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GPS ANTENNA

Villashagñay Erika, Cando Robinson, Cujilema Freddy, Pillapa Jhoan


gabyevc1@hotmail.com
Informatic and Electronic School
Electronic, Telecomunications and Networks Engineering
Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo
Riobamba, Ecuador

ABSTRACT: This document shows the design and L1 band composed by multiple organic layers and ce-
simulation of a compact antenna for GPS applications ramics substrates of dielectric constant. On the other
powered by microstrip, consists of two rectangular hand, in [10] the design of a patch is presented where
patches that operate at a frequency of 1.5 GHz, with the dimensions of the antenna and the ground plane
a bandwidth of 1.567%, the two stacked substrates are are equal, so that reducing the total size of the antenna.
designed with material FR4 1.6 mm thickness to cover
the L1 band of GPS. The HFFS software helps us to The design of a compact stacked patch antenna
simulate the iterations of the antenna as well as the
made with two substrates of FR-4 with a thickness
parameters of the antenna, as the VSWR gain and the
of 1.6mm to cover the L1 band of GPS without any
radiation pattern. tuning technique is proposed. The antenna is pow-
ered by microstrip, which operates at a frequency of
Keywords: GPS ANTENNA, microstrip antenna, 1.5Ghz, with a bandwidth of 1.567%. The purpose of
patch antenna. the research is to show that the use of dielectric con-
stant of 4.4, makes it feasible to develop antennas for
applications with results comparable to those obtained
I. INTRODUCTION through conventional techniques

In recent years, the field of telecommunications has


II. ANTENNA STRUCTURE
evolved considerably in the new technological devel-
opments of communications such as instant messaging
services to send the current position of each person;
Online services for the knowledge of the traffic and
routes that improve the mobility in the cities and that
help us to know the place and the destination; in-
tegrated systems, satellites, among others [1]. The
Microstrip Antenna has presented a great advance
with respect to the conventional Microwave Antennas,
has advantages as low cost, size, ease of installation
and light weight, but it has a disadvantage that is the
limited bandwidth specially to cover a certain band of
a specific application [2]. The present project focuses
on the design of a broadband microstrip antenna for
GPS applications. GPS systems have three bands, L1
(1.575 GHz), L2 (1.227 GHz) and L5 (1.176 GHz) [3].
Figure 1.-Geometry of the proposed stacked antenna
Recently, several low-profile antennas have been (all the dimensions are in mm).
published to cover the latest bands. In [4], the an- The proposed stacked antenna shown in Figure 1. con-
tenna for a dual band L1 and L2 is presented while in sists of two stacked substrates that have a thickness of
[5,6], the antenna is designed for the three bands L1, 1.6mm. The upper patch antenna has a width of w =
L2 and L3. In [7], a tunable technique is used to adapt 26 mm and a length of L = 26 mm. The lower patch
the antenna to operate in the required bands, while has a width of 94.55 mm and a length of L = 26 mm,
in [8], a modified antenna is used with an F form and and it is powered by a microstrip line of 0.69 mm in
high permittivity. New techniques for the design of an- width and 12.43 mm in length.
tennas for GPS have recently been explored, as is the
case of [9] where the use of metamaterials is proposed
for the design of an antenna that operates in the GPS III. SIMULATION AND RESULTS

1
Figure 4 shows the radiation pattern of the omnidirec-
tional antenna stacked with the central frequency of 1.5
GHz, where the theta component is plotted along all
the reals with phi at 0o and 90o , represented with the
red color and blue respectively in the figure, the same
one that shows that a wide pattern coverage is achieved
with phi 90o , being 300o together with 90o the angles
where there is more radiation compared with phi 0o
than its radiation in minimum.

Figure 2.- Reflection coefficient of the Stacked


Antenna.

Figure 2 shows the reflection coefficient of the stacked


omnidirectional antenna that operates at a central fre-
quency of 1.5 GHz where it shows the return loss for
the proposed antenna is less than -10 dB, with a band-
width of 1.567%

Figure 5.- The radiation pattern of the antenna


stacked with Theta 0o and 90o .
Figure 5 shows the graph of the phi component
along with the real ones with theta at 0o and 90o ,
represented with the red and blue color respectively in
the figure, where it is a wide radiation pattern cover-
age with theta 0o it is phi 0o and 180o , where as with
theta 90o there is more radiation at 0o , all this being
analyzed at a central frequency of 1.5 GHz.
Figure 3.- The corresponding input impedance of the
antenna has dispersion parameters that are shown in IV. CONCLUSION
Figure 2.
A stacked antenna is being designed for GPS applica-
In this other figure 3 the input impedance of the pro- tions. The stacked antenna is simulated in the HFFS
posed structure is shown in which the real part of this software, from the simulated results it is found that the
impedance is almost equal to 50 Ohm represented by antenna has a better performance and a lower return
the curve of blue color, while its corresponding imagi- loss below -10 dB, with a bandwidth of 1.567% fre-
nary part is almost zero represented by the curve red, quency, knowing that its Central operating frequency
in the frequency given above. is 1.5 GHz.

V. REFERENCES
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[3] J. D. Karus and R. J. Marhefka, Antennas for


All Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Figure 4.- The radiation pattern of the antenna [4] N. P. Agrawall, G. Kumar, and K. P. Ray, Wide-
stacked with Phi 0o and 90o . band planar antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,

2
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