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Not granted by any person or authority, do not need any event for their existence.

Chapter I right to life and dignity as a human being
Human rights are Fundamental. Why? Give examples.
What do you understand by human rights? Without them the life and dignity of man will be meaningless. Ex: right to individual
Human rights are universal legal guarantees protecting individuals and groups liberty and security of a person or freedom of thought and religion
against actions which interfere with fundamental freedoms and human
dignity. Human rights are generally defined as those rights which are inherent in our Human rights are Inalienable. Why? Give examples
nature and without which, we cannot live as human beings. These rights and Cannot be rightfully taken away from an individual. Ex: freedom from torture
fundamental freedoms allow us to develop and use our human qualities, intelligence,
talents and conscience, and to satisfy our spiritual and other needs. The dignity of Human rights are Imprescriptible. Why? Give examples
man and human life is inviolable. From the dignity of man is derived the right of Cannot be lost even by a long passage of time. Ex: freedom of thought, conscience
every person to free development of his personality. It's the essence of these rights and religion
that make man human.
Human rights are Indivisible. Why? Give examples
Basic Charateristics: inherent, fundamental, inalienable, imprescriptible, indivisible, Not capable of being divided. Ex: freedom of belief or opinion, freedom of religion
universal and interdependent. and worship.

Classified to: Human rights are Universal. Why? Give examples

A. According to source - natural rights, constitutional rights, statutory rights No borders, applies to all. Ex: right to life is the same whether one is in Asia or
B. According to recipient - individual rights, collective rights Europe
C. According to aspect of life - civil, political, economic, social, cultural rights
D. According to struggle for recognition - first, second and third generation rights Human rights are Interdependent. Why? Give examples
E. According to derogability - absolute or non-derogable, derogable or can-be- The fulfillment or exercise of one cannot be had without the realization of the other.
limited rights Ex: one's right to life and existence as a person cannot be realized without one's right
What are the Sources of human rights? to work and maintain a good standard of living
Natural rights - God-given rights, unwritten, prevail as norms of society
B. Constitutional rights - conferred and protected by the Constitution and cannot be What do you mean by 2nd generation of human rights. Give examples.
modified or taken away by the law-making body Covers economic, social and cultural rights, which primarily find their origin in the
C. Statutory rights - provided by law promulgated by the law-making body and may socialist tradition and have been variously promoted by revolutionary struggles and
be abolished by the same welfare movements, also known as social welfare rights. Ex: right to development,
right to work under decent living conditions, right of workers to self-organization.
Who are entitled to enjoy human rights?
ALL What are 3rd and 4th generation of human rights. Give examples of each.
Covers collective rights, best understood as a product of both the rise and decline of
How did the violation of human rights originate? the nation-States in the last half of the 20th century. Ex: right of people to a healthy
History has shown that as man started to live in a society, his inherent rights began to environment
be violated by his own fellowmen. The state authorities who are supposed to protect
his rights are even his persecutors. CHAPTER II
Who were the first violatiors of human rights? RIGHTS
The first violators were the Greeks and Romans who were supposed to have started
the development of Western civilization - they legalized the institution of slavery, What is the origin of human rights?
when men and women were held as chattels and could be disposed of in any manner These arose from the struggle of man against injustices of despotic rulers. Men
revolted against the concept of the "Divine Right of Kings." In the Middle Ages, the
Human rights are characterized as Inherent. Why? Give examples. Magna Carta was delivered by King John in 1215. It is regarded as the first English
Constitution that guaranteed the personal liberties and civil rights. The Americans Rulers were despotic and tyrannical, and citizens rose against the injustices that they
revolting against the English King in 1776 declared their own Bill of Rights. The have long suffered
French in 1789 proclaimed the Declaration of the Rights of Man where it was
declared that all men are born free and equal and affirmed the inalienable rights of What famous documents in history that contained concepts of human rights?
man. Eventually most democratic countries adopted in their respective constitutions Briefly discuss each of these documents.
their own Bill of Rights.
Magna Carta of 1215 – first English Constitution delivered by King John, it
Name and explain some of the theories advanced as the sources of human rights. guaranteed personal liberties and civil rights
Religious or theological approach - doctrine of a Supreme Being, the creator, the Bill of Rights of 1689 – revolutionaries of England determined to prevent arbitrary
Father of all humanity. Central is the concept of the dignity of man as a consequence royal rule laid this down, this document guaranteed freedom from cruel and unusual
of human rights, and therefore the rights are universal, inalienable and cannot be punishment and excessive fines
denied by mortal beings (men). Bill of Rights 1776 – Americans revolting from the English, this document asserted
Natural Law - the conduct of men must always conform to the law of nature, and this that all men by nature are fully free and independent and have inherent rights such as
theory is detached from religion. The natural characteristics of human beings are the enjoyment of life and liberty, the means of acquiring and possessing of properties,
social impulse to live peacefully and in harmony with others, and whatever and obtaining happiness
conformed to the nature of men was right and just. Whatever is disturbing to social Declaration of the Rights of Man 1789- by French revolutionaries, this document
harmony is wrong and unjust. declared that all men are born free and equal and affirmed the inalienable rights of
Positivist - states that all rights and authority come from the state and what officials men.
have promulgated, that rights are enjoyed if recognized and protected by legislation
promulgated by the state. Explain why human rights became an international concern.
Marxist - emphasizes the interest of society over an individual's interest – The struggle for the respect of human rights was initially a domestic or national
communism issue, but the atrocities committed on mass of people during World War II convinced
Functional or sociological approach - human rights exist as a means of social control, international jurists that the protection of human rights should be an international
that human rights exist to serve the social interests of society. This approach was concern.
developed in the early 20th century when there were demands for a variety of wants,
as help for the unemployed, handicapped, underprivileged, minorities and other How was human rights introduced in the Philiipines?
disadvantaged groups. Human Rights was introduced to the Philippines when Jose Rizal wrote about the
Utilitarian Theory - principle that requires governments to maximize the total net abuses of the Spanish authorities in his books and he was executed for it. Since 1896
sum of citizens. It emphasizes that an individual cannot be more important than the the educated Filipinos were already aware of the American and English Bill of
entire group. An act is good only when it takes into consideration the interests of the Rights, and the Malolos Constitution was adopted in 1899. It contained provisions
society and tends to augment the happiness of the entire community that guaranteed freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, freedom from searches
Theory based on Justice - each person has equal rights to the whole system of and seizures, freedom to choose domicile and freedom of religion.
liberties. The general conception of justice is one of fairness and those social
primary goods such as opportunity, income and wealth and self-respect are to be What historical events in the Philippines prompted Filipinos to protect and
distributed equally promote human righs?
Theory based on Equality and Respect - government must treat all their citizens Colonial Spanish regime – economic and class discrimination was rife
equally, and must intervene in order to advance the general welfare Military Rule of Japan from 1942-1944
Theory based on the Dignity of man - this theory proceeds on the premise that Martial Law of President Marcos
human rights means sharing values of all identified policies upon which human
rights depend on. The ultimate goal of this theory is a world community where there What consist of International Bill of Human Rights?
is democratic sharing and distribution of values. All available resources are utilized In Article II, Section 11, it reads “The State values the dignity of every human
to the maximum and the protection of human dignity is recognized. This is better person and guarantees full respect for human rights.” To implement this policy, the
referred to as policy science approach Commission on Human Rights was created as a constitutional independent body
under Article XIII, Sections 17-19 of the Phil. Constitution. This resulted to a
What are the circumstances that brought out the concept of human rights in substantial decrease of number of violations among law enforcement in the human
ancient history? rights, but there is still much to be done.
What do you understand by civil rights?
Stated and explain the constitutional policy of Philippines on human rights. Ans: Civil rights are the rights which the law will enforce at the instance of
The new constitution (1987 Constitution) states that the State values the dignity of individuals without discrimination for the enjoyment of their lives, liberty and means
every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. of happiness.
How is civil right distinguished from political right?
Chapter III Ans: Both are protected personal rights but political rights are especially catering to
The International Bill of Human Rights the right to participate directly or indirectly in the establishment or administration of
government. Political rights are rights to enable people to participate in running the
What are the reasons why the reaffirmation of the fundamental human rights affairs of the government.
was one of the main objectives of the organization of the United Nations? Why are these rights called “Negative Rights”?
Ans: - Enforce equal human rights; “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights Ans: In answer to restraint the tyrannical government.
and the dignity and worth of human person” (UN Chaarter Preamble) Ex. “No one should be tortured”, “No one should be deprived of freedom of
- Recognition and respect of human rights and freedoms not due to discrimination expression”, “no one should be deprived of life”
- to achieve “universal respect for an observance of human rights and fundamental Mention at least 3 basic civil rights and how they are applied in Philippine
freedoms” society.
* yan yung gist pero baka ipa-enumerate yung articles galing sa UDHR na Ans: - Right to Life, Liberty and Property - Art III Sec 1 (no person, not even the
minention sa chap 3 state has the authority to take one’s ife)
What documents compose the International Bill of Human Rights? - Right to Privacy - Art III Sec 3 (right to be free from intrusions into certain
Ans: United Nations Charter, Universal Declaration on Human Rights, International thoughts and activities)
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and International Covenant on - Freedom of expression - Art 3, Sec 4-5 (right to self-determination)
Civil and Political Rights Discuss at least 3 rights of a person who is accused of a crime.
Name some of the fundamental human rights ad explain each briefly. Ans: - Right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him
Ans: - Equal Protection of rights - human beings must have equal rights, no - Right to bail
discrimination - Right to meet the witnesses face to face
- Right to life, liberty and property - * remember Art III, Sec 14
- Right to Privacy - no arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home, What do you understand by the principle of “presumption of innocence” of an
communications, correspondence accused person? What is the reason of such presumption?
- Freedom of speech, expression and religion - inviolable right to express one self Ans: this means that an accused cannot be presumed to have committed the charges
unless justifiably limited by the government against without the proof of guilt beyond reasonable doubt. The accused cannot be
What international instruments have been adopted to serve as legally binding imprisoned just based on circumstantial evidence. The strict compliance with this is
treaties on the countries that ratified them? the court’s policy on protecting an actually innocent person from going to jail.
Ans: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and What do you understand by the right of persons to peaceably assemble? Are
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - both overseen by the UN there limitations or restrictions to this right?
What are some of the hindrances or obstacles to the enforcement of the human Ans: “Peaceful Assembly” means the right of citizens to meet peacefully for
rights international instruments? consultation in respect to public issues and to petition the government for redress of
Ans: - War crimes grievance.
- authoritarian regimes headed by dictators This right can be restricted on grounds of national security, public order, the
- Art. 2 par. 7 of UN Charter that gives no authority to the UN to investigate matters protection of public health or morals, or the protection of the rights of others.
happening within the domestic jurisdiction of the country/nation
What are the remedies to deal in the hindrances or obstacles in the enforcement
of human rights? Cite examples. CHAPTER V
Ans: - implementing international treaties as local legislation ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS AS APPLIED IN THE
Chapter IV
Civil and Political Rights as Applied in the Philippines
Briefly explain what is meant by economic, social and cultural rights
They are the commitments of the state for opportunities to achieve equality and 2. Art. XIII on Social Justice and Human Rights, Agrarian and Natural Resources,
distributive justice to its citizens such as the right to food, clothing, housing and Urban Land Reform and Housing, Health Women
education. It included the right to work with fair and just wages, decent working 3. Art. XIV on Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
conditions, and protection of the family to maintain the decent standard of living. 4. Art. XV on the family

Why are these rights considered as “social welfare rights” What are the obligations of developed and industrialized countries towards
They are generally stated as positive undertakings or obligations of the government Third World Countries on economic, social and cultural rights?
to ensure economic well being of the people. State Parties are obliged to take steps, individually and through international
assistance and cooperation, especially economic and technical, to the maximum of its
Why are these rights also called “Affirmative rights” available resources, with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the
They are viewed as goals or aspirations that government should provide for its rights recognized in the present covenant.
citizens depending upon its resources.
What is meant by “public interest and social litigation?”
What are the main purposes of the economic rights? Cite examples and explain. It’s the actions or remedies to enforce and implement Economic, Social and Cultural
To promote high standard of living, full enjoyment and conditions of economic and rights. Must be accessible to all people, should be simple and at the minimum cost.
social progress and development. Free from technical forms of pleadings, rules of procedure in said cases should be
relaxed and socio-legal fact finding bodies should be appointed to determine facts in
What do you mean by social rights? Cite examples. issue.
Social rights are those rights concerned with basic human needs.
Ex: 1. Right to development How should the State comply with the Covenant on Economic, Social and
2. Right to self Determination Cultural Rights?
3. Right of Workers to Self-Organization By incorporating in their constitution most of the rights enumerated in the
4. Right to Work under Decent Living Conditions International Covenant in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and implementation
5. Right to Work in Third World Countries of it through social legislation.
6. Right to Strike
7. Right to Strike as Against Property Rights What is meant by Right of Development? Cite concrete examples.
8. Right to Social Security Inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all people are
9. Protection of and Assistance to Family entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and
10. Right to Education and Development of Human Personality political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be
11. Right to Students and Academic Freedom fully realized.
12. Participation in Cultural Life and Benefits of Scientific Progress Ex: 1. Economic prosperity
13. Religious Education and Instruction 2. Social, political and cultural empowerment
14. Right to High Standard of Physical and Mental Health 3. Social reform
4. Economic reform
What do you mean by cultural rights? Cite examples and explain. 5. Agriculture reform
Rights that aim at assuring the enjoyment of culture and its components in conditions 6. Agrarian reform and natural resources
of equality, human dignity and non discrimination. 7. Infrastructure development
Ex: 1. Right to provide funds for the promotion of cultural development 8. Governance and development financing
2. Promotion of awareness and enjoyment of the cultural heritage of national
ethnic groups and minorities and of indigenous peoples.
3. Preservation and presentation of mankind's cultural heritage CHAPTER VI
4. Legislation protecting the freedom of artistic creation and performance HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION OF VULNERABLE SECTORS

Mention some provisions in the Philippine Constitution on Economic rights,

Social rights, and Cultural rights. Mention the persons or group of persons who are most vulnerable to violations
1. Art. XII on the National Economy and Patrimony of human rights?
1. Women Cite the international instruments adopted to prevent or reduce the violation of
2. Children their human rights in vulnerable groups.
3. Youth Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Convention on the Rights of a Child, The
4. Indigenous Cultural Minorities Rules of the Protection for Non-Combatants under Protocol I, Protection of victims
5. Muslim Population of Non-international Armed Conflicts Protocol II, Covenant on Civil and Political
6. Elderly Rights, Convention on Migrant Workers, Convention on Refugees, Covenant on
7. Disabled People Social, Economic and Cultural Rights, Convention of Stateless Persons,
8. Mentally Disabled People
9. Prisoners and Detainees Cite local laws enacted to assist those whose rights are vulnerable to human
10. Internally Displaced People rights violations.
11. Migrant Workers 1. The Philippine Constitution
13. Urban Poor The Revised Penal Code
14. Refugees and Stateless Persons The Labor Code
15. Laborers (Public, Private and Informal) RA 7610 : Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and
16. Rural Workers Discrimination Act.
17. Peasants and Fishermen RA9262: Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004
18. Houshelpers PD 60: Child and Youth Welfare Code
RA:8353:Anti- Rape Law
What are the factors or reasons why they are vulnerable to violations of human RA 8505: Rape victim assistance and Protection Act
rights? RA 9775 : Anti-Child Pornography Act
Due to their Origin, status and conditions. RA 10175: Cyber Crime Prevention Act
Cite concrete examples of each sector. RA 9995: Anti-Photo and Video Voyeurism Act
1. Children (Children in Emergency Situations – Zones of Peace, children RA 9208: The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003
recruited in Warfare, Children in Conflict with the Law, Child Labor ,Children of Rules of the protection for Non-Combatants under Protocol I, Protection of victims
Migrant Workers, Children of Indigenous Tribes and Transnational Children, of non-international armed conflicts
Children of Families with HIV, Children of Refugees Children as House helpers) RA 9344: Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006.
2. Women (Rape, sexually abused and exploited women) RA 7658: An Act Prohibiting the employment of Children below 15 years of age,
3. Youth ( In- School Youth, Out-Of-School Youth, Working Youth and Special RA: 9231: An Act providing for Elimination of the worst Forms of Child Labor and
Youth) affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child
4. Elderly ( Senior Citizens, Abondoned elderly in home for the aged, those RA 10361: Domestic Workers Act or Batas Kasambahay
belonging to poor families) RA 10022: AN ACT AMENDING REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8042, OTHERWISE
5. Disabled People (Deaf, mute, blind, incompent, cripple, pwds) KNOWN AS THE MIGRANT WORKERS AND OVERSEAS FILIPINOS ACT OF
6. Mentally Disabled People ( physically and sexually abused persons) 1995
7. Prisoners and Detainees (wrongfully convicted, juveniles)
8. Migrant Workers (OFWs)
9. Urban Poor ( street children, families in urban areas with incomes below the
poverty line, slums) CHAPTER VII
10. Internally Displaced People DISCRIMINATION
11. Laborers (Public, Private and Informal)
12. Rural Workers 1. What do you understand by discrimination? Cite concrete examples to show
13. Peasants and Fishermen (Agri workers) discrimination.
14. Houshelpers (even children) Discrimination generally means the failure to treat everyone alike according to the
standards and rules of action.
Racial Discrimination (Apartheid, Cultural Minorities, etc.)
Sex Discrimination (Violence against Women, Political Rights of Women IN THE “No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights” (Art
Trafficking of Women and Prostitution, etc.) III, Sec. 5)
Religious Discrimination (Religious discrimination in education,etc.) 6. What particular groups of persons are usually discriminated against? Why?
2. What is the relation of discrimination to equality and dignity of human Groups that are usually discriminated are women, children, cultural minorities, poor
beings? people and other vulnerable sectors. It is because they are the groups who lack
In the field of human rights, discrimination is regarded as particularly objectionable knowledge about their rights. They are perceived to be weak that doesn’t have the
because it disregards fundamental notions of human dignity and equality before the capacity to fight for their rights.
law. 7. What is meant by religious discrimination? Give examples.
3. Are there provisions in the United Nations Charter dealing on Declaration on All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or
discrimination? Cite and explain. Beliefs provides that in religious discrimination, everyone should have the freedom
“Universal respect for an observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for of thought, conscience and religion, that no one should be subjected to coercion,
all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. These objectives are which would impair his/her freedom to have a religion or belief of his/her own
intended to promote the creation of conditions and stability which are necessary for a choice.
peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of EXAMPLE:
equal rights and self determination of people.” (Art. 55c) Religious test in the exercise of civil or political rights
4. What is the provision on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on Impediment to marriage on account of religion
discrimination? Refusal to admit student on account of religion
The preamble of Universal Declaration of Human Rights emphasized that “the equal 8. Have you observed in your community any form of discrimination? Cite
and inalienable rights of each member of the human family”. UDHR believed that concrete examples and state why you consider them discrimination.
the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world will be achieved only Assistance given to poor people in government agencies, public offices (NBI, NSO,
through equal rights of men and women. LTO, etc,.)
“Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, ETC.
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political 9. In what ways are the economically disadvantaged discriminated?
or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Economically disadvantaged do not enjoy equal opportunities on the availment of
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional government services and resources. In spite of the Land Reform Law, majority are
or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether still landless, suffering from the landlord-tenancy relationship. Poor people are
it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of discriminated against in many ways.
sovereignty.” (ART. 2)
5. Cite provisions in the Philippines Constitution prohibiting discrimination.
Cite some examples. Chapter VIII
Cultural Minorities The Role of Non Governmental Organizations in the Promotion and
“The state shall recognize, respect and protect the rights of indigenous cultural Protection of Human Rights
minorities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall
consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies” (Art. XIV,
Sec. 17) 1. What do you understand by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on
Human Rights?
Women A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a not-for-profit organization primarily
“The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the created to promote and protect human rights. They primarily participate in the United
fundamental equality before the law of women and men” (Art. II, Sec. 14) Nations on a Consultative Status while the latter create charters and support human
rights. Some NGOs like the International Red Cross protect human rights by
“The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working providing medical assistance, food and other basic needs to victims of violations.
conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and
opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full 2. In what way are they recognized by the United Nations?
potential in the service of the nation” (Art. XIII, Sec. 14) The United Nations recognize the role and importance of NGOs in the protection of
Human Rights through their charter, Article 71 states "The Economic and Social
Religious Test Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental
organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence." This Development Aggression is a term used by indigenous peoples to refer to
enabled the council to consult NGOs on any activity involving the promotion and development projects that violate their human rights.
protection of human rights. It refers to projects planned or progressed without free, prior and informed consent
from an impacted local community as required by international law, such as in the
3. Mention some international NGOs and state activities they are engaged in on United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
human rights.
Amnesty International focus on providing legal aid and assistance victims of torture 8. In what way or ways does "Development Aggression" violate human rights?
and those wrongly convicted of crimes. Through their website they also promote Development Aggression violates human rights because it displaces communities
human rights by posting news that promote awareness on human rights violations. from cultural lands rightfully theirs to another location for the sake of infrastructure
and other industrial advancements
4. What do you mean by NGOs as Ombudsmen? For example, the Lumad comprise the indigenous people living in Southern
NGOs function as Ombudsmen, safe-guarding human rights and calling the attention Mindanao. They have become refugees in different parts of the country as they flee
of the government on violations through periodic reports, public statements from escalating violence, rape, harassment and land-grabbing by mining and other
participation in the deliberations established by intergovernmental organizations business interests taking over their territories.
NGOs stimulate public opinions and initiation on the foundation of foreign policy of
countries on matters concerning the violation of human rights.
Chapter IX
5. Mention some of the NGOs in the Philippines and briefly discuss their roles in HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION
protecting and promoting human rights.
Like Amnesty International, the Philippine Alliance of Human Rights Advocates Q: What do you mean by Human Rights Education?
promote human rights by posting news and reports that promote awareness of System used for Training, Dissemination and Information Efforts aimed at building
Human Rights violations. of universal culture of human rights.
The Medical Action Group, on the other hand, aside from posting news and reports, Imparting of Knowledge and skills on the molding of attitude, which direct towards
the actively promote human rights by doing the following. the strengthening the people’s respect for human rights.
Organize/mobilize necessary resources for health services. Provides the understanding, tolerance, gender equality and friendship among all
Maintain a resource center including books, manuals, audiovisuals and other nations including indigenous people and racial, national ethnic, religious and
educational materials pertaining to health and human rights. linguistic groups.
Publish a quarterly news magazine that carries news and information on the health Enables a person to participate effectively in a FREE society.
and human rights situation in the country and abroad.
Educate the beneficiaries on their right to health to help them participate in shaping Q: What is the importance of Human Rights Education in the Philippines?
an alternative health care system. People will know when they are already violating the right of others.
Campaign for the abolition of torture as well as the welfare of the other beneficiaries. People will know how they can protect, not only themselves but also the rights of
Conduct fact-finding missions, exhumations and autopsy to victims of extrajudicial others.
executions. People will become aware of the duties they owe to others.
Monitor the health condition of workers in the picket line or farmers on hunger People will know when they may turn to for help.
6. In what way or ways do they help the Commission on Human Rights on its Q: What sectors of the Philippine society should be educated first on human
monitoring functions? rights? Why?
The Commission on Human Rights is mandated to conduct investigations on human Commission on Human Rights identified the following sectors that should be
rights violations against marginalized and vulnerable sectors of the society, involving educated on Human Rights, which are, Military Personnel, Police Officers and other
civil and political rights. To accomplish its functions, the CHR accept reports from Law Enforcement Agencies. The reason behind is that these government sectors are
NGOs on violations of Human Rights. Similar to the United Nations, the CHR also the most prone to the violation of Human Rights.
consults NGOs to monitor and reinforce Human Rights.
Q: How should human rights education be given to the barangays?
7. What do you understand by "Development Aggression"? CHR institutionalized Barangay Human Rights Action Centers to handle Human
Rights education and enforcement within the community. They are given basic
program on Constitutional Provisions and Basic Provisions of the International that the respondent Government has ratified the Covenant and its Optional Protocol.
Instruments. However, before an individual may lodge the complaint to the United Nation bodies,
he / she shall need to exhaust all the remedies available in his / her local state
Q: Should human rights course be a part of the curriculum in schools? Why? policies. In the event that the complainant is not satisfied with the local remedy, the
Yes. Human Rights education should start at the grass root level. Therefore, the best HRC established under the Article 28 of the Covenant will consider the complaint
way to integrate it in our education system is to include it in the curriculum of all together with the available evidence by both parties.
learning institutions. Moreover, the young ones are more expected to be receptive
with Human Rights education. Q: What are the remedies for gross violations of Human Rights?
An individual may lodge his/her complaint with the International Criminal Tribunal
Q: What methods are suggested for the teaching of human rights to school
students? To college students?To adult citizens in barangays? Q: Briefly state the jurisdiction and functions of the International Criminal
CHR Human Rights Module Court.
Situational Example of Human Acts and how could there be possible Human Rights The jurisdiction will only take effect after a state becomes a party and after the entry
Violation into force of the Statute.
Question and Answer Only until then that the ICC can exercise its jurisdiction.
It has the power to try individuals who violated international humanitarian law even
if committed in an internal war. Examples are:
Chapter X Killing fields in Cambodia, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan and recently the Ethnic
AND LAW The State Consent has no power in this jurisdiction.
A Military commander shall be criminally responsible for the crimes committed by a
person pursuant to an order of the Government
Q: What do you mean by remedies for enforcement of human rights?
For every right, there must be an effective remedy. These remedies are developed by Q: Are there Human Rights courts in the Philippines?
the law making bodies in which people may use to seek proper course of action in None.
the event that their human rights have been violated.

Q: What are the forms of remedies available to human rights victims through: Q: Discuss the procedures on how a complaint for violation of Human Rights in
United Nations Systems the Philippines is filed.
Optional Protocol to International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted in BHRAO (Barangay Human Rights Action Officer) receives and process the
1966 (Ratified by the Philippines on August 22, 1989). complaints lodged by an individual before their office and is the one responsible to
The International Covenant on Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination asses should there indeed a Human Rights Violation or within the jurisdiction of the
(Ratified by the Philippines on September 15, 1967). CHR. Should there be a cause established under the jurisdiction of the CHR, the
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or complainant will be asked to provide documents and proofs for the case. At this
Punishment (Ratified on June 18, 1986). stage, the CHR may start its investigation of the case.
1503 Procedure However, in any case CHR is empowered by the Constitution to investigate on its
Through International Tribunals own even in the absence of any complaint, a Human Rights violation
International Criminal Tribunal for Violations of Humanitarian Law
International Criminal Court (ICC) Rome Statute Q: Discuss the role of the Barangay in the enforcement of Human Rights.
Through National or Domestic Tribunals Barangay Officials being the governing bodies at the community level are the ones
Governed by Local State Policies who always receive complaints and disputes at the initial stage prior to any
intervention of higher agencies or authorities. Together with the CHR and DILG,
Q: May an individual file complaint for violations of human rights in United they have instituted BHRAC, which empowers and systematize the Barangay system
Nation bodies? Discuss. to handle local disputes the proper way.
Yes. An individual whose human rightwas violated may lodge his / her complaint to
the United Nation bodies in cases where the respondent is the Government. Provided
Q: What is the role of the Philippine Commission on Human Rights in the (5) Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to
enforcement of Human Rights Laws? Cite concrete examples. enhance respect for the primacy of human rights;
The Philippine Commission on Human Rights is a constitutional mandate, which is
tasked to ensure effective and efficient enforcement of Human RightsLaws. It is (6) Recommend to Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to
responsible for the Seminars, Trainings, Promotion, Dissemination and sustainability provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or their families;
of Human Rights education. One of the most significant accomplishments of the
agency is its Initiative to make a special Human Rights Education System for (7) Monitor the Philippine Government’s compliance with international treaty
Military, Police and other Law Enforcement Agencies in which they were recognized obligations on human rights;
by UN & UNESCO. Some of the examples are:
Advocacy Courses on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (HR – (8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose
IHL) possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine
Curricula for the Police / Jail personnel and Correction Officers. the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority;
Extensive Training Course for AFP, PNP, BJMP
Bi-Annual Publication of Human Rights Journal (9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the
Quarter release of Newsletter, Batingaw. performance of its functions;
UDHR Booklet, in 4 Dialects (Tagalog, Kapangpangan, Ilokano, Cebuano)
Featured Stories of CHR’s Accomplishments and Relevant News. (10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and
Tabloids, Magazines and Newspapers (published weekly)
TV Plugs including testimonies (11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law.
Reproduction of Human Rights Sticker – “HR Protection Sticker”
Other materials featuring current human rights issues
Creative Dance Workshop for Children
Enhancing GO – NGO Collaboration & LAWS
Building alliance for Human Rights Legislation I. European Court of Human Rights
HR-Social Reform for Disadvantageous Sectors including their service providers. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is a regional human rights judicial
Dispute Resolutions body based in Strasbourg, France. The Court began operating in 1959 and has
Union Perspective delivered more than 10,000 judgments regarding alleged violations of the European
CHR – GO – NGO Collaboration towards monitoring Philippine Government Convention on Human Rights.These are binding on the countries concerned and have
Compliance with International Treaty Obligations on Human Rights. led governments to alter their legislation and administrative practice in a wide range
of areas. The Court's case-law makes the Convention a powerful living instrument
Other may also cite Article XIII Section 18 of the Constitution – CHR powers and for meeting new challenges and consolidating the rule of law and democracy in
function. Europe.
(1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights The Court has jurisdiction to decide complaints (“applications”) submitted by
violations involving civil and political rights; individuals and States concerning violations of the European Convention on Human
Rights, which principally concerns civil and political rights.The European Court, or
(2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for “Strasbourg Court” as it is often called, serves a complementary role to that of the
violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court; European Committee of Social Rights, which oversees European States’ respect for
(3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all social and economic rights.
persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for
preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human Jurisdiction
rights have been violated or need protection; It cannot take up a case on its own initiative. Notably, the person, group or non-
governmental organization submitting the complaint (“the applicant”) does not have
(4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities; to be a citizen of a State Party.
However, complaints submitted to the Court must concern violations of the
Convention allegedly committed by a State Party to the Convention and that directly
and significantly affected the applicant. As of March 2014, 47 States have ratified against discrimination and protection of civil and other human rights. Such
the Convention. Some of these States have also ratified one or more of the institutions are created by legislation or decree.
Additional Protocols to the Convention, which protect additional rights. Some countries create the Ombudsman with the primary function to protect the
To submit a complaint, an application form which is available online must be filled rights of individual. The Ombudsman often act as an impartial mediator between
out in its entirety and copies of all relevant documents must be included along with aggrieved individual and the government. Based on the investigated complaints, the
the application, which must be submitted by postal mail. ombudsman makes a recommendation addressed to the authority complained of and
if the recommendation is not acted upon, the ombudsman submits a report to the
The Court's chamber decides both issues regarding admissibility and merits of the legislature containing suggestions to resolve the complaint.
case. Generally, both these issues are dealt with in the same judgment. In final Spain
judgments, the Court makes a declaration that a contracting state has violated the Sweden
Convention, and may order the contracting state to pay material and/or moral Switzerland
damages and the legal expenses incurred in domestic courts and the Courtin Macedonia
bringing the case. The Court's judgments are public and must contain reasons Turkey
justifying the decision. Article 46 of the Convention provides that contracting states Ukraine
undertake to abide by the Court's final decision. On the other hand, advisory opinions United Kingdom
are, by definition, non-binding. The Court, under the Convention, has no jurisdiction
to annul domestic laws or administrative practices which violate the Convention. Ireland
The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe is charged with supervising Italy
the execution of the Court's judgments. The Committee of Ministers oversees the Latvia
contracting states' changes to their national law in order that it is compatible with the Liechtenstein
Convention, or individual measures taken by the contracting state to redress Lithuania
violations. Judgments by the Court are binding on the respondent states concerned Luxembourg
and states usually comply with the Court's judgments. Malta
Republic of Moldova
Friendly Settlement Monaco
Prior to a decision on the merits, the Court will try to facilitate the arrangement of a Montenegro
friendly settlement. If a friendly settlement cannot be reached, the Court will then
deliver a judgment on the merits. In instances where the Chamber hearing the case Albania
decides to issue an admissibility decision in conjunction with a judgment on the Andorra
merits, then the Parties may include information about friendly settlements in the Armenia
observation they submit to the Court. Austria
Interim Measures Belgium
In exceptional cases, the Court may grant applicants “interim measures,” which are Bosnia and Herzegovina
designed to protect the applicant from further harm while the case proceeds before Bulgaria
the Court. Requests for interim measures are only granted when there is an imminent Croatia
risk of irreparable harm such as death or torture. They are most often granted in Cyprus
extradition and deportation cases.
47 Member States Norway
II. National Human Rights Institutions Portugal
Human Rights institutions are administrative in nature in the sense that they are Romania
neither judicial nor law-making. As a rule, these institutions have advisory authority Russian Federation
regarding national and international human rights for the protection of nationals San Marino
Slovak Republic promulgate rules concerning the enforcement of rights. In 2002, he was appointed to
Slovenia the Supreme Court, and his effort initiated more than three decades ago paid off
when the court of last recourse adopted in 2007 the Rule on the Writ of Amparo for
the protection of the rights to life, liberty, and security.
Czech Republic
Denmark Legal Remedy for Human Rights Violation
Estonia The writ is a remedy available to any person whose right to life, liberty and security
Finland is violated or threatened with violation by an unlawful act or omission of a public
France official or employee, or of a private individual or entity. It covers extralegal killings
Georgia and enforced disappearances or threats. The principal objective of its proceedings is
Germany the initial determination of whether an enforced disappearance, extralegal killing or
Greece threats thereof had transpired —the writ does not, by so doing, fix liability for such
Hungary disappearance, killing or threats, whether that may be criminal, civil or
Iceland administrative under the applicable substantive law.The filing of the petition does not
Local Remedies in the Philippines suspend nor preclude the filing of criminal, civil, or administrative actions.
1. Commission on Human Rights (ART. XIII) The petition for the writ of Amparo is a special proceeding governed by A.M. No.
CHR Composed of: 07-9-12 SC. The rationale of the writ stems from the most basic human right to life.
Chairman The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and as recognized in the Philippine
4 Members Constitution, every person has the inherent right to life, liberty and security
Natural-born citizen
Majority must be members of the Bar THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Others provided by law
Powers & Functions: Adopted by the UN General Assembly on Dec. 10, 1948
Investigate violations of human rights including civil and political rights. (Cariño v 1st International recognition that human rights and fundamental freedoms are
CHR) applicable to every person
Adopt operational guidelines Not legally binding / not a treaty. It’s a moral obligation rather than legal.
Provide appropriate legal measures for all persons within Philippinesas well as Provisions:
Filipinos residing abroad. Article 1: Right to Equality
Visitorialpowers over jails Article 2: Freedom from Discrimination
Establish continuing program of research on human rights Article 3: Right to Life, Liberty, Personal Security
Recommend to Congress effective measures of promotion of HR (EPZA v CHR) Article 4: Freedom from Slavery
Monitor Government’s compliance Article 5: Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment
Grant immunity from prosecution Article 6: Right to Recognition as a Person before the Law
Request assistance from any agency Article 7: Right to Equality before the Law
Appoint its officers Article 8: Right to Remedy by Competent Tribunal
Perform other functions Article 9: Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and Exile
Article 10: Right to Fair Public Hearing
2. Writ of Amparo (A.M. No. 07-9-12 SC) Article 11: Right to be Considered Innocent until Proven Guilty
History Article 12: Freedom from Interference with Privacy, Family, Home and
Writ of Amparo first appeared in the Constitution of Yucatan in 1841 then to Correspondence
Mexican Constitution of 1857. In 1971, former Justice Adolfo Azcuna, then a Article 13: Right to Free Movement in and out of the Country
delegate to the Constitutional Convention, tried unsuccessfully to have the writ of Article 14: Right to Asylum in other Countries from Persecution
Amparo incorporated in the Constitution.He replicated his efforts as a member of the Article 15: Right to a Nationality and the Freedom to Change It
1986 Constitutional Commission. Although the writ was not constitutionalized, he Article 16: Right to Marriage and Family
succeeded in introducing a provision granting the Supreme Court power to Article 17: Right to Own Property
Article 18: Freedom of Belief and Religion "continuous improvement of living conditions" (Article 11); health, specifically "the
Article 19: Freedom of Opinion and Information highest attainable standard of physical and mental health" (Article 12); education,
Article 20: Right of Peaceful Assembly and Association including free universal primary education, generally available secondary education
Article 21: Right to Participate in Government and in Free Elections and equally accessible higher education. This should be directed to "the full
Article 22: Right to Social Security development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity”, and enable all
Article 23: Right to Desirable Work and to Join Trade Unions persons to participate effectively in society (Articles 13 and 14); participation in
Article 24: Right to Rest and Leisure cultural life (Article 15).
Article 25: Right to Adequate Living Standard Part 4 (Articles 16–25) governs reporting and monitoring of the Covenant and the
Article 26: Right to Education steps taken by the parties to implement it. It also allows the monitoring body –
Article 27: Right to Participate in the Cultural Life of Community originally the United Nations Economic and Social Council – now the Committee on
Article 28: Right to a Social Order that Articulates this Document Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to make general recommendations to the UN
Article 29: Community Duties Essential to Free and Full Development General Assembly on appropriate measures to realize the rights (Article 21)
Article 30: Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above Rights Part 5 (Articles 26–31) governs ratification, entry into force, and amendment of the
Impact or Significance:
Forms part of customary international law
Cause Government to rethink/rewrite Constitution and acknowledge the rights laid
down by the UDHR ARTICLE III
Adoption of International Covenants which are binding BILL OF RIGHTS
International Agreements / Major Treaties or Convention
Reference of several laws and statutes across nations FUNDAMENTAL POWERS OF THE STATE
- They belong to the very essence of government and without them no government
can exist. A constitution can only define and delimit them and allocate their exercise
THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND among various government agencies. A constitution does not grant them.
CULTURAL RIGHTS (ICESCR) Police power: inherent and plenary power in the State which enables it to prohibit all
that is hurtful to the comfort, safety, and welfare of the society
Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966 and entered 1. Lawful subject
into force on 3 January 1976. 2. Lawful mean
Second Generation Rights Power of eminent domain: the use of government of its coercive authority, upon
One of the most important United Nations (UN) human rights treaties (multilateral just compensation, to forcibly acquire the needed property in order to devote the
treaty) same to public use
Crucial to enable people to live with dignity. CP and ESC: Indivisible and Power of taxation: method by which contributions are exacted from persons and
interrelated property for the support of government and for all public needs
Reliant on resources
Part 1 (Article 1) recognizes the right of all peoples to self-determination Right to life
Part 2 (Articles 2–5) establishes the principle of "progressive realization“ The constitutional protection of the right to life is not just a protection of the right to
- It acknowledges that some of the rights (for example, the right to health) may be be alive or to the security of one’s limb against physical harm. The right to life is the
difficult in practice to achieve in a short period of time, and that states may be right to a good life.
subject to resource constraints, but requires them to act as best they can within their Right to property
means. Protected property includes all kinds of property found in the Civil Code.
Part 3 (Articles 6–15) lists the rights themselves. These include rights to work,
under "just and favorable conditions", with the right to form and join trade unions SECTION 1 – DUE PROCESS AND EQUAL PROTECTION
(Articles 6, 7, and 8); social security, including social insurance (Article 9); family Substantive due process: prohibition of arbitrary rules
life, including paid parental leave and the protection of children (Article 10); an Procedural due process: guarantee of procedural fairness and a law which hears
adequate standard of living, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and the before it condemns
Equal protection Chilling effect: the citizen would hesitate to speak for fear he might be provoking
** The equal protection clause is a specific constitutional guarantee of the Equality the vengeance of the officials he criticized
of the Person. The equality it guarantees is legal equality or, as it is usually put, the Unprotected speech: libel and obscenity
equality of all persons before the law. Under it, each individual is dealt with as an ** It has been observed that such utterances are no essential part of any exposition of
equal person in the law, which does not treat the person differently because of who ideas, and are of slight social value as a step to truth that any benefit that may be
he is or what he is or what he possesses. derived from them is clearly outweighed by the social interests in order and morality


** The purpose of the provision is to protect the privacy and sanctity of the person Non-establishment clause
and of his house and other possessions against arbitrary intrusions by State officers ** Neither the State nor the Federal Government can set up a church. Neither can
Probable cause: such facts and circumstances antecedent to the issuance of a pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over
warrant that are in themselves sufficient to induce a cautious man to rely upon them another. Neither can, openly or secretly, participate in the affairs of any religious
Probable cause for the issuance of a warrant of arrest: such facts and organizations or groups and vice versa. The clause against establishment of religion
circumstances which would lead a reasonably discreet and prudent man to believe by law was intended to erect “a wall of separation between Church and State.”
that an offense has been committed by the person sought to be arrested Free exercise clause
Probable cause for a search: such facts and circumstances which would lead a The absoluteness of the freedom to believe carries with it the corollary right that the
reasonably discreet and prudent man to believe that an offense has been committed government, while it may look into the good faith of a person, cannot inquire into a
and that the objects sought in connection with the offense are in the place sought to person’s religious pretensions. The moment, however, belief flows over into action,
be searched it becomes subject to government regulation.
** Probable cause is concerned with probability, not absolute or even moral Prohibition of religious test
certainty. The purpose of this provision, which is but a corollary of the freedom and non-
Personal examination establishment clause, is to render the government powerless to restore the historically
** What the Constitution underscores is the exclusive and personal responsibility of and constitutionally discredited policy of probing religious beliefs by test oaths or
the issuing judge to satisfy himself of the existence of probable cause. The judge is limiting public offices to persons who have, or perhaps more properly, profess to
not required to personally examine the complainant and his witnesses and on the have a belief in some particular kind of religious concept.
basis thereof, issue a warrant of arrest. This means that what is required is personal
determination and not personal examination. SECTION 6 – LIBERTY OF ABODE AND TRAVEL
Particularity of description ** The liberty of abode may be limited only upon lawful order of a court whereas the
** A search warrant may be said to be particularly describe the thing to be seized right to travel may be limited by administrative authorities as may be provided by
when the description therein is as specific as the circumstances will ordinarily allow law in the interest of national security, public safety or public health.
and by which the warrant officer may be guided in making the search and seizure.
** Its purpose is to prevent abuse by the officer enforcing the warrant by leaving to SECTION 7 – RIGHT TO INFORMATION
him no discretion as to who or what to search or seize. 1. Right to choose a person’s abode
2. Right to travel both at home and going out of the country
SECTION 3 – PRIVACY OF COMMUNICATION AND ** They are subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
CORRESPONDENCE ** The Ethical Standards Act prohibits public officials and employees from using or
** The privacy right is but an aspect of the right to be secured in one’s person. divulging confidential or classified information officially known to them by reason
** The privacy right is but an aspect of the right to be secured in one’s person. of their office and not made available to the public.


1. No prior restraint ** The right to form associations shall not be impaired except through a valid
2. No subsequent punishment exercise of police power.
Prior restraint: official government restrictions on the press or other forms of ** It is therefore an aspect of general right of liberty. More specifically, it is an
expression in advance of actual publication or dissemination aspect of freedom of contract; and in so far as associations may have for their object
Subsequent punishment: have the effect of unduly curtailing expression the advancement of beliefs and ideas, freedom of association is an aspect of freedom
of expression and belief.
** Government employees do not have a constitutional right to strike. ** This is a product of experience under the Marcos regime when the military
authorities used to make available to detainees only counsel of the military’s choice,
SECTION 9 – POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN and presumably working also for the interest of the military.
Power of eminent domain:power of the state to take private property for public use Waiver of rights
upon payment of just compensation. ** These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.
1. there is taking of private property Torture, force, etc. prohibited
2. the taking must be for needed public use ** Because they vitiate truth and because they are an assault on the dignity of the
3. there must be just compensation person.
** The power of eminent domain is possessed by the State and is exercised by the
national government. SECTION 13 – RIGHT TO BAIL
Just compensation: the just and complete equivalent of the loss which the owner of ** Bail is awarded to the accused to honor the presumption of innocence until his
the thing expropriated has to suffer by reason of the expropriation guilt is proven beyond reasonable doubt and to enable him to prepare his defense
without being subject to punishment prior to conviction.
SECTION 10 – CONTRACTS Bail: mode short of confinement which would, with reasonable certainty, insure the
** Not all impairment of the substance of a contract violates the Constitution. A attendance of the accused ay his trial and usually takes the form of a deposit of
valid exercise of police power is superior to the obligation of contracts. money or is equivalent as a guarantee of such attendance and which deposit is
** The government cannot prejudice private rights without due process. forfeited upon failure to appear.
** No constitutional right when the following conditions concur: the accused is
SECTION 11 – FREE ACCESS TO COURTS charged with an offense punishable by reclusion perpetua; and the evidence against
** This constitutional provision is the basis for the provision of Sec 17, Rule 5 of the him is strong.
Rules of Court allowing litigation in forma pauperis.
** Those protected include low paid employees, domestic servants and laborers. SECTION 14 – RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED
They need not be persons so poor that they must be supported at public expense. It 1. Due process in criminal cases
suffices that the plaintiff is an indigent. 2. Presumption of innocence
3. Right to be heard
SECTION 12 – MIRANDA RIGHTS 4. Right to counsel
1. Right to remain silent 5. Right to be informed
2. Right to competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice 6. Right to speedy, impartial, and public trial
3. Right to be informed of such rights 7. Right to meet witness face to face
Right to be informed 8. Compulsory process
** When the Constitution requires a person under investigation to be informed of his Presumption of innocence
right to remain silent and to counsel, it must be presumed to contemplate the ** No person shall be convicted unless the prosecution has proved him guilty beyond
transmission of a meaningful information rather than just the ceremonial and reasonable doubt.
perfunctory recitation of an abstract constitutional principle. Right to counsel
** It is not sufficient for a police officer to just repeat to the person under ** This is a realistic recognition of the obvious truth that the average defendant does
investigation the provisions of the Constitution. He is not only duty-bound to tell the not have the professional skill to protect himself when brought before a tribunal with
person the rights to which the latter is entitled; he must also explain their effects in power to take his life or liberty, wherein the prosecution is represented by an
practical terms. experienced and learned counsel.
** The right of the person under investigation to be informed implies a correlative Right to be informed
obligation on the part of the police investigator to explain, and contemplates an ** The object of the written accusation is to furnish the accused with such a
effective communication that results in understanding what is conveyed. description of the charge against him as will enable him to make his defense, to avail
Right to competent and independent counsel himself of his conviction or acquittal for protection against a further prosecution for
** The right to counsel is intended to preclude the slightest coercion as would lead the same course, and to inform the court of the facts alleged, so that it may decide
the accused to admit something false. This constitutional right extends only to whether they are sufficient in law to support a conviction, if one should be had.
testimonial compulsion and not when the body of the accused is proposed to be ** The complaint must contain a specific allegation of every fact and circumstance
examined. necessary to constitute the crime charged.
Right to speedy trial be a necessary link in a chain of evidence to prove the commission of a crime by a
** The concept of speedy trial is necessarily relative and determination of whether witness.
the right has been violated must be based on the balancing of various factors. Length
of delay is certainly a factor to consider; but other factors must also be considered SECTION 18 – INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE
such as the reason for the delay, the effort of the defendant to assert his right, and the Involuntary servitude: every condition of enforced or compulsory service of one to
prejudice caused to the defendant, another no matter under what formsuch servitude may be disguised
Right to a public trial
** The purpose of this guarantee is to serve as a safeguard against any attempt to SECTION 19 – DEATH PENALTY
employ our courts as instruments of persecution. The knowledge that every criminal Guide
is subject to contemporaneous review in the forum of public opinion us an effective 1. A punishment must not be so severe as to be degrading to the dignity of human
restraint on possible abuse of judicial power. beings.
Right to meet witness face to face 2. It must not be applied arbitrarily.
** The right has a two-fold purpose: to afford the accused an opportunity to test the 3. It must not be unacceptable to contemporary society.
testimony of the witness by cross-examination and to allow the judge to observe the 4. It must not be excessive.
deportation if the witness. Heinous crimes: being grievous, odious, and hateful offenses and which, by reason
Waiver of rights of their inherent or manifest wickedness, viciousness, atrocity and perversity are
** Whenever a protection given by the Constitution is waived by the person entitled repugnant and outrageous to the common standards and norms of decency and
to that protection, the presumption is against the waiver. Consequently, the morality in a just, civilized and ordered society.
prosecution must prove with strongly convincing evidence to the satisfaction of this ** The circumstances under which a specific law may allow the death penalty may
Court that indeed the accused willingly and voluntarily submitted his confession and make it cruel and unusual under such law.
knowingly and deliberately manifested that he was not interested in having a lawyer ** Death penalty per se is not a cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment.
assist him during the taking of that confession. Punishment is so if it involves torture or a lingering death; but the punishment of
death is not cruel, within the meaning of that word as used in the constitution. It
SECTION 15 – PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS implies there is something inhuman and barbarous, something more than the mere
Writ of habeas corpus:a writ directed to the person detaining another, commanding extinguishment of life.
him to produce the body of the prisoner at a designated time and place, with the day
and cause of his caption and detention, to do, submit to, and receive whatever the SECTION 20 – DEBT AND POLL TAX
court or judge awarding the writ shall consider in that behalf Debt: Any liability to pay money growing out of a contract, express or implied.
Privilege of the writ of habeas corpus:right to have an immediate determination of ** A person may be imprisoned for fraudulent debt only if the fraudulent debt
legality of the deprivation of physical liberty constitutes a crime and the debtor has been duly convicted.
Validity of the suspension Poll tax:cedula tax or residential tax
1. the existence of actual invasion or rebellion ** The Constitution does not prohibit the cedula tax but it prohibits imprisonment
2. public safety requires the suspension for non-payment of the cedula tax.


** Speedy trial in Sec 14 covers only the trial phase of criminal cases, whereas Sec First jeopardy terminated
16 covers all phases of nay judicial, quasi-judicial or administrative proceedings. 1. by acquittal
2. by final conviction
SECTION 17–RIGHT AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION 3. by dismissal without express consent of the accused
** It was established on the grounds of public policy and humanity. 4. by dismissal on the merits
Public policy: if the party were required to testify, it would place the witness under
the strongest temptation to commit perjury SECTION 22 – EX POST FACTO LAW AND BILL OF ATTAINDER
Humanity: it would prevent the extorting of confession by duress ** The ex post fcato clause prohibits only retrospective penal laws.
** Usually a crime or a criminal act may contain two or more elements and that a
question would have a tendency to incriminate, even if it tends to elicit only one of
said elements. The right thus, includes a right to refuse to testify a fact which would