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Principles of Data

Conversion System Design


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Principles of Data
Conversion System Design

Behzad Razavi
AT&T Bell Laboratories

+IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., NewYork

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Wiley-IEEE Press ISBN 0-7803-1093-4

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Razavi . Behzad.
Principles of data conversion system design I Behzad Razavi.
p. em.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7803-1093-4
I. Analog-to-digital converters-i-design and construction.
2. Digital-to-analog converters--Design and construction.
3.1ntegrated circuits--Design and construction. I. Title.
rx 7887.6.R39 1995 94-26694
621.39'814-dc20 CIP

10 9 8
To the memory of my mother
Contents

PREFACE xi

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO DATA CONVERSION


AND PROCESSING 1

CHAPTER 2 BASIC SAMPLING CIRCUITS 7

2.1 General Considerations 7


2.2 Performance Metrics 11
2.3 Sampling Switches 13
2.3.1 MOS Switches 14
2.3.2 Diode Switches 19
2.3.3 Comparison of MOS and Diode Switches 23
2.3.4 Improvements in MOS Switch Performance 24
References 27

CHAPTER 3 SAMPLE·AND·HOLD ARCHITECTURES 29

3.1 Conventional Open-Loop Architecture 29


3.2 Conventional Closed-Loop Architecture 31
3.3 Open-loop Architecture with Miller Capacitance 33
vii
viii Contents

3.4 Multiplexed-Input Architectures 35


3.5 Recycling Architecture 39
3.6 Switched-Capacitor Architecture 40
3.7 Current-Mode Architecture 42
References 43

CHAPTER 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG


CONVERSION 45

4.1 General Considerations 45


4.2 Performance Metrics 47
4.3 Reference Multiplication and Division 49
4.3.1 Voltage Division SO
4.3.2 Current Division SS
4.3.3 Charge Division 63
4.4 Switching and logical Functions in DACs 70
4.4.1 Switching Functions in Resistor-Ladder DACs 70
4.4.2 Switching Functions in Current-Steering DACs 72
4.4.3 Switching Functions in Capacitor DACs 74
4.4.4 Binary-to-Thermometer Code Conversion 76
References 77

CHAPTER 5 DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER ARCHITECTURES 79

5.1 Resistor-Ladder DAC Architectures 79


5.1.1 Ladder Architecture with Switched Subdivider 79
5.1.2 Intermeshed Ladder Architectures 82
5.2 Current-Steering Architectures 84
5.2.1 R-2R-Network Based Architectures 84
5.2.2 Segmented Architectures 90
References 94

CHAPTER 6 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER ARCHITECTURES 96

6.1 General Considerations 96


6.2 Performance Metrics 99
6.3 Flash Architectures 101
6.3.1 Reference Ladder DC and AC Bowing 103
6.3.2 Nonlinear Input Capacitance 106
Contents ix

6.3.3 Kickback Noise 107


6.3.4 Sparkles in Thermometer Code 108
6.3.5 Metastability 110
6.3.6 Slew-Dependent Sampling Point 112
6.3.7 Clock Jitter and Dispersion 112
6.3.8 Gray Encoding 114
6.4 Two-Step Architectures 116
6.4.1 Effect of Nonidealities 121
6.4.2 Two-Step Recycling Architecture 124
6.4.3 Two-Step Subranging Architecture 125
6.5 Interpolative and Folding Architectures 126
6.5.1 Interpolation 127
6.5.2 Folding Architectures 132
6.5.3 Folding with Interpolation 136
6.6 Pipelined Architectures 140
6.7 Successive Approximation Architectures 143
6.8 Interleaved Architectures 147
References 149

CHAPTER 7 BUILDING BLOCKS OF DATA CONVERSION SYSTEMS 153

7.1 Amplifiers 153


7.1.1 Open-Loop Amplifiers 153
7.1.2 Closed-Loop Amplifiers 160
7.1.3 Operational Amplifiers 164
7.1.4 Gain Boosting Techniques 171
7.1.5 Common-Mode Feedback 172
7.2 Comparators 177
7.2.1 Bipolar Comparators 181
7.2.2 CMOS Comparators 188
7.2.3 BiCMOS Comparators 191
References 195

CHAPTER 8 PRECISION TECHNIQUES 198

8.1 Comparator Offset Cancellation 198


8.1.1 Input Offset Storage 199
8.1.2 Output Offset Storage 201
8.1.3 Multistage Offset Storage 202
8.1.4 Comparators Using Offset-Cancelled Latches 206
8.2 00 Amo Offset Cancellation 208
x Contents

8.3 Calibration Techniques 211


8.3.1 DAC Calibration Techniques 211
8.3.2 ADC Calibration Techniques 218
8.4 Range Overlap and Digital Correction 224
References 229

CHAPTER 9 TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION 232

9.1 General Considerations 232


9.2 Sampling Circuits 234
9.3 D/A Converters 239
9.4 ND Converters 239
9.4.1 Static Testing 239
9.4.2 Dynamic Testing 241

INDEX 252
Preface

Data conversion provides the link between the analog world and digital sys-
tems and is performed by means of sampling circuits, analog-to-digital (A/D)
converters, and digital-to-analog (DI A) converters. With the increasing use
of digital computing and signal processing in applications such as medical
imaging, instrumentation, consumer electronics, and communications, the
field of data conversion systems has rapidly expanded over the past twenty
years. Monolithic integration, new architectures, and advances in integrated
circuit (K') technology have dramatically changed the design style of these
systems and created new areas for research and development. As a result, the
body of knowledge related to this field, primarily in the form of conference
proceedings and journal papers, has grown to such extent that students and
practicing engineers typically spend more than a year on the learning curve
after they have completed other Ie design courses. The lack of a systematic,
comprehensive treatment of the subject has made the task of learning difficult
and inefficient.
This book has been written as a unified text dealing with the analysis
and design of data converters. Intended for classroom adoption as well as
industrial practice, it methodically leads the reader from basic concepts to
advanced topics while explaining design issues at both circuit and system
level. In addition, to broaden the reader's view of technology-dependent
design style, the text provides examples of CMOS, bipolar, and BiCMOS
implementations for various circuits and discusses the trade-offs in each case.
xi
xii Preface

The reader is assumed to have a solid understanding of analog IC design,


preferably at the level of Analysis and Design ofAnalog Integrated Circuits by
P. R. Gray and R. G. Meyer, and Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal
Processing by R. Gregorian and G. C. Ternes. Some knowledge of digital
circuits and the theory of signals and systems is also assumed.
The book consists of nine chapters. Chapter 1 serves as an introductory
overview, familiarizing the reader with the role of data conversion in larger
systems and providing the "big picture." Chapter 2 deals with basic sampling
circuits and analyzes the behavior of MOS and bipolar switches with emphasis
on their speed-precision trade-offs. Circuit techniques that relax such trade-
offs are also described. Chapter 3 extends these techniques to the architecture
level by introducing various sample-and-hold topologies.
Chapter 4 studies basic digital-to-analog conversion, viewing this func-
tion as reference multiplication or division. Topologies in which the refer-
ence is a voltage, current, or charge are analyzed and the switching functions
required in such circuits are described. These concepts are applied to system-
level design in Chapter 5, where digital-to-analog converter architectures are
presented.
Chapter 6 deals with analog-to-digital converter architectures. Flash,
two-step, interpolating, folding, pipelined, successive approximation, and
interleaved architectures are studied and their design issues and sources of
error are examined. Chapter 7 describes the design of building blocks of
data conversion systems. Open-loop amplifiers, operational amplifiers, and
comparators are discussed and means of improving their performance are
introduced.
Chapter 8 focuses on precision techniques applicable to high-resolution
data conversion. Comparator and op amp offset cancellation, DI A and AID
calibration, and overlap and digital correction are covered in this chapter.
Chapter 9 is concerned with the important topic of testing and character-
ization. Various approaches to evaluating the static and dynamic performance
of sampling circuits and DI A and AID converters are described in detail.
Each chapter is accompanied with an extensive set of references, allow-
ing the reader to access the original work related to each topic, understand the
intricate details in more depth, and learn techniques not described in the text.
Publishing a book is an elaborate, sometimes overwhelming task that
can be carried out only with the support of a great many people. During
the two years I worked on this book, the stimulating environment at AT&T
Bell Labs and the guidance of my supervisor, Robert Swartz, enabled me
to efficiently interleave research and writing. When the first draft was fin-
ished, a number of experts from both industry and academia reviewed various
Preface xiii

parts of the manuscript and provided helpful comments. In particular, Brian


Brandt (IBM), Sing Chin (National Semiconductor), Robert Jewett (HP Labs),
Andrew Karanicolas (AT&T Bell Labs), Stephen Lewis (DC Davis), Peter
Lim (Chrontel), Krishnaswamy Nagaraj (AT&T Bell Labs), Marcel Pelgrom
(Philips), David Rich (AT&T Bell Labs), and Bang-Sup Song (University of
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) contributed with their meticulous reviews, and I
wish to express my gratitude to all of them. I am of course solely responsible
for any errors or inconsistencies that may have remained in the text.
During the publication process, I have benefited from the kind support
of the IEEE Press staff and would like to thank especially Russ Hall, Valerie
Zaborski, Denise Gannon, and Dudley Kay for all their effort.

Behzad Razavi