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SPE 86602

CO2 Capture Project: Initial Results

Iain W. Wright/BP, Arthur Lee/ChevronTexaco, Peter Middleton/BP, Cliff Lowe/ChevronTexaco,
Scott W. Imbus/ChevronTexaco, Ivano Miracca/Eni

Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.

• Develop new technologies, which would reduce
This paper was prepared for presentation at The Seventh SPE International Conference on
Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production held in Calgary,
the cost of capture by:
Alberta, Canada, 29–31 March 2004. o 50% for retro-fit applications and
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of o 75% for new-build applications
information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
• Progress those technologies to “proof of concept”
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any stage by the end of 2003
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of • Benchmark that improvement against four real-
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
life scenarios.
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to a proposal of not more than 300
words; illustrations may not be copied. The proposal must contain conspicuous
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. The capture technologies were broken into three types:
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

1. Post-Combustion
Introduction 2. Pre-Combustion De-Carbonization (hydrogen)
CO2 capture and geological storage could provide a significant 3. Oxyfuel
GreenHouse Gas (GHG) mitigation option if the cost of
capture can be reduced and the public can be assurethat A process flow diagram (Figure 3) illustrates each capture
geological storage is safe, measureable and verifiable. technology.

The CO2 Capture Project (CCP) is a public/private partnership The four real-life scenarios chosen were:
initiated in 2000 to address the two issues above. Industry
participants are BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk 1. Distributed Gas Turbines in Alaska, USA.
Hydro, Shell, Statoil and Suncor. Government funding was 2. A Refinery in the UK, Europe.
provided by USA, EU and Norway. Project funding was 3. A Power Station in Norway
$50mm over three years (including cash and in-kind 4. Petroleum Coke Gasification in Canada
contributions). CCP objectives were to:
The first two scenarios exist today; the third and fourth would
• Develop low cost next generation technology, which be new-build. These are described in more detail in Figure 4.
achieves the ability to capture and geologically sequester
from industrial turbines, boilers, heaters, and power For each scenario, the uncontrolled emissions were established
generation systems, which emit CO2. and a CO2 capture plant was designed, engineered and costed
• Determine the key principles and practices to maximize on a consistent basis, using the current Best Available
the volume of CO2, which can be safely sequestered in Technology (BAT). In the case of the first three scenarios,
geologic formations. BAT was assumed to be the Fluor Econamine FGSM process
• Develop procedures and guidelines to monitor and verify and in the case of the petroleum coke gasification, BAT was
storage of CO2 in geologic formations. assumed to be Selexol. This exercise also established (for
• Identify and recommend policies and incentives, which BAT), the volume of CO2 captured and the volume of CO2
may enhance economic viability of CO2 capture and avoided (which takes account of secondary emissions from the
sequestration schemes. capture plant). Obviously, the goal of the project is to
minimize the cost of avoiding CO2 emissions.
The project timeline is shown in Figure 1.
The project organization chart is shown in Figure 2. To facilitate like-for-like comparison, CO2 avoidance costs for
the full-scale facilities were estimated assuming common
Capture Costs location factors (US Gulf Coast) as well as location-specific
The specific objectives for the capture teams were: costs. Costs are expressed in absolute terms as well as unitary
(US$ per tonne CO2 avoided) and incremental electricity cost
2 SPE 86602

Three separate teams worked on each capture technology and not be cost-effective.
their key findings are outlined below: • In order to use hydrogen as fuel, gas turbines, heaters
and boilers must be modified.
Post-Combustion Technologies
CCP sponsored PCDC R&D focused on two main approaches
Technology Development to reduce cost of CO2 capture:
Four technologies were sponsored: • Combined reaction and separation
1. Electrical Swing Adsorption • Integration and standardisation of hydrogen
2. Cost-Efficient Design and Integration technologies
3. Combination of Kvaerner Membrane Contactor with
the Kansai/Mitsubishi advanced solvent Technology Development
4. Radical Chemistry Combined Reaction and Separation:
• Sorbent based process
Summary of Results • Sorbent enhanced reaction
Post-Combustion technology is mature and the opportunities • Redox calcium oxide/carbonate system
for cost breakthrough are limited. • Membrane reaction processes
• Membrane water gas shift reaction
New technologies could reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by
o Low temperature H2 membrane separation
20-30% from the current BAT.
o Petroleum coke and gas fed schemes
• Membrane reforming with high temperature H2
Electrical Swing Adsorption offers no cost saving from BAT.
membrane separation
The combination of the Kvaerner Membrane Contactor with
Integration and Standardisation:
the Kansai/Mitsubishi advanced solvent has significantly
improved performance and cost, but the total cost of the • Advanced separation for IGCC gasification schemes
system is still too high for meaningful commercial application. • Economy of scale in very large scale autothermal
Physical adsorption systems will only be effective if they can • Standardised capture systems for repeat build
adsorb greater than 40% of their surface area with CO2. • Advanced syngas technologies

More appropriate design standards could make a significant Summary of Results

contribution to cost reduction. Four new technologies have been developed to Proof of
Concept stage.
Pre-Combustion Technologies
The Pre-Combustion De-Carbonization (PCDC) process Several new technologies could reduce the cost of CO2
removes the carbon from hydrocarbons before combustion, so avoided by 30-50% from the current BAT.
that the combustion fuel is hydrogen, which results in a flue
gas containing essentially nitrogen and water. The process is For existing syngas plants, the incremental cost of avoiding
illustrated in Figure 5. Most of the PCDC development effort CO2 emissions could be as low as $12/tonne CO2.
went into processes for making hydrogen and this technology
consumed the bulk of CCP’s capture resources. Oxyfuel Technologies
These technologies involve combustion using pure oxygen
The principal advantages of PCDC technology are: (oxyfiring) rather than air. The resultant flue gas is virtually
• Conventional solvent absorption processes for CO2 pure CO2 and H2O, which are relatively easy to separate.
removal are commercially available However, this technology is more expensive than the
• Technology can be retrofited as well as new-build. conventional combustion of fossil fuel because:
• The CO2 can be produced at relatively high pressure,
which aids re-injection. 1. Additional (cryogenic) equipment is required to
• Fuel sources can be gas, oil, coke, coal etc. separate oxygen from air,
• The production of hydrogen from fossil fuels is 2. Oxygen burns at much higher temperatures than air,
significantly more cost effective than from renewable hence flue gas recycle is required to maintain
sources, hence PCDC technology could accelerate a acceptable temperature levels in the equipment
global hydrogen economy. (boiler/heater/gas turbine) for today’s metallurgy.
• The process emits very low SOx and NOx.
Technology Development
The principal dis-advantages of PCDC technology are: The CCP sponsored development work in five key areas:
• The hydrocarbon fuel must be converted to syngas
before hydrogen. 1. Boiler Modifications
• Retrofitting requires major modifications and may This study investigated potential savings that could be derived
SPE 86602 3

by optimization of the boilers for oxyfiring (boilers are more with conventional air separation would require consistent and
easily modified for oxyfiring than process heaters). However, very expensive development in the field of gas turbines to
none of the options studied would make a significant maintain high energy efficiency, given the cost of air
difference to the cost of CO2 capture, so CCP diverted its compression and flue gas recycle. At this time, vendors are
resources to other areas. not willing to engage in such development without a market.

2. Advanced Thermodynamic Cycles Oxyfiring significantly reduces NOx emissions from the
Oxyfiring produces flame temperatures well beyond current combustion process (NOx is usually generated by the high
turbine capabilities. The most obvious way to moderate temperature reaction between nitrogen and oxygen in
combustion temperature is to recycle exhaust gas, (CO2 in the conventional air combustion). The additional benefit of NOx
case of oxyfiring). However, this causes a large reduction in reduction has not been quantified or valued in this phase of the
net power output from the turbine system. Several alternative CCP, but should be taken into consideration for future work.
power cycles are proposed in the literature, but they would all
require tens of millions of dollars to be spent developing new Oxyfuel technologies will work well in steam generation
turbines, which would take many years and was out-with the scenarios, revamping or replacing existing heaters or boilers,
scope of CCP. in the CCP’s UK refinery scenario and for gas turbine power
generation scenarios, like CCP’s Norwegian and Alaskan
3. Novel Technologies for Air Separation scenarios. In the latter case, however, modifications to current
A very promising novel technology for air separation is ionic commercial machines are necessary to maintain high
transport membranes (ITM). These ceramic membranes, thermodynamic efficiency.
operate at high temperature (> 700°C) and allow 100%
selectivity to oxygen, which is transferred in anionic form It is unlikely that new boiler designs could significantly reduce
using oxygen partial pressure ratio between the two sides of the cost of CO2 capture.
the membrane as driving force.
Recommendations for Further Work
4. Equipment Integration Further significant cost reductions may be realized from the
The studies above showed that advances can be made air separation activity, however the novel membrane systems
separately for both air separation and oxyfiring, however a for oxygen production, currently under development may not
greater prize could probably be gained by integrating the two be suitable for the retrofit of existing boiler systems, due to the
steps. Two studies were commissioned by the CCP to assess incomplete extraction of oxygen from air.
the potential for integrating the ion transport air separation
membrane with the combustion process: The application of oxyfiring to new-build systems (including
power generation in CCGT) looks very promising and should
1. The Advanced Zero Emission Power (AZEP) would be further investigated.
integrate the membrane with gas turbines
2. The Advanced Boiler concept would integrate the Integrating novel membranes into boilers or gas turbines is
membrane with boilers still at an early stage of development, however, it offers
significant potential to reduce capture costs. Development risk
5. Chemical Looping is still high and commercialization is unlikely before 2010.
Chemical Looping is a new combustion technology based on
oxygen transfer from combustion air to the fuel by means of a Chemical Looping technology produces very high purity CO2
metal oxide acting as an oxygen carrier. Central to the and it offers significant cost-reduction opportunities with
technology is a two fluidized bed reactors system with reasonable scale-up risks. The next phase of CCP should
continuous circulation of solids, similar to Circulating explore high-pressure application of chemical looping to
Fluidized Boilers (CFB) used for coal combustion. The CCGTs.
reactions are schematically:
Some benefits could be derived from the combination of
Fuel reactor: MeO + CH4 ⇒ Me + 2H2O + CO2 technologies developed by the Oxyfuel and PCDC programs.
Air reactor: Me + 0.5O2 ⇒ MeO
Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV)
Summary of Results Relative to capture, the cost of storage is well understood
For heaters and boilers, oxyfiring with flue gas recycle is a because there are a large number of CO2 Enhanced Oil
proven technology that now requires only a full-scale Recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage projects that provide
demonstration to become commercial. excellent analogs for the geological storage of CO2. So the
SMV team focused on the relatively unexplored areas of seal
Several new technologies are under development, which could integrity and assurance. The team had two key objectives
reduce the cost of CO2 avoided for new-build application by
30 - 50% from the current BAT. • Determine the key principles and practices to maximize
the volume of CO2, which can be safely sequestered in
Oxyfiring of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) systems geologic formations.
4 SPE 86602

• Develop procedures and guidelines to monitor and verify Risk Assessment

storage of CO2 in geologic formations. • Comprehensive Methodologies
o Tools, Scenarios, Models (TNO, INEL)
The principal options for geological storage of CO2 are: o Testing On & Offshore Aquifers (TNO)
o Leakage Risk & Failure Scenarios (INEL)
• Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects • Mitigation & Remediation
• Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs o Leak Scenarios & Response (LBNL)
• Enhanced Coal Bed Methane projects • Environmental / Regulatory / Public Perception
• Deep Saline Aquifers o HSE Review (LBNL)
o Effect on Subsurface Ecosystems (LBNL)
The team split its work into four sections: o Lessons on Honesty & Transparency
1. Integrity (MSCI)
2. Optimization
3. Monitoring Summary of Results
4. Risk Assessment Integrity
Within geological systems, today’s technology can reliably
Technology Development predict which will be competent and which will leak. Key
The following studies were completed: technologies are 4D structural / stratigraphic characterization
of analog systems, reactive transport modelling and geo-
Integrity mechanical modeling.
• Natural & Engineered Analogs
o CO2 Reservoirs (ARI) CO2 can be immobilized in geological formations by several
o Leaky Systems (Utah State) mechanisms:
o Natural Gas Storage Experience (GTI) • Buoyant flow,
• Reservoir & Cap Rock Competence • Solubility
o CO2 / Rock Changes at Reservoir P&T • Relative permeability (hysteresis)
(GFZ-Potsdam) • Brine density convection
• Reactive Transport Modeling (LLNL) • Mineralization
• Well Materials
o Cement / Steel Corrosion / Erosion Several analogs exist for the geological storage of CO2 in
(SINTEF) engineered systems and the natural gas storage industry is a
good example. CO2 storage has several advantages over
Optimization natural gas storage:
• Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
o CO2 EOR Record (NMT) • Natural gas is flammable, but CO2 is not
o Gas & Condensate Compatibility (TTU) • CO2 is an asphyxiant only at high concentrations
• Coal Reservoirs • CO2 is more effectively immobilized than natural gas
o CBM Potential & CO2 Capacity (INEL) due to differences in solubility & density
• Saline Aquifer Reservoirs • CO2 storage will be deeper and more remote from
o CO2 Movement & Immobilization (UT) potable aquifers
• Transportation • The installation & operation of CO2 storage facilities
o Corrosion & Materials Selection (IFE / will involve more safeguards than natural gas
Reinertsen) facilities
o CO2 Impurities (Battelle) • The geological storage of CO2 will be further from
populated areas (which are the market for seasonal
Monitoring natural gas storage)
• Geophysical • CO2 storage will not involve seasonal injection and
o • Seismic Resolution & Modeling (TNO) withdrawal
o • Seismic Resolution & Costs (LBNL)
o • Novel Non-Seismic (LBNL) For the geological storage of CO2, well integrity will present a
• Geochemical greater challenge than the geological features.
o Noble Gas Tracers & Costs (LLNL)
• Satellite & Aerial Optimization
o InSAR Resolution (Stanford) Storage Reservoirs
o Hyperspectral Geobotanical (LLNL) Depleted Oilfields
• Near Surface, Surface & Atmosphere • The survey of the Permian Basin shows that oil
o State-of-the-Art & Strategies (Caltech) response, injectivity and breakthrough are biggest
o Eddy Covariance (Penn State) concerns of that industry. Good quality reservoir
characterization is required and the safety /
SPE 86602 5

environmental record is good. leakage monitoring

• Reservoir models perform well and can predict CO2 • Other geochemical techniques (soil, water) need
breakthrough. further development
• More work is needed to optimize oil production vs.
ultimate CO2 storage (economic & technical). Satellite & Aerial
Natural Gas / Condensates • Preliminary work suggests that this system could
• CO2 has a large impact on phase behavior and hence deliver the resolution necessary to detect injection-
Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and operations. induced ground movement
• The high compressibility of CO2 improves storage
capacity over that of natural gas. Hyperspectral Geobotanical
Coal Beds • Very effective in heavily vegetated areas with high,
• Methane content and hence CO2 storage capacity is persistent CO2 flux using “botanical bands”
difficult to predict. Data from nitrogen flooding data • Application in arid areas with lower or intermittent
is useful. CO2 will require use of “mineral bands”
Saline Aquifers
• Increasingly sophisticated simulations can now Near Surface Detectors
predict the long-term status of stored CO2 • This technique requires an assessment of monitoring
• Simulation results now converge on the conclusion instrumentation given site-specific parameters
that most geologically stored CO2 is immobilized in available
the 1000-year timeframe. • Diffuse leak detection may have to rely on other
techniques (e.g. soil gas collection)
Transportation • Point source leak detection is cost-effective using
The current model is based on US transportation of dry CO2 open-path approach
under warm conditions. • The eddy covariance method is well established for
Current CO2 transportation practices need to be challenged CO2 flux detection
given new CO2 storage locations.
A new model has been developed to examine wet CO2 under Verification will demand more rigorous monitoring design and
cold conditions with associated hydrocarbons. quantification (e.g., mass balance).

Corrosion and Materials Selection Risk Assessment

Corrosion models for hydrated CO2 at greater than 20 bar are Comprehensive Methodologies
inadequate. Experiments have shown more data is required. • Scenario development is sound and FEP database
Corrosion and hydrate inhibitor requirements at various comprehensive
conditions have been outlined and show possibilities for • Individual system components tested successfully but
alternative pipeline designs. whole system testing will come later (natural gas
seep; on-/off-shore aquifer)
CO2 Impurities Tradeoffs • Fundamental data is now available on coal properties
Impurities will have a substantial effect on surface equipment and what can be learned from nitrogen flooding
(ie amines, compression requirements and pipeline corrosion). • Consequence analysis on individual elements of
Impurities have little or no effect on injectivity or reservoir system was successful
performance • Practical information on well placement relative to
outcrops and water table is now available
Geophysical Near Surface Techniques
• Seismic modeling will initially be required to test the • EOR & Natural Gas Storage Have Excellent HSE
resolution of alternative tools to different venues. Records
• Cost-effective non-sesimic techniques could stand • Scenario development and simulations are now
alone or with others (seismic & non-seismic) comprehensive and credible
• Borehole gravity techniques may be effective for up • Development of modeling package interface will
to one reservoir thickness allow broad application
• Electromagnetic techniques could detect very small
anomalies, especially when used with borehole Mitigation / Remediation
gravity • A comprehensive, generic classification of leakage
• Spontaneous Potential is a low cost approach that scenarios has been carried out
deserves further investigation • Remediation solutions have been well thought-out
and will comprise basis for future R&D
• Noble Gas Tracers could be very effective. Proper
selection may provide cost-effective performance and
6 SPE 86602

Environmental / Regulatory / Public Perception International

• Several independent comprehensive methodologies Currently, only one set of international regulations may apply
provide enhanced credibility to CCS and this was intended to prevent the dumping of waste
• Scenario development, Features, Events and in the sea, rather than the geological storage of a GreenHouse
Processes (FEP) database and calculation tools may Gas. Clarification of the detailed provisions of these
make a major contribution regulations is required.
• The CCP remediation study is the first of its kind and
provides the opportunity to draw on existing The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
technology and scope for further technology (UNCLOS) is the most significant international marine
development convention. It is an international framework document
concerning activities at sea. UNCLOS relies on other marine
Recommendations for Further Work treaties (subject specific and regional treaties, agreed upon by
Four themes are recommended: UNCLOS State Parties) to provide more detailed regulations.
In other words, UNCLOS is an overarching convention, which
Risk-Based Approach to Safe and Effective Management leaves precise rules to be elaborated in other more specific
of CO2 Storage international conventions. In the case of marine pollution,
Develop generic methodologies and protocols to assess these rules are contained in the 1972 London Convention. This
suitability of prospective storage venues in terms of anticipates the creation of regional agreements to further their
physical integrity, optimization of operations, performance objectives: the most relevant regional agreement to this study
monitoring and whole system risk assessment and is the Oslo/Paris (OSPAR) Convention, which is applicable
mitigation. Carry out case studies (onshore/offshore oil/gas only to Europe’s North Sea.
fields, coal & aquifers).
Two significant new efforts have recently emerged:
Identify “Ideal” CO2 Storage Venue(s)
Leverage natural features and operations experience of 1. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on
subsurface injection projects to identify ideal storage Climate Change (UN IPCC) has requested a Special
venues for CO2 storage. Case studies might include Report on CCS Capture and Storage. This report is
depleted oil / gas (incl. EOR, EGCR), coal (incl. ECBM) & now in preparation and a final draft is expected in the
aquifers. first half of 2005.
2. The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum is a new
Ensure Availability of Tools, Technologies and initiative, which aims to improve CCS technologies
Competencies for CO2 Storage by coordinating research and development with
Identification of critical technologies and interdisciplinary international partners and industry. The Carbon
competencies needed to initiate, conduct and divest from Sequestration Leadership Forum is a ministerial-level
CO2 storage projects. Target capabilities gaps for further organization. The member countries are the United
development. States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia,
India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russian Federation,
Establish an International Test Facility for CO2 Storage Norway, the UK and the European Union.
Select a venue suitable for testing CO2 storage performance,
monitoring and mitigation. Ideally, the test facility would be Three types of cooperation are currently envisioned
well-characterized, have existing infrastructure, possess within the framework of the Forum: data gathering,
diverse reservoirs features and potential migration conduits information exchange, and joint projects. Data
and lack stringent environmental sensitivities. gathered from participating countries will be
aggregated, summarized, and distributed to all
Policies and Incentives participants. Member countries will identify joint
The CCP has developed new technologies to reduce the cost projects, with the Forum serving as a mechanism for
of CCS as a GHG mitigation technique. However, it is bringing together government and private sector
unlikely that the technique will be widely used until representatives from member countries.
appropriate regulations are in-place at a national and
international level. CCP reviewed current regulations. National
In general, at a national level, regulations developed for
The specific objectives for the Policies and Incentives team protection of aquifers and development of oil and gas and
were to identify and recommend policies and incentives, mining facilities apply to CCS development, however recent
which may enhance economic viability of CO2 capture and initiatives and incentives, which are specific to CCS have
sequestration schemes. The team reported that the policy and started in Europe and Canada:
regulatory aspects of CCS are at an early stage, but that during
2003, a clear forward momentum has been developed in In the UK, a government “White Paper” on Energy
several national and international government organizations. Policy recognizes the need for investing in CCS. The
CO2 Capture and Storage Feasibility Study Advisory
Group published its first study. This is a significant
SPE 86602 7

step for CCS in the UK and makes recommendations

for the long-term implementation of the technology.

In the Netherlands, a new Electricity Act came into

force on with tax exemptions for GHG mitigation
techniques, including CCS.

In the Canadian province of Alberta, a new program

will promote the development of a CO2 enhanced
oil/gas recovery industry by providing royalty credits
to offset a portion of costs in approved CCS projects.

Capture and geological storage could provide a significant
option for GHG mitigation.

The technology required for CCS is also required as a bridge

to the hydrogen economy.

CCS can develop as a GHG mitigation technique when

sources (of CO2) and sinks can be cost-effectively connected.

The greatest cost associated with CCS from dilute sources will
be the cost of capture (separation from the diluant).

Detailed results and all technical reports are available on the

CCP website:
8 SPE 86602

Figure 1: Project Timeline

start-up phase delivery of results

• CCP agreement • Funding secured • Over 80 contracts • Optimum technology
• Funding applications• Contract negotiations signed options progressed to
commence • Program focused thru proof of feasibility
200 value management
No of Technology Options

Number of technology options focused

>200 Technologies Tech teams screen tech based on Screening Criteria:
150 Reviewed options & recommend • Likelihood of success in timeframe
detailed evaluation of • Ability to deliver target cost
promising candidates reductions
• Materiality to Participants’ sources
100 • Fit within available funding

Screening favored
?30 Capture & 50 storage
Techs Screened
50 50 Techs Pass Stage Gate ?

0 Review & Evaluation Analysis Broad Tech Development Focused Tech Development
Apr 2000 Aug 2000 Sep 2001 Dec 2002 Dec 2003

Figure 2: Project Organization Chart

¾CO2 Capture Project

¾Executive Board


¾Storage, ¾Common
¾Pre ¾Post ¾Policy & ¾Commu-
¾Oxyfuel ¾Monitoring & ¾Economic
¾Combustion ¾Combustion ¾Incentives ¾nications
¾Verification ¾Modelling

¾Media -
¾Technology Providers ¾NGO/
¾TV, Print,
¾Universities, National Laboratories, Engineering Consultants, Specialists ¾Outreach
SPE 86602 9

Figure 3: CO2 Capture Processes

Sky Sky

Amine CO2

Post Combustion Air

Power & Heat • Enhanced Oil
Decarbonisation Recovery

• Enhanced Coal
Precombustion Reformer H2
N2 O2 CO2 Bed Methane
Decarbonisation + CO2 Sep
Power & Heat Compression
& Dehydration • Old Oil/Gas
CO2 Fields
Oxyfuel Power & Heat
• Saline
O2 Formations
Air Air Separation Unit

Fossil Fuel

Figure 4: CCP Real-Life Scenarios

Scenario Location Fuel Retrofit/ Uncontrolled CO2

Source Newbuild Emission Content
(mmtpa CO2) (%)

Distributed Gas Alaska, Natural

Retrofit 2.1 3%
Turbines USA Gas

Refinery UK, Europe Gas & Retrofit 4.0 8%

Large Gas Natural

Norway Newbuild 1.2 5%
Turbines Gas

Petroleum Coke
Canada Coke Newbuild 7.4 10.5%
10 SPE 86602

Figure 5: Pre-Combustion Decarbonization

PCDC Process Diagram

H2 O H2O CO2

Fuel Syngas H2, CO Water-gas H2, CO2 CO2 H2

generation CO2, H2O shift removal


Air Air N2

Figure 6: CO2 Storage Scenarios