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Performance Optimization for Skim Milk Powder Unit of a Dairy Plant Using

Genetic Algorithm

S. Kajal a, *, P. C. Tewari b

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119,

Haryana, India

b Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana, India

ARTICLE INFO A B S T R A C T

Article history: The paper deals with the performance optimization for skim milk powder unit of a dairy plant at

Received 23 December 2011 National Dairy Research Institute (N. D. R. I.), Karnal using Genetic Algorithm (G. A.). The skim milk

Received in revised form 14 Febuary 2012 powder unit comprises of six subsystems working in series. The failure and repair rates of the

Accepted 17 May 2012 subsystems are taken from maintenance history sheets, which follow the exponential distribution. The

mathematical formulation is carried out using probabilistic approach and the Markov birth – death

process is used to develop the difference differential equations. The steady state availability expression

Keywords:

has been derived using normalizing conditions. The optimal values of failure/repair rates of each

Availability

Markov Process subsystem of the skim milk powder unit have been evaluated using Matlab 7.1 G. A. tool. The steady

Genetic Algorithm state availability obtained from Markov analysis is also compared with the optimal availability

Skim Milk Powder Unit calculated through G. A. tool. So, the findings of the present paper will be highly useful to the plant

management for developing proper maintenance strategies which can be implemented in order to

enhance system performance.

doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2012.25.03b.08

blade. This material is collected and fed into pulverized

NDRI was established in 1996 and is commercially machine which converts it in the fine powder form. This

active research institute at Karnal (India). The plant has fine powder is then packed and stored. Skim milk

the capacity to handle 60,000 liters of milk per day. The powder contains calcium chloride, curic acid and

supply of raw milk is from the model dairy plant and sodium citrate not exceeding 0.3% by weight of the end

institute dairy farm. The fat content in the raw milk is product. The products made in the plant are tested in

weighed and assessed for the SNF (Solid Not Fat) and quality control section by different methods. These

fat contents. Thereafter, the milk undergoes products are then finally packed in hygienic conditions

pasteurization and then cooled to refrigeration in packaging section by means of computerized

temperature (4-5 °C) before it is sent to storage tank. machine.

Further processing involves separation of cream by

cream separator and its standardization for various 1. 1. History Availability of a system can be

purposes. Continuous churning of cream separates improved by several methods like using large safety

butter in a butter making machine. Lassi and Flavored factors, structural redundancy, reducing system

milk is made in this section. In the second section, complexities, practicing a planned maintenance

production of condensed and dried milk products are schedule and repair schedule. Availability optimization

carried out. Fine powder is made with the help of roller problems concentrate on optimal allocation of

drier machine. The milk is fed into the rotating steam- redundancy components and optimal selection of

heating drums or rollers. As the drums revolve, a thin alternative design to meet system requirement. Efforts

film of milk is adhered to it and dried by the time, a were made by some researchers in the direction of

availability optimization and cost analysis. Goldberg [1]

*Corresponding Author Email: Sanjaykajal74@gmail.com (S. Kajal) made a systematic study of G. A. mechanism and

S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221 212

identified three basic operators: reproduction, crossover reliable models and methods in this area were discussed

and mutation for obtaining near optimal solutions. and future prospects were investigated. Khanduja et

Srinivas [2] discussed various optimization techniques al.[25] discussed the steady state behavior and

and their implementation in the engineering problems. maintenance planning of the bleaching system in a

Ishii et al. [3] applied the reliability optimization as the paper plant. The development of mathematical

last step in their six step heuristic procedure. Sung et al. modeling was carried out using Markov birth-death

[4,5] applied branch and bound approach for reliability process. The literature review discussed here reflects

optimization. Mettas [6] derived a general model to that G. A. has been applied successfully in various

estimate the minimum reliability requirement for complex industries consisting of series and series-

multiple components within a system that would yield parallel system. The approach of performance modeling

the goal reliability value for the system. Kuo et al. [7] and development of decision support system has also

discussed the reliability redundancy allocation problem been discussed by many researchers. Therefore, in order

for finding simultaneously optimal redundancy levels to bridge the gap, G. A. is being proposed in the present

and optimal component reliabilities that maximize paper for performance optimization in dairy industry.

system reliability subject to resource constraints. Coit et The analysis will definitely help the plant management

al. [8] proposed a multiple objective formulation for to adopt the strategic maintenance planning and

maximizing the system availability. Nahas et al. [9] scheduling.

studied the reliability optimization problem for a series

system with multiple choice constraints, to maximize

the system reliability. Gen et al. [10] studied the G. A. 2. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

approach for various reliability optimization problems.

Castro et al. [11] proposed a maintenance optimization The skim milk powder unit of the dairy plant at N.D.R.I

model for an Engineering system assembled in a series consists of the following six subsystems:

configuration. Dai et al. [12] developed an optimization 1. Pumping subsystem: It is used for unloading the

model for the grid service allocation using G. A.. milk brought from milk collection centers. The

Taboada et al. [13] studied the reliability optimization system consists of two pumps, one in standby

of the complex systems. Juang et al. [14] proposed a G. having perfect switch-over device. This system

A. based optimization model to optimize the availability never fails.

of a series parallel system. Gupta et al. [15,16,17] dealt 2. Preheating subsystem (B1): The subsystem is used

with the development of decision support system and to heat the roller. The steam is allowed to move

performance modeling of feed water unit,coal handling onto the rollers. After drum’s surface achieve a

unit and feed water system of a thermal power plant. temperature high enough to dry the milk film, the

They derived the availability expression for feed water flow is allowed over the entire drum length. This

and coal handling unit with elements exhibiting subsystem is subjected to major failure only.

independent failures and repairs. Amir Azaron et al. 3. Agitator (B2): It works on the centrifugal force

[18] developed a new methodology for reliability principle. Chilled milk from the chiller is taken to

evaluation and optimization of non repairable dissimilar the agitator where fat is separated from the milk in

component with cold standby redundant systems. the form of cream containing 40 to 50% fats. The

Nakagawa et al. [19] analyzed the reliability skimmed milk is stored in milk silos for preparing

optimization problem by using the concept of the milk powder. It consists of three components

reversed failure rate. Garg et al. [20] developed a working in series – motor, bearings and high speed

reliability model of a block-board manufacturing system gear box. Failure of any component causes

in the plywood industry using time dependent and complete failure of the subsystem.

steady state availability under idealized and faulty 4. Pasteurizer (B3): It pasteurizes the milk coming

Preventive Maintenance (PM). Singh et al. [21] from pumping system. Here the cream is heated up

analyzed the mathematical model with the application to 80 to 82˚C with no holding time. The purpose is

of cupola. The transition state probabilities, reliability, to destroy pathogenic and undesirable organisms,

availability and M.T.T.F. were determined using inactivate the enzymes present, make possible

supplementary variable technique. Khanduja et al. [22] removal of volatile flavors and removal of tanning

developed a mathematical model and did performance substances. Failure of machine causes the complete

optimization for the digesting system of a paper plant failure of the unit.

using G. A.. Asha and Nair [23] developed the 5. Drum drier and scraping machine (B4): The drum

relationship between mean time to failure in an age revolves and a thin film of milk adhered to it which

replacement model with hazard rate and mean residual is dried by the time of a complete revolution of

life functions. Vasili et al. [24] presented a brief review drum. The film is made and then is scrapped by a

of existing maintenance optimization models. Several blade. Partial failure of machine can set the system

213 S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221

to reduced working capacity while major failure IV. The standby units are of the same nature and

causes complete failure of the unit. capacity as the active units.

6. Pulverized machine (B5): The above material is The notations associated with the transition diagram are

collected and fed into pulverized machine which as summarized in Table 1.

converts it to fine powder form. This fine powder is

then packed and stored. Partial failure of machine

can set the unit to reduced working capacity while 4. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE UNIT

major failure causes complete failure of the unit.

The pumping system, as mentioned above, never fails. The transition diagram (Figure 2) depicts a simulation

So, working of the unit is affected by rest of the five model showing all the possible states for skim milk

subsystems. All the above mentioned subsystems, powder unit. The model helps to develop the Chapman-

except subsystem B4 and B5 are subjected to major Kolmogorov differential equations using mnemonic rule

failures while B4 and B5 can work in reduced state also [22]. This rule states that the derivative of the

(Figure 1). probability of every state is equal to the sum of all

probability flows which comes from other states to the

given state minus the sum of all probability flows which

goes out from the given state to the other states.

3. ASSUMTIONS AND NOTATIONS

Probability considerations give the following

differential equations associated with the transition

I. Failure and repair rates for each subsystem are

diagram:

constant and statistically independent [26, 27].

II. There are simultaneous failures occurring at a 11 9

time. P0' t

i P t

0 i Pi 3 t 1 0 P1 0 t

(1)

III. Performance wise a repaired unit as good as new i7 i7

one. 1 1 P1 4 t

9 9

P1' t

i7

i 11 12 P1 t

i7

i Pi t 1 0 P0 t

(2)

1 1 P18 t

10 9

P2' t

i7

i 13 P2 t

i7

i P4 i t 10 P1 9 t

(3)

1 1 P0 t

9 9

Figure 1. Schematic flow diagram of skim milk powder unit

P3' t

i7

i 12 13 P3 t

i7

i P8 i t 10 P2 t

(4)

11 P1 t

TABLE 1. Notations of skim milk powder unit

Transition diagram Figure 2 Pi ' t 7 Pi t 7 P j t (5)

‘(t) d/dt f o r i = 4 , j = 0 ; i = 7 , j = 1; i = 1 1 , j = 2 ; i =

15, j=3;

Full capacity states (without

B1, B2, B3, B4, B5

standby) Pi ' t 8 Pi t 8 P j t (6)

Failed states b1, b2, b3, b4 ,b5

f o r i = 5 , j = 0 ; i = 8 , j = 1; i = 1 2 , j = 2 ; i =

Reduced capacity B'٤ B and'٥ 16, j=3;

λi, i = 7 to 13

Failure rates Pi ' t 9 Pi t 9 P j t (7)

from B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B'4,B'5

to b1,b2,b3, B'4,B'5,b4,b5 for i = 6, j=0; i = 9, j=1; i = 13, j=2; i = 17, j=3;

µi, i = 7 to 11

Repair rates

Pi ' t 10 Pi t j Pk t (8)

from b1,b2,b3, b4,b5 to B1,

B2, B3, B4, B5, for i = 10, j =6,k=1; i =19,j=6, k =3;

Probability of full capacity

working states (without standby P0 Pi ' t 11 Pi t j Pk t (9)

unit) for i = 14, j =7,k=2; i =18,j=7, k =3;

Probability of reduced capacity

working states

P١ , P٢ P and٣ Initial conditions at time t = 0 are:

Probability of failed states P4 to P19 Pi (t ) 1 for i = 0 Pi (t ) 0 for i ≠ 0

S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221 214

powder unit is required to be available for long duration L3 =

C1C 2 C 3 - μ11 H 5 (C1 λ10 + C 2 λ11 )

of time. So, the long run or steady state availability of

the skim milk powder unit is obtained by putting C1 T2 7 H1 8 H 2 9 H 3

d = 0 as t into differential Equations (1) to (9)

dt C2 T3 7 H1 8 H 2 9 H 3

and solving these equations recursively, we get:

C3 T4 7 H1 8 H 2 9 H 3

P1 L1 P0 P2 L2 P0 P3 L3 P0

11 9

P4 H1 P0 P5 H 2 P0 P6 H 3 P0

T1 i T2 i 11 12

P7 H1L1 P0 P8 H 2 L1 P0 P9 H 3 L1 P0 i 7 i 7

T3 i 13 T4

i 7

i 12 13

i 7

P16 H 2 L3 P0 P17 H 3 L3 P0 P18 H 5 L3 P0 Now, using normalizing conditions i.e. sum of all

the probabilities is equal to one, we get:

P19 H 4 L3 P0 19

where P 1

i 0

i

λj

Hi = ; i = 1, 2, 3; j = 7, 8, 9

μj 1

1 L1 L2 L3 H 1 H 2 H 3 H 1 L1 H 2 L1

λ12 λ13 P0 H 3 L1 H 4 L1 H 1 L2 H 2 L2 H 3 L2

H4 = H5 =

μ10 μ11 H 5 L2 H 1 L3 H 2 L3 H 3 L3 H 5 L3 H 4 L3

μ H L +λ μ H L +λ

L1 = 11 5 3 10 L2 = 10 4 3 11 The maximum steady state availability of skim milk

C1 C2

powder unit ( Av1 ) may be obtained as summation of

215 S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221

probabilities of all working and reduced capacity states TABLE 2. G. A. operators for skim milk powder unit

i.e.: Population type: Double

Reproduction (elite count):2

vector

Av1 P0 P1 P2 P3 1 L1 L2 L3 P0 (10)

Population size: 20 to 160 in Reproduction (crossover

Av1 92.82 % step size of 20 fraction):0.80

Creation function: Uniform Mutation probability: 0.01

Taking λ7=0.00007, µ7=0.009, λ8=0.008, µ8=0.55,

Fitness scaling: Rank Crossover probabilities:

λ9=0.008, µ9=0.05, λ10=0.005, µ10=0.08, λ11=0.00009, Heuristic-0.80

µ11=0.008, λ12=0.005, λ13=0.0002 Selection: Stochastic Migration: Direction- forward

Stopping criteria:

(Data taken from maintenance history sheets) Generation-50 to 450 in step Number of variables:12

The availability ( Av1 ) as given by Equation (10) includes size 50

all possible failure events ( i ) and the identification of Variable Range (Min. to Max.)

all the courses of action i.e. repair priorities ( i ). This λ7 0.00007 to 0.00011

model can be used to adopt strategic maintenance µ7 0.009 to 0.045

policies for skim milk powder unit. Similarly, the λ8 0.008 to 0.016

various availability levels may be computed for µ8 0.11 to 0.55

different combinations of failure and repair rates. The λ9 0.0008 to 0.0012

optimal availability value for skim milk powder unit is µ9 0.05 to 0.25

further evaluated using G. A. technique.

λ10 0.005 to 0.009

µ10 0.08 to 0.40

4. 2. Performance Optimization Using Genetic

λ11 0.00009 to 0.00013

Algorithm G. A. is a powerful computerized tool for

search and optimization problems. The G. A. optimizes µ11 0.008 to 0.04

the results using the following steps: λ12 0.005 to 0.009

1) Identify all the constraints of the G. A. tool. λ13 0.0002 to 0.001

prepare the coded strings.

3) Compute the fitness of each individual and form the 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

mating pool from the old population.

The maximum steady state availability as calculated by

4) Divide the population repeatedly into random Markov analysis comes out to be 92.82% by using the

tournaments. failure and repair rates available through maintenance

5) Determine the new generation pool and select two history sheets. A G. A. is a search strategy that employs

parents from the mating pool randomly. random selection to guide a highly exploitative search,

6) Perform the crossover of the parents to produce two striking a balance between explorating of feasible

off springs. domain and exploting of good solutions. The

performance optimization is carried out by varying the

7) Mutate, if required.

number of generations from 50 to 450 in step size 50 as

8) Place the child strings to new population and shown in Table 3. It is observed that the optimum

compute the fitness of each individual. availability of skim milk powder unit of an N.D.R.I.

9) Replace old population with new population. plant comes out to be 97.52 % at 350 number of

10) Repeat the steps 3 to 6 until the best individuals in generation. The corresponding values of failure and

new population represent the optimum value of the repair rates are λ7 = 0.00007 (once in 14286 h), µ7 =

performance function. 0.0449 (once in 22.2 h), λ8 = 0.008 (once in 125 h), µ8 =

0.5461 (once in 1.83 h), λ9 = 0.0008 (once in 1250 h),

The performance optimization of the skim milk µ9 = 0.2448 (once in 4.08 h), λ10 = 0.005 (once in 200

powder unit is influenced by the failure and repair rates h), µ10 = 0. 3989 (once in 2.5 h), λ11= 0.00012 (once in

of each subsystem. The designed range of failure and 8333.3 h), µ11=0.029 (once in 34.48 h),λ12 = 0.005(once

repair rates are taken from the maintenance history in 200 h), λ13 = 0.0002 (once in 5000 h), which is the

sheets. In order to optimize the availability, G. A. tool in best possible combination of failure and repair rates of

Matlab 7.1 is being used in the present paper. The different subsystems. The effect of number of

following G. A. operators along with permissible range generations on the availability of skim milk powder unit

of failure and repair rates are used for the performance is shown in Figure 3.

optimization. Now the performance optimization is carried out by

S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221 216

varying the population size from 20 to 160 in step size 0.005, µ10 = 0. 3913, λ11= 0.0001, µ11=0.039, λ12 =

of 20, as shown in Table 4. 0.005, λ13 = 0.0002, at which optimum value of system

It is evident that the best possible combination of failure availability is 97.49% with population size 100. The

and repair parameters are λ7 = 0.00007, µ7 =0.0401, λ8 effect of population size on system availability is shown

= 0.008, µ8 = 0.5409, λ9 = 0.0008, µ9 =0.2426, λ10 = in Figure 4.

TABLE 3. Effect of number of generations on the availability of skim milk powder unit

Figure 3. Effect of number of generation on the availability of Figure 4. Effect of population size on the availability of skim

skim milk powder system milk powder system

217 S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221

TABLE 5. Comparison in steady state availability and The comparision between steady state availability

optimized availability using genetic algorithm and optimized availability using G. A. is shown in

System Steady state Optimized availability Table 5.

availability using genetic algorithm

The major implication lies in the fact that the failure

Milk skim 92.82% 97.52% and repair rates are assumed to be constant which

powder unit λ7=0.00007, λ7 = 0.00007, follow the exponential distribution in order to simplify

µ7=0.009, λ8=0.008, µ7 = 0.0449,

µ8=0.55, λ9=0.008,

the problems.

λ8 = 0.008,

µ9=0.05, λ10=0.005,

µ10=0.08, µ8 = 0.5461,

λ11=0.00009, λ9 = 0.0008,

µ11=0.008, µ9 = 0.2448, 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

λ12=0.005, λ10 = 0.005,

λ13=0.0002

µ10 = 0. 3989, The author is grateful to Dr. A. P. S. Chauhan, Principal

λ11= 0.00012, µ11=0.029, Scientist, N.D.R.I., Karnal regarding the concerned

λ12 = 0.005, research work.

λ13 = 0.0002

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APPENDIXES

S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221 220

221 S. Kajal and P. C. Tewari / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 25, No. 3, (August 2012) 211-221

Performance Optimization for Skim Milk Powder Unit of a Dairy Plant Using

Genetic Algorithm

S. Kajal a, P. C. Tewari b

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119,

Haryana, India

b Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana, India

Article history:

Received 23 December 2011

اﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ،ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﺳﺎزي ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد واﺣﺪ ﺷﯿﺮ ﺧﺸﮏ ﺑﺪون ﭼﺮﺑﯽ از ﮐﺎرﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻟﺒﻨﯽ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﻟﮕﻮرﯾﺘﻢ ژﻧﺘﯿﮏ )(G. A.

Received in revised form 14 Febuary 2012 در ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﺎت ﻟﺒﻨﯽ ) (N.D.R.Iرا ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ دﻫﺪ .ﮐﺎرﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﺎي زﯾﺎدي از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ واﺣﺪ

Accepted 17 May 2012 ﺑﺎزارﯾﺎﺑﯽ ،واﺣﺪ ﺗﻐﻠﯿﻆ و ﺧﺸﮏ ﮐﺮدن ،واﺣﺪ ﭘﻨﯿﺮ و ﮐﺮه ،واﺣﺪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮل ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ،واﺣﺪ ﭘﻮدر ﺷﯿﺮ و واﺣﺪ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪي ﺗﻘﺴﯿﻢ ﻣﯽ

ﺷﻮد .واﺣﺪ ﭘﻮدر ﺷﯿﺮ ﺑﺪون ﭼﺮﺑﯽ ،ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﺶ زﯾﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ اﺳﺖ .ﻧﺮخ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ و ﺗﺮﻣﯿﻢ از اﯾﻦ زﯾﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺎ از ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ

Keywords: ﻫﺎي ﺗﻌﻤﯿﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺗﻮزﯾﻊ ﻧﻤﺎﯾﯽ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ ﺗﺒﻌﯿﺖ ﻣﯽ ﮐﻨﺪ .ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت

Availability

Markov Process دﯾﻔﺮاﻧﺴﯿﻞ ،ﻓﺮﻣﻮل رﯾﺎﺿﯽ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از روش اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺗﯽ و ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﺎرﮐﻒ -ﻓﺮآﯾﻨﺪ ﻣﺮگ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻣﯽ آﯾﺪ .اﯾﻦ ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﺑﺎ

Genetic Algorithm اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺷﺮاﯾﻂ ﻋﺎدي ﺣﻞ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﻪ ﮐﺮدن ﺷﺮاﯾﻂ ﭘﺎﯾﺪار ﺗﺪوﯾﻦ ﮔﺮدد .ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﻧﺮخ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ /ﺗﻌﻤﯿﺮ ﻫﺮ ﯾﮏ از زﯾﺮ

Skim Milk Powder Unit

ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺎي واﺣﺪ ﺷﯿﺮ ﺧﺸﮏ ﺑﺪون ﭼﺮﺑﯽ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻧﺮم اﻓﺰار MATLAB 7.1و اﺑﺰار اﻟﮕﻮرﯾﺘﻢ ژﻧﺘﯿﮏ ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ

ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ .ﺷﺮاﯾﻂ ﭘﺎﯾﺪار ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ آﻣﺪه از ﺗﺠﺰﯾﻪ و ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﻣﺎرﮐﻒ ﻧﯿﺰ ﺑﺎ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﻮدن ﺑﻬﯿﻨﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺷﺪه از ﻃﺮﯾﻖ

اﺑﺰار G.A.ﻣﻘﺎﯾﺴﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ .ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﯾﻦ ،ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻫﺎي اﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ ﮐﺎرﺧﺎﻧﻪ و ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﮋي ﻫﺎي ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري

ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻣﻔﯿﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﻣﻮﺟﺐ اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد.

doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2012.25.03b.08

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