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# SVS College of Engineering Department of EEE

UNIT 1
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND MEASUREMENTS
TECHNICAL TERMS
Current
Flow of Electrons or Charges in a conductor.
Voltage
The potential difference between two points or two conductors.
Cycle:
One complete set of positive and negative values of an alternating quantity is called cycle.
Frequency:
The number of cycles made by an alternating quantity per second is called frequency. The unit of
frequency is Hertz(Hz).
Amplitude or Peak value:
The maximum positive or negative value of an alternating quantity is called amplitude or peak
value.
Average value:
This is the average of instantaneous values of an alternating quantity over one complete cycle of
the wave.
Time period:
The time taken to complete one complete cycle.
Electrical Network:
A combination of various electric elements.
Voltage Ratio:
The ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage is known as the voltage transformation ratio.
Current Ratio: The ratio of secondary current to primary current is known as current ratio and
is reciprocal of voltage transformation ratio in an ideal transformer.

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PART -A
1. Distinguish between a mesh and loop a circuit. (May 2009)

Ans: The difference between a mesh and a loop is that a mesh does not contain any
other loop within it. Thus a mesh is the smallest loop. A mesh is always a loop but a
loop may or may not be a mesh.

## 2. What is rms value of a periodic current? (May 2009)

(or) Define RMS value (Dec 2012)

Ans: The effective or rms value of an alternating current is given by that steady
current (D.C) which, when flowing through a given circuit for a given time, produces
the same amount of heat as produced by the alternating current, which when
flowing through the same circuit for the same time.

## 3. What is amplitude factor? (Dec 2009/May 2011)

Ans: The peak factor of an alternating quantity is defined as ratio of maximum value
to the average value, the form factor for sinusoidal alternating quantities is 1.11.

Average value

## 4. Define power factor. (Dec-2009)

Ans : the power factor is the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current.
Resistance
Cos Φ =
Impedance

Real power
Cos Φ =
Apparent power

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## 5. Define ohms law. (Dec 2010)

Ans: At constant temperature the potential difference across the conductor is
directly proportional to current flowing through the conductor.
VαI
V=IR

Limitation
 It does not apply to non metallic conductor.
 It does not apply to non linear devices such as diode zener diode.

## 6. State kirchoff’s law. [Dec 2011, May 2012]

Ans: Kirchhoff’s current law
The sum of the current flowing towards a junction is equal to sum of the current
flowing away from it.
Kirchhoff’s voltage law
In a closed circuit the sum of the potential drop is equal to the sum of the potential
rises

## 7. What are the advantages of electromechanical measuring instruments?

(May 2011, Dec 2012)
Ans: The various advantages of electromechanical measuring instruments are,
 Simple in design
 Reliable
 Low in cost
 Work without any additional power supply

## 8. What is indicating instrument? List three types of indicating instruments.

(Dec 2011, Dec 2010)
Ans: The instruments which make use of a dial and pointer for showing or
indicating magnitude of unknown quantity is called indicating instruments.
Types :
 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) instrument
 Permanent Magnet Moving Iron (PMMI) instrument
 Dynamometer type wattmeter

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## 9. State the different type of instrument based on their operating principles.

Ans: (May 2012)
 Indicating instruments (voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter)
 Recording instruments (tape recorder, x-y recorder)
 Integrating instruments (energy meter)

10. Name the torques that acts in indicating instruments. (Dec 2006)
(or) what are the different torques act upon the moving system of the
instruments for good operation ?
Ans:
 Deflecting torque
 Controlling torque
 Damping torque

## 11. A 120Ω resistor has a specified maximum power dissipation of 1 W. calculate

the maximum current level. (May 2013)
Ans :
Given Data:
P=1W, R=120Ω
P= I2R
I2=P/R = 1/120
I= 0.09 A

12. Three inductive coils each with resistance of 15Ω and an inductance of 0.03H
have connected in star to a 3𝝋, 400V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the phase
voltages. (May 2013)
Ans:
Given data:

VL=400V,R=15 Ω, L=0.03H
Solution :

VP= VL/√3
VP= 400/√3=230.2V

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13. Two resistances are connected in parallel with values 6Ω and 3 Ω. This
combination is connected in series with 8 Ω. Find the equivalent resistance.
Ans: (May 2009)

## Parallel resistance (RP ) = (6*3)/(6+3)

=2Ω
Total resistance RT= RS+RP
=2+8
=10 Ω

## 14. Define average value.

Ans: Average value = Area under the curve over one complete cycle
Base (Time period)

Average value

## 16. Define electric current.

Ans: Electric current is defined as rate of flow of electric charge.
I =dq/dt
The unit of current is Amperes.

## 17. Define electrical potential.

Ans: This is generally measured between two points and its unit is volts. If the work
done in moving a charge of 1 coulomb between any two points is one joule, then we
say that the potential of one point with reference to the second point is one volt.

## 18. Define frequency.

Ans: The number cycles occurring per second is called frequency f = 1/T Hz.

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## 19. Define power

Ans: The rate of doing work by electrical energy or energy supplied per unit time is
called the power. Its unit is watts
P = V × I; P = Energy / time = W/t

## 20. Define resistance.

Ans: Resistance is the property of a substance, which opposes the flow of electric
current. Whenever current flows through a resistor, a voltage drop occurs in it and
it is dissipated in the form of heat. Unit of resistance is ohm. Symbol is Ω and is
measured with a help of ohmmeter.

## 21. Define Inductance

Ans: Inductance is the property of the coil by which it opposes any change of
current .Its unit is Henry. It stores the energy in electromagnetic field.

## 22. Define capacitance.

Ans: A capacitor is a element which store the energy in electrostatic field. It is
formed by two parallel plates separated by an insulating medium.

## 23. Define real power.

Ans: The actual power consumed in an ac circuit is called real power. Its unit is
watt.
P=VICOS 𝝋

## 24. Define reactive power

Ans: The power consumed by a pure reactance in an ac circuit is called a reactive
power. Its unit is VAR.
Q=VISin 𝝋

## 25. Define apparent power.

Ans: It is given by the product of rms value of voltage current .Its unit is volt
amperes.
S=VI

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PART –B

1. Use mesh analysis to determine the three mesh currents in the circuit show below.
(JUNE 2012, May 2011, DEC 2011)

2. For the circuit shown below, find the current through each of the three resistors.
(JUNE 2012)

3. Find the current in the 8 Ω resistors in the following circuit using krichoff s law.
(JUNE 2013)

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4. Calculate the current in 20 ohm resistor in the circuit shown below. (DEC 2010)

5. Use nodal analysis to determine the voltage across 5 Ω resistance and the current in the
12V source (DEC 2004)

6. Using nodal method find current through 8 Ω resistor as shown in below figure.
(JUNE 2009)

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## 7. Find the current through 6 Ω resistor of the given circuit.

(JUNE 2009)

8. Describe Kirchhoff’s laws. For the circuit shown in the figure below. Determine the
current through 6 Ω resistors and the power supplied by the current source.
(JUNE 2010)

9. A sinusoidal current wave is given by i =50sin (100πt). Determine the root mean square
value. (JUNE 2013)

10. A coil of resistance 5.94 Ω and inductance of 0.35 H is connected in series with a
capacitance of 35 µF across a 200V, 50Hz supply find the impedance(z), current and the
phase difference between voltage and current(Φ). (DEC 2012)

11. Three inductive coils, each with a resistance of 15 Ω and an inductance of 0.03H are
connected in star to a three phase 400V, 50 Hz supply .calculate the phase current, line
current and power absorbed. (DEC2012)

12. A series R-C circuit with R=20 Ω and C=127 µF has 160V, 50 Hz supply connected to it.
Find impedance, current and power factor.
(JUNE 2012, JUNE 2011, MAY 2011)

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13. For the circuit shown below, calculate the line current, the power and the power factor.
The value of R, Land C in each phase is 10 Ω, 1H and 100 µF respectively.
(DEC 2010, JUNE 2012)

14. Determine the line current, power factor and total power when a 3- phase 400V, supply
is given to a balanced load of impedance (8+j6) Ω in each branch, is connected in star.
(DEC 2011)

15. Three similar coils connected in star, take a power of 1.5kW at a power factor of
0.2lagging from a 3 phase, 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the resistance and inductance of
each coil. (MAY 2011)

16. Derive the expression s for impedance, power factor and current of a RL series circuit
connected across alternating current source. Also draw phasor diagram.
(DEC2010)
17. A series RLC circuit with R=25 Ω, L=0.3H and C=66 µF. is supplied at 220V, 50Hz. Find
the impedance of the circuit, current, voltage across each element, power and power factor.
(MAY 2009)
18. A series circuit of R=10 Ω and Xc=15 Ω an phasor voltage V=50∟-90 V rms.Find the
real power, reactive power, complete power and power factor. (MAY2009)
19. Three impedance of 42∟-35ºΩ are connected in delta to a three phases, three wire, and
350V. Find the line currents (DEC 2009)

20. With neat sketch explain the working of dynamometer type watt meter. (MAY 2009)

21. Explain the working principle of moving iron instruments. (DEC 2009, MAY 2009)

22. Why PMMC instruments are not used for AC measurements? (DEC 2009)

23. With neat sketch explain construction and working of moving coil instruments.

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## 24. With neat sketch explain repulsion type MI instruments. (JUNE2010)

25. With neat sketch explain the working principle of single phase energy meter.

(DEC 2011)

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UNIT –II
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
TECHNICAL TERMS:
1. Magnetic Circuit
The circuit which produces the magnetic field is known as magnetic circuit.
2. Stacking Factor
It is the ratio between the net cross sectional areas of the core to the cross
section occupied by the magnetic material.
3. MMF
MMF is the work done in moving a unit magnetic pole once around the
magnetic circuit.
4. Magnetic field intensity.
It is the MMF per unit length.
5. Self Inductance
The e.m.f induced in a coil due to change of flux in the same coil is known as
self inductance.
6. Mutual Inductance
When two coils are kept closed together, due to the change in flux in one coil ,
an emf is induced in the another coil
7. Coupling Coefficient
The ratio of mutual inductance to the square root of the product of two self
inductances.
8. Transformer:
A transformer is a static machine which electrical energy is transferred
from one current circuit to another with desired change in voltage and current,
without any change of frequency.

9. Step up transformer:
In a step up transformer, the number of turns of the primary is less than that
in secondary. It is used to step up the voltage.

## 10. Step down transformer:

In a step down transformer, the number of turns of the primary is greater
than that in secondary. It is used to step down the voltage

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PART –A

1. What is the purpose of yoke in a DC machine? (DEC 2005, DEC 2010, MAY 2012)
Ans: The purposes of yoke in a DC Machines are,
 It serves the purpose of outermost cover of the DC machine.
 It provides mechanical support to the poles.
 It forms a part of the magnetic circuit. It provides a path a low reluctance for
magnetic flux.

2. Write down the Emf equation of a DC Generator. (DEC 2005, MAY 2008)
Ans: The EMF equation of a DC generator is,

Eg = PФZN Volts
60A
Where
Eg = induced emf in generator.
P = Number of poles.
Z = Total number of conductors in armature.
N = Speed in rpm.
A = Number of parallel path.
Ф = Flux per pole in Weber.
For lap winding A = P, for wave winding A = 2.

## 3. Mention the classification of DC Generator? (DEC 2003, DEC 2008)

Ans: Depending on the method of excitation used, the dc generators are classified as,
 Separately excited dc generator
 Self excited dc generator
a) Series generator
b) Shunt generator
c) Compound generator
i) Long shunt compound generators.
ii) Short shunt compound generators.

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4. State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. (Or) what is the basic principle
of a dc generator? (JUN 2009)
Ans: Basic principle of dc generator is Faradays law of electromagnetic induction .i.e.
whenever a conductor is moved in a magnetic field; dynamically induced emf is produced
in that conductor.

## 5. What is the purpose of commutator and brush in a dc generator? (DEC 2007)

Ans: The purpose of commutator and brush in a dc generator are,
 The commutator converts the alternating emf into unidirectional or direct emf.
 The brushes are mainly used to collect current from the commutator.

6. What is back emf? State its significance. (MAY 2004, DEC 2005, MAY 2011)
Ans: The conductors are cutting flux and that is exactly what is required for generator
action to take place. This means that even when the machine is working as a motor,
voltages are induced in the conductors. This emf is called back emf or counter emf, since
the cause for this is in the rotation, which, in turn, is due to the supply voltage.
Hence, Eb = PФZN Volts
60A

## Significance of back emf.

So back emf regulates the flow of armature current and it automatically alters the
armature current to meet the load requirement. This is the practical significance of back
emf.

## 7. Write the voltage equation and torque equation of DC motor.

(MAY 2009, DEC 2007)
Ans: The voltage equation of a DC motor is given by,
V=Eb + Ia Ra +Brush drop.

## Where Eb = Back emf

Ia = Armature current in amps.
Ra = Armature resistance in ohms.
The torque equation of DC motor is given by,
Ta = 0.159Ф Ia PZ N-m
A
Where Ta = Torque in N-m
Ф = Flux per pole in Weber.
Ia = Armature current in amps.
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P = Number of poles.
Z = Total number of conductors.
A = Number of parallel paths.

## 8. Define the term speed regulation of a DC motor. (DEC 2005)

Ans: The speed regulation is defined as the change in speed from no load to full load,
expressed as a fraction or percentage of full load speed.
Therefore, as per definition per unit (p.u) speed regulation of DC motor is given as

## 9. State the principle of a DC motor? (MAY 2007)

Ans: A DC motor is an electrical machine which converts electric energy into mechanical
energy.
It is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a
magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming’s Left
hand rule and the magnitude of the force in given by F = B I l Newton.

10. Mention the types of DC Motor & Applications. (MAY 2008, DEC 2007)
Ans: The types of DC motor and applications are
 DC Series motor -- Constant speed motor
Used in Drilling, Spinning, etc…
 DC Shunt motor -- Variable speed motor
Used in Electric Traction, conveyors, etc…
 DC Compound Motor – Variable speed motor
Used in Rolling Mills, Printing press, etc.

11. Why a dc shunt motor is also called a constant flux motor or constant speed
motor? (MAY 2006, DEC 2010)
Ans: In shunt motor flux produced by field winding is proportional to the field current.
Here the input voltage is constant and so flux is also constant .Therefore DC shunt motor is
also called as a constant flux motor or constant speed motor.

12. Why series motor cannot be started without any load? (DEC 2010)
Ans: In dc series motor flux is directly proportional to armature current. i.e, under no load
condition the armature current is very low and flux is also less. By using the formula speed
inversely proportional to the flux. If flux is less speed will be very high. Due to this, motor
will be damaged. Hence dc series motor should always be started with some load on the
shaft.

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## 13. Define residual Magnetism. (MAY 2011)

Ans: The magnetism residing in the winding or poles though the current through the
exciting winding is reduced to zero is called residuals magnetism.

## 14. What is a transformer? (DEC 2011)

Ans: The transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which an electrical power is
transformed from one alternating current circuit to another with the desired changer in
voltage and current, without any change in the frequency.

15. What are the types of transformer based on the construction? (MAY 2011, 2012)
Ans: Based on the construction, the various types of transformer are,
 Core type transformer.
 Shell type transformer.
 Berry type transformer.

16. What is voltage transformation ratio of transformer? Also write the conditions of
step up transformer. (MAY 2007)
Ans: The ratio of secondary induced emf to primary induced emf is called voltage
transformation ratio denoted by K.
E2 / E1 = N2 / N1 = K
Where, N1 = Number of primary winding turns.
N2 = Number of secondary winding turns.
For a step up transformer ,
E2 >E1 hence K> 1 and for that N2 > N1 = K.

## 17. Why the transformers rating is in kVA? (DEC 2010)

Ans: Copper loss of a transformer depends on current & iron loss on voltage. Hence total
losses depend on Volt-Ampere and not on PF. That is why the rating of transformers is in
kVA and not in kW.

18. Define voltage regulation and efficiency of the transformer? (MAY 2007)
Ans:The regulation of the transformer is defined as the reduction in magnitude of the
terminal voltage due to load, with respect to the no-load terminal voltage.

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## 19. Write down the emf equation of transformer. (MAY 2008)

Ans: The emf equation of transformer is given by,
E1 = 4.44 fФm N1 volts
E2 = 4.44 fФm N2 volts

## Where, E1 = RMS value of the primary emf

E2 = RMS value of the secondary emf
Фm = Maximum value of flux,
f = frequency of the supply voltage.
N1 = Number of primary winding turns.
N2 = Number of secondary winding turns.

## 20. Define all day efficiency of a transformer? (MAY 2008)

Ans: All day efficiency is the ratio of energy (in kwh) delivered in a 24 hour period to the
energy (in kwh) input for the same interval of time.
ηall day = Output in kwh/Input in kwh (for 24 hours)

21. Name the methods adopted to make the single phase induction motors self
starting. (DEC 2003, MAY 2008)
Ans: The methods adopted to make the single phase induction motors self starting are
classified as,
 Split phase induction motor
 Capacitor start induction motor
 Capacitor run induction motor
 Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor

## 22. Define slip. (MAY 2010)

Ans: The slip of an induction motor is defined as the ratio of difference between
synchronous speed (Ns) and rotor speed (N).

## % Slip = Ns – N/N *100

23. Why the single phase induction motor is not self starting? (APR 2001, DEC 2006)
Ans: There is no starting torque in the single phase induction motor. Therefore the rotor
does not rotate. That’s why single phase induction motor is not self starting.

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24. What are the applications of split phase induction motor? (DEC 2010)
Ans: The applications of split phase induction motor are,
 Blowers
 Fans
 Centrifugal pumps
 Washing machines

25. What are the applications and characteristics of capacitor-start capacitor run
induction motor? (MAY 2008)
Ans: Applications of capacitor-start capacitor run induction motor:

 Compressors
 Conveyors
 Refrigerators
 Pumps

## Characteristics of capacitor-start capacitor run induction motor:

 The efficiency of the motor is 60 to 70%
 The power factor of the motor is 0.75 to 0.9
 The power rating of the motor is 1/8 to 1HP.
 The percentage of rated starting torque is 200% to 300%.

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PART -B

1. Explain the principle of operation of a DC generator and derive the EMF equation.
(MAY 2007, MAY 2008)
2. Discuss in detail about the construction of DC generator with the neat sketch.
(MAY 2008)
3. Write briefly on the losses occurring in DC generator.
4. Explain the construction and working principle of DC motor with neat sketch.
(MAY 2007)
5. What are the factors controlling the speed of the motor? Explain any one method of
speed control of shunt motors. Write the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
(DEC 2009)
6. Describe the construction details of transformer and also explain the principle of
operation. (MAY 2012, DEC 2005)
7. Derive the emf equations of transformer. (DEC 2011, DEC 2010)
8. Explain the principle of operation of single phase induction motor. (MAY 2009)
9. Classify single phase induction motors according to the method of starting and briefly
explain them. (DEC 2005)
10. Explain the principle of operation of split phase induction motor, capacitor start
induction motor and shaded pole induction motor with neat diagrams. Mention its
applications and characteristics of the same. (MAY 2012, DEC 2011)

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UNIT-III
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS
TECHNICAL TERMS:

P-N junction
A PN junction diode is a two terminal semiconductor device consisting of PN
junction formed either in germanium or silicon crystal. When a p-type semiconductor
material is suitably joined to n-type semiconductor.

Bias
Applying an external voltage to electronic devices.

Forward bias
Anode is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and cathode is connected
to the negative terminal of the battery.

Reverse bias
Anode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and cathode is connected
to the positive terminal of the battery.

Zener diode
Zener diode is a heavily doped semiconductor diode .During reverse biased,
breakdown occurs due to the strong electric field applied across it.

Ripple factor
RMS value of ripple component to average or dc component present in the output.

Depletion region
The region around the junction from which the mobile charge carriers (electrons
and holes) are depleted.

Cut-in voltage
The voltage at which the diode starts conductions.

## Peak inverse voltage

The maximum voltage applied across the diode when it is reverse biased
without destroying it.

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Drift current
When the electric field is applied across the semiconductor, the holes move
towards the negative terminals of the battery and electrons move towards the positive
terminal of the battery. This cause the current to flow in circuit.

Diffusion current
The charge carrier has a tendency to move from region of higher
concentration to the region of lower concentration.

Barrier potential
The potential difference builds up across the PN junction which restricts
further movement of charge carriers across the junction

## Zener breakdown voltage

The reverse voltage applied across the zener diode, which cause the breakdown.

Rectifier
Rectifier converts ac signal into dc signal. The output is in the form of pulsating dc.

Filter
Pulsating dc is converted into pure dc with the help of filter.

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PART -A

## 1. What is forbidden energy gap? (May 2005)

Ans: The upper most band is conduction band and the lower one is valence band these
two bands are separated by a gap which is known as forbidden energy gap.

## 2. What is intrinsic semiconductor? (DEC 2005)

Ans: The pure form of semiconductor material is known as intrinsic semiconductor
examples pure germanium and silicon which have the forbidden energy gap of 0.72 and
1.1eV.

## 3. What is extrinsic semiconductor? Give example.

Ans: Impure form of semiconductor is called as extrinsic semiconductor.
EX: N and P type semiconductors.

## 1. It’s a pure form of semiconductor An impurity or doping agent is added in

the pure semiconductor forms extrinsic
semiconductor

2. Number of electrons and holes are Number of electrons and holes are not
equal equal because of doping

## 5. What are minority and majority carriers in a semiconductor?

Ans: P type semiconductor: Holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carrier.
N type semiconductor: Holes are minority carriers and electrons are majority carrier.

6. What are the types of solid based on energy band theory? Give examples for each.
Ans: 1. Conductor Ex: Copper ,Aluminium.
2. Semiconductor Ex: Silicon , Germanium.
3. Insulator Ex: Paper , mica.

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## 7. Write any two salient points on a PN junction diode. (May 2013)

Ans:
1. It conducts well in forward direction.
2. It conducts poorly in reverse direction.

## 8. What are the applications of PN junction diode? (May 2009)

Ans:
 As switch
 As rectifiers
 Power supplies
 Clipper and clampers
 Digital systems
 Communication systems

## 9. What is cut in (or) Knee voltage?

Ans: The forward voltage at which the current through the junction starts increasing
rapidly is called as knee voltage (or) cut in voltage.

## 10. What is a zener diode? (May 2007)

Ans: A zener diode is a special purpose diode that is operated in reverse biased
conditions.

## 11. Define breakdown voltage in a zener diode. (DEC 2007)

Ans: When the reverse bias voltage across of zener diode exceeds the particular voltage
level, the current increases very sharply. This voltage is called breakdown voltage of
zener diode.

## 12. Mention some of the applications of zener diode.

Ans:
 Voltage regulator
 Clippers in wave shaping circuits
 Square wave generators
 Fixing reference voltage in electronic circuits such as power supplies and
transistor biasing.

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13. Write the difference between PN junction diode and Zener diode. (May 2012)

region

## 2. The Diode breakdown is The diode breakdown is

called avalanche called zener breakdown.
breakdown

## 14. Compare Avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown.

(MAY 2010, MAY 2011, DEC 2012)
S.No. Avalanche breakdown Zener breakdown

## 2. It occurs with reverse bias voltage It occurs in PN junction diode with

is less than 6v. reverse voltage greater than 6V.

## 4. The reverse bias VI characteristic is The VI characteristics in reverse

very sharp in breakdown region. bias are not sharp.

## 5. It occurs by breaking covalent It occurs by breaking covalent

bands due to very high electric field bands due to collision of accelerated
established by the reverse bias electrons as a chain reaction.

## 6. The breakdown voltage decreases if The breakdown voltage increases if

the junction temperature increases. the junction temperature increases.

## 15. Define peak inverse voltage of a PN junction diode. (DEC 2011)

Ans: This is the maximum voltage with which the rectifier has to withstand during reverse
biasing.

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16. What is the peak inverse voltage of half wave rectifier and center tapped full
wave rectifier?
Ans:
PIV=Vm (Half wave)
PIV=2Vm (Full wave)

17. When should a transistor be biased? Name the biasing circuits. (May 2013)
Ans: In order to operate transistor properly as an amplifier , it should be biased.
Commonly using biasing

 Common Base
 Common Emitter
 Common Collector

18. Give the biasing condition for a transistor to operate as an amplifier. (May 2012)
Ans:

## 19. What is early effect? (May 2011)

Ans: When reverse bias voltage VCB increases, the width of depletion region also increases,
which reduces the electrical base width. This effect is called as early effect (or) base
width modulation.

## 20. Define current amplification factor.

Ans: It is defined as the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current
at constant.

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## 21. What are the advantages of full wave midpoint rectifier?

Ans:
 The output voltage and transformer efficiency are higher.
 Low ripple factor.
 High transformer utilization factor.
 The dc saturation of the core is avoided as current flows through the halves
of the centre tapped secondary of the transformer in opposite direction.

## 22. What are the advantages of Bridge rectifier? (May 2011)

Ans:
 Transformer with center tap in secondary is not required
 As two diodes are connected in series in each conducting of positive and
negative cycle the peak inverse voltage is shared by both the diodes equally
hence it is suitable for high voltage application.
 The transformer which is connected to bridge rectifier can be small in size
for a Given output and current flows in both primary and secondary during
both positive and negative cycle of the input voltage.
 Better transformer utilization factor.

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PART -B

## 1. Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors with neat diagrams.

2. Describe the working of a PN junction diode with neat diagrams. Also explain its V-I
characteristics
3. What is a Zener diode? Explain the operation of Zener diode and draw its characteristics.
4. Explain how the zener diode is used as a voltage regulator.
4. Explain the operation of half wave rectifier with neat sketch and derive the necessary
expression.
5. Explain the operation of centre tapped full wave rectifier with neat diagram and derive
the necessary expression.
6. Explain the operation of full wave Bridge rectifier with neat diagram
7. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CE
configuration can be obtained.
8. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CB
configuration can be obtained
9. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CC
configuration can be obtained.
10. Compare the input resistance, output resistance and voltage gain of CB, CC and CE
configuration
11. Explain in detail about small signal CE amplifier.

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UNIT – IV
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
TECHNICAL TERMS:
1. Sequential circuit: Sequential circuit is a broad category of digital circuit whose logic
states depend on a specified time sequence. A sequential circuit consists of a
combinational circuit to which memory elements are connected to form a feedback path.
2. Synchronous sequential circuit: A Synchronous sequential circuit is a system whose
behavior can be defined from the knowledge of its signal at discrete instants of time.
3. Clocked sequential circuits: Synchronous sequential circuit that use clock pulses in the
inputs of memory elements are called clocked sequential circuit.
4. Latch: Latch is a simple memory element, which consists of a pair of logic gates with
their inputs and outputs inter connected in a feedback arrangement, which permits a
single bit to be stored.
5. Excitation table: During the design process we usually know the transition from present
state to next state and wish to find the flip-flop input conditions that will cause the
required transition. A table which lists the required inputs for a given chance of state is
called an excitation table.
6. Triggering of flip-flop: The state of a flip-flop is switched by a momentary change in
the input signal. This momentary change is called a trigger and the transition it causes is
said to trigger the flip-flop.
7. Counter: A counter is used to count pulse and give the output in binary form.
8. Synchronous counter: In a synchronous counter, the clock pulse is applied
simultaneously to all flip flops. The output of the flip-flops change state at the same
instant. The speed of operation is high compared to an asynchronous counter.
9. Up counter: A counter that increments the output by one binary number each time a
clock pulse is applied.

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10. Asynchronous counter: In a Asynchronous counter, the clock pulse is applied to the first
flip-flops. The change of state in the output of this flip-flop serves as a clock pulse to the
next flip-flop and so on. Here all the flip-flops do not change state at the same instant and
hence speed is less.
11. Down counter: A counter that decrements the output by one binary number each time a
clock pulse is applied.
12. Ripple counter: A ripple counter is nothing but an asynchronous counter, in which the
output of the flip-flop changes state like a ripple in water.
13. Modulus of a counter: By the term modulus of a counter we say it is the number of
states through which a counter can progress.
14. Modulo counter: A counter that counts from 0 to T is called as modulo counter.
15. Ring counter: A counter formed by circulating a ‘bit’ in a shift register whose serial
output has been connected to its serial input.
16. BCD counter: A BCD counter counts in binary coded decimal from 0000 to 1001 and
back to0000. Because of the return to 0000 after a count of 1001, a BCD counter does not
have a regular pattern as in a straight binary counter.
17. Register: Memory elements capable of storing one binary word. It consists of a group of
flip-flops, which store the binary information.
18. Shift register: In digital circuits, data are needed to be moved into a register(shift in) or
moved out of a register (shift out). A group of flip-flops having either or both of these
facilities is called a shift register
19. Race around condition: In JK flip-flop output is fed back to the input, and therefore
changes in the output results change in the input. Due to this in the positive half of the
clock pulse if J and K are both high then output toggles continuously. This condition is
known as race around condition.

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PART – A
1. Define binary logic?
Ans: Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations. The variables are
designated by the alphabets such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having only two
distinct values: 1 and 0. There are three basic logic operations: AND, OR, and NOT.
2. What are the basic digital logic gates?
Ans: The three basic logic gates are AND gate OR gate NOT gate.

## 3. What is a Logic gate?

Ans: Logic gates are the basic elements that make up a digital system. The electronic gate is
a circuit that is able to operate on a number of binary inputs in order to perform a
particular logical function.

5. Which gates are called as the universal gates? What are its advantages?
(MAY -2012)
Ans: The NAND and NOR gates are called as the universal gates. These gates are used to
perform any type of logic application.

## 6. State De Morgan’s theorem. (DEC 2005, MAY 2006)

Ans:
Theorem 1: It that the complementary of a sum is equal to the product of complement,
A+ B = A . B
Theorem 2: It says the complementary of a product equals the sum of complements,
A.B = A + B
Ans:
Half adder: The logic circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of two bits is called half
Full adder: The logic circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of 3 bits and carries from

## 8. What is a flip flop? Where it is used? (DEC 2007, MAY 2008)

Ans: The basic digital memory circuit is known as flip flop. It is a memory device used to
store one binary digit(bit). The main applications are counters and shift registers.

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## 9. What are the different types of flip flops? (DEC 2007)

Ans: The different types of flip flops are:
 T – flip flop.
 RS – flip flop.
 D –flip flop.
 JK flip flop.
 JK master slave flip flop.
 Clocked RS flip flop.

10. What is meant by racing in the operation of a flip flop? (MAY 2004, DEC 2008)
Ans: This race around condition arises when the width of the clock pulse is greater than
the propagation delay time of the flip flop.
In a level triggered J-K flip flop when J and K are both high, then the output toggles
continuously. This condition is called a race around condition.

## 11.Define counter and mention its types. (DEC 2006)

Ans: A digital circuit used for counting. Counter is divided into synchronous and
asynchronous counter. The change of the state of a particular flip flop is depending on the
present state of other flip flop.
The different types of counters are:
 Synchronous counter
 Asynchronous counter
1. Up counter.
2. Down counter.
3. Up/Down counter.
4. Modulo – N counter.
5. Presettable counter.

## 12. What is a decade counter? (MAY 2001, DEC 2001)

Ans: The counter in which number of states are truncated up to ten states, 0000 (0 in
decimal) through 1001 (9 in decimal) is called decade counter.

## 13. Define shift register

Ans: A register is a group of flip flop that can be used to store a binary number. Register
has a variety of application in digital system including microprocessor.

## 14. What are the four types of shift registers?

Ans: The four types of shift registers are:
 Serial in serial out(SISO)
 Serial in parallel out(SIPO)
 Parallel in parallel out(PIPO)
 Parallel in serial out (PISO)

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## SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUIT COMBINATIONAL LOGIC CIRCUIT

It has memory It has no memory
Depends on present as well as Depends only on present state
previous state

## 16. Mention the types of digital to analog converters. (MAY 2007)

Ans: The types of digital to analog converters are:
 Binary weighted resistors DAC

## 17. What are the types of analog to digital converters?

Ans: The types of analog to digital converters are:
 Flash type
 Staircase type
 Successive approximation type
 Tracking or servo converter.

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PART-B

1. Draw a full adder circuit using logic gates. Explain with truth table. Give also the
expressions for sum and carry. (DEC 2009, DEC 2011)
2. Show that NAND and NOR gates are universal building blocks. (MAY 2012)
3. Draw and explain the circuit diagram of AND, OR, NOT, and NAND gates with suitable
truth tables. (MAY 2011)
4. Draw the logic diagram and explain the working of a half adder. (MAY 2011)
5. Explain the operations of RS flip flop and clocked RS flip flop. (DEC 2011)
6. Explain the working of clocked master slave JK flip flop with logic diagram.
(MAY 2009, MAY 2012)
7. Draw the logic diagram of a 4-bit binary ripple counter and explain its working.
(MAY 2011)
8. Explain the operation of an asynchronous counter. (DEC 2011, MAY 2012)
9. Explain the working of binary weighted register D/A converter. (DEC 2010, DEC 2011)
10. Explain Successive approximation A/D conversion. (DEC 2010, MAY 2012)
11. Explain with neat sketch the working of binary ladder network for digital to analog
conversion. (MAY 2011)

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UNIT-V
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
TECHNICAL TERMS:
1.COMMUNICATION

The term communication refers to the process of transfer of data/message from one place
to another.

2.TRANSDUCER

A Transducer is a device which converts one form of energy to another form of energy.
Examples: microphone, loud speaker

## In pulse amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the pulse is varied in accordance to

message signal amplitude.

4.SAMPLING

Sampling in the process of taking the samples of a continuous time signal at regular
interval of time

## 5.FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

FSK is a digital modulation technique, in which, a logic 0 and logic 1 will be differentiated
with a sinusoidal signal of different frequencies.

## Amplitude shift keying is a digital modulation technique, in which a sinusoidal signal of

particular amplitude and frequency to the ON state pulse and a sinusoidal signal of
different frequencies.

7.DIGITAL SIGNAL

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PART – A

## 1. What is modulation? (AU/ 2009, 2011)

Ans: The process by which baseband signal modifies the carrier signal is called
modulation and the resultant signal is called modulated signal.

## 2. What is demodulation? (AU/ 2009, 2011)

Ans: At the receiving end, the baseband signal and carrier signal are separated from
modulated signal by the process of demodulation.

## 3. What are the types of modulation? (AU/MAY2007)

Ans: Modulation can be broadly classified into two types based on the nature of carrier
signal
i) sinusoidal modulation
ii) pulse modulation

## 4. What is meant by modulation index for AM wave? (AU/DEC 2009)

Ans: Modulation for AM is define as the ratio of modulating signal amplitude to carrier
signal amplitude.

## 5. Mention two advantages of modulation when compared to transmission of

unmodulated signal. (AU/DEC 2011)
Ans:

##  Reduce the height of signals

 Increases the range of communication
 Allows multiplexing of signals
 Allows adjustments in the bandwidth
 Improves quality of reception

## 6. As relation to amplitude modulation, what is over modulation, under modulation

and 100% modulation? (AU 2013)
Ans:

##  If modulation index ma 1 than it is said to be under modulation.

 If modulation index ma=1 it is said to be 100% modulation.
 If modulation index ma>1 it is said to be over modulation.

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## 7. Why are digital signals said to be noise immune? (AU 2013)

Ans: When the signal propates through the channel it is affected by the noise, Hence
the digital signal is said to be noise immune.

8. State the basic characteristics of an analog signal, with an example. (AU 2012)

Ans:

 Analog signals are the one which varies continuously with respect to time.
 They are represented by voltage waveforms that have different amplitudes
as different instants of time.

(AU 2012)
Ans:

##  Uplink frequency - R.F frequency

 Downlink frequency - I.F frequency

10. Sketch the block diagram of basic communication system. (AU 2011)

Ans:

Input output

## 11. Define the term Demodulation. (AU 2011)

Ans: Demodulation is the process of recovering the base band signal from the
modulated wave. Hence the original information is extracted at receiver end.

## 12. Define Total internal reflection. (AU 2010)

Ans: Simple fiber consists of an inner core surrounded by cladding area. The light wave
propagated through the fiber by successive reflections within the core. The
principle of propagation is total internal reflection.
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## 13. What is meant by FAX?

Ans: A facsimile or FAX system is a document carrier, with the help of a FAX machin e one
can send an image on a sheet of paper to another FAX machine over regular telephone
lines.

## 14. What are the applications of FAX machine?

Ans:

 Transmission of photographs
 Transmission of languages text
 Transmission of document, map etc.

15. State the difference between analog signal and digital signal. (AU 2010)

Ans:

## Analog signal Digital signal

Analog signal are one It is a type of discrete time
which varies continuously signal
with respect to time

Telegraph

## 16. What is satellite communication system?

Ans: A satellite communication is a RF repeater station which has made broadband loin
distance communication feasible and ensures a high quality service.

## 17. What is the use of optical fibers?

Ans: Optical fibers are used for transmission of optical signals in the same manner of co-
axial cables for radio wave transmission.

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## 18. What are the applications of optical fiber system?

Ans:
 International communication
 Inter-city communication
 Inter-exchange communication
 Domestic communication
 Plant and traffic control etc.

## 19. Define amplitude modulation

Ans: In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Whenever the modulating signal reaches
maximum amplitude the amplitude of the carrier is also made higher and whenever the
message signal reaches minimum amplitude the amplitude of the carrier is also minimum.

## 20.Define frequency modulation

Ans: In frequency modulation the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to
the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Whenever the amplitude of the
message signal is high FM wave has higher frequency and whenever the amplitude of the
message is low frequency of FM wave is also less.

## 21. What is meant by sampling?

Ans: sampling is the process of taking the samples of a continuous time signal at regular
interval of time.

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PART –B

## 1. With neat diagram explain the principle of operation of AM and FM transmitter.

2. Draw the block diagram of radio broadcasting and reception system and explain the
function of each block.
3. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of FAX.
4. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of micro wave
communication.
5. Draw the block diagram of optical fiber communication system and explain the
function of each block.
6. With the help of a block diagram describe the working of a TV communication
system.
7. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of satellite
communication systems.

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