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# Jonathan A. Chavez O.

## Autonomous Mobile Robot

 New Technology
 Major trend
 Allows Exploration of dangerous environments
 Presents problems of uncertainty and imprecision
 Employs the divide and conquer approach
 Makes the system modular
Behavior-Based Control Schemes
 Types:
 Sub-sumption architecture
 arranges the behavior by levels of priority .
 The motor schemas
 Function with forces (repulsion, attraction, overall)
 Fuzzy logic system to represent and coordinate the
behaviors.
 operate under imprecise and uncertain environments
Fuzzy Logic Behavior Based
 The problem is divided into smaller simpler tasks.
 Each task will represent a behavior.
 Each behavior is represented by a set of fuzzy logic
rule statements.
 Example:
 (1) IF dis VERYNEAR, THEN v is STOP.
 (2) IF dis NEAR, THEN v is SLOW.
 Behavior coordination
 Priorities (weights)
Behavior Based Strategies
 traverse behavior method 2002
 minimum risk method 2008
 selection behavioral approach 2008
 fixed motor schema approach 2008
Traverse Behavior Method
 This behavior extracts three characteristics from video
images:
 Roughness
 Slope
 Discontinuity.

##  This data is used to create an index to guide the robot

to the safest route.
Minimum Risk Method
 the robot navigation consist of three behaviors
 Global------ Goal Seeking
 Regional--- Path Searching
 Local-------Obstacle Avoidance.
 Depending on the robots position the weights of GS,
OA, and PS changes.
 Their respected minimum risk method is provided by
the path searching behavior.
Minimum Risk Method
 The objective is to avoid encountering obstacles and
avoid repeating previous trajectories
 This is done by assigning a matrix with the respected
values
 OMD--- the risk that the robot will collide with an obstacle
 TMD---- the risk that the robot might iterate a previous trajectory

##  These values are then stored on a memory grid map in

which the robot work area is represented in a 2-D array
of cells.
Minimum Risk Method
 Examples
Selection Behavioral Approach
 Therefore a behavior selection based navigation and
obstacle avoidance algorithm was implemented.
 The algorithm allows the robot to select the appropriate
behavior, based on information provided by the sensors
 Furthermore the behavior selection approach gives the
robot the ability to
 pick between the different behaviors available,
 select a different set of behavioral approaches
 Make some small changes to a behavioral approach
Fixed Motor Schema Approach
or schemas.
 A goal is an attractive force
 An obstacle represents a repulsive force
 The sum of these forces represents the coordinated
action.
 Set of fuzzy meta rules for each motor schema to scale
each force in order to avoid local minima errors.
Fixed Motor Schema Approach
Conclusion
 Robot navigation is still a new growing science
 There are different kinds of methods
 In general there isn’t a method which solves all the
problems in an efficient manner.
 The efficiency depends on the objectives that each
designer decides to attack
 The difficulty lies when the number of problems
attacked increases since the overall efficiency falls.