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DEVELOPMENT OF BANANA FLOUR BASED

BABY FOOD PRODUCTS

S.R.B.R.GOTHAMA CHARINI GANNORUWA

Thesis submitted to the University of Sri Jayewardenepura partial

fulfillment requirement for the award of the Degree of

Master of Science

in Food Science and Technology

Faculty of Graduate Studies

University of Sri Jayewardenepura

Sri Lanka
DECLARATION

The work described in this thesis was carried out by me under the supervision of Dr.

K.K.D.S. Ranaweera, Head, Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Sri

Jayewardenepura and a report on this has not been submitted in whole or in part to any

University or any other institution for another Degree! Diploma.

....... .......
S.R.B.R.G.C. Gannoruwa
DECLARATION OF THE SUPERVISOR

I, Dr. K.K.D.S. Ranaweera certify that the above statement made by the candidate is true

and that this thesis is suitable for submission to the University for the purpose of

evaluation.

F ..................
Dr. K.K.D.S. Ranaweera

Head, Department of Food Science & Technology

Co-ordinator I Food Science & Technology Programmes

University of Sri Jayewardenepura

Nugegoga, Sri Lanka


Table of Contents
Page
Table of Contents

List of Tables vii

List of Figures viii

List of Plates ix

List of Appendices x

Acknowledgements xi

Abstract xii

Chapter 1- Introduction 1

.1 Importance and potential uses of Banana flour 2

1.2 Objectives of the Research Project 3

Chapter 2- Literature Review

2.1 Important characteristics of banana 4

2.1.1 Scientific classification of Banana 4

2.1.2 Morphology 5

2.1.3 Ripening of bananas 6

2.1.4 Discoloration of banana 7

2.1.5 Inhibitors of browning 8

2.1 .6 Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant/ browning inhibitor 10

2.2 Physical properties of Banana 11

2.3 Nutritional properties of Banana 12


2.3.1 Health & Nutrition 14

2.4 Banana Trade 17

2.5 Traditional uses of bananas 19

2.6 Banana and plantain processing technologies 21

2.6.1 Traditional processing 21

2.6.1 .1 Products and uses 22

2.6.1.2 Preservation methods and processes 23

2.6.1.3 Potential for scaling up of traditional processes

To industrial level 24

2.6.2 Industrial processing 25

2.6.2.1 Products and uses 25

2.6.2.2 Processing technology 25

2.6.2.3 Product stability and spoilage problems 29

2.6.2.4 Quality control Methods 30

2.7 Starch and starch properties 31

2.7.1 Sources for starch 31

2.7.2 Structural unit 31

2.7.3 Functional properties 31

2.7.4 Amylograph for starch 34

2.8 Food Extrusion 34

2.9 Manufacturing of Biscuits 36

2.10 Banana flour in Baby Cereals 39

2.10.1 Commercial cereals 39


2.10.2 Home made cereals 39

2.11 Processing of Banana Flour 40

2.12 Banana flour Recipes 41

2.13 Maturity 46

2.13.1 Types of Maturity 46

2.13.2 Methods available for determination of Maturity 47

Chapter 3- Methodology

3.1 Determination of Maturity Index for Embul Kesel 48

3.1.1 Materials 48

3.1.2 Method 48

3.2 Preparation of Banana Flour 50

3.2.1 Materials 50

3.2.2 Method 50

3.2.3 Flow chart of making banana flour 51

3.3 Recovery percentage of banana flour 52

3.3.1 Method 52

3.4 Determination of the Keeping Quality of banana flour 53

3.4.1 Inhibition of browning 53

3.4.1.1 Method 53

3.4.2 Microbial Examination 53

3.4.2.1 Materials 54

3.4.2.2 Method 54

ff
3.5 Preparation of Starch 55

3.5.1 Materials 55

3.5.2 Method 55

3.5.3 Flow chart of preparation of Starch 56

3.5.4 Recovery percentage of Starch 57

3.5.5 Microscopic Examination of Starch 57

3.5.5.1 Material 57

3.5.5.2 Method 57

3.6 Gelatinization properties of banana flour 58

3.6.1 Materials 58

3.6.2 Method 58

3.7 Determination of Moisture 59

3.7.1 Materials 59

3.7.2 Method 59

3.8 Determination of Total Fat 60

3.8.1 Materials 60

3.8.2 Method 60

3.9 Determination of Crude Protein 61

3.9.1 Materials 61

3.9.2 Method 61

3.10 Determination of Fiber 62

3.10.1 Materials 62

3.10.2 Method 63

Iv
3.11 Determination of Total Ash 64

3.11.1 Materials 64

3.11.2 Method 64

3.12 Preparation of Banana Rice Baby Cereal 65

3.12.1 Home made Banana rice baby cereal 65

3.12.1.1 Materials 65

3.12.1.2 Method 65

3.12.2 Extrusion of Banana rice baby cereal 65

3.12.2.1 Materials 65

3.12.2.2 Method 66

3.12.3 Determination of Water Absorption Index for extrudates 66

3.12.3.1 Materials 66

3.12.3.2 Method 66

3.13 Preparation of baby Teething Biscuits! Cookies 67

3.13.1 Banana Rice Cereal Cookies 67

3.13.1.1 Materials 67

3.13.1.2 Method 67

3.13.2 Eggless Banana Rice Cereal Cookies 68

3.13.2.1 Materials 68

3.13.2.2 Method 68

3.14 Sensory Evaluation 69

3.14.1 Format for Biscuit varieties 69

3.14.2 Format for Banana cookies 69

V
Chapter 4- Results and Discussion
4.1 Determination of Maturity Index 70

4.2 Recovery percentage of banana flour 78

4.3 Keeping Quality 79

4.3.1 Inhibition of browning 79


4.3.2 Microbial examination 80

4.4 Preparation of Starch 82


4.4.1 Starch recovery percentage 82
4.4.2 Microscopic examination 84
4.4.3 Gelatinization properties (Amylograph) 85

4.5 Determination of Moisture content in Banana flour 88


4.6 Determination of Total Fat in Banana flour 91
4.7 Determination of Crude Protein in Banana flour 92
4.8 Determination of Fiber in Banana flour 93

4.9 Determination of Ash in Banana flour 94


4.10 Determination of Carbohydrates in Banana flour 95
4.11 Preparation of Banana rice baby cereal 96
4.12 Determination of Water Absorption Index for extrudates 98
4.13 Preparation of Banana rice cereal cookies 99
4.14 Results obtain on Sensory Evaluation 100
4.14.1 Sensory evaluation for 3 teething biscuit varieties 100
4.12.2 Sensory evaluation for Cookies 101

Chapter 5- Conclusion 103

References 106

Appendices 110

vi
List of Tables

Page

Table 1-Nutritional Facts of Raw Banana 12

Table 2- Nutritional Facts of Banana Powder! Flour 13

Table 3- Annual Banana production of the world 17

Table 4 Changes in Maturity Indices of Control 71

Table 5- Average parameters of the five banana samples and control 72

Table 6- Weight of banana samples 78

Table 7- Number of Microbial colonies appear in plates 80

Table 8- Recovery percentage of Starch samples 82

Table 9- Moisture content of banana flour samples 88

Table 10- Total Fat content of banana flour samples 91

Table 11- Crude Protein content of banana flour samples 92

Table 12- Total Fiber content of banana flour samples 93

Table 13- Ash content of banana flour samples 95

Table 14- Sensory evaluation data for 3 biscuit varieties 100

Table 15- Calculation based on rank sum test 100

Table 16- Sensory evaluation data for cookies 101

Table 17- Calculation based on rank sum test for cookies 101

VII
List of Figures

Page

Figure 1- Reaction of Ascorbic acid with Quinone 10

Figure 2- Typical Twin-screw configuration showing feed mixing

and conveying section 35

Figure 3- Changes of Maturity Indices before and after ripening of

Embul banana 73

Figure 4- Variation in maturity indices of banana samples and control 74

Figure 5- Amylograph chart for banana flour 87

viii
List of Plates

Page

Plate 1- Maturity stages of Embul banana fruit 75

Plate 2- Ripening Chart of banana fruit 75

Plate 3- Flour samples made by using three inhibitors and dis. Water 80

Plate 4- Isolated Starch 83

Plate 5,6- Starch granules in fresh raw banana 84

Plate 7- Starch granules isolated from raw banana 84

Plate 8- Home made Banana rice baby cereal 96

Plate 9- Baby cereal made by extrusion with 20% banana flour 96

Plate 10- Baby cereal made by extrusion with 20% banana flour 97

Plate 11- Banana rice cereal cookies WE

Plate 12- Eggless banana rice cereal cookies

ix
List of Appendices

Page

Appendix 1- Maturity Indices of sample I 110

Appendix 2- Maturity Indices of sample 2

Appendix 3- Maturity Indices of sample 3

Appendix 4- Maturity Indices of sample 4

Appendix 5- Maturity Indices of sample 5

x
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my project supervisor, Dr.

K.K.D.S. Ranaweera for his valuable advises and guidance throughout the study.

I also wish to thank to Mrs. P.R.D. Perera , Mr. W.M.S.K. Weerasinghe and Mr. D.P.

Rupasinghe for helping me to carryout the experiments at the Food Science and technology

laboratory of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura.

I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. Nazeera Salim, Head of the Dept. of Botany, University of

Sri Jayewardenepura for helping me to carryout experiments at the Botany laboratory.

Special word of thanks must go to Dr. A.M. Mubarak, Director, Industrial Technology

Institute and Mrs. Damitha Rajapaksha for their kind assistance to carryout experiments at

ITI Cereal laboratory.

Finally I would like to offer my thanks to my husband and my family members for

encourage me to complete this project.

xi
DEVELOPMENT OF BANANA FLOUR BASED

BABY FOOD PRODUCTS

BY: S.R.B.R.G.C. GANNORUWA

ABSTRACT
Banana, Musa species is one of the major fruit cultivated in Sri Lanka. Embul kesel is the

most common and is cheaper banana variety in the local market. Bananas are subjected to

post harvest losses during their reach to market place. In the present study, an attempt was

made to determine the maturity index to banana ( Embul variety), determine the banana

flour properties and preparation of banana flour based baby food products.

The pH value, Total Soluble Solid and Penetration are suitable maturity indices for banana.

Weight, Length and Diameter vary from plant to plant. Full three-quarter stage is the

correct maturity stage for harvesting before onset of ripening.

Oven dried banana gave fine flour with little banana flavour. Recovery percentage of

banana flour is 1 8.06% from the fresh banana or 27.69% from the pulp weight. Banana

flour can be stored in polythene pouches for 10 months without changing the quality.

Quality of the banana flour was assessed by several methods. Inhibitors such as Sodium

Metabisulphite (SMS), Citric acid and Ascorbic acid were used to prevent the browning

reactions during processing of flour. SMS is the most suitable inhibitor than others.

Microbial examination was done to determine colony forming units in banana flour and

xii
cookies as well. Number of colony forming units (cfu) in banana flour is about 17 X 104

and cfu in cookies is about 9 X 102.

Starch was isolated from raw banana and examined under the microscope. Starch granules

are elongated angular shape (carrot root shape) and white in colour. Starch recovery

percentage of Embul banana is 1 .88% from wet basis or 6.78% from dry basis.

Gelatinization properties of banana flour also examined. Gelatinization temperature is 78-

90 °C and gave a sharp high peak. Viscosity of banana flour is 1470 Brabender units. Flour

was gelatinized well and gave thick paste.

Proximate analysis carried out to determine the chemical (nutritional) composition of

banana flour; moisture 4.8 ± 0.04 %, fat 1.015 ± 0.04 %, protein 1.542 ± 0.06 %, fiber

6.1±0.03 %, Ash 2.16 + 0.08 %. Banana flour has high fiber and ash content and low fat

and protein content. Carbohydrate content was determined by calculation is 84.38%.

Banana flour used for prepares two types of baby cereals and two types of cookies. Twenty

five to twenty percent (25-20 %) banana flour was added to prepare banana rice baby

cereal. Home made baby cereal and extruded baby cereal were made according to the

modified recipes. Sensory evaluation was carried out with 25 untrained panelists to select

the best combination of banana flour for cookies showed that the cookies with fifteen

percent (15%) Banana flour was satisfactory for prepare banana rice cereal cookies

(Teething biscuit).
CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Banana is the most popular fruit in Sri Lanka and only fruit to suit in any occasion. In Sri

Lanka, banana is one of the least expensive fruits in the market today and it is equally

popular amongst the rich and the poor and the young and the old.

According to the senses, annual cultivated extent of banana in Sri Lanka is 5 1950 I-Ia and

the annual production of banana is 425150 Mt. (1999). Annual cultivated extent of plantain

is 12970 Ha and the annual production of plantain is 75224 Mt. (1999)

Most of the world's bananas are eaten either raw in the ripe state, or as a cooked vegetable.

Only a very small proportion is processed in order to obtain a storable product. In general,

preserved products do not contribute significantly to the diet. However in some localized

areas, the products are important in periods when food is scarce. Probably, the most

widespread product is flour prepared from sun dried unripe banana and plantain.

Commercially prepared banana flour is produced from freeze dried pureed banana or from

dried unripe green banana. (Banana flour: Ingredients, substitutions and equivalents)

Cholesterol and fat content is minimal in banana. Cooked or ripe bananas are very well

digested and the nutrients are absorbed well. The fruit is a fair source of B vitamins and

calcium. Banana is a good source of potassium. It contains appreciable amounts of many

trace minerals as well as fiber. Apart from this, the fruit has many important acids, enzymes
and physiologically important chemical compounds ( Bawarchi: Health and Nutrition).

Ripe bananas are so easy to digest and rarely cause allergic reactions. Babies can digest

them easily. Because of all this they are a popular solid food for babies. Porridge made of

banana flour is a commonly used infant food. Consumers become more sophisticated with

the bananas they demand. There for prepared food products specially baby food products

becoming popular.

1.1 Importance and potential uses of Banana flour:

Viscosity and gelatinization properties can be used in food industry.

High levels of polysaccharides could make it suitable to form edible films and coatings

with good barrier and mechanical properties. Banana flour films present good sealability,

which can make these films suitable as pouches for dry foods reducing the need for plastic

material (Sothornvit, R. 2005).

The flour is very fine and is very useful for its moisture absorbing and holding properties

(Banana flour: Ingredients, substitutions and equivalents). It is a good Gluten-free product

that can be used to make pancakes, bread and cakes moist, lighter with a more airy texture.

This flour can be used in one forth parts with regular flour in making desserts where starchy

substance is used.

2
Unripe Banana has a high content of starch and could be used as a source in food industry.

The viability of the use of exceeding fruits would reduce post-harvest losses that reach a

percentage of about 30-40% of the production in Sri Lanka.

Chemical composition, physical and biochemical characteristics of banana flour of different

cultivars had been investigated. However such studies on product development from

banana flour in Sri Lanka are lacking for local cultivars.

1.2 Objectives of the Research Project:

To identify maturity index for Embul banana.

To improve the Quality of Embul banana flour by using browning inhibitors.

Keeping quality has been tested through microbial examination and determines

moisture after storage. Proximate analysis has been done for determine

moisture, fat, protein, fiber and ash content in banana flour.

. To determine the gelatinization properties of banana flour. Amylograph has

been done for determine the gelatinization properties of starch in banana flour

and microscopic observations of banana starch has been done.

To develop baby food products based on Embul banana flour. Baby cereal and

baby teething biscuit has been tested by combine with rice flour.

3
CHAPTER 2

Literature Review

2.1 Important characteristics of Banana

2.1.1 Scientific classification of Banana:

Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Liliopsida
Order : Zingiberales
Family : Musaceae
Genus : Musa
Common names: Banana, Bananier Nain, Canbur, Curro, Plantatin, Kesel

Origin: Edible bananas originated in the Indo-Malaysian region (Banana: wikipedia)

Banana is the common name used for herbaceous, cultigenic plants in the genus Musa,

which, because of their size and structure, are often mistaken for trees. Bananas are of the

family Musaceae. Bananas are cultivated for their fruits which bear the same name, and to a

lesser extent for the production of fiber and as ornamental plants. Globally, bananas rank

fourth after rice, wheat and maize in human consumption; they are grown in 130 countries

worldwide, more than any other fruit crop. Bananas are native to tropical Southeastern Asia

but are widely cultivated in tropical regions. In popular culture and commerce, 'banana"

usually refers to the soft and sweet, "dessert" bananas that are usually eaten raw. The

bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit, generally used in cooking

rather than eaten raw, are typically known as plantains. Bananas may also be dried and

ground into banana flour. ( Banana: wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

4
2.1.2 Morphology

The main or upright growth is called a Pseudostem, which when mature, will obtain a

height of 2-8m (varies between different cultivars), with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length.

Each pseudostem produces a single bunch of bananas, before drying and being replaced by

a new pseudostem. The base of the plant is a rhizome (Known as a corm). Corms are

perennial, with a productive lifespan of 15 years or more.

The term banana is applied to both the plant and its elongated fruit (technically a false

berry) which grow in hanging clusters, with up to 20 fruit to a tier (called a Hand), and 5-20

tiers to a branch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch, or commercially as

a "banana stem", and can weight from 30-50m kg. The fruit averages 125 g, of which

approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter content. Bananas are a valuable source of

Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, and Potassium.

The flesh, ivory-white to yellow or salmon-yellow, may be firm, astringent, even gummy

with latex when unripe, turning tender and slippery, or soft and mellow or rather dry and

mealy or starchy when ripe. The flavor may be mild and sweet or sub-acid with a distinct

apply tone.

Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hard seeds, virtually all culinary

bananas have seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas ( meaning

they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export

bananas are of the dessert types; however, only about 10-15% of all production is for

export, with the US and EU being the dominant buyers.

The fruit can be harvested by cutting the stalk when the bananas are plumb but green. For

tree-ripened fruit, cut one hand at a time as it ripens. It latter is done, check stalk daily as
rodents can eat the insides of every banana, from above, and the stalk will look untouched.

Since ethylene helps initiate and stimulate ripening, and mature fruit gives off this gas in

small amounts, ripening can be hastened by covering the bunch with a plastic bag. Plantains

are starchy types that are cooked before eating.

(Banana- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana)

2.1.3 Ripening of bananas

The anatomy and development of the banana are discussed by von Loescecke (1949),

Simmonds (1959), and Palmer (1971). The edible banana is parthenocarpic and is

propagated from a rhizome. The fruit consists of an inedible skin which encircles the edible

pulp. The skin is approximately one-fifth the diameter of the pulp. The pulp-to-skin ratio

increases throughout development. The skin has a sharply ridged outer margin and its

boundary with the pulp is clearly marked by the color contrast with the white, starchy pulp

tissue.

The peel consists of an epidermis interrupted by stomata, parenchyma cells, and

fibrovascular bundles parallel to the long axis. The parenchyma cells of the peel become

more and more rounded nearer the center of the fruit and there are more intercellular

spaces. A thin layer of protoplasm in which plastids are embedded lines the inner walls of

these cells. In outer layers of tissue the plastids have pigments, but in deeper layers the

plastids serve as centers for accumulation of starch. A vacuole is found in the center of each

cell which accumulates sugars as the starch is hydrolyzed to sugars during ripening. The

pulp develops from the outer edges of the locules. The sterile ovules degenerate to brown
flecks embedded in the edible pulp. The three arms of the inner locular walls extend

racially from the center. Vascular strands are scattered abundantly in the skin and grouped

in three pairs in the center of the pulp.

Structure of the pulp other than gross observations are not available (Palmer, 1971). The

parenchyma cells of green fruit are long and box-like in shape with thin walls. The cells

contain a nucleus and cytoplasm. Cells of preclimacteric fruit, i.e., fruit which has not

reached its peak in respiration, are closely packed with little or no intercellular spaces and

are obscured by the numerous large starch grains present. During ripening, the cells become

progressively depleted of starch and more details of the individual cells are revealed.

(Banana- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana.)

2.1.4 Discoloration of bananas

Discoloration in bananas which involves the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of phenolic

compounds is of practical concern. This type of browning may occur in plants during the

normal life cycle. Browning may also take place rapidly following mechanical injury as in

the preparation of certain fruits for serving.

Early workers concerned with this type of discoloration attributed browning to a

heterogeneous group of phenolic compounds known collectively as tannins. Griffiths

(1959)
identified 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) as the specific phenolic

substrate for enzymatic browning in bananas. Palmer (1963) purified banana polyphenol

oxidase and reported that dopamine was the major substrate.

7
Phenolic content of fruits usually reaches a maximum during growth and declines during

ripening. Increases in catechol derivatives have been associated with early maturation and

with lignification of the pit and sclereids of the endocarp in peaches (Reeve, 1959; Craft,

1961). Upon ripening, the amount of catechol derivatives decreased in this fruit. Reeve

suggested that they may be metabolized to form various sugars and acids or converted to

other forms such as flavonoids and aromatics.

(http :1 food.orgonstste.edu/ref/plant/weaver/index.htm1)

2.1.5 Inhibitors of browning

Evidence thus indicates that the browning of fruits by polyphenol oxidase may be delayed

or stopped by various inhibitors to the reactants, to the enzyme, or to product formation.

These inhibitors may occur naturally in fruits or they may be applied. Two practical means

of preventing discoloration in fruits are blanching to inactivate the polyphenol oxidases and

removal of oxygen by preservation methods, such as vacuum packing or packing in a syrup.

Enzymatic browning can also be retarded by chilling or by lowering the pH with acid.

Compounds containing sulfur act as inhibitors to discoloration, although their mechanism

of action is not fully understood. Sulfur dioxide may act by reducing the available oxygen,

it may react with quinones or other intermediates of oxidation, or it may inhibit the enzyme

because of its reducing capacity (Ponting, 1960). Sulfite (Embs and Markakis, 1965) and

thiol compounds (Walker, 1964) are thought to act by combining with the ortho-quinones,

thus stopping their condensation to melanins. Other chemicals act through competitive

inhibition of polyphenols for polyphenol oxidase or through non-competitive inhibition by

complexing the enzyme or by replacing the prosthetic group of the enzyme.

8
Biochemical modification of substrate is being explored as means to prevent discoloration

of fruits. For example, catechase is being used to oxidize and split the benzene ring of

phenolic substrates (Corse, 1964). Corse also reported some success with 0-

methyltransferase used to methylate chlorogenic acid and other catechols to their

corresponding 3-methyl esters.

Ascorbic acid is an inexpensive, harmless chemical used by processors of frozen fruit and

by homemakers to prevent browning. Although Walker (1962) found no inverse

relationship between the concentration of naturally-occurring ascorbic acid and browning

of apples, Ponting and Joslyn (1948) found that no darkening occurred in this fruit until all

of the ascorbic acid was oxidized. Ponting and Joslyn attributed both the oxidation of

ascorbic acid and darkening to action of polyphenol oxidase.

Extra oxygen uptake and delay in browning were proportional to the amount of ascorbic

acid added. The quinones, rapidly reduced by ascorbic acid, accumulated and condensed to

brown products only after all the ascorbic acid had been oxidized. Krueger (1950) reported

that addition of ascorbic acid increased oxygen uptake and acted as a reducing agent in the

enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and DOPA in the general reaction as given by Corse

(1964). In plant tissue, ascorbic acid is associated with cell walls.


HO- OC
yO Cli
H-C-- H-C
110-6 -H HO - C - H 4
CH2OH CJ 1Z OU

Acortc acA Qtnote hoasyb' Pheoltc


acid s ubrat

Figure 1- Reaction of ascorbic acid with quinone

(Jenson and Kavaljuan, 1956). (http :1 food.orgonstste.edu/ref/plant/weaver/index.html)

2.1.6 Ascorbic Acid as antioxidant/ browning inhibitor for banana

Ascorbic acid is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of the oxidation of dopamine. Harris and

Poland (1939) found that ascorbic acid increased from an average of 5.3 mgIlOO g pulp in

green bananas to 11.0 mg/100 g pulp during ripening, but decreased to an average of 3.2

mg/100 g pulp as the fruit became overripe. The range of values of ascorbic acid was 1.0 to

14.3 mg/100 g pulp. The average value was 10 mg/100 g pulp.

Palmer (1964) studied the effects of various levels of ascorbic acid on delay of the

enzymatic oxidation of dopamine and on the activity of banana polyphenol oxidase. He

found a delay of 0.2 minute and 14 percent inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity with

1.4 x 10-5 M ascorbic acid. The delay increased to 12.7 minutes, and inhibition of

polyphenol oxidase activity increased to 78 percent with 1.7 x 10-4 M ascorbic acid.

(Banana, Food Resource, food.oregonstate.edu/)

Citric acid and Sodium metabisulphite (SMS) mostly used as inhibitors in industrial

applications.

E11
2.2 Physical Properties of banana

Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors; most cultivars are yellow when ripe but

some are red or purple-ish. The ripe fruit is easily peeled and eaten raw or cooked.

Depending upon cultivar and ripeness, the flesh can be starchy to sweet, and firm to mushy.

Most production for local sale bananas are easily damaged while being transported to

market, ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss.

The commercial dessert cultivars most commonly eaten in temperate countries (species

Musa acuminata or the hybrid Musa x paradisiaca, a cultigen) are imported in large

quantities from the tropics. They are popular in part because being a non-seasonal crop they

are available fresh year-round. The most important properties making Cavendish' the main

export banana are related to transport and shelf life rather than taste; major commercial

cultivars rarely have a superior flavour compared to the less widespread cultivars.

Export bananas are picked green, and then usually ripened in ripening rooms when they

arrive in their country of destination. These are special rooms made air-tight and filled with

ethylene gas to induce ripening. While these bananas will ripen more slowly, the flavour

will be notably richer, and the banana peel can be allowed to reach a yellow brown

speckled phase, and yet retain a firm flesh inside. Thus, shelf life is somewhat extended.

The flavour and texture of bananas are affected by the temperature at which they ripen.

Bananas are refrigerated to between 13.5 and 15 °C (57 and 59°F) during transportation.

At lower temperatures, the ripening of bananas permanently stalls, and the bananas will

turn grey. (www.unctad.org/infoconim/anglais/banaiia/uses.htm


2.3 Nutritional Properties of Bananas

Table 1- Nutritional facts of raw banana - per 100 g

Energy 90 kcal 370 kJ

Carbohydrates 22.84 g
-Sugars 12.23g
- Dietary fiber 2.6 g
Fat 0.33 g
Protein 1.09g
Thiamin (Vit. Bi) 0.031 mg 2%
Riboflavin (Vit. 132) 0.073 mg 5%
Niacin (Vit. 133) 0.665 mg 4%
Pantothenic acid (135) 0.334 mg 7%
Vitamin 136 0.367 mg 28%
Folate (Vit. 139) 20 jig 5%
Vitamin C 8.7 mg 15%
Calcium 5mg 1%
Iron 0.26 mg 2%
Magnesium 27 mg 7%
Phosphorus 22 mg 3%
Potassium 358 mg 8%
Zinc 0.15mg 1%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source. USDA Nutrient database

(USDA Nutrient database)

tpJ
Table 2- Nutrition facts of banana powder/flour -per lOOg

Energy 1448 kJ
Carbohydrates 88.28 g (29.4%)

-Sugars 47.3 g

-Dietary fiber 9.9 g

Fat 1.81 g(5.175%)

Protein 3.89g

Thiamin (Vit. B!) 0.18 mg

Riboflavin (Vit. 132) 0.24 mg

Niacin (Vit. 133) 2.8 mg

Vitamin B6 0.44 mg

Folate (Vit. 139) 14 mcg

Vitamin C 7 mg

Calcium 22 mg

Iron 1.15mg

Magnesium 108 mg

Phosphorus 74 mg

Potassium 1491 mg

Zinc 0.61 mg

Ash 3.02g

Water 3g

(www.jdhodges.com/Nutritional Information and values/ Fruits and fruit juices/Bananas,


dehydrated, or banana)

13
2.3.1 Health & Nutrition

Ancient Chinese and Vedic writing ascribe marvelous healing properties to the vegetable as

well as the fruit. Its energy content makes it very advantageous and filling staple through

poorer in proteins as compared to cereals and pulses.

There are many varieties of bananas, each with a distinctive flavour, colour and sizes.

Colour ranges from different shades of green, light to deep yellow, reds the carotene

content is 78 mcgs/ lOOgms. Ripe bananas contain carbohydrates in the form of sucrose,

fructose and glucose, which are readily digested. An average banana weighs about I 5Ogms.

It supplies more calories than any other fresh fruit is about 116 kCal.

Cooking bananas are very similar to potatoes in how they are used. Both can be fried,

boiled, baked or chipped and have similar taste and texture when served. One green

cooking banana has about the same calorie content as one potato.

Bananas are considered to be good for the treatment of gastric ulcer and diarrhea. Because

they contain vitamin A, bananas and plantains act as an aid to digestion. Due to their high

content of B6 vitamin, they help to reduce stress and anxiety. They are also considered

beneficial for cancer prevention and heart diseases. The high content of carbohydrates

makes of them a very good source of energy, for example, for people practicing sports.

Potassium helps to better brain functioning.

Cholesterol and fat content is minimal in banana. Cooked or ripe bananas are very well

digested and the nutrients are absorbed well. The fruit is a fair source of B vitamins and

ICA
calcium. It contains appreciable amounts of many trace minerals as well as fibre. Apart

from this, the fruit has many important acids, enzymes and physiologically important

chemical compounds.

Banana is a good source of potassium, which is a vital mineral for muscle and nerve

function. Potassium also helps to regulate blood pressure. They also contain a high level of

natural sugar in both their fresh and dried form, which they release quickly into the blood

stream. This explains why many athletes especially tennis players often eat banana before

and in between competition.

Ripe bananas are so easy to digest and rarely cause allergic reactions. Babies can digest

them as early as the third month. Because of all this they are a popular solid food for

babies. Mashed banana with milk and sugar can be an excellent supplementary or weaning

food for children. Gruel made of banana flour is a commonly used infant food. They are

also good for treating child hood stomach upsets. BRAT diet comprising of banana, rice,

apple, and toast are used for children with diarrhoea. Bananas contain no gluten hence their

value in coeliac disease of children and adults. They are also a useful food for

convalescence after any severe illness.

Ripe bananas have a mild laxative property and hence are very useful in children's dietaries

particularly as a remedy for constipation. At the same time the fruit is helpful to combat

diarrhoea and dysentery heals intestinal lesions etc. They are also used in the diets of

children being treated for severe malnutrition. Experiments have shown that intake of

banana helps children to retain many minerals. Bananas are common ingredient in many
salad dishes, ice creams and milkshakes. Ripe bananas are used to make several

confectioneries malted milk drinks and even alcoholic beverages. But the best way to eat it

is straight after peeling. When ripe, the fruit cannot be preserved for many days as it spoils

easily. Sudden cooling also spoils the fruit and gives off flavour.

Diet is of utmost importance in the treatment of ulcer. The diet should be so arranged to

provide adequate nutrition to afford rest to disturbed organs to maintain continuous

neutralisation of the gastric acid, to inhibit the production of acid and to reduce mechanical

and chemical irritation. The plantain or banana has an alkaline ash, therefore it has the

ability to correct acidosis caused by acid forming diets. There fore they may be used in the

treatment of peptic ulcer. Many sufferers of stomach ulcer report that it is a soothing food

because of its blandness. The medicinal impact of banana and plantain on stomach ulcers

claims that bananas stimulate cell and mucus production in the stomach lining by thickning

the stomach.

The fruits of some varieties of bananas, besides having medicinal properties possess power

to increase resistance to diseases. Bananas are rich in phosphorous, hence its combination

with milk helps to calm down the nerves. For young children bananas mixed with tulsi or

basil leaves activates the brain. The fruit can be prescribed for gout, a type of arthritis,

constipation, diarrhoea, indigestion, eczema, hypertension, and even insomnia.

The change in consumer eating habits has given place to new preferences as consumers in

developed countries have become more sophisticated and more exigent with the bananas

they demand, as it has happened with produce and food consumption in general. At present

[f1
consumers are interested in many additional issues. Consumers are becoming increasingly

aware of the health and nutritive benefits of eating more fresh fruit. They are also more

interested in dietary issues, consuming more low fat and sugar food, what favors

consumption of fruits. (Health and Nutrition: Ideal snack Banana, www.bawarchi.com )

2.4 Banana Trade

Table 3-Annual Banana production of world

Bananas and plantains constitute a major


Top Banana Producing Nations - 2005
staple food crop for millions of people in
(in million metric tons per year)
developing countries. In most tropical
India 16.8
countries green (unripe) bananas used for
Brazil 6.7

China cooking represent the main cultivars.


6.4

Ecuador 5.9
In 2003, India led the world in banana
Philippines 5.8
production, representing approximately
Indonesia 4.5
23% of the worldwide crop, most of
Costa Rica 2.2
which was for domestic consumption.
Mexico 2.0
The four leading banana exporting
Thailand 2.0
countries were Ecuador, Costa Rica,
Colombia 1.6
Philippines, and Colombia, which
Burundi 1.6
accounted for about two-thirds of the
World Total 72.5
world's exports, each exporting more than
Source. UN Food & Agriculture Organisation

17
I million tons. Ecuador alone provided more than 30% of global banana exports, according

to FAO statistics.

The vast majority of producers are small-scale farmers growing the crop either for home

consumption or for local markets. Because bananas and plantains will produce fruit year-

round, they provide an extremely valuable source of food during the hunger season (that

period of time when all the food from the previous harvest has been consumed, and the next

harvest is still some time away). It is for these reasons that bananas and plantains are of

major importance to food security.

Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. Most banana farmers

receive a low unit price for their produce as supermarkets buy enormous quantities and

receive a discount for that business. The banana has an extensive trade history beginning

with the founding of the United Fruit Company at the end of the nineteenth century. For

much of the 20th century, bananas and coffee dominated the export economies of Central

America. The term "banana republic" has been broadly applied to most countries in Central

America, but from a strict economic perspective only Costa Rica, Honduras, and Panama

were actual "banana republics", countries with economies dominated by the banana trade.

The countries of the European Union have traditionally imported many of their bananas

from the former European island colonies of the Caribbean, paying guaranteed prices above

global market rates.

(http:/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana)

18
2.5 Traditional uses of bananas

In addition to the fruit, the flower of the banana plant (also known as banana blossom or

banana heart) is used in Southeast Asian, Bengali and Kerala (India) cuisine, either served

raw with dips or cooked in soups and curries. The tender core of the banana plantts trunk is

also used, notably in the Burmese dish mohinga, Bengali and Kerala cooking. Bananas

fried with batter is a popular dessert in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Banana fritters

can be served with ice-cream as well. Bananas are also eaten deep fried, baked in their skin

in a split bamboo, or steamed in glutinous rice wrapped in a banana leaf. In Myanmar

where bunches of green bananas surrounding a green coconut in a tray is an important part

of traditional offerings to the Buddha and the Nat (spirit)s. The juice extract prepared from

the tender core is used to treat kidney stones.

The leaves of the banana are large, flexible, and waterproof, they are used in many ways,

including as umbrellas and to wrap food for cooking. Chinese "zongzi" (bamboo leaves are

more commonly used where available) and Central American tamales" are sometimes

steamed in banana leaves, and the Hawaiian "imu" is often lined with them. Puerto Rican

"pasteles" are boiled wrapped and tied inside the leaf.

Banana chips are a snack produced from dehydrated or fried banana or, preferably, plantain

slices, which have a dark brown colour and an intense banana taste. Bananas have also been

used in the making of jam. Unlike other fruits, it is difficult to extract juice from bananas

because when compressed a banana simply turns to pulp.


Seeded bananas (Musa balbisiana), considered to be one of the forerunners of the common

domesticated banana, are sold in markets in Indonesia.

It is reported that in Orissa, India, juice is extracted from the corm and used as a home

remedy for the treatment of jaundice. In other places honey is mixed with mashed banana

fruit and used for the same purpose.

(Banana- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana)

The banana plant is the most cultivated plant in the tropical countries. It is used as dessert,

as vegetable and the fruit pulp is dried and processed into flour or preserved for subsequent

use. It is a source of calcium and iron and many other minerals. Banana is used in

confectionery items and as infant food. It's powder is used in the preparation of beverages

of the malted milk type. Dehydrated ripe banana, know as figs are manufactured in the

small and cottage industries sector and sold as snack food in many places. Powders are used

for the manufacturing of ice cream, infant food, bakery products etc.

Being highly perishable in nature, there is a need to produce products such as figs, flour,

powder, banana pulp, food and infants, clarified banana juice etc. The technology of

manufacturing these products on a commercial basis has been developed by the Central

Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore.

(Banana, www.philonline.comph)

20
2.6 Banana and plantain processing technologies

2.6.1 Traditional processing

The main ways of preparing fresh bananas for consumption are boiling or steaming,

roasting or baking and frying. Boiling followed by pounding into fufut' is also widely

adopted in certain areas of the tropics.

Boiling or steaming

Plantains and bananas are often prepared simply by boiling in water, either in their peel or

after peeling, and either ripe or unripe; if unripe, the fruit is scraped thoroughly after

peeling to remove all traces of fibrous material. The boiled fruit is eaten alone or more

usually accompanied by a sauce. This preparation technique is widely used in West Africa.

Roasting or baking.

Unpeeled or peeled fruit, either ripe or unripe, is roasted simply by placing in the ashes of a

fire or in an oven. This method is widely used in West Africa, East Africa and the South

Pacific islands. For example, ripe plantains are placed unpeeled in an oven and when partly

brown and tender, removed and peeled, then replaced in the oven and roasted evenly.

Frying.

Ripe or unripe plantains or bananas are often peeled, sliced and cooked in oil, particularly

in West Africa and in parts of South America and the West Indies. Similar products are also

21
made in East Africa. Typically, ripe plantains are peeled, cut into slices or split lengthways,

and fried in palm oil or with groundnut oil, the pieces being served either hot with a sauce

or with fried eggs, or cold as a snack

Pounding.

Pounding is a process, used particularly in West Africa, for preparing most perishable

staple food crops including plantains, cassava, yams and cocoyams to obtain a paste or

dough known as "fufu" (also spelled "foofoo", "foutou", "foufou"). The plantains are peeled

or boiled and peeled after boiling and pounded in a wooden mortar, the resulting paste

normally being eaten with soup or a spiced sauce of meat and vegetables, but sometimes

after wrapping in leaves and steaming.

(Fruit and vegetable processing-Fruit specific preservation technologies,

www.fao.org//docrep/)

2.6.1.1 Products and Uses

Most of the world's bananas are eaten either raw, in the ripe state, or as a cooked vegetable,

and only a very small proportion are processed in order to obtain a storable product. This is

true both at a traditional village level with both dessert and cooking bananas and when

considering the international trade in dessert bananas.

In general, preserved products do not contribute significantly to the diet; however, in some

localised areas the products are important in periods when foods are scarce.

22
Probably the most widespread and important product is flour preparation from unripe

banana and plantains by sun-drying. In Uganda, dried slices known as "mutere" are

prepared for storage from green bananas, the dried slices being either used directly for

cooking or after grinding into a flour. "Mutere" is used chiefly as a famine reserve and does

not feature largely in the diet under normal conditions.

In Gabon, plantains are sometimes made into dried slices which can be stored and used on

long journeys, and plantains are used in Cameroon to prepare dried pieces which are stored

and ground as needed into flour for use in cooking a paste known as "fufu". Dried green

banana slices are also used in parts of South and Central America and West Indies for

preparing flour.

The other nutritionally important product is beer which is a major product in Uganda,

Rwanda and Burundi where green banana utilisation is particularly high

2.6.1.2 Preservation methods and processes

Drying. - Both ripe and unripe bananas and plantains are normally peeled and sliced before

drying, although banana figs are sometimes prepared from whole ripe fruit. Sun drying is

the most widespread technique where the climate is suitable but drying in ovens or over

fires is also practiced. In west Africa, plantains are often soaked and sometimes parboiled

before drying. The slices of unripe fruit are normally spread out on bamboo frameworks; or

a cemented area; or on a mat; or on a swept-bare patch of earth; or on a roof, or sometimes

on stones outcrops or sheets of corrugated iron.

23
Oven-drying of ripe bananas is practiced in Polynesia as a mean of preserving the fruits,

which are then wrapped in leaves and bound tightly to store until needed. In East Africa a

method has been reported that involves drying the peeled bananas on a frame placed over a

fire for 24 hr before drying in the sun, to accelerate the process.

2.6.1.3 Potential for scaling up of traditional processes to industrial level

Many banana products are now produced on an industrial scale, including the traditional

banana figs and flour, and the processing techniques are described below. One of the main

problems encountered has been the susceptibility of banana products to flavour

deterioration and discoloration and in the past many products reaching the market have

been of poor quality.

A great deal of research has been directed to overcoming these problems, although however

good the resultant products are they cannot compare in flavour and other characteristics

with the fresh banana fruit. Indeed, an important constraint on the large-scale development

of banana processing is the lack of demand for banana products since the fresh fruit is

available throughout the year in most parts of the tropical world.

The production of beer from banana and plantains has not been scaled up to an industrial

level, and while an important product in localized areas of tropical Africa, the market is

rapidly declining in favour of European-type brews produced locally.

(www.fao.org/docrep)

24
2.6.2 Industrial processing

2.6.2.1 Products and uses

The main commercial products made from bananas are canned or frozen purée, dried figs,

banana powder, flour, flakes, chips (crisps), canned slices and jams. Banana products can

be divided roughly into two types - those for direct consumption, such as figs, and those for

use in food manufacturing industry, for example purées and powder.

Banana figs, or fingers as they are sometimes known, are usually whole, peeled fruit

carefully dried so as to retain their shape, although sometimes the fruit is sliced or halved to

facilitate drying. Banana and plantain chips (crisps) are thinly sliced pieces of fruit fried in

oil and eaten as a snack like potato chips (crisps). The main use of canned slices is in

tropical fruit salads.

Banana flakes are used as a flavoring or in breakfast cereals. Banana purée find use mainly

in the production of baby foods. Banana flour is said to be highly digestible and is used in

baby and invalid foods, but can also be used in the preparation of bread and beverages.

Banana powder is used chiefly in the baking industry for the preparation and fillings for

cakes and biscuits and is also used for invalid and baby foods.

2.6.2.2 Processing technology

In general, to obtain a good-quality product from ripe-bananas the fruit is harvested green

and ripened artificially under controlled conditions at the processing factory. After

25
ripening, the banana hands are washed to remove dirt and any spray residues, and peeled.

Peeling is almost always done by hand using stainless steel knives, although a mechanical

peeler for ripe bananas has been developed, capable of peeling 450 Kg of fruit per hour

(Banana Bulletin, 1974).

Banana figs - Fully ripe fruits with a sugar content of about 19.5% are used and are treated

with sulphurous acid after peeling, then dried as soon as possible afterwards. Various

drying systems have been described using temperatures between 50 and 82° C for 10 to 24

hr to give a moisture content ranging from 8 to 1 8% and a yield of dried figs of 12 to 17%

of the fresh banana on the stem.

Banana purée - Banana purée is obtained by pulping peeled, ripe bananas and then

preserving the pulp by one of three methods: canning aseptically, acidification followed by

normal canning, or quick-freezing. The bulk of the purée is processed by the aseptic

canning technique. Peeled, ripe fruits are conveyed to a pump which forces them through a

plate with 1/4-in, holes, then onto a homogenizer, followed by a centrifugal de-aerator, and

into a receiving tank with 29in. vacuum, where the removal of air helps prevent

discoloration by oxidation.

The purée is then passed through a series of scraped surface heat exchangers where it is

sterilized by steam, partially cooled, and finally brought to filling temperature. The

sterilized purée is then packed aseptically into steam-sterilized cans which are closed in a

steam atmosphere.

26
Banana slices - Several methods for canning of banana slices in syrup are used. Best-

quality slices are obtained from fruit at an early stage of ripeness. The slices are processed

in a syrup of 25 deg. Brix with p1-I about 4.2, and in some processes calcium chloride

(0.2%) or calcium lactate (0.5%) are added as firming agents.

A method for producing an intermediate-moisture banana product for sale in flexible

laminate pouches has been developed. Banana slices are blanched and equilibrated in a

solution containing glycerol (42.5%), sucrose (14.85%), potassium sorbate (0.45%), and

potassium metabisulphite (0.2%) at 90 deg. C for 3 mm. to give a moisture content of

30.2%.

Banana powder - In the manufacture of banana powder, fully ripe banana pulp is

converted into a paste by passing through a chopper followed by a colloid mill. A I or 2 %

sodium metabisulphite solution is added to improve the colour of the final product. Spray-

or drum-drying may be used, the latter being favored as all the solids are recovered. Dried

product is pulverized and passed through a 100 mesh sieve.

A typical spray dryer can produce 70 kg powder per hour to give yields of 8 to 11% of the

fresh fruit, while drum-drying gives a final yield of about 13% of the fresh fruit. In the

latter method the moisture content is reduced to 8 to 12 % and then further decreased to 2

% by drying in a tunnel or cabinet dryer at 60° C.

It is a free flowing powder which is stable minimum for one year after packaging. It can be

used in bakery and confectionery industries, in treatment of coaliac disease, and in

intestinal disorders. It is also a very useful diet for infant. Its demand can be increased by

27
proper marketing. There is a good scope for new corner who wants to cater to the needs of

different sections of society.

Banana flour - Production of flour has been carried out by peeling and slicing green fruit,

exposure to sulphur dioxide gas, then drying in a counter-current tunnel dryer for 7 to 8 hr.

with an inlet temperature of 75° C and outlet temperature of 450 C, to a moisture content of

8%, and finally milling.

Banana chips (crisps) - Typically, unripe peeled bananas are thinly sliced, immersed in a

sodium or potassium metabisulphite solution, fried in hydrogenated oil at 180 to 200° C,

and dusted with salt and an antioxidant. Alternatively, slices may be dried before frying and

the antioxidant and salt added with the oil. Similar processes for producing plantain chips

have been developed.

Banana beverages - In a typical process, peeled ripe fruit is cut into pieces, blanched for 2

mm. in steam, pulped and pectolytic enzyme added at a concentration of 2 g enzyme per I

kg pulp, then held at 60 to 65° C and 2.7 to 5.5 pH for 30 mm.

In a simpler method, lime is used to eliminate the pectin. Calcium oxide (0.5%) is added to

the pulp and after standing for 15 mm. this is neutralised giving a yield of up to 88% of a

clear, attractive juice. In another process banana pulp is acidified, and steam-blanched in a

28-in Hg vacuum which ensures disintegration and enzyme inactivation. The pulp is then

conveyed to a screw press, the resulting purée diluted in the ratio 1:3 with water, and the

pH adjusted by further addition of citric acid to 4.2 to 4.3, which yields an attractive drink

when this is centrifuged and sweetened.

28
Jam - A small amount of jam is made commercially by boiling equal quantities of fruit and

sugar together with water and lemon juice, lime juice or citric acid, until setting point is

reached.

2.6.2.3 Product stability and spoilage problems

All dried banana products are very hydroscopic and susceptible to flavour deterioration and

discoloration, but this can be overcome to some extent by storing in moisture-proof

containers and sulphiting the fruit before drying to inactivate the oxidases.

The dried products are also liable to attack by insects and moulds if not stored in dry

conditions, although disinfestation after drying by heating for 1 hr to 800 C or by

fumigation with methyl bromide ensures protection against attack. Banana powder is said

to be stored for up to a year commercially and flakes have been stored in vacuum-sealed

cans with no deterioration in moisture, colour or flavour for 12 months.

Banana chips tend to have a poor storage life and to become soft and rancid. However,

chips treated with an antioxidant have been stored satisfactorily at room temperature in

hermetically sealed containers up to 6 months with no development of rancidity.

2.6.2.4 Quality control methods

In general a good quality product is obtained if fruit is harvested at the correct stage of

maturity and, where appropriate, ripened under controlled conditions. For example, in the

case of banana figs, the fruit should be fully mature (sugar content of 19.5% or above) or

29
the final product is liable to be tough and lacking in flavour. However, if over-ripe fruit is

used, the figs tend to be sticky and dark in colour, so the fruit must be fully yellow but still

firm.

For banana flour, which is prepared from unripe bananas, the fruit is harvested at three-

quarters the full-ripe stage and is processed within 24 hr. prior to the onset of ripening. If

less mature fruit is used, the flour tastes slightly astringent and bitter due to the tannin

content. Bananas harvested between 85 and 95 days after the emergence of the

inflorescence, with a pulp-to-peel ratio of about 1.7, were considered to be most suitable for

the deep-fat frying.

Other criteria suggested for assessing maturity were beta-carotene and reducing sugar

content, both of which increase with increasing maturity and pH which decreases as the

fruit ripens, and these should be, respectively, about 2000 j.ig/100 g, less than 1.5% and 5.8

or above. Browning was found to occur if the sugar content was higher than 1 .5%. The

determination of crude fat in processed chips is also considered to be a necessary quality

control measure.

It is important to remove all impurities prior to processing of products and this is done by

washing to remove dirt and spray residues and control on the processing line so that

substandard fruit can be removed. (www.fao.org/docrep)

30
2.7 Starch and Starch properties

2.7.1 Sources for starch

Starch is the major carbohydrate reserve in plant tubers, fruits and seed endosperm where it

is found as granules, each typically containing several million amylopectin molecules

accompanied by a much larger number of smaller amylose molecules. By far the largest

source of starch is corn (maize) with other commonly used sources being wheat, potato,

tapioca and rice. Amylopectin (without amylose) can be isolated from waxy' maize starch

whereas amylose (without amylopectin) is best isolated after specifically hydrolyzing the

amylopectin with pullulanase. Genetic modification of starch crops has recently led to the

development of starches with improved and targeted functionality.

2.7.2 Structural Unit

Starch consists of two types of molecules, amylose (normally 20-30%) and amylopectin

(normally 70-80%). Both consist of polymers of ct-D-glucose units in the

4 C1 conformation. In amylose these are linked - (I o 4)-, with the ring oxygen atoms

all on the same side, whereas in amylopectin about one residue in every twenty or so is also

linked -(1 o 6)- forming branch-points.

2.7.3 Functional Properties

Starch is a versatile and cheap, and has many uses as thickener, water binder, emulsion

stabilizer and gelling agent. Starch is often used as an inherent natural ingredient but it is

also added for its functionality. It is naturally found tightly and radially packed into

dehydrated granules (about one water per glucose) with origin-specific shape and size

31
(maize, 2-30 m; wheat, 1-45 tim; potato, 5-100 tm). The size distribution determines its

swelling functionality with granules being generally either larger and lenticular (lens-like,

A-starch) or smaller and spherical (B-starch) with less swelling power. Granules contain

'blocklets' of amylopectin containing both crystalline (.30%) and amorphous areas. As

they absorb water, they swell, lose crystallinity and leach amylose. The higher the amylose

content, the lower is the swelling power and the smaller is the gel strength for the same

starch concentration. To a certain extent, however, a smaller swelling power due to high

amylose content can be counteracted by a larger granule size. Although the properties of

starch are naturally inconsistent, being dependent on the vagaries of agriculture, there are

several suppliers of consistently uniform starch as functional ingredients.

Of the two components of starch, amylose has the most useful functions as a hydrocolloid.

Its extended conformation causes the high viscosity of water-soluble starch and varies

relatively little with temperature. The extended loosely helical chains possess a relatively

hydrophobic inner surface that is not able to hold water well and more hydrophobic

molecules such as lipids and aroma compounds can easily replace this. Amylose forms

useful gels and films. Its association and crystalliztion (retrogradation) on cooling and

storage decreases storage stability causing shrinkage and the release of water (synerresis).

Increasing amylose concentration decreases gel stickiness but increase gel firmness.

Amylopectin interferes with the interaction between amylose (and retrogradation) and its

solution can lead to an initial loss in viscosity and followed by a more slimy consistency.

Mixing with K-carrageenan, alginate, xanthan gum and low molecular weight sugars can

also reduced retrogradation. At high concentrations, starch gels are both pseudoplastic and

32
thixotropic with greater storage stability. Their water binding ability (high but relatively

weak) can provide body and texture to foodstuffs and is encouraging its use as a fat

replacement.

A significant proportion of starch in the normal diet escapes degradation in the stomach and

small intestine and is labeled 'resistant starch', but this portion is difficult to measure and

depends on a number of factors including the form of starch and the method of cooking

prior to consumption. Nevertheless resistant starch serves as a primary source of substrate

for colonic microflora, and may have several important physiological roles resistant starch

has been categorized as physically inaccessible (RS1 ), (raw) ungelatinized starch (for

example, in banana ; RS) thermally stable retrograded starch (for example, as found in

bread, especially stale bread, mainly amylose ; RS3 ) and chemically modified starch (RS4).

Resistant starch should be considered a dietary fiber.

Simple value addition is represented by washing, air classification, centrifugation and pre-

gelatinization. The latter process can be done in many from boiling in crude pots to drum

dryers to modern multi-screw extruders, each method having its particular advantages and

disadvantages. Complex value addition is represented by the wide range of chemically

modified starches found in the food, paper and textile industries. Many functional

derivatives of starch are marketed including cross-linked, oxidized, acetylated, partially

hydrolyzed material, for example, partially hydrolyzed starch (dextrin) is used in sauces to

control viscosity.

(www. lsbu.ac .uklwater/hysta.htrn I)

33
2.7.4 Amylograph for starch

The baking properties of flour mainly depend on the gelatinization of the starch and on the

enzyme activity (a-amylase) in the flour. Amylograph is the standard method for measuring

the gelatinization properties and enzyme activity of flour.

The Amylograph enables;

assessment of the flour quality and of the suitability of the flour for various

applications

production control and checking of flour blends in the mill

measurement of the baking characteristics of flours (a-amylase content,

gelatinization maximum, temperature in the gelatinization maximum)

assessment of special flours, diastatic baking agents, self-raising flours, etc.

The measuring data of the Amylograph provide reliable information about the

gelatinization behavior of a flour during baking in practice. (www.brabender.com )

2.8 Food Extrusion

Extrusion cooking is a specialized area of food technology because of the complexity of the

interactive effect which is inherent in the system. Food extrusion has become a very

important processing operation. Today, the food extruder is used to produce pasta and other

cold formed products, ready-to eat cereals, snacks, pet food, confectionery products,

modified starches for soup, baby food and instant foods, beverage bases and texturized

vegetable proteins.

34
Extruders come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes and methods of operation. there are

hydraulic ram extruders, in which a piston forces dough through a die, roller types, in

which two rolls rotate towards each other to force dough through a die, and screw types

(both single and twin) in a which a rotating screw pumps dough through a die. Extruders

are used in food processing because they provide mechanical energy for cooking and

melting; by pumping they force dough through a shaped opening, and in some cases they

can be used for intense mixing for dispersion and homogenization of ingredients.

Screw extruders are usually classified by how much mechanical energy they can generate.

For example, a low-shear extruder is designed to minimize mechanical energy to prevent

cooking of the dough. A high -shear extruder is designed to impart a high level of

mechanical energy which is converted to heat to cook the dough. Low-shear screw

extruders are used to make pretzels, pasta and some types of snacks and breakfast cereals.

High -shear screw extruders are used to make pet foods, puffed snack foods and breakfast

cereals. (N.D. Frame, The technology of extrusion cooking, 2007)

P1-I%.4

- "

Figure 2- Typical twin-screw configuration showing feed mixing and conveying sections.

35
2.9 Manufacturing of Biscuits

In manufacture of bread, biscuits and other bakery products main constituent is flour,

mostly used wheat flour. In addition to that water, salts, sugar, corn starch, malt, fats, milk,

improvers, enriching agents etc. use for improve the quality of the dough and final product.

These ingredients affect on the properties of the bakery product as well as the nutritional

value of the product. According to that bread and biscuits contain all basic nutrients,

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins.

(www.geocities.com/napavalley/6454/bread)

Biscuits can be made from a variety of recipes. Although they are often a breakfast item,

biscuits and muffins can be an all-day sales item. Basically, flour, sugar, salt, milk,

shortening and leavenings are the ingredients used. To these may be added eggs, butter and

others for variety. These improve quality and nutrition. Allowances must be made for

reduction of the chemical leavening because of the natural leavening effect of eggs. Other

recipes, slightly richer in fat content, are mixed like a piecrust. The fat and flour are rubbed

together and the dissolved sugar and salt are added with the liquid and folded in very

gently. This makes a flaky type of biscuit.

Combination doughs are often used for biscuits. This dough is leavened by yeast and

baking powder. The temperature of the water or milk used controls the time for

conditioning and the yeast activity in the dough. The nutritional effect refers mainly to the

phytase activity of the yeast, which improves mineral update in the intestine.

(Samuel a. Matz, Ingredients for Bakers, 2nd edition, Pan-Tech international,int.)

36
There are basically two types of biscuit dough, hard and soft. The difference is determined

by the amount of water required to make dough which has satisfactory handling quality for

making dough pieces for baking.

Hard dough has high water and relatively low fat ( and sugar) content. The dough is tough

and extensible. The biscuits are either crackers or in a group known as semi-sweet or hard

sweet.Soft doughs contain much less water and relatively high levels of fat and sugar. the

dough is short (break when it is pulled out) which means that it exhibits very low extensible

characters. It may be so soft that it is pourable. The biscuits are of the soft eating types

which are often referred to as "cookies".

(Duncan Manley, Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manual 5,6,)

Biscuit manufacturing has the following processes;

Mixing: This is a process where all ingredients are put together in right proportion for

dough formation. These ingredients are then fed into Mixers where mixing is done and

dough is prepared for molding. Major ingredients are flour, fat, sugar and others as per the

product one would like to have. Dough temperature plays a very important role. Low and

high temperatures have an effect on dough consistency.

Moulding: In this section aminate the dough into sheets which then pass down to gauge

rollers and sheet thickness achieved for cutting. Here a cutter or a moulder as per the

variety where one gets the shape and sizes of biscuits.

37
Baking: This is the area where pass these moulded wet biscuit into a baking oven. The

biscuits are baked at desired temperatures. Various type of heating are available nowadays

as per the convenience and cost. Different types of ovens are available. Baking time vary as

per the product requirement.

Cooling: Baked biscuits are then passed on to cooling conveyors for natural cooling prior

to packing. The temperatures are brought down to room temperatures. It should be between

35 - 40 degree centigrade.

Packing: These biscuit are then stacked and fed into packing machine for packing.

Different packing material are available for packing of these biscuit in different packs. Slug

packs, pouch pack or family packs etc. These packs are then put into secondary packaging

like cartons to be transported to retailers. Packing machine can be selected as per the plant

capacities and nature of packing.

Ingredients: flour, fat, sugar, sugar syrup, vegetable shortening, milk powder, lecithin, salt,

sodium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate Flavours: chocolate, custard, coconut, butter,

vanilla, nuts, cocoa, onion, garlic etc.

Colours: E 102, 110, 122, 133 etc.

Packing material : laminates, tapes, stickers etc

Plant and machinery : mixers, laminator, gauge rolls, cutters, moulders ,ovens, conveyor,

packing machines, etc.

(Biscuit manufacturing, Subodh Singh)

38
2.10 Banana Flour in Baby Cereals

2.10.1 Commercial cereals

Commercial single grain cereals are made from grains such as rice, barley and oat. These

are refined grains. The process of refining takes out the Bran and the Germ (the most

nutritious parts), leaving the endosperm. Removing the germ and the bran allow grain

products to stay on the grocer's shelf longer. While the refining process does strip away

many nutrients, these nutrients are added back in after the milling of the grain. Many

commercial cereal products offered to baby are fortified with iron and typically contain

further additives. Banana flour also added at this stage as vitamin supplement. Milk powder

can be added as iron booster. Commercial baby cereals are also precooked and dehydrated.

This is best exemplified when you mix up some commercial cereal and find a pasty

substance in the bowl.

(Homemade recipe for Baby Cereal , www.wholesomebabyfood.com )

2.10.2 Homemade cereals

The easiest way to make homemade cereals is to grind up the grains. Rice, oatmeal, barley

etc can be taking and use a blender or food processor to grind the grains into a powder. This

powder then becomes a baby cereal. Cook this powder for 15 minutes until a thin soupy

consistency is achieved.

Homemade cereals can't be fortified as the way commercial cereals are fortified. There are

many things to add to the cereals that will give an "iron boost" such as formula, breast

milk, and brewer's yeast. Once introduce the banana flour with the cereals, vitamins helps

to aid in the absorption of iron. Many infants have been raised on homemade cereals! baby

Me
foods and they have never suffered iron deficient anemia nor have they needed additional

vitamin/mineral supplements.

(Homemade recipe for Baby Cereal , www.wholesomebabyfood.com )

2.11 Processing of Banana Flour

Banana fruit is a horticultural commodity that can be processed and preserved to expand its

marketing value. Various processed banana products have already been developed, such as,

sun-dried banana and banana crispy. A new product with a potential commercial value is

the banana flour made from fresh and ripe banana.

Materials & equipments:

Unripe banana
Knife
Plastic pail
Slicer
Dryer rack
Dryer or oven

Method:

Remove banana fruits from the bunch.

Peel and slice into small pieces.

Soak in 5% citric acid for about 30 minutes, then drain.

Oven-dry on the rack, until 10% moisture content is achieved ( 60° C ,24 hrs.)

Mill and sift.

0 Package and store in a closed, dry place.

HE
Benefits

Banana flour can be used as a mixture material for various cakes (wet and dry cakes),

breads and for infant feeding. Banana flour contains low gluten, so it could not be used as

the main cake material. Therefore, to produce high quality cake banana flour must be mixed

with wheat flour.

(Processing of Banana flour, www.agnet.org/library/pt/2005019)

2.12 Banana Flour Recipes

1. Banana Rice Baby Cereal

Ingredients:

¼ cup Rice powder (Brown rice ground in blender or food processor)

1 teaspoon banana powder/ flour

1 cup water

1 teaspoon milk powder

V2 teaspoon sugar (if needed)

Preparation:

Bring liquid to boil in saucepan. Add the rice powder while stirring constantly.

Simmer for 10 minutes, whisking constantly, mix in banana flour, milk powder and sugar if

desired.

Serve warm.

(Source: Homemade recipe for baby infant cereal rice, www.wholesomebabyfood.com)

!I1
2. Baby Teething Biscuits

a) Rice banana Baby Cereal Cookies

Ingredients:

2 tablespoons vegetable oil


2 egg yolks
1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
1/4
cup sugar

1-1/2 cups banana rice baby cereal (commercial baby cereal/ precooked homemade baby
cereal)
2 teaspoon wheat germ/ whole flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1-2 teaspoon water

Preparation:

Preheat oven to 325°F. Lightly grease a baking sheet.

Beat oil and egg yolks together then add the sugar, mixing well to combine.

Add the remaining dry ingredients and fold into wet mixture until every thing is combined.

If this seems too dry, add I to 2 teaspoons of water. This dough will be very stiff.

Knead dough and roll out into a log on a floured surface. Cut 1/4 inch slices from log and

arrange on the baking sheet. Make these any shape you like.

Bake for about 20 to 25 minutes.

(Source: Nutritious homemade baby teething biscuit recipes,

www.wholesomebabyfood.com )

42
b) Eggless Baby Cereal Cookies

Ingredients:

1 cup flour
1 cup dry banana rice baby cereal
3 tablespoons cooking oil
Ice water

Preparation:

Preheat oven 425 °F.

Mix flour and cereal. Gradually stir in oil. Mix a little ice water at a time (start with ¼ cup)

until dough begins to form a ball and pull away from the bowl.

Roll out to the thickness of a cracker on a floured surface and cut into desired shapes.

Bake on an ungreased cookie sheet 10-12 minutes or until lightly brown.

Cool completely and store in an airtight container.

(Source: Nutritious homemade baby teething biscuit recipes,

www.wholesomebabyfood.com )

3. Banana Bread Recipe

a) Best Banana Bread Recipe

Ingredients:

2 cups all-purpose flour

1 cup banana flour

1/2 cup sugar

3/4 teaspoon baking soda

43
1/2 teaspoon salt

1 cup toasted walnuts or pecans, chopped

1/4 cup plain yogurt

2 large eggs, beaten lightly

6 tablespoons butter, melted then cooled

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Preparation:

Adjust oven rack to lower middle position and heat oven to 350 degrees.

Grease bottom only of regular loaf pan, or grease and flour bottom and sides of nonstick

loaf pan.

Combine dry ingredients together in large bowl and set aside.

Mix banana flour, yogurt, eggs, butter, and vanilla with wooden spoon in medium bowl.

Lightly fold banana mixture into dry ingredients with rubber spatula until just combined

and batter looks thick and chunky.

Pour batter into prepared loaf pan; bake until loaf is golden brown and toothpick inserted in

center comes out clean, about 55 minutes.

Cool in pan for 5 minutes, then transfer to wire rack.

Wrap tightly with plastic wrap and store in refrigerator for 4 days, on the counter for 2

days. (Source: Choice Cooking, Canadian Diabetes Association c. 1986 Shared by

Elizabeth Rodier)

44
b) Banana Health Loaf

Ingredients:

1 1/2 cup Whole wheat flour, divided


1/2 cup Coconut, unsweetened shred
1 cup Banana flour.
2 teaspoon Baking powder
1/2 teaspoon Baking soda
1/2 teaspoon Salt
3 tablespoon Vegetable oil
2 tablespoon Liquid honey

Preparation:

Suggestion: reserve 1/4 cup flour. Low fat recipes have a tendency to be too dry. Bake

about 35 min in 9x5 loaf pan or muffin cups if 8x4 pan not available.

Mix together 1 1/4 c. of flour, coconut, baking powder, baking soda and salt in a bowl.

Combine banana flour, oil and honey. Stir into flour mixture quickly but gently until just

combined. Add part of the remaining 1/4 cup flour if needed. Batter will be lumpy.

Spread batter evenly in a lightly greased (and/or waxed paper lined) 8x4 loaf pan. Bake at

350 F about 45 min until tester inserted in center comes out clean. Cool 10 min in pan.

Turn out of pan, cool completely on rack.

Wrap in waxed paper and store overnight before slicing. Makes 14 servings, each about 1/2

inch thick when 8x4 pan used. I starchy choice, 1 fats & oils choice 16 g carbohydrate, 2 g

protein, 4 g fat, 108 calories.

(Source: Choice Cooking, Canadian Diabetes Association c. 1986 Shared by Elizabeth

Rodier 6/93)

45
2.13 Maturity

The definition of maturity varies individually. Maturity in physiological terms as the stage

of biochemical development, a fruit has reached when climacteric rise begins, an alternate

definition is which a grower may consider appropriate, is the stage of growth that enables

maximum yield, but allows the fruit to reach the market in a green condition. (Turner,

1997)

2.13.1 Types of maturity

Maturity can be categorized in to two as physiological maturity and commercial maturity.

Physiological maturity refers to the stage in the development of the fruit or vegetable

maximum growth and maturation has occurred. It is usually associated with full ripening in

a fruit physiologically; mature stage is followed by senescence. The clear distinction

between the three stages of development namely growth, maturation and senescence. In the

development of a plant organ is not always easy, since the transitions between the stages

are often quite slow and indistinct. However measurement of respiration and ethylene

production and various chemical determinations, such as sugar acid ratios, can give reliable

estimates of the stage of maturity of specific commodities.

Commercial maturity is the state of a plant organ required by a market. Commercial

maturity commonly bears little relation to physiological maturity and may occur at any

stage during development or senescence. The terms immaturity, optimum maturity and over

maturity relate to these requirements. There must be an understanding of each of them in

physiological terms, particularly where storage life and quality when ripe are concerned.

(Wills et al., 1998)


2.13.2 Methods available for determination of maturity

In practice one or more of the following methods determines maturity.

Computation of the days from bloom to harvest

Measurement of heat units

Visual means - skin colour

persistence or drying of parts of the plant

fullness of the fruit, etc.

Physical methods - ease of separation

pressure test

density grading, etc.

Chemical methods - total soluble sugars

acids

sugar acid ratio

starch content

Physiological methods- respiration rate, etc.

(Ranganna, 1986)

47
CHAPTER 3

Methodology

3.1 Determination of Maturity Index of Banana

Maturity indices- a) Shape d) Penetration

Weight e) Total Soluble Solid

Size (length/ diameter) f) pH

Maturity indices were measured and graphs were plotted. Data were statistically analyzed.

3.1.1 Materials:

Mature banana fruits - 5 Embul kesel samples, 10 fruits (replicates) in each sample and,

Mature and immature banana fruits for control -2 fruits were taken before harvesting in

regular intervals

Pencil
Standard Ruler
Thread
Weighing Balance (ANDGF 300, max 3 lOg, min 0.02, e= 0.01, d= 0.00Ig)
Penetometer (BISHOP fruit pressure tester- FT 327)
Hand Refractometer (High contrast range- 0 to 32%, Make- Microsil)
pH meter (WTW PH 522)

3.1.2 Method:

a) Shape

Ten banana fruits were taken from same bunch and labeled. Fruits were placed on a white

paper and outer line was traced on the paper.


Weight

The weight was measured in same sample by using electronic balance and recorded.

Size- Length

Same banana sample was placed on a board. Length was measured between two ends by

using a yarn thread and a ruler. Measurements were recorded.

- Diameter

Diameter was taken by Wern jar Caliper

- Girth

Girth was measured by using a yarn thread and a ruler.

Penetration

Penetrometer was used for measure the penetration (hardness) of fruits in same sample.

Measurements were recorded.

Total Soluble Solid

A banana fruit was peeled and mashed in a bowl. A few drops of juice was extracted and

placed on a refractometer and the Brix value was taken.

f)pH

10 g of banana was taken from the sample and mashed with distilled water. The extract was

filtered through a muslin cloth. pH value of the extract was measured.

19
3.2 Preparation of Banana Flour

3.2.1 Materials:

Mature Embul banana fruits

Stainless steel knife/ cutting board or slicer

0.1% Citric acid / 0.2% SMS (Na25205)

Wire trays

Electronic balance

Drying cabinet ( Leader)

Grinder (Daytron mixer grinder)

Sieve (special test sieve-BSS XX)

3.2.2 Method:

Banana fruits were removed from the bunch and they were washed to remove dirt. Fruits

were peeled and sliced. Sliced banana were soaked in 0. 1% citric acid or 0.2% SMS

solution for about 30 minutes, and drained. Slices were spread on wire trays and Oven-dry

on the rack ( 60° C ,24 hrs.) Dried banana was grinded in to fine powder and sifted. Flour

content was weighted. Flour was packed in polythene pouches and stored in a closed, dry

place.

50
3.2.3 Flow chart of making banana flour

75% Matured good quality banana (Washed by clean tap water)

Peeling By clean hands

I
Cutting , Using a stainless steel knife

Weighting 0 Using a electronic balance

Mixing with antioxidant o 0.1% Citric acid / 0.2% SMS

Mating pulp
7
Drying OvenlDrum drier

Packing In air tight containers

4!

Grinding Using grinder

Sifting b. Using shifter

Storing In an air tight containers! Polythene pouches

51
3.3 Recovery percentage of banana flour

Recovery percentage was calculated based on

weight of fresh banana with peel.

weight of banana flesh.

3.3.1 Method:

Weight of fresh banana fruits, weight of peeled banana fruits and the weight of flour were

taken in each sample.

10 fruits in each sample and 5 samples were tested.

Average weights were taken for calculation.

Flour weight after oven drying (M3) X 100

Recovery percentage =

based on banana with peel Weight of fresh banana with peel (M1 )

Flour weight after oven drying (M3) X 100

Recovery percentage

based on banana flesh Weight of fresh banana flesh (M2)

52
3.4 Determination of the Keeping Quality of banana flour

Methods used for reduce discoloration and examine the Shelf life of banana flour prepared

from Embul banana.

3.4.1 Inhibition of browning reactions

To test the keeping quality and prevent of discoloration due to phenolic oxidation, two

inhibitors were used; a). 0.1% Citric acid

0.2% Sodium meta bisulphite (SMS - Na2S2 05)

10mg/bOg Ascorbic acid

3.4.1.1 Method:

Peeled banana was cut in to thin slices and kept in 0.1% Citric acid solution or in 0.2%

SMS solution or lOmg/lOOg Ascorbic acid for 30 minutes before oven dry. After milling

into flour, 50 g of samples were kept in sealed polythene pouches at room temperature.

They were open and visually observed for any changes specially lumps forming. Colour /

appearance of citric acid samples, ascorbic acid samples and SMS samples were compared.

3.4.2 Microbial examination

Plate count/ colony count method was used for microbial examination.

Banana flour after 6 months (sample A) and 3 months (sample B) in storage, newly

prepared flour (sample C) and newly prepared banana rice cereal biscuit (sample D) were

used for microbial examination.

Nutrient Agar medium was used as culture medium for microbial growth.

53
3.4.2.1 Materials:

Nutrient agar culture medium (28g of Nutrient agar per Iliter and 1.5% agar)

0.15% Peptone water solution

Petri dishes

Test tubes

Pipettes

Conical flasks

Incubator

Laminar flow

3.4.2.2 Method:

Glass wears were sterilized in dry heat oven at 160 °C for 3-4 hrs. (Electron, model B 3535

S). Culture medium and peptone water solution were sterilized by autoclaving at 15 lb/ 121

°C for 20 mm.

I Ogs of sample was dissolved homogenate in 90 ml of peptone water as a stock culture.

Dilution series was prepared from the stock culture. (10' - 10). Nutrient agar plates were

inoculated with I ml sample from each dilution.

Plates were incubated at 30 °C for two days. Numbers of colonies produced were counted

and colony forming units (cfu) in the original sample was estimated.

54
3.5 Preparation of Starch

3.5.1 Materials:

Matured Embul banana fruits


Slicer or SS knife/ cutting board
0.2% Sodium Metabisulphite
Grinder
Musline cloths
Funnels
Glass beakers
Bench centrifuge
Hot air oven
Electronic balance

3.5.2 Method:

Fresh banana fruits were taken, washed and peeled. Fruits were weighted and sliced.

Sample was grind with water into fine slurry and filtered through a musline cloth.

Suspension was keep overnight to sediment starch and decanted. Suspension was

centrifuged and oven dried.

Starch weight was taken and ground in to fine powder. Starch was stored in an airtight

polythene pouch.

55
3.5.3 Flow chart of preparation of starch.

Mature fruit

Washing

Pee ing

Slicing o. Food slicer 1/10" thickness

0.2% SMS on 1 1/2 hrs.


Decant & wash with potable water
Grinding Grind with water in a Rietz mill in to a fine slurry

1 __________
Filtering , Filtered the slurry using a musling cloth and obtains the filtrate

Sedimentation Filtrate was kept in a refrigerator for 24 hrs

Centrifugation o Using a bench centrifuge at 2000 rpm

Drying ' Separate the starch by decanting and dried it in a hot air drying

ovenat40°C for2 days

Grinding Grind the dried sample using a grinder (Daytron mixer grinder)

Sieing using a sieve (2.0 }.lpm)

Fine powder of starch

MI
3.5.4 Recovery percentage of starch

Recovery percentage of banana starch was calculated based on the raw banana flesh.

Starch weight after oven drying X 100

Recovery percentage =

based on banana flesh Weight of fresh banana flesh

3.5.5 Microscopic examination of Starch

3.5.5.1 Materials:

Trinocular microscope (Magnus)

Pentax —K 1000 camera with MIPS USB (Olympus / India)

Dissecting blade Slides and cover slips

12/ KI solution

3.5.5.2 Method:

Thin section of banana fruit was taken and mounted on a slide.

A drop of 12/ KI solution was added on the section and a cover slip was placed on it.

The section was observed under the microscope.

Starch extracted from mature banana also observed.

Images of starch granules were taken by using computer software package. (Micro Image

Processing System)

57
3.6 Gelatinization properties of banana flour (Amylograph)

3.6.1 Materials:

Banana flour sample

Distilled water

Amylograph (Brabender/ Duisburg- Western Germany)

3.6.2 Method:

60 g of sieved flour ( or 35g pure starch) was mixed firmly with 250 ml water in a beaker.

Smooth slurry without lumps was poured in to the central bowl. Beaker was washed out

with other 200 ml water (total 450 ml) and added to the bowl.

The probe was placed in the central bowl carefully. Upper head was lowered and adjusted

the position of the probe.

Temperature indicator was set to 30 ° C. Rotating speed of bowl was set to 75 rpm. The

pointer was set on chart paper to zero. Alarm switch was on to 60 mm.

Main switch was on and let the instrument continue till 97 0 C and main off.

The bowl was taken out with probe and washed properly. Surface of the thermometer and

probe were wiping immediately.

58
3.7 Determination of Moisture- Oven drying method

Oven drying method was used to determine moisture content. This involves the

measurement of weight lost due to evaporation water.

3 sets of samples were taken as follows;

Banana flour prepared two months before

Banana flour prepared two days before

Banana teething biscuit ( Banana rice cereal cookies)

3.7.1 Materials

Moisture dish made of stainless steel, glass or porcelain

Oven maintained at 1050 C

Weighing balance

Banana flour Sample -5 gs

3.7.2 Method:

To the nearest milligram about 5 g of the sample (depends on the sample) was weighed in

to a moisture dish previously dried in the oven and weighed.

Sample was dried in the uncovered dish with the lid along side for four hours.

The dish was covered and transferred to desiccators and weighed quickly as the dish is

cool.

Repeat the heating and weighing until successive weights do not differ by more than one

milligram. The loss in weight was recorded. (David Pearson, 1978)

59
3.8 Determination of Total Fat

3.8.1 Materials:

Majonnier flasks

Hydrochloric acid

Petroleum ether

Diethyl ether

Ethanol

3.8.2 Method:

2 g of banana flour sample was placed in a lOOmI baker. 2ml of 95% ethyl alcohol and 10

ml of HCI, were added. (which is prepared by mixing 25ml of cone. HCI, and 11 ml of

water)

The contents were mixed thoroughly and placed the beaker on a water bath (70°C-800C)

and stirred the contents for about 30-40 minutes frequently. The beaker was removed from

the water bath and cool to at room temperature.

10 ml of EtOH was added to it and the mixture was transferred into the majonnier flask.

The beaker was washed with 25ml of diethyl ether in three portions and added it to the

flask. The flask was stopper with a cork and shake vigorously for about 1 mm. 25 ml

petroleum ether was added and shake again for one minute. Let the flask stand undisturbed

until the upper ether layer is clear.

Take the upper ether layer into clean dried weighed flask. Dry it in a water bath at 800C

until a constant weight is obtained. (David Pearson, 1978)


3.9 Determination of Crude Protein -Kjeldahl method

3.9.1 Materials:

Kjeldhal digestion kit (Kjeldhal digestion flasks, kjeldhal heater, Fume trap, Distillation

unit (Paranas Wagner still)

Titration flasks

Weighing balance

Sodium sulphate solution (Dissolve 50g of NaOH pellets and 8g of sodiumthiosulphate

(Na2S2 03.6H20) in 100 ml distilled water)

4% Boric acid solution

0.02M HCL standard Hydrochloric acid solutions

Kjeldhal catalyst tablets

Indicators - Prepare a solution by mixing two parts of 2% methyl red (alcoholic) solution

with one part of 0.2% (alcoholic) methylene blue solution.

3.9.2 Method:

60 mg of banana flour sample was transferred carefully on a tissue paper to the Kjeldahl

distillation flask (30 ml).One Kjeldahl tablet and 2 ml of conc. H2SO4 were added.

The flask was connected to the fume trap and attached to the pump and digested the sample

for 4 hrs. until a clear solution without black particles were obtained. Then cool for one hr

carry out a blank digestion. The samples was dissolved with a minimum amount of

ammonia free distilled water and transfer it in to a semi micro- Kjeldahl distillation

M
e
apparatus, which has been previously conditioned by passing steam through it for several

minutes slowly.

8.0 ml of NaOH/ Na2SO3 solution was added to the flask. 5 ml of boric acid solution was

added and 3 drops of indicator to it. Prepared titration flask was kept at the end of the

digestion apparatus to trap the ammonia liberated. Steam was passed through the flask until

about 1 5 ml of distillate is received. This solution was titrated with the standard HCI

solution.

(David Pearson, 1978)

3.10 Determination of Fiber

3.10.1. Materials:

Round bottom flask

Beaker

Reflux condenser

Sintered cursible (good crucible)

Asbestos wool

Desicator

Heating mantle

Weighing balance

Sulphuric acid - dil

Sodium hydroxide

Litmus paper

M
e
3.10.2 Method:

2.00 g of the defatted banana flour sample was weighted and transferred to a I litre conical

flask or round bottom flask. 200 ml of boiling 1 .25% H2SO4 was added and boiled for 30

minute over a hot plate or Bunsen burner. Boiling water was added to maintain the volume.

Antifoam was added, if frothing occurs. Swirled occasionally to remove solids from

adhering to the sides of the flask.

The hot solution was decanting through a buchner funnel fitted with whatman 52 filter

paper. All the residue transferred and rinse with boiling water use a glass rod tipped with

rubber policeman.

200m1 near boiling 1 .25% W/V NaOH solution (care) was used to transfer the reside from

the filter paper in to the liter flask, brought to boil as quickly as possible and maintain

gentle ebullition for 30 mm. Boiling water was added to maintain the volume.

Solution was filtered through rapid hardened filter paper (whatman 52), transferred the

fiber quantitatively washed with 1% 1-ICI until the filtrate is free from alkali followed by

distilled water and small amounts of alcohol (15m1) and diethyl ether (10 ml) away from

naked flame.

The reside was transferred quantitatively to a tarred crucible, dry in the oven, cool and

weigh.(m I). Incinerated at 500°C, cool and weigh (m2).

(David Pearson, 1978)

63
3.11 Determination of Total Ash

3.11.1 Materials:

Muffle furnace

Platinum or silica dishes

Weighing balance

Desiccator

Tongs

Glows (Thermal)

Banana flour Sample

3.11.2. Method:

5g of the sample was weighted accurately in to a clean and dry pre-weighed platinum/silica

dish.

Sample was ignite slowly over a Bunsen flame in a fume cupboard unit no more fumes are

evolved.

The dish was transferred to the muffle furnace set at 5000 C and incinerated until it is free

of black carbon particles and until to so white on colour. (4-5 hours)

The dish was removed carefully and let cool in a desiccator. Weighed after cooling.

The process was repeated of ashing and weighing till no further loss in weight is indicated.

(David Pearson, 1978)

64
3. 12 Preparation of Banana rice baby cereal

3.12.1 Home made Banana rice baby cereal

3.12.1.1 Materials:

25g banana flour (25%)

50g rice flour (Brown rice or raw white rice ground in blender or food processor)

I 5g skimmed milk powder

lOg sugar

200 ml water

Scale balance, Saucepan, Spoon

3.12.1.2 Method:

Water was boiled in saucepan. Rice powder was added and stirring constantly, simmered

for 10 minutes, whisking constantly. Banana flour, milk powder and sugar were mixed

well. This mixture was cooked for 5-10 minutes until a thin soupy consistency is achieved.

Serve warm

3.12.2 Extrusion of Banana rice baby cereal

3.12.2.1 Materials:

500 g banana flour I 250 g banana flour + 250 g ripe banana puree (20%)

1750 g rice flour

250 g soya flour

Twin-screw Extruder (Berstorff/ Switzerland)

Mixer (KIMHLL Model KB-201)


3.12.2.2 Method:

Ingredients were mixed well for 10-15 mm. in a mixer. Materials were loaded in to feeding

unit and temperature was set for 30° C.

Extruder was operated under following conditions.

Temperature of mixing unit 60° C.

Temperature of cooking unit initiated from 1000 C and increased up to 145° C.

Rotating speed 200 rpm

Product was oven dried at 60 °C for 3 hrs. Breakfast cereal produced as a shred for flaking.

3.12.3 Determination of Water Absorption Index for extrudates

3.12.3.1 Materials:

2g of extrud ate

Stainless steel tea filter

Weighing balance

Distilled water

3.12.3.2 Method:

Weighed pieces of extrudates were placed in a porous stainless steel tea filter and

submerged completely in 500 ml dis. water for 60 seconds. The tea filter was removed and

drained for 5 seconds. Excess water was absorbed with lint paper and weighed.

(Bhatnagar and Hanna 1995)


3.13 Preparation of Baby teething biscuits / cookies

3.13.1 Banana Rice Baby Cereal Cookies

3.13.1.1 Materials:

25g banana flour (15%)

50g rice flour

25g wheat germ/ whole flour

30g sugar

25g Margarine! 3 tablespoons vegetable oil

2 egg yolks

1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract

Sg baking powder

I tea spoon salt

100 ml water

3.13.1.2 Method:

Oven was preheated to 180 °C. A baking sheet was lightly greased.

Oil and egg yolks were beaten together and the sugar added, mixed well to combine. The

remaining dry ingredients were added and fold into wet mixture until every thing

combined. If this seems too dry, add 1 to 2 teaspoons of water. (This dough is very stiff.)

The dough was kneaded and rolled out into a log on a floured surface. Cut ¼ inch slices

from log and arrange on the baking sheet. Slices were cut in to shape by a cutter.

Cookies were baked for about 20 to 25 minutes.

Cookies were stored in an airtight container after completely cool.

67
3.13.2 Eggless Baby Cereal Cookies

3.13.2.1 Materials:

25g banana flour (15%)

75g wheat flour

25g rice flour

25g sugar

20g margarine! 3 tablespoons vegetable oil

1 tea spoon salt

5g baking powder

150m] Ice water

3.13.2.2 Method:

Oven was preheated for 230 °C.

Margarine/ oil and sugar were mixed thoroughly. Flours were mixed and stirred gradually

in oil. A little ice water added at a time until dough begins to form a ball and pull away

from the bowl. The dough was rolled out to the thickness of a cracker on a floured surface

and cut into desired shapes.

Cookies were baked on an ungreased cookie sheet 10-12 minutes or until lightly brown.

Cookies were stored in an airtight container after completely cool.

68
3.14 Sensory Evaluation

For the sensory evaluation, 25 members were used and the calculations were done based on

rank sum test. Data was collected by using the following formats.

When change the banana flour content, change the same amount of rice flour to balance the

total quantity. Banana flour content was calculated from a percentage of total weight.

3.14.1 Format for biscuit varieties

Categ Variety Flavour Texture Rank Special


-ory Not Suffi- Too Good Little Too comments
enough cient much Hard hard
A Commercial
rusk
B Banana rice
cookies
C Eggless banana
rice cookies

3.14.2 Format for Cookies

No. Banana Flavour Texture Rank special


powder comments

Not Suffi- Too Good Little Too


enough cient much Hard hard

10
2 15
3 20
CHAPTER 4

Results and Discussion

4.1 Determination of Maturity Index

Sampling-

Embul banana fruit samples were taken from 1st bunch (tire) from selected banana branches

(stems)

Fruits were taken from a bunch before cut off from the mother tree, with weekly intervals

as a control.

Five Embul banana samples were taken from sales stalls to determine maturity index. Each

sample contains ten replicates.

Maturity indices-

Shape - Embul banana fruits are oblong, cylindrical, blunt, three angled, curved and

hornlike fruits. Fullness of the fruit observed with the maturity in the cross section of the

fruit. (Plate 1-Maturity stages of banana fruit)

Colour- Colour of the peel change from dark green to light green, yellowish green and

finally yellow during the maturity. (Plate 2- Ripening chart of banana fruit)

Flesh colour change from ivory white to yellow.

Data on length, diameter, girth, weight, penetration, total soluble solid and pH were in table

I and 2. Graphs were plotted according to the data obtained ( Figure 1 and 2).

70
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quarters three -quarters

Plate 1 - Maturity stages of Embul banana fruit

6 7

Plate 2- Ripening chart of banana fruit

75
Maturity index for commodity is a measurement that can be used to determine whether the

particular commodity is mature. Banana is a climetric fruit, after start ripening cannot be

controlled. Identification of correct maturity stage for harvesting is important to prevent

ripening. In general, a good quality product is obtained if fruit is harvested at the correct

stage of maturity and where appropriate stored under controlled conditions.

For banana flour which is prepared from unripe bananas, the fruit is harvested at full three-

quarter stage and is processed within 24 hrs. prior to the onset of ripening (Adel A. Kader).

If less mature fruit is used, the flour tastes slightly astringent and bitter due to the high

tannin content. If ripe fruit is used tend to be sticky and cannot mill for flour. Banana

harvests between 85 and 95 days after the emergence of the inflorescence

(www.fao.org/docrep).

Figure 1 shows the changes in maturity indices before and after ripening the Embul banana.

The plant was located at Boralesgamuwa area. Data was collected during the banana bunch

was at its late maturity stage.

Length, weight and girth increases throughout the development. Starch deposition

increased during this stage. When the flavour compounds and acids formed, rate of

starch deposition decreased. The weight is continuously increased due to formation

of new compounds, juice and juice solids. The figure shows increase in weight up to

5th
51h day of testing. Ripening started from day of testing. Coefficient of variation is

9.15% not showed good determination on weight.

76
. Girth shows increase during development. Diameter not shows clear change during

late maturity stage. Because the pulp-to-peel ratio increases throughout the

development. The skin (peel) is approximately 1:5 the diameter of the pulp. At late

stage peel became thin with a pulp-to-peel ratio of about 1:7. (www.fao.org/docrep)

Coefficient of variations is 4.47% and 3.74% not showed good determination on

diameter and girth. Length is not show remarkable change during test period.

Coefficient of variation is 2.64% not showed good determination on weight.

The Total Soluble solid (TSS) content meant substances which refract light eg.

carbohydrates, organic acids and pigments. From the beginning to the end of the

harvest period it was decreasing. Beta- carotene and reducing sugar content both
4th day and decline thereafter. When
increase with maturity. TSS increased up to

banana ripening takes place flesh turning tender and slippery, soft and mellow, and

difficult to extract juice.

pH value show a decline after 4th day. Acidic flavour is higher in Embul kesel than

other banana varieties. When ripening onset the acids decreased.

When the ripening onset hardness and thickness of the peel also reduced. Therefore

penetrometer reading decline sharply after 4th day.

Figure 2 shows the variation of maturity indices of five Embul banana samples obtained

from fruit stalls with control sample. Those Embul bananas were originated at Ambilipitiya

area and took more than 24 hrs. to reach the market place. According to the figure 2, weight

of fruits is depending. Other indices have no remarkable difference.

77
4.2 Recovery Percentage for banana flour

Calculation:

Flour weight after oven drying (M3) X 100


Recovery percentage =
based on banana with peel Weight of fresh banana with peel (M1 )

Flour weight after oven drying (M3) X 100


Recovery percentage
based on banana flesh Weight of fresh banana flesh (M2)

Table 6- Weight of banana samples.

Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5

Mean wt. of banana 85.484 66.511 82.741 62.456 61.641


with peel(g)m i
Mean wt. of banana 57.414 43.917 55.534 40.744 37.487
flesh (g) m2
Mean wt. of banana 15.129 12.180 14.746 11.809 10.814
flour (g) m3
R.p. from wt. with 17.698% 18.3 13% 17.822% 18.907% 17.543%
peel
R.p. from wt. of 26.350% 27.734% 26.553% 28.983% 28.847%
flesh

Average R.p. from wt. with peel = 18.06%

Average R.p. from wt. of flesh = 27.69%

78
Traditional method to prepare banana flour is sun drying, get lot of contaminations. Oven

drying is easy and cheep method for prepare quality banana flour from raw banana.

Average recovery percentage mostly depends on the variety, maturity and the climatic

conditions. If the moisture content is low, energy requirement is low for dehydration.

4.3 Keeping Quality

The samples packed in polythene pouches and kept under normal ambient temperature

show gradually absorb moisture. Moisture content was changed from 4.8% to 7.23% during

two months period. There is no color change or lumps forming observed after 10 months of

storage in polythene pouches at room temperature.

The most critical factor that affect on keeping quality of flour is moisture content. When the

moisture content increase, keeping quality reduce and begins to form lumps. The packing

should be done at low Relative Humidity condition. RH can be lower by using air

conditioner or dehumidifiers in a closed room. Vacuum packing is preferred to prevent

absorb moisture. Flour preservatives like proprionate can be added.

4.3.1 Inhibition of browning

Three inhibitors were used prevent discoloration and enhance the color of flour.

10mg! 1 OOg Ascorbic acid - Off white and bright in color

0.1% Citric acid - Off white less bright than ascorbic acid

0.2% SMS - fine powder, bright in color than citric acid and ascorbic acid

Distilled water- Browning than other samples

79
l)itU'd % atvr

Plate 3- Flour samples made using three inhibitors and distilled water

SMS give bright appearance to flour than other inhibitors. As an anti-oxidant citric acid

was preferred because it is commonly available in the market and it is an acid present in

most fruits. Weaver, C. Marie (1974) had discussed the importance of ascorbic acid as

natural inhibitor of browning.

4.3.2 Microbial examination

Table 7- No. of microbial colonies appear in plates

Dilution factor Sample A Sample B Sample C Sample D

IO un countable un countable un countable 9


un countable uncountable uncountable 2
iO 35 32 17 No colonies
10 1 3 2 No colonies
iO No colonies No colonies No colonies No colonies
Calculation:

No. of colony forming units (CFU) = No. of colonies X Dilution X Volume of


in Ig of sample in plate factor stock culture
10

Sample A- 6 months stored flour

No.ofCFU 35X lO

Sample B- 3 months stored flour

No. of CFU = 32 X 104

Sample C- Newly prepared flour

No. ofCFU r=17X104

Sample D- Newly prepared cookies

No. ofCFU = 9X 102

Banana flour samples were prepared under laboratory conditions but the laboratory and the

equipments are highly contaminates with food born and air born micro organisms.

White, pin dot and irregular shaped microbial colonies were appeared in flour inoculated

plates.

CFU are reduced due to baking in cookies. One white pin dot colony and yellowish

irregular shape colony were in cookies inoculated plates.

Sterilization conditions are not properly practiced due to lack of facilities.

81
4.4 Preparation of starch

4.4.1 Starch recovery percentage

Table 8- Recovery percentage of starch samples

Sample Wt. of pulp (g) Wt. of Starch (g) Recovery %

200 1.609 0.804

2 100 1.315 1.315

3 450 7.215 1.603

4 200 4.342 2.171

5 450 10.87 2.38

6 110 3.287 2.988

Average Recovery percentage of starch (wet basis) = 1.88%

Percentage of starch (dry basis) = 6.78%

Colour - White

The starch content in banana is about 25% of dry matter ( International Starch Institute,

1999). Maximum starch content can be obtained by using enzymes such as pectinase to

break down the cell walls in a pulped banana slurry causing release of starch granules. The

yield of starch can be isolate 20% ( Banana starch production: Patent 5797985).

82
Starch

Plate 4- Isolated starch

Banana flesh (fruit type is berry) contain cell wall components (Lignin, cellulose), water

and other cellular components. Therefore starch content is lower than starchy commodities

like cereals and tubers.

Banana flour has higher resistant starch level in granular form. (Resistant starch is starch

that escapes in the small intestine of healthy individuals). RS is considered the third type of

dietary fiber, where it acts like dietary fiber (Resistant starch: wikipedia).

Banana starch is very likely to become a widely used starch commodity due to its desirable

properties. The starch should be viewed as a set of functional characteristics suit to a

particular application. These functional characteristics follow on from the basic physio-

chemical properties of the starch granules and can be enhanced through value addition.
4.4.2 Microscopic examination

Plate 5,6- Starch granules in fresh raw banana

Plate 7- Starch granules isolated from raw banana

Starch granules are elongated angular shape ( Carrot root shape) and white in colour.

The granular size is in the range 5-70 microns - a little smaller than potato starch

(International starch institute, 1999). The size and distribution of starch granules can be very

84
important for specific applications and even this very basic physical characteristic can be

value-added.

4.4.3 Gelatinization properties (Amylograph)

A suspension prepared from the banana flour sample and distilled water is heated with a

constant heating rate (1.5° C per mm.) within a rotating bowl. Depending on the viscosity

of the sample within the rotating bowl, a measuring sensor reaching into the bowl is

deflected. This deflection is measured by a high-precision electronic measuring system as a

measure of the viscosity over the time, i.e. vs. temperature, and recorded on a chart paper.

Weight (equal to 500 Brabender units) was added to turn back the chart pointer.

The Amylogram ( Figure 5) showed;

Beginning of gelatinization (T0)- 78 °C (after 32 mm.)

. Gelatinization maximum (T m )- 90 °C (after 40 mm.)


Gelatinization temperature- 78 °C - 90 °C

Viscosity- 1470 Brabender units

Banana flour was gelatinized well and gave a sharp single peak. When temperature

increased further starch suspension formed thick semi-solid gel. Off white flour became

light brown suspension when mixed with water. The colour was changed from light brown

to dark brown when gelatinized.

85
Enzyme activity of flour can be observed in amylograph as well. Banana starch has lower

susceptibility to the in-vitro a-amylase reaction (Belloperez, L.A. et al, 2004).

Because of the high viscosity, the amylose content may high in banana flour. The amylose

content in banana is about 37 % (Rosalia, A.G. et al, 2005). High initial temperature (T0) is

most likely due to the long amylopectin branch- chains (Rosalia, A.G. et al, 2005).

Viscosity, shear resistance, gelatinization, textures, solubility, tackiness, gel stability, cold

swelling and retro gradation are all functions of their amylose/ amylopectin ratio.

Normally wheat flour start gelatinization at 65 °C, rice 68-75 °C, corn 70-75 °C. Banana

flour takes 78 °C to onset gelatinization. Peak temperature of gelatinization varied from 68

to 76 °C according to the variety ( Damota, R.V,2000). Banana starch resembles corn

starch in paste characteristics like gelatinizing temperature and gel strength with higher

peak viscosity (Banana, International Starch Institute). So banana starch can be used as

thickening agent, an alternative for corn starch.

When aiming at functional properties in starch, most commercial companies examine the

characteristics of competitive starches in particular applications (eg. skin cosmetics).

Many functional derivatives of starch are marketed including cross-linked, oxidized,

acetylated, partially hydrolyzed material, for example, partially hydrolyzed starch (dextrin)

is used in sauces to control viscosity (Morton Satin, Functional Properties of Starch).

86
00

40

z
4.5 Determination of Moisture content in Banana (Embul) flour

Calculation:

Weight lost
Moisture % m/m = _____________ X 100

Weight of the sample

m3-m
= x100

m1 = weight of the empty dish

m2 = weight of dish + sample before drying

m3 = weigh of dish + sample after drying

Table 9-Moisture content of banana flour samples

6-(a) Banana flour prepared two months before

Sample Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Wt.(g) Moisture

dish(g) m1 Sample(g) Dish+Sample(g) after drying %

m2 m3

01 13.272 5.010 18.282 17.938 6.86

02 13.028 4.973 18.001 17.644 7.18

03 12.446 5.020 17.466 17.081 7.67

88
6-(b) Banana flour prepared two days before

Sample Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Wt-(g) Moisture

dish(g) m1 Sample(g) Dish+Sample(g) after drying %

m2 m3

01 44.6071 5.0887 49.6958 49.4485 4.86

02 13.025 5.0326 18.0576 17.8175 4.77

03 12.9985 5.0587 18.0572 17.8154 4.78

6-(c) Banana cereal cookies (teething biscuit)

Sample Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Wt-(g) Moisture

dish(g) m1 Sample(g) Dish+Sample(g) after drying %

m2 m3

01 50.1793 5.0225 55.2018 54.8503 6.99

02 47.0336 5.0445 52.0781 51.7351 6.8

03 39.6967 5.1901 44.8868 44.5548 6.4

a) Banana flour prepared two months before

Average Moisture % = (6.86 + 7.18 + 7.67) / 3

= 7.23±0.4%

89
Banana flour prepared two days before

Average Moisture % = (4.86 + 4.77 + 4.78) I 3

= 4.8±0.04%

Banana teething biscuit

Average Moisture % = (6.99 + 6.8 + 6.4) / 3

= 6.73±0.3%

Banana flour kept under room condition gradually absorbs moisture. Moisture content of

flour was changed from 4.8 to 7.23% during two months period. Moisture content in flour

should be less than 10% for storage. 5% is acceptable for keep long period. Moisture

content can be varying from 4 -6% ( Damota R.V., 2000).

Moisture content in cookies is little high for keep long period.

Moisture content in raw Embul banana is 73-76%. Drying method, drying period are

important to reduce moisture and packaging is important for maintain of low moisture

content.
4.6 Determination of Total Fat

Calculation:

Wt.of fat
% Total Fat = X 100
Wt. of sample

= m1 -m0 XI00

Weight of sample

Where m1 = weight of the empty flask

m0 = weight of the empty flask + extracted fat

Table 10- Total fat content of banana flour samples

Sample Wt. of Wt. of empty Wt. of Fat Total fat %

sample (g) flask (g) flask+fat (g) content

2.0630 45.0320 45.0540 0.022 1.066

2 2.0260 44.0924 44.1122 0.0198 0.977

3 2.1165 48.6448 48.6660 0.0212 1.001

Average Total Fat % = (1.066+0.977+1 .001) / 3

= 1.0146± 0.04%

Fat content is very low in banana flour. It is contain saturated, monounsaturated and poly

unsaturated fatty acids. Banana flour is free from cholesterol.


4.7 Determination of Crude Protein

Calculation:

Nitrogen % = (Sample titra - blank titra) x molarity of HCI x 14 x 100

Wt. of sample x 1000

Protein = Nitrogen % x 6.25

Table 11- Crude protein content of banana flour samples

Volume of.02M HC1

Sample Wt. of sample (g) for titration (ml) Nitrogen % Protein %

Blank 0 0 0 0

0.080 0.70 0.245 1.531

2 0.075 0.65 0.243 1.516

3 0.065 0.60 0.258 1.615

4 0.066 0.60 0.254 1.590

5 0.078 0.65 0.233 1.458

Average Protein % = (l.531+l.516+l.615+l.590+l.458)/5

= 1.542± 0.06%

Banana flour contain less protein content, therefore sample size was increased. But it

consisted with many amino acids like Leucine, Isoleucine, Threonine, Lysine, Methionine,

Valine, Alanine, Arginine, etc. Protein content can be varying up to 3% ( Damota R.V.,

2000).

92
4.8 Determination of Fiber

Calculation:

% Total Fiber = Loss in weight on incineration x 100

Weight of sample before defatting

= (m i -m2)x 100

m0

Where m1 = weight of the crucible + fiber residue

m2 = weight of the crucible + ash

m0 = weight of the sample

Table 12-Total fiber content of banana flour samples

Sample 1 Sample 2

Wt. of sample (mo) 2.179 2.0036

Wt. ofAshless filter paper 1.1121 1.1975

Wt . of Crucible + Filter paper+ fiber 19.2901 19.3473

residue

Wt. of Crucible + fiber residue (m1 ) 18.1780 18.1498

Wt. of crucible +ash (m2 ) 18.0457 18.0271

Fiber content 6.0715 6.1239


Average Fiber % = (6.0715+6.1239)/2

=6.1+ 0.03%

Banana flour has higher resistant starch level in granular form (Resistant starch- wikipedia).

Resistant starch is starch that escapes in the small intestine of healthy individuals. RS is

considered the third type of dietary fiber, where it acts like dietary fiber. Consumption of

foods containing natural resistant starch positively affects weight management. When

added to foods such as bread, biscuits and cereals RS can increase fiber content without

affecting taste or texture. RS lower the caloric content of foods when it is used to replace

other rapidly digested carbohydrates ( Reduced-calorie foods). Fiber content can be varying

from 6-15.5% in banana flour ( Damota R.V., 2000).

4.9 Determination of Ash

Calculation:

Ash %m/m = Wt.of Ash x 100

Wt. of Sample

= m2 -m1 xlOO

m0

Where m1 = weight of the crucible

m2 = weight of the crucible + ash

m0 = weight of the sample

94
Table 13- Ash content of banana flour samples

Sample 1 sample 2

Wt. of sample (mo) 5.0800 5.0950

Wt.of Crucible (m1 ) 18.0128 18.0128

Wt . of Crucible + Ash (m2) 18.1194 18.1260

Ash content 2.098 2.222

Average Ash % = (2.098+2.222) /2

=2.16+ 0.08%

High ash content in banana flour contains Potassium, Calcium, Iron, magnesium,

Phosphorus, Sodium, Zinc copper, manganese and selenium. The banana has an alkaline

ash, therefore it has the ability to correct acidosis caused by acid forming diets. Ash content

can be varying up to 3.5% in banana flour ( Damota R.V., 2000).

4.10 Determination of Carbohydrate Content (by difference)

Calculation:

Carbohydrate % = 100 - (moisture %+Fat %+Protein %+Fiber %+ Ash %)

= 100 ( 4.8+1.0146+1.542+6.1+2.16)

84.383 %

Banana flour consists with many carbohydrates such as cellulose, starch, sugars, pigments,

etc. As bananas ripen starch convert in to sugars, acids and volatiles that influence flavour.

95
4.11 Preparation of banana rice baby cereal

Plate 8- Home made baby cereal

Plate 9- Baby cereal made by extrusion with 20% banana flour


Plate 10- Baby cereal made by extrusion with 10% banana flow + 10% banana puree

As Sri Lankans we prefer rice flour than wheat flour better to use for baby cereals. White

and red rice flour can use with banana flour. When rice flour cook with banana flour both

gelatinized and made thick gravy.

The twin screw extruder which located at Industrial Technology institute (ITI) is normally

used for make extruded products from flour. Soya flour was added for prevent stick the

flour inside the extruder. Two trials were done for banana flour with rice and banana flour,

ripe banana puree ( Embul Kesel) with rice flour. Ripe banana puree was added for enhance

the banana flavour. The extrudate with banana puree (10% banana flour-) is light in colour

and crispy than the extrudate with 20% banana flour. When the temperature increased in

cooking unit, the extrudate became crispier. Pressure developed in the out put is depending

on the temperature of the cooking unit. 130-145 °C is favorable for banana rice baby cereal

for extrude.

OIN
Food extrusion is a thermal process combines several unit operations; eg. mixing, cooking,

kneading, shearing, shaping and forming. Paste comes out with high pressure to low

pressure environment and form puff product. Extruded foods are precooked and ready to

eat. Quality of foods is high, microbial and enzyme activity is very low. For ready -to- eat

cereals and snacks where the total moisture content of the material is in the range of 10-

15%. Screw speeds in excess of 200-250 rpm are normal.

4.12 Determination of Water Absorption Index for extrudates

Calculation:

Water Absorption Index = Weight of wet extrudate (Wi) - Weight of dry extrudate (W1

Weight of wet extrudate (W2)

Sample 1-20% banana flour

W1 =2.2691 g W2 3.9491 g

WAI = 3.9491-2.2691 / 2.2691

= 0.74

Sample 2- 10% banana flour + 10% banana puree

W1 2.1766g W2 4.314g

WAI = 4.314 -2.1766 / 2.1766

= 0.98

WAI is high in sample 2, when add banana puree extruded cereal became less hard. Banana

puree has more moisture than banana flour. WAI values become high when the temperature

and moisture content become high (Rosalia, A.G. et al, 2005).

98
4.13 Preparation of banana rice cereal cookies

Plate 11-Banana rice cereal cookies

Plate 12- Eggless banana rice cereal cookies

Wheat flour is used for get good baking properties. Texture of cookies is not sufficient in

"Eggless banana rice cereal cookies" than same add eggs. Banana flour should be very fine

to give good texture. Banana flavour is not sufficient because dried raw banana flour

contain less banana flavour. Therefore artificial banana flavour was added.
4.14 Results obtain on Sensory Evaluation

4.14.1 Sensory evaluation for 3 teething biscuit varieties

A Commercial rusk

B Banana rice cereal cookies

C Eggless banana rice cereal cookies

Table 14- Sensory evaluation data for 3 biscuit varieties

Categ Flavour Texture Rank Special

-ory Not Suffi- Too Good Little Too 1 2 3 comments

enough cient much Hard hard

A 2 23 - 22 3 - 25 - - Too much

bristle

B 16 5 4 3 18 4 - 19 6 Sugar not

enough

C 14 8 3 - 4 21 - 6 19 too hard

Table 15- Calculation based on rank sum test

Category Rank Sum

1 2 3

A (25 X 3) (0 X 2) (0 X 1) 73

B (0X3) (19X2) (6X1) 44

C (0X3) (6X2) (19X1) 31

KII
4.14.2 Sensory evaluation for Cookies (different banana flour percentages)

A 10% Banana flour

B 15% Banana flour

C 20% Banana flour

Table 16- Sensory evaluation data for 3 biscuit varieties

Categ Flavour Texture Rank Special

-ory Not Suffi- Too Good Little Too 1 2 3 comments

enough cient much Hard hard

A 6 13 - 9 8 - 2 6 17 Too much

bristle

B 2 15 17 15 6 10 23 2 - Sugar not

enough

C - 1 20 - 11 25 - 17 8 too hard

Table 17- Calculation based on rank sum test

Category Rank Sum

1 2 3

A (2X3) (6X2) (17X1) 35

B (23X3) (2X2) (OX 1) 73

C (0X3) (17X2) (8X1) 42


Milna rusk-banana is used as a commercial teething biscuit. Banana cereal cookies ( with

and with out eggs) recipes were obtained from internet (www. wholesome baby food.com)

and modified after several trials. Modified recipes are compared with commercial Rusk.

Commercial rusk is most preferred. Eggless banana rice cereal cookies got less preference

than banana rice cookies with eggs. Cookies are little harder than expected texture.

Banana rice cereal cookies with 15% banana flour are prefer than 10% and 20% banana

flour cookies got lesser preference.

Sucrose or sugar syrup adds for flavouring commercial biscuits and emulsifiers,

shortenings, lecithin should add for get proper texture and improves baking properties.

Cookies were prepared in a gas oven. Industrial type electric oven is most suitable for make

cookies. Bakery equipments like industrial type mixtures should use for get good quality

products.

Testing panel was not a professionally trained one.

102
CHAPTER 5

Conclusion

Maturity Index

Banana takes 85-95 days for come to full three-quarter stage after the emergence of the

inflorescence. Therefore it is difficulty to measure maturity indices daily. pH, TTS and

Penetration are the successful indices to determine maturity at the late development stage.

41h day of testing is the turning point for maturity of Embul banana. Maturity point in shape

is degree of fullness of the fruit, or disappearance of angularity in a cross section. Full

three-quarter stage is the best for harvesting.

According to the data the best maturity stage for Embul banana is as follows. Length,

diameter, girth and weight of the fruit are varying from one to another. Average lengths

vary from 9.9 ± 0.3 cm to 11.59 ± 0.3 cm in 6 samples tested. Average diameters vary from

2.8 ± 0.06cm to 3.37 ± 0.15 cm. Average girth vary from 10.2 ± 0.34 cm to 12.11 ± 0.45

cm. Average weight ( with peel) vary from 49.344 ± 5.4 g to 85.484 ± 7.8 g.

Sharp point for maturity- the pH of the flour ranged from 5.5 to 5.6. The T.S.S. is ranged

from 3 to 3.5%. Penetration is ranged from 4.2 to 4.3 kg. Colour of fruit is light green.

103
Control sample was obtained from Boralesgamuwa (Wet zone) and other samples from

Ambilipitiya (Dry zone). The climate difference may affect the values of maturity indices.

Keeping quality of banana flour

Recovery percentage of banana flour is 1 8.06% from the fresh bananas (with peel) or

27.69% from pulp weight. Banana flour can be store in polythene pouches for 10 months

without changing the quality. Banana flour should be packed in vacuum packing to prevent

moisture absorption.

SMS is the best inhibitor for prevent the discoloration in banana flour making. Citric acid

can be commercially accepted.

CFU in banana flour is 17 X 104 . Contaminations are high in laboratory and equipments

which used to prepare flour. CFU in cookies is 9X 102 can be acceptable.

Starch properties

Starch granules are elongated angular shape. Starch recovery percentage (wet basis) of

Embul banana is 1.88%. Starch percentage in dry basis is 6.78%.

Temperature of beginning of gelatinization is 78 °C ( after 32 mm.). Gelatinization

maximum at 90 °C ( after 40 mm.). Gelatinization temperature is 78-90 °C. Viscosity is

1470 Brabender units. Banana flour is gelatinized well and gave high peak viscosity.

Gelatinization behavior of banana flour is similar to corn starch.


Nutritional composition of banana flour

Moisture content in banana flour is 4.8 ± 0.04 %. Crude fat content in banana flour is

1.015 ± 0.04%. Crude protein content in banana flour is 1.542 + 0.06 %. Fiber content in

banana flour is 6.1 ± 0.03 %. Ash content in banana flour is 2.16 ± 0.08 %. Carbohydrate

content (by calculation) in banana flour is 84.383%.

Banana flour has high fiber and ash content and low fat and protein content. The high ash

content could be due to the high potassium content present in fruit and high fiber content

could be due to the high resistant starch. Contents of the components are varying according

to the banana variety.

Product development

Extruded banana rice baby cereal is better than home made cereal. The weakness is difficult

to add sugar due to caramalization during the extrusion. 130-145 °C is favorable for banana

rice baby cereal for extrude. Flavouring and further improvement are needed.

A banana rice cereal cookie with 15% banana flour is the most preferred combination for

Teething Biscuit. Quality of banana rice cookies are not up to commercial teething biscuits.

Further quality improvement is needed.

The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour for

baby food products.


REFERENCES

Banana Bulletin, 1974

Bhatnagar, S. and Hanna, M.A., 1995, Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of

starch-based plastic foams, Trans. ASAE, 567-571

Birch G.G. and Parker, K.J. , 1983, Dietary Fiber, Applied science publishers. New York

and London.

Frame, N.D. , 2007, The technology of extrusion cooking, A N Aspen Publication, 1-8.

King, R.D., Elsevier, 1984, Developments in food analysis techniques - 3, Applied

Science Publishers, London & New York.

Lawson,H., 1995 ,Food oils and fats, Chapman and Hall

Malonghlin, J.V.and.Metenns, B.M, 1988, Food Science and Technology,. Boole Press,

Dublin.

Manley, D.,Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manual 5,6, Woodhead Publishing

Limited.
Pearson, D., 1978, Composition and analysis of foods, Charchill Livingstone, New York,

9-3 1.

Pomerans, V. and Clifton E. Meloan, 1994, Food analysis. (Theory and Practical),

Chapman and Hall, An International Thomson Publishing company.

Rodier, E., 1986,Choice Cooking, Canadian Diabetes Association

Samuel a. Matz, Ingredients for Bakers, 2nd edition, Pan-Tech International, mt.

Werner B., 1990, Rapid methods for analysis of food and raw material, Technomic

Publishing Co. Inc, USA.

Research Articles

Belloperez L.A. et. al, 2004, In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

Damota R.V. et al, 2000, Composition and functional properties of banana flour from

different varieties.

Rosalia A.G. et al, 2005, Extrusion of banana starch: characterization of the extrudates.

Sothornvit, R, 2005, Oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of banana flour films

Weaver, Connie Marie, 1974, Factors influencing enzymatic browning of ripening bananas.

107
Web pages

Adel A. Kader, Banana- Recommendations for maintaining post harvest quality, Dept. of

plant Science, University of California, http// postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Produce/Produce

facts/ fruit! banana

Amylograph, www. brabender.com

Banana flour- Ingredients, substitutions and equivalents, www. gourmetsleuth.com

Banana, Food Resource, food. oregon state. ed u

Banana, 1999, International Institute of Starch, www.starch.dklisi!starch!banana

Banana- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, en.wikipedia.org!wiki!Banana

Banana, www.philonline.comph

Banana starch production-Patent 5797985, www.freepatentsonline .com

Biscuit manufacturing, Subodh S ingh, http!! enzinearticles.com

Functional properties of starches, Morton Satin, www.fao.org!ag!ags.Agsi!starch

Health and Nutrition: Ideal snack Banana, www.bawarchi.com

Homemade recipe for Baby Cereal, www.wholesomebabyfood.com

Mechanical properties of banana flour films, http!! ift.confex.com

108
http:1 food.orgonstste.edu/ref/plant/weaver/index.html

Processing of Banana flour, www.agnet.org/library/pt/2005019

Resistant starch- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

RISBAP Bulletin, June 2005, Vol 9,www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/banana.html

www.fao.org/docrep

www.jdhodges.com/Nutritional Information and values! Fruits and fruit juices/Bananas,

dehydrated, or banana

www.Isbu.ac.uk/water/hysta.html

www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/bananaluses.htm
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