Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

1

III. QUANTITATIVE
a. Basic Operations

a.1 Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division

FRACTION
a. Addition and Subtraction
- The only consideration in addition and subtraction is that the DENOMINATORS of all
the given should be the SAME.
- It can be achieved by finding the LCD or the LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR
o This denotes to the lowest multiple shared by each of the original
denominator in the equation, or the smallest whole number that can be
divided by each of the given denominator.

STEPS IN FINDING THE LCD.

1. Multiply 2 denominators in the equation if there are just 2 fractions in the given. If there are more
multiply it to each other so that they will be multiples of one another.

a. Multiply the given denominators to get the LCD.

Example:

1 𝑛 𝑛
× =
3 𝑑 21
Multiply

5 𝑛 𝑛
× =
7 𝑑 21
b. Divide the product by the previous denominator in the fractions then place it as a numerator and
denominator of the fraction after the “x” sign.

1 7 𝑛
× =
3 7 21
Divide
2

5 3 𝑛
× =
7 3 21
Divide

c. Go about the operation in the equation.

1 7 7
× =
3 7 21
5 3 15
× =
7 3 21

22 1
or 1
21 21

STEPS IN SUBTRACTION IF THERE IS A NEED FOR BORROWING.

Example:
1 3
4 −2 =
3 5
a. Disregard the whole number then find the LCD.

1 5 5
4 x =4
3 5 15
3 3 9
2 x =2
5 3 15
Since 5 is less than 9 there is a need to borrow from the whole no.
3

3 5
4
15
Add the value of the denominator to the numerator so th at the answer will serve as the new
numerator.

15
5 20
3 = 3
15 15
9
2
15
11
1
15
b. Multiplication

numerator x numerator

whole no x whole no.

denominator x denominator

Example:

1 2 2
x =
5 3 15

For MIXED FRACTION convert the fraction to IMPROPER FRACTIONS.

1 2
2 x 4 = ?
5 3

1. Multiply the denominator and whole number then add the numerator.
4

1 11 2 14
2 = 4 =
5 5 3 3
2. Go about the operation.

11 14 154
x =
5 3 15
3. Convert into MIXED FRACTION.

154 4
= 10 remainder 4 = 10
15
15
Whole no. numerator , then copy the denominator.

For MIXED FRACTION multiplied to a WHOLE NUMBER alone.

5
2 x 11 =?
9
a. Make a fraction on the side of the whole number by copying the whole number as the numerator and
a constant value of 1 will serve the denominator.

5 11
2 x 11
9 1
b. Disregard the whole number, multiply the numerator and the denominator then convert to improper
fraction.

5 11 55 1
2 x 11 = =6
9 1 9 9

c. Multiply the whole number then add it to the whole no. of solved mixed fraction.

1 1
2 x 11 = 22 + 6 = 28
9 9
c. Division

- There is no such thing as division in fraction. The equation should be converted to


multiplication by reciprocal wherein the divisor’s numerator and denominator is interchanged.
5

6 1
=?
14 9

a. Convert the divisor to its reciprocal.

6 9
14 1

b. Go change the operation to multiplication then proceed to the computation.

6 9 54
𝑥 =
14 1 14

c. Convert the answer to its lowest form/ mixed no.

54 12
6
=3 or 3
14 14 7

EXERCISES
12 4 3 5
1. Add 16 , 4 , 12 and 23
14 5 4 6

91 1
a. 57 b. 57 4
120

c. 58 d. 59
5 1
2. Subtract 27 from 43
14 6

a. 15 b. 16
8 17
c. 15 d. 15
21 21
5
3. Multiply 17 by 128
8
6

a. 2,200 b. 2,305
c. 2,356 d. 2,256
2 1
4. Divide 1 by 1
3 9
2 1
a. b.1
3 2
23
c. 1 d. 6
27

PROBLEM SOLVING
1
1. The number of half-pound packages of tea can be weighed out of a box that holds 102
pounds of tea is?
1
a. 5 b. 10
2
1
c. 20 d. 21
2
3
2. If each bag of tokens weighs 5 pounds, how many pounds do three bags weigh?
4

1 3
a. 7 b. 15
4 4
1 1
c. 16 d. 17
2 4

DECIMAL
a. For addition and subtraction just align the decimal point and the corresponding decimal places.

Example:

135.90 + 56.18 + 11.0 =

1 3 5 . 9 0

5 6 . 1 8

1 1 . 0
7

b. Go about the operation from left to right considering the need for “carry over” values and
“borrowing”.

1 1 1
1 3 5 . 9 0

5 6 . 1 8

+ 1 1 . 0

2 0 3 . 0 8

b. For multiplication, multiply the values without considering the decimal places. Then count the
number of decimal places applying it from left to right basis. Should there be a need to move more
places but there is no more places to move through add “zeros” before the number.

5 . 1 3 = 2 decimal places

X . 2 5 = 2 decimal places

2 5 6 5

1 0 2 6 x

1 .2 8 2 5
)
)

)
)

4 3 2 1 <---- move

=1 . 2 8 2 5

c. Consider the following strategy in dividing decimals

1. When the dividend only is a decimal, the division is the same as the whole
numbers; the number of decimal places in the answer must equal that in the
dividend: 12.864 32 = 0.402

2. When the divisor is only decimal, the decimal point in the divisor is omitted add
as many zeros are places to the right of the dividend as there are decimal points
in the divisor: 211,327 6.817 = 21,327,000 6817

= 31,000
8

3. When both the divisor and dividend are decimals, the decimal point in the divisor
is omitted, and the decimal point in the dividend is moved to the right as many
decimal places as there are in the divisor. If there aren’t enough places in the
dividend, zeros must be added to make up the difference.

2.62 0.131 = 2,620 131 = 20

Exercises

1. A boy saved up 4.56 dollars the first month, 3.82 dollars the second month, and 5.06 dollars
the third month. How much did he save in total?

a. 12.56 dollars b. 13.28 dollars

c. 13.44 dollars d. 14.02 dollars

2. A boy earns 20.56 dollars on Monday, 32.90 dollars on Tuesday, and 20.78 on Wednesday. He
spends half of all that he earned during the three days. How much has he left?

a. 29.19 dollars b. 31.23 dollars

c. 34.27 dollars d. 37. 12 dollars

PERCENT
Converting Decimals to Percent.

1. Multiply by 100

2. Affix the % sign.

Example

3 to % = x

3 x 100 = 300%

Converting Fractions to Percent.

1. Multiply the fraction or mixed number by 100.

2. Reduce if possible, convert improper to mixed numbers.


9

3. Affix a % sign on the result

Example:
2
4 to % = X
3

Change the mixed to improper.


2 14 100 1400
4 = x =
3 3 1 3

Change to mixed number.


1400 2
= 466 %
3 3

Approach in percentage problems.


There are 3 quantities involved in percent problems:
a. The rate (R), always followed by the percent sign. (Always convert to decimal by dividing it by
100 before using the value in the equation)
b. The base (B), which follows the word “of”. It is the actual/principal value where we get the
rate.
c. The percentage (P), usually follows the word “is”. This is the equivalent value of the rate.

FORMULA : P = R X B P

B R

Example:
The regular price of a TV set is $156.75 after the annual mid-summer sale the price dropped by
35%. How much is the TV sold during the sale?

GIVEN:

Rate = 35%

Base = $156.75

Percentage = ?
10

Formula:

P= B x R

P= $156.75 x .35

P= $54.86

Price during sale = Base-Percentage

Price = $156.75 - $54.86 = $101.89

Exercises

1. If John must have a mark of 80% to pass a test of 35 items, the number of items he may miss
and still pass the test is?

a. 7 b. 8

c. 11 d. 28

2. Two dozen shuttlecocks and four badminton rackets are to be purchased for a playground.
The shuttlecocks are priced at $0.35 each and the rackets at $2.75 each. The playground
receives a discount of 30% from these prices. The total cost of the equipment is?
a. $7.29 b. $11.43

c. $13.58 d. $18.60

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Ratio expresses the relationship between two or more quantities in terms of
numbers. The mark used to indicate ratio is colon (:) and is read “to”. For
example, the ratio 2:3 is read as 2 to 3.

A ratio also represents division. Therefore, any ratio of two terms can be written
3
as a fraction, any fractions can be written as a ratio. For example, 3:4 =
4
Proportion are two ratios with same relationship or equality. An example is 2:4 = 5:10.
11

extremes = 20

2 : 4 = 5 : 10
means = 20
Two ratios are considered equal if the product of the means and the extremes are equal.

Many problems in which three terms are given and one term is unknown can be solved using
proportions. To solve such problems, follow the three steps.

1. Formulate the proportion very carefully according to the facts given. (If any term is
misplaced, the solution will be incorrect.) Any symbol can be written in place of the missing
term.

2. Determine by inspection whether the means or the extremes are known. Multiply the pair
that has both terms given.

3. Divide this product by the third term given to find the unknown term.

Example:

The scale on a map shows that 2 centimeters represent 30 miles of actual length. What is the
actual length of a road that is represented by 7 centimeters in the map.

2 cms = 30 miles

7 cms = x

7 cms x 30 miles 210 miles

2 cms = 2 = 105 miles

210
2 cms = 30 miles

7 cms = 105 miles


210

EXERCISES
12

1. Two dozen cans of dog food at the rate of three cans for $1.45 would cost?
a. $10.05 b. $11.20

c. $11.60 d. $11.75

2. It costs 31 cents a square to lay vinyl flooring. To lay 180 square feet of flooring, it will cost?

a. $16.20 b. $18.60

c. $55.80 d. $62.00

INTEGERS
ADDITION
1. ADDING INTEGERS SAME SIGN

Add and Keep the Sign!

Add the absolute value of the numbers and keep the same sign.

(positive) + (positive) = Positive (+4) + (+5) = +9

(negative) + (negative) = Negative (-4) + (-5) = -9

2. ADDING INTEGERS DIFFERENT SIGN

Subtract and Keep the Sign of the Bigger Number!

Subtract the absolute value of the numbers and keep the sign of the bigger number.

(-4) + (+5) = +1

(+4) + (-5) = -1

SUBTRACTION
Do not subtract integers. You must change the signs:

KEEP- Keep the sign of the first number

CHANGE- Change the subtraction sign to addition

CHANGE- Change the sign of the second number to the opposite sign.
If it is positive- change to negative.
If it is negative- change to positive.
13

EXAMPLE:

(+4) – (-4)
Keep change change

(+4) + (+4)

NOW USE THE RULES FOR ADDING:


Add the absolute value of the numbers and keep the same sign
(+4) + (+4) = 8

MULTIPLICATION
SAME SIGNS- POSITIVE
Multiply the numbers. Answer will be positive.
(-5) × (-5) = +25

DIFFERENT SIGNS- NEGATIVE


Multiply the numbers.
Answer will be negative (+5) × (-5) = -25

DIVISION

SAME SIGNS- POSITIVE


Divide the numbers.
Answer will be positive.
(-5) ÷ (-5) = +1

DIFFERENT SIGNS NEGATIVE


Divide the numbers.
Answer will be negative
(+5) ÷ (-5) = -1

EXERCISE
Find each sum.
1) (−12) + 7
2) (−10) + (−7)
3) (−6) + 12
4) 8 + 7
5) 3 + 4
6) (−45) + 9
7) (−1) + (−46)
8) (−30) + 10
9) (−34) + 50
14

10) 38 + (−5)

Evaluate each expression.


1) (−10) − 47
2) (−29) − 29
3) 13 + (−29)
4) 38 + 22
5) (−32) − 44
6) (−12) + (−11)
7) 2 + 15 + 4
8) 16 + (−13) + 5
9) 2 − (−9) − 8
10) 10 + 3 − (−8)

EXPONENT
1. PRODUCT RULE: To multiply when two bases are the same, write the base and ADD the exponents.
Xm x Xn = Xm+n

Example:
a. a3 x a8 = a11 b. 24 x 25 = 29

2. QUOTIENT RULE: To divide when two bases are the same, write the base and SUBTRACT the exponents.
Xm = xm-n
Xn

Example:
a. X9 = x4 b. 38 =32
X5 36

3. ZERO EXPONENT RULE: Any base (except 0) raised to the zero power is equal to one.
X0 = 1

a. y0 = 1 b. 10,0000 = 1

4. POWER RULE: To raise a power to another power, write the base and MULTIPLY the exponents
(cm)n = cm x n
Example:
a. (x2)4 = x8 b. (32)3 = 36
15

5. EXPANDED POWER RULE:


𝑎 𝑛 𝑎𝑛
(xy2) = x2y2 (𝑏 ) = 𝑏 𝑛
Example:

a. (3a)2 = 32a2 = 9a2 b. 2x2 = 22x2 = 4x2


3y2 = 32y2 9y2
6. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS: If a factor in the numerator or denominator is moved across the fraction bar,
the sign of the exponent is changed.

x--m = 1 1 = xm
xm x-m
a. x-3 = 1 b. a-2b3 = b3c4d c. x2 -3
= y 3
y3
x3 c-4d-1 a2 y x2 x6

REMEMBER: An exponent applies to only the factor it is directly next to unless parentheses enclose other
factors.

Examples:

a. (-3)2 = -3 x -3 = 9 b. -33 = -9

Exercises:
1. 3 x 43
2. 4x3 x 2x3
3. 65
63
4. x4
X7
5. –(9x)0
6. (y4)3
7. (x2y)4
8. (2cd4)2 (cd)5
9. x5y6
xy2
10. 5x3y 4

20xy5
16

ORDER OF OPERATIONS

P – parenthesis
E – exponent
M – multiplication
D – division
A – addition
S – subtraction

Follow the PEMDAS order all the time.

Except for circumstances such as:

a. when the exponent is inside the parenthesis, accomplish simplifying exponents


first before you go about the operation.

Example:
(4x5-22) + 11
(4x5-4) + 11
(20-4) + 11
16 + 11
= 27

b. Consider that multiplication to division as well as addition to subtraction has


the same importance if both operations are side by side.

Example:

(20 5 x 9) -3 + 4
(4 x 9) – 3 + 4
36 – 3 + 4
33 + 4
= 37

Exercise
1. 14 +18 ÷ 2 x 18 – 7
2. 15 x 18 + 12 ÷ 3 + 9
3. 8 x 4 + 9 – 9 + 18
17

4. 11 x 11 – 6 x 17 + 4
5. 2 – 1 + 5 x 4 x 11
6. 16 x 7 x 15 + 11 + 17
7. 10 – 9 x 24 ÷ 8 x 6
8. 10 ÷ 5 + 10 – 9 x 11
9. 3 x 19 x 14 + 18 ÷ 2
10. 10 x 12 – 14 ÷ 2 + 15

MONOMIAL, BINOMIAL AND POLYNOMIAL

1. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION: Adding and subtracting polynomials is the same as the procedure used
in combining like terms. When adding polynomials, simply drop the parenthesis and combine like terms.
When subtracting polynomials, distribute the negative first.

Note:
Use the principles of INTEGERS in the equation.

Examples:

Addition:

(2x2 + 3x – 7) + (3x2-4x-10)

2x2 +3x –7
3x2 -4x -10
5x2 -x -17

Subtraction:
(5x2 - 12x + 1) - (2x2+3x-7)

5x2 - 12x +1 5x2 - 12x +1


S-C-C

2x2 +3x -7 -2x2 -3x +7


3x2 - 15x +8

MULTIPLICATION:

1. Monomial times Monomial: To multiply a monomial times a monomial, just multiply the numbers
then multiply the variables using the rules for exponents.

Example:

-2x2y x 5xy7 = (2x5)(x2x)(yy2) = 10x3y8


18

2. Monomial times Polynomial: Simply use the distributive property to multiply a monomial times a
polynomial. Examples:

-2x (x2+3x-8) = (-2x x x2) (-2x x +3x) (-2x x -8)


= -2x3 -6x2 16x
3. Binomial times a Binomial: To multiply two binomials, use the FOIL method (First times first, Outside
times outside, Inside times inside, and Last times last).

Example:

(x+2) (x-3) = x(x) + x (-3) + 2(x) +2 (-3) = x2-3x+2x-6 = x2-x-6

4. Polynomial times polynomial: To multiply two polynomials where at least one has more than two
terms, distribute each term in the first polynomial to each term in the second.

Example:

a. (x2+3x-4) (x2-6x+5)
= x2(x2) + x2 (-6x) +x2 (5) + 3x(x2) + 3x (-6x) +3x (5) - 4 (x2) – 4 (-6x) -4
= x4 – 6x3 + 5x2 +3x3 – 18x2 + 15x + 4x2+ 24x – 20
= x4 -3x3 - 17x2 +39x – 20

DIVISION

1. Division by Monomial: Each term of the polynomial is divided by the monomial and it is simplified as
individual fractions.

Example:

3x2-9x+14 = 3x2 - 9x + 14
3x 3x 3x 3x

=x - 3 + 14
3x
= x – 3 + 14
3x
19

EXERCISES:

1. (7j3 – 2) + (5j3- j – 3)
2. (8a5- 4) + (3a5 + a -2)
3. (6m5 + 1) + (2m5 + 9m – 1)
4. (-x2 – 5x – 3) – (-7x2 – 8x – 8)
5. (8x2 – 3x) – (5x-5-8x2)
6. (-x2 – 5x – 3) – (-7x2 - 8x - 8)
7. (8x3y2) (-3x2-y3)
8. (-9x3y) (-8x2y3)
9. J2(k5j3)
10. 9x-6
3
11. 4x - 7
2
12. x2 – 3x + 5
x
20

GEOMETRY

Geometry Formulas
Areas and Perimeters

Figure Sketch Area Perimeter

Square s A = s2 P = 4s

w
Rectangle A = lw P = 2l + 2w
l

h
Parallelogram w A = lh P = 2l + 2w
l

b1
s1 h s2 1
Trapezoid A= h(b b ) P= s s b b
1 2 1 2
1 2
2
b2

s1 s2 1
Triangle h A = bh P = s1 s2 b
2
b

Area and Circumference of a Circle

r
Circle A= r2 C =2 r or C = d
d
21

Volumes and Surface Areas of Three- Dimensional Figures

Figure Sketch Volume Surface Area (S)

Rectangular V = lwh S = 2lh + 2wh + 2wl


Solid h
w
l

Cube s V = s3 S = 6s2
s
s

Right
Circular h V= r2 h S= 2 rh 2 r2
Cylinder
r

r
Sphere V= 4 r3 S= 4 r2
3

Right
1 r r2 h2
Circular h V= r 2h S=
3
Cone r

Square or
h
Rectangular V= 1
lwh
w l 3
Pyramid

Frustum of r
h
(r 2 rR R 2 )h
Right Circular V=
s
S= s(R r)
Cone R
22

PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
23

INTEREST
24

PROBABILITY