tear-out during edge-
over a mile 70' above Long Beach harbor on November 2, 1947. jointing, or burn as easily. Due
to its hardness, yellow birch

Ph ot os: Jim Osborn; Illu stration : St eve Sanford April/May 2013 69
Wood Sense Figured
curly birch

should be fed at a moderate

rate when ripping to give the
blade time to clear sawdust.
As we said, yellow birch s
fine texture and generally Deciding on the right finish Cost Moderate
straight grain translate to Yellow birch takes all clear Weight About same as
machining well and routing finishes equally well and holds sugar maple
beautifully, but boards with paint nicely. For even staining, Hardness Slightly less than
wavy figure mean taking though, you ll first need a sugar maple
lighter cuts. Plane the wood conditioner or two sealer
Stability High
wood at a slight angle to coats before staining to reduce
avoid surface chipping. blotching. Dye stains are a Durability High
This wood will work with all 1
better choice. The wood s close Strength High
adhesives, but its closed-pore grain doesn t require filling. Toxicity None
density requires glue with a Because yellow birch s Tool Type Power tools with
long open time to allow some grain closely resembles carbide-tipped
surface penetration. Also, be cherry, mahogany, and blades and cutters
sure to predrill for screws walnut, you can transform
Common Cabinets, chairs,
as the wood readily splits. it with by stain as furniture
Uses flooring, furniture,
Though hard, birch sands easily, and cabinet manufacturers
and turnings
and it turns like a dream. have done for decades. •

I 11



._. N
- -
11 -.,.

.. - - - -- --

70 April/May 2013

Bu a I•

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Well-Stocked Shop

The right tools for playing all the angles =Good

hey say the devil lives in the make the difference between a They include the ability to
details, but woodworkers know finished frame and firewood. measure an angle, to transfer
the pointy-tailed imp's street Armed with a few appropriate or lay out an angle, and to
address-the corner of Bevel and angle gauges, you can keep that set machine components to
Miter. The problem with these devil at bay. The key to selecting specific angles. No tool excels
angled cuts is that minute errors the right tool is understanding in all three categories, but once
can multiply within an assembly. the three different, but equally- you understand which type
A fence, gauge, or blade that's off important challenges faced performs a job best, you know
by even a fraction of a degree can by angle-setting instruments. which one to reach for (or buy).

Bevel Gauge
A bevel gauge, or T-bevel, offers great flexibility in a strictly mechanical
tool. The sliding blade can be adjusted to fit into tight corners and
can be solidly locked for machine setup or joint layout. After making
a cut, the bevel gauge can then be used to check its accuracy.
While this simple tool excels at transferring angles, it falls short
when you have to set it to a specific angle, adjust an angle by a few
tenths of a degree, or determine the numeric value of an angle that
it's holding. For that, you need to read the angle of the gauge using
a triangle, protractor, or square. To avoid that two-step procedure,
many woodworkers these days are turning to digital gauges.
Measuring Angles - N/A Transferring & Laying Out Setting Machinery

Digital Bevel Gauge

Incorporating an LCD readout into an otherwise typical bevel gauge brings
a time-honored tool into the digital age of woodworking. The gauge can be
used in traditional fashion for measuring and transferring angles, as well as
setting machinery. However, unlike a traditional bevel gauge, determining
the quantitative angle doesn't require outside assistance. Instead, you
can read it on the tool's display (accurate to 0.3°). This allows you to set
up a cut by simply angling your tablesaw blade, miter gauge, or power
mitersaw so that their scales match the angle reading on the T-bevel.
The digital readout also allows easy angle adjustments on the fly. For
example, if you accidentally knock the bevel gauge blade out of its 47°
position, it's easy to nudge it back in place instead of returning to the
reference workpiece or taking a repeat reading from a protractor.
Measuring Angles Transferring & Laying Out Setting Machinery

72 April/May 2013 Featured products available from Woodcraft Supply unless otherwise noted.
Analog Protractor
This tool is designed to make your life a little easier when setting up
your mitersaw to cut angles for bisected miters. The dial's large arrow
indicates the primary angle (the tool's leg splay). The smaller arrow
notes the angle at which to set your saw, using the machine's scale. For
example, to join two frame pieces at 135°, the protractor tells you to
set your saw's pointer to 221h which will cut the complementary 67 ~
0 0

angle on the workpiece. Cut two frame members at that

angle, and join them to create your 135° frame angle.
This tool has the quantitative advantage over a standard
bevel gauge, although digital gauges still have the edge on
precision. For measuring and laying out, you'll still want a
T-bevel, as the protractor's long arms can't fit into tight corners.
Also, the tool lacks a locking knob. Although the arms are usually
stiff enough to hold an angle, they can slip during layouts.

Measuring Angles Transferring & Laying Out Setting Machinery

Digital Angle Gauge

This magnetic gauge wins hands-down for easily and precisely setting
the angle on machine components such as tablesaw blades, handsaw
and drill press tables, and jointer fences. Simply rest (or magnetically
attach) the cube against a reference surface (e.g. the saw table), and
press the reset button to zero-out the internal level. Then attach the
gauge to the other reference surface (e.g. the saw blade), and set your
desired angle, referring to the digital readout. The gauge is easy to attach
and read, even in poor light. (Of course, when the battery dies or the
electronics fail due to a hard fall from the bench, you're out of luck.)
Despite its advantages at setting machinery, this digital
gauge isn't convenient for measuring angles on workpieces,
and it's simply not suited to marking out joints.

Measuring Angles Transferring & Laying Out- N/A Setting Machinery

Double-Duty Drafting Tools

Odds are good that (about $10) are equally
you already have some useful for providing
handy angle-setting precise measurements
tools sitting in a desk and transferring angles.
drawer. If not, you can Metal square head
buy them at an art store protractors are good
for a few bucks. Partner for laying out angles
a plastic protractor on paper and stock.
($3-6) with a pencil and The long arm also
you can set your T-bevel works for measuring
with precision. With small angles, such as
a built-in lock knob, the bevels on chisels
adjustable triangles and plane blades.

Phot os: Larry Ham el -Lam bert April/May 2013 73

Featuring hands-on
classes for all skill
levels taught
by nationally
known craftsmen

Phil Lowe
Will Neptune
Steve Latta
Peter Galbert
and more!

For Discerning Woodworkers


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74 April/May 2013


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Turning Supplies
Satellite City 53 Berea Hardwoods 63
Titebond IBC Easy Wood Tools 12
Bits, Blades, & Cutters Ring Master Lathe 78
Forrest Mfg. 74 Robust 78
Freud IFC Wood & Veneers
Pegas Sawblades 20 Aromatic Red Cedar n/a 78
PS~od w~~~d~ 78 Northwest Bamboo 79
Whiteside Machine 75 Woodfinder 79
Carving Woodworking Supplies
Looking for information
King Arthur Tools 15 Ashville-Schoonmaker Mica Co. 16 on a product or
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DMT 76
Moisture Meters
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Power Tool Accessories Eclipse 63 directly from the source.
Affinity Tool Works 78 Franmar Chemical 53 Japan Woodworker 13
Kreg 21 ' '

Radar Carve 79

Kreg 71 Just one way Woodcraft
National Hardware 78
Power Tools Old Village Paint 70 Magazine puts our
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General 1
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The perfect way to cut

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76 w April/May 2013

The New Woodpeckers Box Clamp™ is just the ticket for your cabinet
and box making projects. This simple tool eliminates the hassle of
cumbersome bar clamps and eliminates the need to continuously make
adjustments to square the corners.
Imagine being able to dry-fit all parts at the same time without any
clamps to interfere with the assembly process. You ll know right from the

start if your project is square and be able to confirm part placement and
Even better, you can to do all that without a second set of hands.
Once your project is glued and clamped, you can easily install pocket Woodpeckers Box Clamps are designed for most 90 degree joints
screws from the inside or any other fasteners including pocket hole joints, lap joints, dado as well as T-joints. Virtually
from the outside. Both parts will be any joint found in common cabinetry.
square and secure from unwanted
movement. The new Box Clamp™ is also perfect for box joints, half-blind and
through dovetail joints. Whether the corner is flush or has material
extending from the surface, the clearance is there to ensure a square
When you need square corners, you can't beat the
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Woodcraft S·tOt In Your Are


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for A f e C Ulla Or a Flnd Out l:Dcal oodtr11N