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1.

History of Volleyball

Volleyball has come a long way from the dusty-old YMCA gymnasium of Holyoke, Massachusetts,
USA, where the visionary William G. Morgan invented the sport back in 1895. It has seen the start of
two centuries and the dawn of a new millennium. Volleyball is now one of the big five international
sports, and the FIVB, with its 220 affiliated national federations, is the largest international sporting
federation in the world.
Volleyball has witnessed unprecedented growth over the last two decades. With the great success of
world competitions such as the FIVB World Championships, the FIVB World League, the FIVB
World Grand Prix, the FIVB World Cup and the FIVB Grand Champions Cup as well as the Olympic
Games, the level of participation at all levels internationally continues to grow exponentially.
The beach volleyball phenomenon also continues to amaze. The overwhelming spectator and
television success of beach volleyball since its introduction to the Olympic Games at Atlanta 1996 and
the stunning success of the FIVB World Tour, the World Championships and the Continental Cup has
opened up volleyball to a completely new market.

Worldwide Growth
The physical education directors of the YMCA, encouraged particularly by two professional schools
of physical education, Springfield college in Massachusetts and George Williams College in Chicago
(now at Downers Grove, Illinois), adopted volleyball in all its societies throughout the United States,
Canada (in 1900 Canada became the first foreign country to adopt the game), and also in many other
countries: Elwood S. Brown in the Philippines (1910), J. Howard Crocker in China, Franklin H.
Brown in Japan (1908), Dr. J.H. Gray in Burma, in China and in India, and others in Mexico and
South American, European and African countries.
By 1913 the development of volleyball on the Asian continent was assured as, in that year, the game
was included in the programme of the first Far-Eastern Games, organized in Manila. It should be noted
that, for a long time, Volleyball was played in Asia according to the "Brown" rules which, among
other things, used 16 players (to enable a greater participation in matches).
An indication of the growth of volleyball in the United States is given in an article published in 1916
in the Spalding Volleyball Guide and written by Robert C. Cubbon. In that article Cubbon estimated
that the number of players had reached a total of 200,000 people subdivided in the following way: in
the YMCA (boys, young men, and older men) 70,000, in the YWCA (girls and women) 50,000, in
schools (boys and girls) 25,000 and in colleges (young men) 10,000.
In 1916, the YMCA managed to induce the powerful National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) to publish its rules and a series of articles, contributing to the rapid growth of volleyball
among young college students. In 1918 the number of players per team was limited to six, and in 1922
the maximum number of authorized contacts with the ball was fixed at three.
Until the early 1930s volleyball was for the most part a game of leisure and recreation, and there were
only a few international activities and competitions. There were different rules of the game in the
various parts of the world; however, national championships were played in many countries (for
instance, in Eastern Europe where the level of play had reached a remarkable standard).
Volleyball thus became more and more a competitive sport with high physical and technical
performance.
2. Court
3. Scoring System
here are two scoring methods used for volleyball. The first is known as sideout scoring, which
basically means the only team that can score is the team that is serving. If the non-serving team
hits the ball in the opponents' court or their opponents make an error, they earn the right to serve
only. With rally scoring, either team can score regardless of who the serving team is. Games
typically must be won by a minimum of two points with both scoring systems.

Rally Scoring

With rally scoring, teams score a point when the other team fails to return the ball over the net,
hits the ball out of bounds, commits an infraction or makes a service error.

Sideout Scoring

In sideout scoring, the serving team scores a point when the opponents fail to return the ball over
the net, hit the ball out of bounds or commit an infraction. The non-serving team will earn the
right to serve when the opponents fail to return the ball over the net, hit the ball out of bounds,
commit an infraction or make a service error.

Rally Game Parameters

In rally scoring, games are played until a team scores 25 points, provided there is at least a two-
point margin of victory. Matches are typically decided by the best three-out-of-five games
format. If a fifth game is played, the team that scores 15 points first is the winner, provided there
is a two-point margin of victory.

Sideout Game Parameters

With sideout scoring, all games are played to 15, provided there is at least a two-point margin of
victory. Some organizations will put a cap on sideout scoring, so that the first team to reach 17
points is the winner of a game, even if the two-point margin is not present.

4. Rules
The Serve
 Server must serve from behind the end line until after contact
 Ball may be served underhand or overhand
 Ball must be clearly visible to opponents before serve
 Served ball may graze the net and drop to theother side for point
 First game serve is determined by a volley, each subsequent game shall be served by
the previous game loser
 Serve must be returned by a bump only. no setting or attacking a serve

Scoring

 Rally scoring will be used.


 There will be a point scored on every score of the ball.
 Offense will score on a defense miss or out of bounds hit.
 Defense will score on an offensive miss, out of bounds hit, or serve into the net.
 Game will be played to 25 pts.
 Must win by 2 points.

Rotation

 Team will rotate each time they win the serve


 Players shall rotate in a clockwise manner
 There shall be 4-6 players on each side.

Playing The Game


 Maximum of three hits per side
 Player may not hit the ball twice in succession (A block is not considered a hit)
 Ball may be played off the net during a volley and on serve
 A ball touching a boundary line is good
 A legal hit is contact with the ball by a player body above and including the waist which
does not allow the ball to visibly come to a rest
 If two or more players contact the ball simultaneously, it is considered one play and the
players involved may not participate in the next play
 A player must not block or attack a serve
 Switching positions will be allowed only between front line players. ( After the serve
only )

Basic Rule Violations

 Stepping on or over the line on a serve


 Failure to serve the ball over the net successfully
 Hitting the ball illegally ( Carrying, Palming, Throwing, etc. )
 Touches of the net with any part of the body while the ball is in play. If the ball is
driven into the net with such force that it causes the net to contact an opposing player,
no foul will be called, and the ball shall continue to be in play
 Reaching over the net, except under these conditions a) When executing a follow-
through b) When blocking a ball which is in the opponents court but is being returned (
the blocker must not contact the ball until after the opponent who is attempting to return
the ball makes contact). Except to block the third play
 Reaches under the net ( if it interferes with the ball or opposing player )
 Failure to serve in the correct order
 Blocks or spikes from a position which is clearly not behind the 10-foot line while in a
back row position

The Court

 Both indoor and outdoor courts are 18 m x 9m


 Indoor courts also include an attack area designated bya line 3 m back from the center
line

Net Height

 Net height for men, co-ed mixed 6 is 2.43 meters


 Net height for women is 2.24 m

5. Skills

Serve-Used to put the ball in play. The action is done with arm swing that sends the ball
over the net into the opponent's court.

Forearm Pass-Used to receive the ball from your opponents, as in service, or as a technique
to accurately control the ball in a way that eliminates lifting or carrying the ball. the
fundamental action of passing is to rebound the ball off of the forearms (which are held
together tightly with the palms and thumbs positioned together) from a slightly squatted and
balanced position.

Setting- Used to receive a teammate's pass in order that the play may continue by passing
the ball overhead to an attacker. the fundamental action of setting is to contact the ball with
the finger pads momentarily at the forehead and following through with arms fully extended
to the hitting target.

Kill or Attack-Used to put the ball into the opponent's court in order to earn a point or side
out. the fundamental action of attacking incorporates a quick approach followed by a strong,
full arm swing, and follow-thru.

Block-Used to stop the ball from crossing the net as a result of an opponent's attack. A
block is effective if it immediately places the ball back into the opponent's court or if it
temporarily slows down the ball in order for a defender to make a dig. The fundamental
action of blocking is to stand facing the net with feet shoulder width apart, arms nearly
extended above the head, ready to jump above the net to deflect the ball back into the
opponent's court.

Floor Defense-used to receive the opponent's attack. The key skills are digging and
sprawling. The dig resembles a forearm pass from a low ready position and is used more for
balls that are hit near the defender. The sprawl is a result of an attempted dig for a ball that
is hit further away from the defender and resembles a dive.