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Dynamics
Short Questions:

1. A body moving in a curved path with a constant speed of 20m/s. Does the body
possess any acceleration? Explain in four lines.

We know that acceleration is nothing but the change in velocity. And since
velocity is a vector quantity which has magnitude & direction and any
change in either of the two produces a change In velocity, which is called
acceleration. For this reason, object moving in a circular path with a
constant speed of 20m/s has acceleration because, although magnitude of
velocity vector is constant but direction of its velocity vector is changing
continuously.
2. Can centripetal and centrifugal forces balance each other? If not why?

## Centripetal force is a actual force is a actual force and it cannot be balanced

by centrifugal one which is an apparent force. If this would happen, net
force on a system would be zero and body would move In a straight path
rather than curved one.
3. A glass lying on the table does not possess friction. Why?

A glass lying on a table does possess friction because for friction to comes
into play there must be a relative motion between them.
4. Why do we put some powder on a carom board while playing?

When a slider slides over the surface of carom board, there exist a sliding
friction between these two surfaces. To reduce this friction, we put powder
on the carom board so that striker could slide freely over the surface. (Every
surface has some kind of friction in the shape of bumps and ridges. When a
body comes and tries to slide over this surface, then these microscopic peaks
and valleys come in contact with each other and hinder the motion of sliding
bodies. Now, when powder is sprayed, it covers those popping edge and
does not let the sliding object come in direct with popping edges.) 1

## Prepared by: Asher Kabir | Blog: ashhtalk.blogspor.com

5. Why does the motion of a vehicle become uncontrolled on any oily road?

## Motion of a vehicle becomes uncontrolled on an oily road because oil being

slippery in nature reduces the necessary amount of friction needed to stop
the moving vehicle.
6. Can we walk if there is no friction? Give reason to your answer.

## Off course we cannot if there is no friction. When we move forward on the

ground, then we do a kind of action on the ground by pushing the ground
backward and according to Newton’s third law of motion, there must an
equal but opposite reaction for every action, the ground pushes us forward
which are possible only due to the force of friction.
7. How does friction reduces the efficiency of a machine?

In a machine, parts are usually around to slide or rotate over one another.
When friction comes in between them, then it becomes difficult to perform
the required motion. In order to overcome the friction, extra energy would
be needed which reduces the efficiency of a machine.
8. Which string would you prefer to use for knitting, a nylon or cotton one and why?

For knitting, nylon is preferred over cotton because it offers lesser force of
friction than the cotton.
9. Name the principle on which the rocket works.

## Rocket works on the principle of law of conservation of momentum. It

states that “total momentum of interacting bodies in an isolated system
remains constant”. (In rocket’s case, we have system rocket + fuel, initially
when rocket is at rest, and then total momentum of the system is zero.
After the engine fires, it pushes the fuel out of the rare side of the rocket. 2
This part of the fuel has momentum towards the left as shown in figure (a).

## Since the total momentum of the system should be zero, therefore

momentum towards the left should equalize the momentum towards

left.

## The negative sign means two momentums are in opposite directions.

Although momentums of both, fuel and rocket are of same size yet their
velocities and masses are different. The fuel has a smaller mass, it gets a
larger velocity. And rocket has a larger mass, it get smaller velocity.

## Momentum is a vector quantity because it needs both direction and

magnitude for its description.