Sie sind auf Seite 1von 52

Tatcha Sudtasan, Hitoshi Mitomo,

The Internet of Things as an accelerator of advancement of broadband networks: A

case of Thailand,
Telecommunications Policy,
Volume 42, Issue 4,
Pages 293-303,
ISSN 0308-5961,
Abstract: The advanced development of broadband access is an inevitable step toward
supportive daily lives and sustainable economic growth. However, the decisive
outcome of the development relies heavily on the demand side. Consumer choice among
advanced Internet broadband technologies will determine the achievement of the
development. This study aims to illustrate that consumer decisions on choices of
advanced Internet access are influenced by the emergence of the Internet of Things
(IoT) applications. A bivariate probit model is applied to examine the effects of
IoT, consumer's individual characteristics, and their current use of networks on
their decision pertaining to the choice of advanced Internet access. Using Thailand
as a case study, the result indicates that the emergence of IoT applications
accelerates the adoption of both advanced mobile broadband (5G) and advanced fixed
broadband (FTTH). This finding may help policy makers to optimize the future
direction of the Internet infrastructure development in Thailand, and also
countries in a similar stage.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Advanced broadband network; Bivariate probit

Sunil Luthra, Dixit Garg, Sachin Kumar Mangla, Yash Paul Singh Berwal,
Analyzing challenges to Internet of Things (IoT) adoption and diffusion: An Indian
Procedia Computer Science,
Volume 125,
Pages 733-739,
ISSN 1877-0509,
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) arena has gained a significant attention in
recent years. IoT presents an image of a future internet and recognized as an
ecosystem of connected devices, computing mechanisms and other items to exchange
data/information cooperate with higher ease and financial benefits. However, IoT
adoption and diffusion still remains a challenge due to existence of many
challenges. Therefore, this work put forward an objective to recognize and analyze
the challenges in implementation of IoT systems in Indian context. Nine challenges
to IoT adoption and diffusion were identified by literature survey and experts’
opinions. Further, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process
(AHP) approaches were used to analyze the challenges to IoT adoption and diffusion
in Indian context. This study may help practitioners and policy makers in removing
the hurdles to successful IoT adoption and diffusion. Finally, conclusions and
future research directions are presented.
Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Challenges; Internet of Things (IoT);
India; Industry 4.0; Grey Relational Analysis (GRA)

Sabrina Sicari, Alessandra Rizzardi, Daniele Miorandi, Alberto Coen-Porisini,

REATO: REActing TO Denial of Service attacks in the Internet of Things,
Computer Networks,
Volume 137,
Pages 37-48,
ISSN 1389-1286,
Abstract: Denial of Service (DoS) attack represents until now a relevant problem in
Internet-based contexts. In fact, it is both difficult to recognize and to
counteract. Along with the adoption and diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT)
applications, such an issue has become more urgent to solve, due to the presence of
heterogeneous data sources and to the wireless nature of most communications. A DoS
attack is even more serious if not only the data sources are under attack, but also
the IoT platform itself, which is in charge of acquiring data from multiple data
sources and, after data processing, provide useful services to the interested
users. In this paper, we present a solution, named REATO, for actively and
dynamically detecting and facing DoS attacks within a running IoT middleware. A
real prototype has been realized in order to validate the proposed method, by
assessing different relevant parameters.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Security; Denial of Service; Attacks; Middleware;

Hugh Boyes, Bil Hallaq, Joe Cunningham, Tim Watson,

The industrial internet of things (IIoT): An analysis framework,
Computers in Industry,
Volume 101,
Pages 1-12,
ISSN 0166-3615,
Abstract: Historically, Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) were
largely isolated from conventional digital networks such as enterprise ICT
environments. Where connectivity was required, a zoned architecture was adopted,
with firewalls and/or demilitarized zones used to protect the core control system
components. The adoption and deployment of ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) technologies
is leading to architectural changes to IACS, including greater connectivity to
industrial systems. This paper reviews what is meant by Industrial IoT (IIoT) and
relationships to concepts such as cyber-physical systems and Industry 4.0. The
paper develops a definition of IIoT and analyses related partial IoT taxonomies. It
develops an analysis framework for IIoT that can be used to enumerate and
characterise IIoT devices when studying system architectures and analysing security
threats and vulnerabilities. The paper concludes by identifying some gaps in the
Keywords: Industrial internet of things; Cyber-physical systems; Industry 4.0;

Montbel Thibaud, Huihui Chi, Wei Zhou, Selwyn Piramuthu,

Internet of Things (IoT) in high-risk Environment, Health and Safety (EHS)
industries: A comprehensive review,
Decision Support Systems,
Volume 108,
Pages 79-95,
ISSN 0167-9236,
Abstract: The rise of ubiquitous systems is sustained by the development and
progressive adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and their enabling
technologies. IoT has been shown to have significant potential in high-risk
Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) industries. In these industries, human lives
are at stake and IoT-based applications are primed to offer safe, reliable, and
efficient solutions due to their ability to operate at a fine granular level and
provide rich low-level information. We review existing published research on IoT-
based applications in high-risk EHS industries with specific emphasis on healthcare
industry, food supply chain (FSC), mining and energy industries (oil & gas and
nuclear), intelligent transportation (e.g., connected vehicles), and building &
infrastructure management for emergency response operations until 2016. We also
highlight IoT-related challenges and proposed solutions in high risk EHS
industries. We then conclude by presenting research challenges and expected trends
for IoT in these industries.
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Environment Health and Safety (EHS);
Healthcare; Food supply chain; Connected vehicles; Smart city

Huseyin Yildirim, Amr M.T. Ali-Eldin,

A model for predicting user intention to use wearable IoT devices at the workplace,
Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences,
ISSN 1319-1578,
Abstract: The internet of things refers to devices that are connected to the
Internet and communicate with each other providing many benefits to users, but they
could also violate their privacy. The main objective of this study is to analyse
the factors that influence employees’ intention to use wearable devices at the
workplace. In this study, a review of the literature regarding acceptance of
technologies and influencing factors such as risk and trust is used to develop a
conceptual model. The proposed conceptual model was tested using a survey conducted
among employees of an IT consulting firm, with a total of 76 participants. Partial
least square path and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference modelling were used to
validate and predict these factors influence on users’ intention to use these
devices. The findings indicate that the perceived usefulness of a wearable IoT
device provides the strongest motivation for individuals to use it at the
workplace. Further results show that applying the ANFIS approach helps improve the
predictability of user intention to use IoT devices.
Keywords: Behaviour intention; Privacy; Trust; Wearable devices; Internet of Things
(IoT); Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference systems (ANFIS); Partial Least Square
Modelling (PLS)

Eva Martínez-Caro, Juan Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro, Alexeis García-Pérez, Monica Fait,

Healthcare service evolution towards the Internet of Things: An end-user
Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
ISSN 0040-1625,
Abstract: For the last two decades the Internet of Things (IoT) has been a subject
of growing global interest. Particularly dynamic industries such as the healthcare
service sector have just begun to understand the benefits of the IoT for the
provision of a new, more advanced type of services. However, whilst the healthcare
service industry is yet to fully grasp the benefits of information systems for its
practitioners and managers, and for patients and families, there is a need for a
better understanding of the challenges and opportunities associated to IoT-based
healthcare systems as another disruptive wave of technologies. In particular,
research on the relevance of users' skills for adoption of IoT-based healthcare
services has been limited. Using the current Internet-based healthcare service
landscape as a platform for the formulation and testing of its hypotheses, this
paper explores the relationship between patients' capabilities for effective use of
information and communication technologies and the success of IoT-based healthcare
services. The resulting theoretical model for effective use of information and
communication technologies and the success of IoT-based healthcare services was
then validated. The validation was based on data collected from a randomly selected
sample of 256 users of Internet-based healthcare services provided by the public
healthcare system of the Region of Murcia in Spain. The findings of this research
inform future strategies for the implementation of new generations of health and
well-being services based on IoT technologies.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Internet-based healthcare service; IoT-based system
success; Patients' e-skills; Patients' e-loyalty

Keke Gai, Meikang Qiu,

Optimal resource allocation using reinforcement learning for IoT content-centric
Applied Soft Computing,
Volume 70,
Pages 12-21,
ISSN 1568-4946,
Abstract: The exponential growing rate of the networking technologies has led to a
dramatical large scope of the connected computing environment. Internet-of-Things
(IoT) is considered an alternative for obtaining high performance by the enhanced
capabilities in system controls, resource allocations, data exchanges, and flexible
adoptions. However, current IoT is encountering the bottleneck of the resource
allocation due to the mismatching networking service quality and complicated
service offering environments. This paper concentrates on the issue of resource
allocations in IoT and utilizes the satisfactory level of Quality of Experience
(QoE) to achieve intelligent content-centric services. A novel approach is proposed
by this work, which utilizes the mechanism of Reinforcement Learning (RL) to obtain
high accurate QoE in resource allocations. Two RL-based algorithms have been
proposed for cost mapping tables creations and optimal resource allocations. Our
experiment evaluations have assessed the efficiency of implementing the proposed
Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Resource allocation; Content-centric; Internet-
of-Things; Smart computing

Sheshadri Chatterjee, Arpan Kumar Kar, M.P. Gupta,

Success of IoT in Smart Cities of India: An empirical analysis,
Government Information Quarterly,
ISSN 0740-624X,
Abstract: With Rapid progress of wireless technology, the daily life of the
citizens has undergone drastic change. They are using sophisticated devices based
on latest technology for their daily usage at homes. This lucrative facility is
available especially to the citizens of modern cities of the world. India is also
not lagging. Government of India has announced for creation of 100 Smart Cities
where the citizens are expected to use Information and Communication Technology
with the help of internet. More use of internet by the citizens would enhance more
internet penetration and here Internet of Things (IoT) plays a crucial role.
However, tapping into the IoT is mere a part of the story. It is necessary to
combine IoT with Artificial Intelligence (AI) in ‘Smart Machines’ to simulate
intelligent behavior to arrive at an accurate and reliable decision without human
intervention. Now combining AI and IoT information systems has become an essential
precondition for achieving information system success. For information system
success, it is essential to identify the factors affecting it. The purpose of this
study is to identify those factors affecting successful implementation of
information system enabling IoT coupled with Artificial Intelligence in the
proposed Smart Cities of India (SCI).
Keywords: Government; Information system success; Internet of things (IoT); Smart
cities of India (SCI)

B.B. Gupta, Megha Quamara,

An identity based access control and mutual authentication framework for
distributed cloud computing services in IoT environment using smart cards,
Procedia Computer Science,
Volume 132,
Pages 189-197,
ISSN 1877-0509,
Abstract: With the rapid advancements in the field of Internet of Things (IoT),
numerous Information Technology (IT) based services and applications are being
developed to provide convenience to users. Adoption of Cloud Computing will enable
the pervasive computing based application scenarios an important part of the future
Internet. In this paper, we propose a framework which involves the use of smart
cards by the users to access the Cloud based services and data in a distributed IoT
environment. Identity based access control mechanism is used to ensure secure
access of the services and data by authenticated users. Furthermore, informal
security and functional analysis of the framework are presented.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Cloud Computing; Smart Card; Access Control; Privacy

Allaa R. Hilal, Aya Sayedelahl, Arash Tabibiazar, Mohamed S. Kamel, Otman A. Basir,
A distributed sensor management for large-scale IoT indoor acoustic surveillance,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 86,
Pages 1170-1184,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: The recent world events have underscored the need for large area
surveillance systems. Such systems require effective sensing and collaborative
decision-making to operate in highly dynamic environments with demanding time
constraints. The Pervasive Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel paradigm that
enables detailed characterization of the real physical applications. To this end, a
pervasive IoT surveillance applications can offer an effective framework to collect
situation-aware knowledge that is vital for planning effective security measures.
Nevertheless, most state-of-the-art focus only on visual abnormal event recognition
using centralized systems, thus, ignoring the need for distributed operation to
enable large-scale IoT surveillance systems. This paper presents a novel Sensor
Management (SM) framework for pervasive IoT acoustic surveillance, IntelliSurv,
that automatically detects and localizes abnormal acoustic events in a distributed
collaborative manner. The proposed framework coordinates the sensing resources
using a novel team-theoretic SM, based on the Belief–Desire–Intention (BDI) model,
for autonomous decision-making and resource allocation. The proposed abnormal event
recognition module, using Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Linear Discriminate
Analysis (LDA) classifiers, relies on audio information to recognize human screams
or high-stress speech signals. The simulation scenario in this work is the
surveillance of the Waterloo International Airport implemented using Jadex platform
and Speech Under Simulated and Actual Stress (SUSAS) database. The simulation
results show the merits of the proposed IntelliSurv framework, compared to the
popular centralized systems, over varying network size, number of threats, Signal-
to-Noise Ratios (SNR), tracking quality, and energy consumption.
Keywords: Pervasive acoustic surveillance; Sensor management; Abnormality
detection; Localization; Belief–Desire–Intention (BDI) model; Autonomous systems;
Indoor environment; Internet of Things

Chin-Lung Hsu, Judy Chuan-Chuan Lin,

An empirical examination of consumer adoption of Internet of Things services:
Network externalities and concern for information privacy perspectives,
Computers in Human Behavior,
Volume 62,
Pages 516-527,
ISSN 0747-5632,
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging as a significant development in
information technology, with the potential to increase convenience and efficiency
in daily life. While the number of IoT service users has increased dramatically,
little is understood about what motivates the continued use of such services. The
primary objective of this study is to develop and refine a conceptual framework
from the perspective of network externalities and privacy to provide a theoretical
understanding of the motivations that drive continued use of IoT services. The
proposed model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 508 users
concerning their perceptions of IoT services. The results indicate network
externalities play a significant role in influencing consumers' perception of usage
benefits and thus adoption, whereas privacy concerns have a relatively weak effect
on adoption. Implications for IS researchers and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Network externality; Concern for information privacy;
IT usage

Monika Mital, Victor Chang, Praveen Choudhary, Armando Papa, Ashis K. Pani,
Adoption of Internet of Things in India: A test of competing models using a
structured equation modeling approach,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
ISSN 0040-1625,
Abstract: Internet of Things based applications for smart homes, wearable health
devices, and smart cities are in the evolutionary stage in India. Adoption of
Internet of Things is still limited to a few application areas. In developing
countries, the usefulness of IOT's adoption is recognized as a key factor for
economic and social development of a country by both academicians and practitioners
as well. Currently, there are still very few studies that explore the adoption of
Internet of Things from a multiple theory perspective, namely, The Theory of
Reasoned Action (TRA), The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and The Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM). This research aims to satisfy a clear gap in the main field
of research by proposing a Structured Equation Model (SEM) approach to test three
competing models in the context of Internet of Things in India. With respect to
previous literature, this research sets the stage for extensive research in a broad
domain of application areas for the Internet of Things, like healthcare, elderly
well- being and support, smart cities and smart supply chains etc.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Healthcare; Smart cities; Smart supply-chain
management; Indian market; Multiple-theory based approach

Mert Onuralp Gökalp, Altan Koçyiğit, P. Erhan Eren,

A visual programming framework for distributed Internet of Things centric complex
event processing,
Computers & Electrical Engineering,
ISSN 0045-7906,
Abstract: Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a promising approach for real-time
processing of big-data streams originating from Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
Even though scalability and flexibility are key issues for IoT applications,
current studies are mostly based on centralized solutions and restrictive query
languages. Moreover, development, deployment and operation of big-data applications
require significant amount of technical expertise. Hence, a framework that provides
a higher abstraction level programming model and a streamlined execution
environment is essential to facilitate widespread user adoption. In this paper, we
propose a data-flow based visual programming model that enables development of big-
data applications in IoT domain even by users who have limited or no experience in
big-data technologies. A scalable CEP engine is also devised to execute the
applications developed using this language. A prototype is implemented by using the
state-of-the-art big-data and real-time stream processing technologies to evaluate
the applicability and usability of the framework.
Keywords: Complex event processing; Big data; Internet of things; Visual
programming; Stream processing; Distributed processing

Gangyan Xu, Ming Li, Chun-Hsien Chen, Yongchang Wei,

Cloud asset-enabled integrated IoT platform for lean prefabricated construction,
Automation in Construction,
Volume 93,
Pages 123-134,
ISSN 0926-5805,
Abstract: Prefabricated construction has become increasingly popular over the
recent years, given its benefits including higher construction speed, lower cost,
and improved quality. To facilitate the operations of prefabricated construction,
various technologies have in parallel been introduced. However, due to its project-
based feature and the involvement of numerous Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs),
the adoption of information technologies is insufficient and varies between SMEs,
thereby hindering the improvement of the efficiency of prefabricated construction.
Considering these issues and aiming at realizing lean prefabricated construction,
this paper proposes an integrated cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) platform
through exploiting the concept of cloud asset. Its operation model has also been
worked out to enable SMEs to adopt IoT technologies economically and flexibly.
Besides, to make the platform compatible and scalable on managing diverse physical
assets in different companies and scenarios, a unified cloud asset data model is
proposed. Furthermore, an IoT service-sharing module is developed to support
different levels of service-sharing on the platform. Finally, a real-life
prefabricated construction project in Hong Kong and several lab-based LEGO
construction models are adopted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the
proposed platform.
Keywords: Prefabricated construction; Cloud asset; Internet of Things (IoT); Lean
construction; Sharing economy

Kostas Kolomvatsos,
Time-optimized management of IoT nodes,
Ad Hoc Networks,
Volume 69,
Pages 1-14,
ISSN 1570-8705,
Abstract: The vision of Internet of Things (IoT) aims to offer a vast
infrastructure of numerous interconnected devices usually called IoT nodes. The
infrastructure consists of the basis of pervasive computing applications.
Applications can be built with the participation of the IoT nodes that interact in
very dynamic environments. In this setting, one can identify the need for applying
updates in the software/firmware of the autonomous nodes. Updates may include
software extensions and patches significant for the efficient functioning of the
IoT nodes. Legacy methodologies involve centralized models where complex algorithms
and protocols are adopted for the distribution of the updates to the nodes. This
paper proposes a distributed approach where each node is responsible to initiate
and conclude the update process. We envision that each node monitors specific
performance metrics (related to the node itself and/or the network) and based on a
time-optimized scheme identifies the appropriate time to perform the update
process.We propose the adoption of a finite horizon optimal stopping scheme. Our
stopping model originates in the Optimal Stopping Theory (OST) and takes into
account multiple performance metrics. The aim is to have the nodes capable of
identifying when their performance and the performance of the network are of high
quality. In that time, nodes could be able to efficiently conclude the update
process. We provide a set of formulations and the analysis of our problem.
Extensive experiments and a comparison assessment reveal the advantages of the
proposed solution.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Updates management; Optimal stopping theory

Alavalapati Goutham Reddy, Devanapalli Suresh, Kolloju Phaneendra, Ji Sun Shin,

Vanga Odelu,
Provably secure pseudo-identity based device authentication for smart cities
Sustainable Cities and Society,
Volume 41,
Pages 878-885,
ISSN 2210-6707,
Abstract: IoT based smart city idea is evolving with an intention of improving the
quality of citizens’ life by practicing information and communication technologies.
Smart city concept is believed to be possible by integrating the evolving
technologies such as internet of things (IoT), automation and machine learning in
which IoT holds the key role. Authentication has already been identified as a
foremost security concern around the IoT, as millions of small devices go online
and begin to share their data. Authentication in IoT environment mainly considers
the three types of communications: IoT device – IoT device, IoT device – IoT
gateway, and IoT gateway – mobile client. In this paper, we design a protocol to
address the authentication process between IoT gateway and mobile client. The
proposed protocol's security is analyzed formally and informally to demonstrate
robustness. Performance analysis of the proposed protocol has also paid adequate
attention to show the probability of implementation in real time applications.
Keywords: Security; Credential privacy; Mutual authentication; IoT; Smart city

S. Sicari, A. Rizzardi, L.A. Grieco, G. Piro, A. Coen-Porisini,

A policy enforcement framework for Internet of Things applications in the smart
Smart Health,
Volumes 3–4,
Pages 39-74,
ISSN 2352-6483,
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized by heterogeneous technologies,
which concur to the provisioning of innovative services in different application
domains. Introducing efficient mechanisms for collecting, processing, and
delivering data generated by sensors, medical equipment, wearable devices, and
humans, is a key enabling factor for advanced healthcare services. The adoption of
IoT in smart health, however, opens the doors to some security concerns. In fact,
by considering the confidentiality and sensitivity of medical data, a healthcare
system must fulfill advanced access control procedures with strict security and
data quality requirements. To this end, a flexible policy enforcement framework,
based on the IoT paradigm, is defined hereby. It is able to face security and
quality threats in dynamic large scale and heterogeneous smart hearth environments.
As a key feature of the proposed framework, cross-domain policies have been defined
using a specification language based on XML. In this way, it becomes possible to
ease the management of interactions across different realms and policy conflicts.
Moreover, to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, a running
example, based on a smart health application, is detailed throughout the
manuscript. This helps to highlight the different facets of the conceived
enforcement framework. A preliminary performance analysis also demonstrates its
feasibility in large scale environments.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Smart health; Security; Policy enforcement

Nir Kshetri,
The evolution of the internet of things industry and market in China: An interplay
of institutions, demands and supply,
Telecommunications Policy,
Volume 41, Issue 1,
Pages 49-67,
ISSN 0308-5961,
Abstract: This paper seeks to provide some explanation as to how demand-, supply-
and institutions-related factors in China have affected the creation and diffusion
of Internet of Things (IoT)-related products and services. Concerning demand side
factors the paper demonstrates how potential market size and existing technology
trajectory work in favor of IoT diffusion. As a related demand side factor the
paper argues that, in terms of the technological trajectory, China has started
farther from the frontier than most industrialized countries. The degree of
incremental benefit from the IoT is thus higher in the country. As to the supply
side factors, the article promotes an understanding of how Chinese technology
companies have capitalized on a huge user base to develop IoT-based applications.
It also suggests that technologies and expertise provided by foreign multinationals
have also played crucial roles. Regarding formal institutions, the government's
proactive policies have been a major factor in the IoT's evolution. It is also in
the Chinese government's interest to develop IoT products to make censorship and
surveillance more effective. Regarding informal institutions, Chinese consumers are
less concerned than Westerners about being tracked and monitored, which provides a
favorable condition for the adoption of IoT-enabled devices. Nonetheless, this
condition is changing due to increasing abuse of consumer privacy. China and the
U.S. are compared in terms of diffusion, key determinants, performance indicators
and impacts of the IoT in order to understand the areas that China outperforms—and
underperforms—the U.S. Some indicators are proposed to gauge the IoT-related
performance and the impacts of the IoT.
Keywords: China; Institutions; Internet of Things; Leapfrogging; Smart city;

Marcelo Fantinato, Patrick C.K. Hung, Ying Jiang, Jorge Roa, Pablo Villarreal,
Mohammed Melaisi, Fernanda Amancio,
A preliminary study of Hello Barbie in Brazil and Argentina,
Sustainable Cities and Society,
Volume 40,
Pages 83-90,
ISSN 2210-6707,
Abstract: A smart city is an urban development vision based on Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) and the Internet of things (IoT) for the city’s
management and operations. The smart city concept is raised simultaneously in many
modern societies. IoT is always playing an important role as smart devices to
support complex scenarios in smart cities. A smart toy, such as “Hello Barbie,” is
a smart device consisting of a physical toy component that connects to a computing
system with online services through networking to enhance the functionality of a
traditional toy. In this research, we particularly studied Brazilian and
Argentinian consumers’ perceived innovativeness, risks and benefits of smart toys
and their purchase intention toward such toys. Results indicate that Brazilian
consumers have better perception and evaluation of the toy and thus higher purchase
intention than Argentinian consumers do. Such difference may be explained by the
cultural differences between the two countries, such as relatively low vs. high
uncertainty avoidance. We also provide our recommendations for smart toys
manufacturers to address these issues for the future products.
Keywords: Smart city; Smart toy; Survey; South America; Brazil; Argentina; Hello
Barbie; Perceived innovativeness; Privacy risks; Parental control

Jungwoo Shin, Yuri Park, Daeho Lee,

Who will be smart home users? An analysis of adoption and diffusion of smart homes,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
Volume 134,
Pages 246-253,
ISSN 0040-1625,
Abstract: A smart home is considered a primary service of the Internet of Things
(IoT), and global leading companies are launching smart home services/products
based on the IoT. However, the spread of smart homes has been slower than expected,
and analysis of smart homes from a demand perspective is required. This study
suggests implications for promoting the smart home market by analyzing factors
affecting adoption and diffusion of smart homes. A technology acceptance model was
used to describe the adoption of smart homes and a multivariate probit model was
used to describe the diffusion of smart homes. The characteristics of smart homes
such as network effects between services/products and the importance of personal
information protection were considered in addition to demographic variables. The
results of this study show that compatibility, perceived ease of use, and perceived
usefulness have significant positive effects on purchase intention. In terms of
purchase timing, unlike other information and communication technology (ICT)
services/products, older consumers are more likely to purchase smart homes within a
given time period than are younger consumers. Therefore, a strategy for promoting
smart home purchases by young consumers is required to increase market demand.
Keywords: Consumer behavior; Multivariate probit model; Network externality; Smart
home; Technology acceptance model

Mohamed Elhoseny, Ahmed Abdelaziz, Ahmed S. Salama, A.M. Riad, Khan Muhammad, Arun
Kumar Sangaiah,
A hybrid model of Internet of Things and cloud computing to manage big data in
health services applications,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 86,
Pages 1383-1394,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: Over the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in big data
research, especially for health services applications. The adoption of the cloud
computing and the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm in the healthcare field can
bring several opportunities to medical IT, and experts believe that it can
significantly improve healthcare services and contribute to its continuous and
systematic innovation in a big data environment such as Industry 4.0 applications.
However, the required resources to manage such data in a cloud-IoT environment are
still a big challenge. Accordingly, this paper proposes a new model to optimize
virtual machines selection (VMs) in cloud-IoT health services applications to
efficiently manage a big amount of data in integrated industry 4.0. Industry 4.0
applications require to process and analyze big data, which come from different
sources such as sensor data, without human intervention. The proposed model aims to
enhance the performance of the healthcare systems by reducing the stakeholders’
request execution time, optimizing the required storage of patients’ big data and
providing a real-time data retrieval mechanism for those applications. The
architecture of the proposed hybrid cloud-IoT consists of four main components:
stakeholders’ devices, stakeholders’ requests (tasks), cloud broker and network
administrator. To optimize the VMs selection, three different well-known optimizers
(Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and Parallel Particle swarm
optimization (PPSO) are used to build the proposed model. To calculate the
execution time of stakeholders’ requests, the proposed fitness function is a
composition of three important criteria which are CPU utilization, turn-around time
and waiting time. A set of experiments were conducted to provide a comparative
study between those three optimizers regarding the execution time, the data
processing speed, and the system efficiency. The proposed model is tested against
the state-of-the-art method to evaluate its effectiveness. The results show that
the proposed model outperforms on the state-of-the-art models in total execution
time the rate of 50%. Also, the system efficiency regarding real-time data retrieve
is significantly improved by 5.2%.
Keywords: Big data; Industry 4.0; Cloud computing; Internet of Things; Health
services; Genetic Algorithm; Particle swarm optimization

I. Farris, A. Orsino, L. Militano, A. Iera, G. Araniti,

Federated IoT services leveraging 5G technologies at the edge,
Ad Hoc Networks,
Volume 68,
Pages 58-69,
ISSN 1570-8705,
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is evolving towards the deployment
of integrated environments, wherein heterogeneous devices pool their capacities
together to match wide-ranging user and service requirements. As a consequence,
solutions for efficient and synergistic cooperation among objects acquire great
relevance. Along this line, this paper focuses on the adoption of the promising
MIFaaS (Mobile-IoT-Federation-as-a-Service) paradigm to support delay-sensitive
applications for high-end IoT devices in next-to-come fifth generation (5G)
environments. MIFaaS fosters the provisioning of IoT services and applications with
low-latency requirements by leveraging cooperation among private/public clouds of
IoT objects at the edge of the network. A performance assessment of the MIFaaS
paradigm in a cellular 5G environment based on both Long Term Evolution (LTE) and
the recent Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is presented. Obtained results demonstrate that
the proposed solution outperforms classic approaches, highlighting significant
benefits derived from the joint use of LTE and NB-IoT bandwidths in terms of
increased number of successfully delivered IoT services.
Keywords: IoT; Multi-access edge computing; 5G; Narrowband-IoT

Sabrina Sicari, Alessandra Rizzardi, Daniele Miorandi, Cinzia Cappiello, Alberto

Security policy enforcement for networked smart objects,
Computer Networks,
Volume 108,
Pages 133-147,
ISSN 1389-1286,
Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT) heterogeneous technologies concur to the
provisioning of customized services able to bridge the gap between the physical and
digital realms. Security, privacy and data quality are acknowledged to represent
key issues to be tackled in order to foster the large-scale adoption of IoT systems
and technologies. One instrumental aspect concerns the ability of the system to
preserve security in the presence of external attacks. In such a scenario, the
integration of a flexible IoT middleware, able to handle a large number of data
streams and of interconnected devices, with a flexible policy enforcement framework
is needed and presented in this paper. The proposed solution aims to ease the
management of interactions across different realms and policy conflicts. Its
effectiveness is validated by means of a lightweight and cross-domain prototypical
Keywords: Internet of things; Security; Data quality; Policy enforcement;
Middleware; Prototype

Alessio Botta, Walter de Donato, Valerio Persico, Antonio Pescapé,

Integration of Cloud computing and Internet of Things: A survey,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 56,
Pages 684-700,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are two very different
technologies that are both already part of our life. Their adoption and use are
expected to be more and more pervasive, making them important components of the
Future Internet. A novel paradigm where Cloud and IoT are merged together is
foreseen as disruptive and as an enabler of a large number of application
scenarios. In this paper, we focus our attention on the integration of Cloud and
IoT, which is what we call the CloudIoT paradigm. Many works in literature have
surveyed Cloud and IoT separately and, more precisely, their main properties,
features, underlying technologies, and open issues. However, to the best of our
knowledge, these works lack a detailed analysis of the new CloudIoT paradigm, which
involves completely new applications, challenges, and research issues. To bridge
this gap, in this paper we provide a literature survey on the integration of Cloud
and IoT. Starting by analyzing the basics of both IoT and Cloud Computing, we
discuss their complementarity, detailing what is currently driving to their
integration. Thanks to the adoption of the CloudIoT paradigm a number of
applications are gaining momentum: we provide an up-to-date picture of CloudIoT
applications in literature, with a focus on their specific research challenges.
These challenges are then analyzed in details to show where the main body of
research is currently heading. We also discuss what is already available in terms
of platforms–both proprietary and open source–and projects implementing the
CloudIoT paradigm. Finally, we identify open issues and future directions in this
field, which we expect to play a leading role in the landscape of the Future
Keywords: Cloud computing; Internet of Things; Ubiquitous networks; Cloud of
things; Pervasive applications; Smart city

Ping-Win Lui, Feng Min Lai, Kuo-Chih Su, Jen Yung Lin, Hwa Wei Chi, Jean-Shyan
Wang, Yuh Wen Chen,
Use Eye Tracker to Design an Intelligent Patient Bed,
Energy Procedia,
Volume 143,
Pages 553-558,
ISSN 1876-6102,
Abstract: In the case of caring disable patients in hospital, transportation and
security of a patient under supervision of a nurse is crucially important. We
developed an intelligent patient bed here, with the assistance of contactless eye
tracker which works to facilitate the communication between the disable patient and
the bed for better self-care. In real time, it delivers information about the gaze
position, where a designed Graphical User Interface (GUI) is used to catch the
intention of user. After that, it is able to trigger a special service that the
patient expects. The service embedded in the patient bed include the complicated
positioning control and the call for a nurse. In addition, this patient bed is
innovatively made of composite materials: carbon fibers to reduce the total weight
for saving electricity and reduce the burden of transportation or positioning. Our
efforts are valuable when the hospital moves toward the automation and intelligence
via the technology from Internet of Things (IOTs).
Keywords: Eye Tracker; Hospital; Patient Bed; Composite Material; Internet of

Brandon P. Wong, Branko Kerkez,

Real-time environmental sensor data: An application to water quality using web
Environmental Modelling & Software,
Volume 84,
Pages 505-517,
ISSN 1364-8152,
Abstract: While real-time sensor feeds have the potential to transform both
environmental science and decision-making, such data are rarely part of real-time
workflows, analyses and modeling tool chains. Despite benefits ranging from
detecting malfunctioning sensors to adaptive sampling, the limited number and
complexity of existing real-time platforms across environmental domains pose a
barrier to the adoption of real-time data. We present an architecture built upon 1)
the increasing availability of new technologies to expose environmental sensors as
web services, and 2) the merging of these services under recent innovations on the
Internet of Things (IoT). By leveraging recent developments in the IoT arena, the
environmental sciences stand to make significant gains in the use of real-time
data. We describe a use case in the hydrologic sciences, where an adaptive sampling
algorithm is successfully deployed to optimize the use of a constrained sensor
network resource.
Keywords: Real-time data; Web services; Sensor networks; Adaptive sampling;
Internet of things (IoT)

Jemal Abawajy, Shamsul Huda, Shaila Sharmeen, Mohammad Mehedi Hassan, Ahmad
Identifying cyber threats to mobile-IoT applications in edge computing paradigm,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 89,
Pages 525-538,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: The malware has become an increasing problem for Mobile-Internet of
Things applications in edge computing platform. Variants of malware can be
identified once their general characteristics are known and overtly malicious
behavior can be identified. Some research has been performed using static analysis
in order to identify privacy violating malware for IoT in edge computing. Dynamic
analysis can be easily evaded as malware can adapt to avoid detection and has
performance overheads. The case where an application lies about its intention for
requesting a permission or intentionally violates the user’s expectation of an
applications behavior is not so well researched. This research extensively explores
the fundamental gap in the current literature in terms of mobile malware. We
particularly focus on a greater set of permissions which may be leveraged for other
purposes, for example by using sensors to record user credentials or monitoring a
user’s movements. This research will attempt to identify such scenarios by
employing behavioral analysis to determine when and how permissions are used and
static and dynamic analysis to determine the behavior of application logic yet to
execute. We proposed two-layer detection engine with hybrid feature analysis.
Experimental results with real mobile malware IoT data show that our proposed
approach with permission related features outperforms other detection engines.
Keywords: Cyber-threat; Mobile malware; Internet of Things; Edge computing; Feature

Bruno P. Santos, Olga Goussevskaia, Luiz F.M. Vieira, Marcos A.M. Vieira, Antonio
A.F. Loureiro,
Mobile Matrix: Routing under mobility in IoT, IoMT, and Social IoT,
Ad Hoc Networks,
Volume 78,
Pages 84-98,
ISSN 1570-8705,
Abstract: The explosive growth of “things” connected to the Internet (Internet of
Things, IoT) raises the question of whether existing ready-to-go networking
protocols are enough to cover social and mobile IoT’s demands. IoT aims to
interconnect static devices attached to some physical infrastructure. However,
mobility is a major factor present in everyday life, and naturally the “things” can
move around (Internet of Mobile Things, IoMT) and create social ties (Social IoT,
SIoT) in the cyber-physical space. In that context, we present Mobile Matrix
(μMatrix), a routing protocol that uses hierarchical IPv6 address allocation to
perform any-to-any routing and mobility management without changing a node’s
address. In this way, device mobility is transparent to the application level
favoring IoMT and SIoT implementation and broader adoption. The protocol has low
memory footprint, adjustable control message overhead, and it achieves optimal
routing path distortion. Moreover, it does not rely on any particular hardware for
mobility detection (a key open issue), such as an accelerometer. Instead, it uses a
passive mechanism to detect that a device has moved. We present analytic proofs for
the computational complexity and efficiency of μMatrix, as well as an evaluation of
the protocol through simulations. We evaluate the protocol performance under human
and non-human mobility models. For human mobility, we generated mobility traces
using Group Regularity Mobility (GRM) Model, setting its parameters based on real
human mobility traces. For the non-human mobility, we propose a new mobility model,
to which we refer as Cyclical Random Waypoint (CRWP), where nodes move using a
simple Random Waypoint and, eventually, return to their initial position. We
compared μMatrix with three baseline protocols: Routing Protocol for low-power and
lossy networks (RPL), Mobility Management RPL (MMRPL), and Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector (AODV). The results show that μMatrix and RPL offer ≈ 99.9% of
bottom-up delivery rate, but only μMatrix offer ≥ 95% of top-down traffic in
highly dynamic and mobile scenarios, while other protocols ≤ 75%. Moreover,
μMatrix uses up to 65% of the routing table while RPL and AODV fulfill theirs in
all scenarios, which leads to poor top-down and any-to-any reliability.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Mobility; Hierarchical address; Routing protocol

Julien Mineraud, Oleksiy Mazhelis, Xiang Su, Sasu Tarkoma,

A gap analysis of Internet-of-Things platforms,
Computer Communications,
Volumes 89–90,
Pages 5-16,
ISSN 0140-3664,
Abstract: We are experiencing an abundance of Internet-of-Things (IoT) middleware
solutions that provide connectivity for sensors and actuators to the Internet. To
gain a widespread adoption, these middleware solutions, referred to as platforms,
have to meet the expectations of different players in the IoT ecosystem, including
device providers, application developers, and end-users, among others. In this
article, we evaluate a representative sample of these platforms, both proprietary
and open-source, on the basis of their ability to meet the expectations of
different IoT users. The evaluation is thus more focused on how ready and usable
these platforms are for IoT ecosystem players, rather than on the peculiarities of
the underlying technological layers. The evaluation is carried out as a gap
analysis of the current IoT landscape with respect to (i) the support for
heterogeneous sensing and actuating technologies, (ii) the data ownership and its
implications for security and privacy, (iii) data processing and data sharing
capabilities, (iv) the support offered to application developers, (v) the
completeness of an IoT ecosystem, and (vi) the availability of dedicated IoT
marketplaces. The gap analysis aims to highlight the deficiencies of today’s
solutions to improve their integration to tomorrow’s ecosystems. In order to
strengthen the finding of our analysis, we conducted a survey among the partners of
the Finnish IoT program, counting over 350 experts, to evaluate the most critical
issues for the development of future IoT platforms. Based on the results of our
analysis and our survey, we conclude this article with a list of recommendations
for extending these IoT platforms in order to fill in the gaps.
Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT platforms; IoT marketplace; Gap analysis; IoT

Carmelo Ardito, Paolo Buono, Giuseppe Desolda, Maristella Matera,

From smart objects to smart experiences: An end-user development approach,
International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,
Volume 114,
Pages 51-68,
ISSN 1071-5819,
Abstract: The growing availability of smart objects is stimulating researchers to
investigate the Internet of Things (IoT) phenomenon from different perspectives.
The potential of this technology is evident in different domains. In Cultural
Heritage (CH), it may enhance access to CH collections, in order to ensure a more
engaging visit experience and to increase the appropriation of CH content by
visitors. So far, research on IoT has primarily focused on technical features of
smart objects (e.g., how to program sensors and actuators), while there are very
few approaches trying to facilitate the adoption of such a technology by end users.
This lack limits the social and practical benefits of IoT; it creates barriers in
all those usage scenarios where people would like to define the behavior of smart
objects but they might not have the required programming skills. This is becoming
evident in CH sites, where different stakeholders would benefit from managing
ecosystems of interoperable smart objects to create enhanced visit experiences.
This article presents a visual composition paradigm that allows non-programmers to
synchronize the behavior of smart objects, thus determining more engaging user
experiences. It discusses how the paradigm suites the need of curators and guides
of CH sites to define smart visit experiences through which visitors can acquire CH
content by interacting with the surrounding environment and the smart objects
included in it. A serious game designed with professional guides of CH sites is
used as a case study to show the potential of the presented approach.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Smart object modelling; Smart visit experience;
Cultural Heritage

Everton Cavalcante, Jorge Pereira, Marcelo Pitanga Alves, Pedro Maia, Roniceli
Moura, Thais Batista, Flavia C. Delicato, Paulo F. Pires,
On the interplay of Internet of Things and Cloud Computing: A systematic mapping
Computer Communications,
Volumes 89–90,
Pages 17-33,
ISSN 0140-3664,
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel paradigm relying on the
interaction of smart objects (things) with each other and with physical and/or
virtual resources through the Internet. Despite the recent advances that have made
IoT a reality, there are several challenges to be addressed towards exploiting its
full potential and promoting tangible benefits to society, environment, economy,
and individual citizens. Recently, Cloud Computing has been advocated as a
promising approach to tackle some of the existing challenges in IoT while
leveraging its adoption and bringing new opportunities. With the combination of IoT
and Cloud Computing, the cloud becomes an intermediate layer between smart objects
and applications that make use of data and resources provided by these objects. On
the one hand, IoT can benefit from the almost unlimited resources of Cloud
Computing to implement management and composition of services related to smart
objects and their provided data. On the other hand, the cloud can benefit from IoT
by broadening its operation scope to deal with real-world objects. In spite of this
synergy, the literature still lacks of a broad, comprehensive overview on what has
been investigated on the integration of IoT and Cloud Computing and what are the
open issues to be addressed in future research and development. The goal of this
work is to fill this gap by systematically collecting and analyzing studies
available in the literature aiming to: (i) obtain a comprehensive understanding on
the integration of IoT and Cloud Computing paradigms; (ii) provide an overview of
the current state of research on this topic; and (iii) identify important gaps in
the existing approaches as well as promising research directions. To achieve this
goal, a systematic mapping study was performed covering papers recently published
in journals, conferences, and workshops, available at five relevant electronic
databases. As a result, 35 studies were selected presenting strategies and
solutions on how to integrate IoT and Cloud Computing as well as scenarios,
research challenges, and opportunities in this context. Besides confirming the
increasing interest on the integration of IoT and Cloud Computing, this paper
reports the main outcomes of the performed systematic mapping by both presenting an
overview of the state of the art on the investigated topic and shedding light on
important challenges and potential directions to future research.
Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; Cloud Computing; Systematic mapping

Yang Yang, Xianghan Zheng, Chunming Tang,

Lightweight distributed secure data management system for health internet of
Journal of Network and Computer Applications,
Volume 89,
Pages 26-37,
ISSN 1084-8045,
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) connects various kinds of sensors and smart
devices using the internet to collect data. The adoption of IoT in medical care
field will bring great convenient to both doctors and patients for effective
illness monitoring and diagnosis. Due to the high value of medical data and the
openness character of health IoT, the protection of data confidentiality is of
crucial importance. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed secure data
management with keyword search system for health IoT. Since the patients are
usually managed by diverse medical institutions, the proposed system enables
distributed access control of protected health information (PHI) among different
medical domains. On the other hand, the accumulation of electronic health records
(EHR) makes effective data retrieval a challenge task. Our scheme could provide
efficient keyword search function on cross-domain PHI. For the resource limited
devices in health IoT, it is an essential requirement to design lightweight
algorithms in the secure data management system. The proposed system realizes
lightweight data encryption, lightweight keyword trapdoor generation and
lightweight data recovery, which leaves very few computations to user's terminal.
The security of this system is reduced to the decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman
(DBDH) assumption. The comparison analysis is made between this scheme and other
existing systems. The extensive experiments on both laptop and smart phone
platforms show that the proposed scheme has greatly improved the computation
efficiency and requires much less communication cost.
Keywords: Health Internet of Things; Searchable encryption; Distributed access
control; Attribute based encryption; Lightweight computation

D. Mourtzis, E. Vlachou, N. Milas,

Industrial Big Data as a Result of IoT Adoption in Manufacturing,
Procedia CIRP,
Volume 55,
Pages 290-295,
ISSN 2212-8271,
Abstract: The radical evolution of internet into a network of interconnected
objects that create a smart environment is characterized by the term Internet of
Things (IoT). The adoption of IoT in manufacturing enables the transition of
tradition manufacturing systems into modern digitalized ones, generating
significant economic opportunities through industries re-shaping. Industrial IoT
empowers the modern companies to adopt new data-driven strategies and handle the
global competitive pressure more easily. However, the adoption of IoT, increases
the total volume of the generated data transforming the industrial data into
industrial Big Data. The work demonstrated in this paper presents how the adoption
of IoT in manufacturing, considering sensory systems and mobile devices, will
generate industrial Big Data. Moreover, a developed IoT application is presented
showing how real industrial data can be generated leading to Industrial Big Data.
The proposed methodology is validated in a real life case study from a mould-making
Keywords: IoT; Monitoring; Big Data; Manufacturing

Farzaneh Akhbar, Victor Chang, Yulin Yao, Víctor Méndez Muñoz,

Outlook on moving of computing services towards the data sources,
International Journal of Information Management,
Volume 36, Issue 4,
Pages 645-652,
ISSN 0268-4012,
Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) is potentially interconnecting unprecedented
amounts of raw data, opening countless possibilities by two main logical layers:
become data into information, then turn information into knowledge. The former is
about filtering the significance in the appropriate format, while the latter
provides emerging categories of the whole domain. This path of the data is a
bottom-up flow. On the other hand, the path of the process is a top-down flow,
starting at the strategic level of business and scientific institutions. Today, the
path of the process treasures a sizeable amount of well-known methods,
architectures and technologies: the so called Big Data. On the top, Big Data
analytics aims variable association (e-commerce), data mining (predictive
behaviour) or clustering (marketing segmentation). Digging the Big Data
architecture there are a myriad of enabling technologies for data taking, storage
and management. However the strategic aim is to enhance knowledge with the
appropriate information, which does need of data, but not vice versa. In the way,
the magnitude of upcoming data from the IoT will disrupt the data centres. To cope
with the extreme scale is a matter of moving the computing services towards the
data sources. This paper explores the possibilities of providing many of the IoT
services which are currently hosted in monolithic cloud centres, moving these
computing services into nano data centres (NaDa). Particularly, data-information
processes, which usually are performing at sub-problem domains. NaDa distributes
computing power over the already present machines of the IP provides, like gateways
or wireless routers to overcome latency, storage cost and alleviate transmissions.
Large scale questionnaires have been taken for 300 IT professionals to validate the
points of view for IoT adoption. Considering IoT is by definition connected to the
Internet, NaDa may be used to implement the logical low layer architecture of the
services. Obviously, such distributed NaDa send results on a logical high layer in
charge of the information-knowledge turn. This layer requires the whole picture of
the domain to enable those processes of Big Data analytics on the top.
Keywords: Big Data; Internet of things; Nano data centres; Cloud computing

Armando Papa, Monika Mital, Paola Pisano, Manlio Del Giudice,

E-health and wellbeing monitoring using smart healthcare devices: An empirical
Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
ISSN 0040-1625,
Abstract: According to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal No. 3 (SDG –
Goal 3), for sustainable development it is imperative to ensure health and well-
being across all ages, and is achievable only through effective and continuous
healthcare monitoring. But in India and other third world countries, healthcare
monitoring is poor compared to other countries in the world, in spite of it being
affordable. The global healthcare smart wearable healthcare (SWH) devices market is
expected to rise up at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 5.6% and by 2020 it
is expected to reach 25 Billion (GVR Report, 2016). The growing incidences of
lifestyle diseases, sedentary lifestyle, busy work schedules, technological
advancements in healthcare monitoring devices, and increased usage of remote
devicesseems to be some of the important factors fuelling this growth. Some of the
major players in this segment are Abbott Laboratories, Philips Healthcare, Life
Watch, GE Healthcare, Omron Healthcare, Siemens Healthcare and Honeywell
International Inc. etc. But in spite of the healthcare monitoring devices are being
predicted to be technologically innovative and providing advanced as well as basic
health care monitoring features and available in various price ranges based on the
features, we wanted to empirically study the attitude towards adoption of such
devices in India. India has traditionally been having a very lackadaisical attitude
towards healthcare monitoring. In such a context, what would be the factors
influencing the adoption of SWH devices. Remote health monitoring can enhance the
nature of wellbeing administration and to lessen the aggregate expense in human
services by maintaining a strategic distance from pointless hospitalizations and
guaranteeing that the individuals who need critical consideration get it sooner.
This empirical investigation would provide a detailed insight as to how these
wearable Internet Of Things devices would bring about a revolution in the
healthcare industry. It would also provide the future prospect of IOT devices in
this sector and how the probability of increase in its usage can be increased with
time. The paper explores intrusiveness (INTR), Comfort (C), perceived usefulness
(PU) and perceived ease of use (EOU) of SWH devices. The study hypothesized the
Impact of PU and EOU, INTR and C on attitude and intention to use towards adoption
of SWH devices. Partial Least Square Structured Equation Modeling (PLS – SEM)
methodology was applied to explore the relationships between the concepts and
hypothesis. The data was collected from 273 respondents. The age group of the
respondents was between 25 and 40 years. The results indicated that intrusiveness
and comfort do not have a significant direct impact on Intention to use BI
(Behavior Intention) BI SWH devices. At the same time Intrusiveness had a
significant impact on PU of SWH devices and Comfort has a strong significant impact
on PU and EOU of smart wearables. The research has strong implications in the
current emerging context of smart wearables, their design and effectiveness. Also
the research can have lasting implications on elderly health and well-being. There
are very few empirical studies in the area of SWH devices. Most of the studies till
now are conceptual studies or providing technology architectures and frameworks.
The research in this area is still at a very nascent stage and very few studies
have been done to explore the use and adoption of SWH devices.
Keywords: Internet of things; Smart healthcare; Smart cities; RFID; Healthcare
computing; Healthcare systems; Innovation management

Vicente Almonacid, Laurent Franck,

Extending the coverage of the internet of things with low-cost nanosatellite
Acta Astronautica,
Volume 138,
Pages 95-101,
ISSN 0094-5765,
Abstract: Recent technology advances have made CubeSats not only an affordable
means of access to space, but also promising platforms to develop a new variety of
space applications. In this paper, we explore the idea of using nanosatellites as
access points to provide extended coverage to the Internet of Things (IoT) and
Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. This study is mainly motivated by two
facts: on the one hand, it is already obvious that the number of machine-type
devices deployed globally will experiment an exponential growth over the
forthcoming years. This trend is pushed by the available terrestrial cellular
infrastructure, which allows adding support for M2M connectivity at marginal costs.
On the other hand, the same growth is not observed in remote areas that must rely
on space-based connectivity. In such environments, the demand for M2M
communications is potentially large, yet it is challenged by the lack of cost-
effective service providers. The traffic characteristics of typical M2M
applications translate into the requirement for an extremely low cost per
transmitted message. Under these strong economical constraints, we expect that
nanosatellites in the low Earth orbit will play a fundamental role in overcoming
what we may call the IoT digital divide. The objective of this paper is therefore
to provide a general analysis of a nanosatellite-based, global IoT/M2M network. We
put emphasis in the engineering challenges faced in designing the Earth-to-Space
communication link, where the adoption of an efficient multiple-access scheme is
paramount for ensuring connectivity to a large number of terminal nodes. In
particular, the trade-offs energy efficiency–access delay and energy efficiency–
throughput are discussed, and a novel access approach suitable for delay-tolerant
applications is proposed. Thus, by keeping a system-level standpoint, we identify
key issues and discuss perspectives towards energy efficient and cost-effective
Keywords: Cubesat applications; Internet of things; M2M; Energy-efficiency; Random
access; Multiple-access

Alessandra Rizzardi, Sabrina Sicari, Daniele Miorandi, Alberto Coen-Porisini,

AUPS: An Open Source AUthenticated Publish/Subscribe system for the Internet of
Information Systems,
Volume 62,
Pages 29-41,
ISSN 0306-4379,
Abstract: The arising of the Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling new service
provisioning paradigms, able to leverage heterogeneous devices and communication
technologies. Efficient and secure communication mechanisms represent a key enabler
for the wider adoption and diffusion of IoT systems. One of the most widely
employed protocols in IoT and machine-to-machine communications is the Message
Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), a lightweight publish/subscribe messaging
protocol designed for working with constrained devices. In MQTT messages are
assigned to a specific topic to which users can subscribe. MQTT presents limited
security support. In this paper we present a secure publish/subscribe system
extending MQTT by means of a key management framework and a policy enforcement one.
In this way the flow of information in MQTT-powered IoT systems can be flexibly
controlled by means of flexible policies. The solution presented is released as
open source under Apache v.2 license.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Security; Publish & Subscribe; MQTT; Middleware;

Chakib Bekara,
Security Issues and Challenges for the IoT-based Smart Grid,
Procedia Computer Science,
Volume 34,
Pages 532-537,
ISSN 1877-0509,
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is the next step evolution of our today
Internet, where any physical object/thing having/equipped with computation and
communication capabilities could be seamlessly integrated, at different levels, to
the Internet. The Smart Grid (SG), which is considered as one of the most critical
Infrastructures, is defined as the classical power grid augmented with a large-
scale ICT and renewable energy integration, can be seen as one of the largest IoT
network. The SG will involve billions of smart objects/things: smart meters, smart
appliances, sensors, actuators-cars, etc. in addition to several communication
infrastructures whether public (most often) or private. However, security is seen
as one of the major factors hampering the rapid and large scale adoption and
deployment of both the IoT vision and the Smart Grid. In this paper we investigate
the security issues and challenges on the IoT-based SG, and define the major
security services that we should consider when dealing with SG security
Keywords: Internet of Things; Smart Grid; Security; Cyber Physical Systems;
Advanced Metering Infrastructure

Kleanthis Thramboulidis, Foivos Christoulakis,

UML4IoT—A UML-based approach to exploit IoT in cyber-physical manufacturing
Computers in Industry,
Volume 82,
Pages 259-272,
ISSN 0166-3615,
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the world. The manufacturing
industry has already identified that the IoT brings great opportunities to retain
its leading position in economy and society. However, the adoption of the IoT
changes the development process of the manufacturing system and raises many
challenges. In this paper, the modern manufacturing system is considered as a
composition of cyber-physical, cyber and human components, and IoT is used as a
glue for their integration as far as their cyber interfaces are concerned. An
approach based on a UML profile for the IoT is presented to fully automate the
generation process of the IoT-compliant layer that is required for the cyber-
physical component to be effectively integrated into the modern IoT manufacturing
environment. The approach can also be applied at the source code level
specification of the component in case that a UML design specification is not
available. A prototype implementation of the myLiqueur production laboratory system
is used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the UML4IoT approach.
Keywords: Manufacturing systems; Internet of Things (IoT); Industrial Automation
Thing; Cyber-physical systems; Mechatronics; Industry 4.0; UML profile

M. Gentili, R. Sannino, M. Petracca,

BlueVoice: Voice communications over Bluetooth Low Energy in the Internet of Things
Computer Communications,
Volumes 89–90,
Pages 51-59,
ISSN 0140-3664,
Abstract: Bluetooth Low Energy (Bluetooth LE) is a key technology in the envisioned
Internet of Things (IoT) scenario. In fact, its extremely low-power characteristics
make it one of the most suitable solutions to enable wireless communications among
battery powered IoT objects ubiquitously deployed in the field with the aim of
building smart environments. Although Bluetooth LE specification targets a specific
set of applications mainly devoted to monitoring purposes, innovative solutions can
lead to the adoption of such technology in different applications, such as
multimedia streaming, allowing IoT objects to exploit new functionalities. In this
direction this article presents BlueVoice, an application targeted to Bluetooth LE
devices to enable speech streaming services. In the article BlueVoice is presented
by first detailing the services set extension needed to support the new envisioned
multimedia service, then a description of application choices is given, followed by
an evaluation of its performance in real IoT objects. Thanks to the selected speech
encoding technique, connection design choices and packetization strategies,
BlueVoice application requires a communication bandwidth of 64.3 kbps to transmit
audio at 16 kHz in ADPCM format. BlueVoice performance has been evaluated in terms
of power consumption, memory and processing requirements, showing feasibility of
the developed solution in resource constrained devices, thus confirming the correct
choices in the application design. The set of performance information obtained show
that BlueVoice is a viable solution to enable speech communications in ubiquitous
wireless IoT nodes based on the Bluetooth LE technology.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Bluetooth Low Energy; Speech services

Fadi Shrouf, Giovanni Miragliotta,

Energy management based on Internet of Things: practices and framework for adoption
in production management,
Journal of Cleaner Production,
Volume 100,
Pages 235-246,
ISSN 0959-6526,
Abstract: In today's manufacturing scenario, rising energy prices, increasing
ecological awareness, and changing consumer behaviors are driving decision-makers
to prioritize green manufacturing. The Internet of Things paradigm promises to
increase the visibility and awareness of energy consumption, thanks to smart
sensors and smart meters at the machine and production line level. Consequently,
real-time energy consumption data from manufacturing processes can be collected
easily, and then analyzed, to improve energy-aware decision-making. Relying on a
comprehensive literature review and on experts' insight, this paper contributes to
the understanding of energy-efficient production management practices that are
enhanced and enabled by the Internet of Things technology. In addition, it
discusses the benefits that can be obtained thanks to adopting such management
practices. Eventually, a framework is presented to support the integration of
gathered energy data into a company's information technology tools and platforms.
This is done with the ultimate goal of highlighting how operational and tactical
decision-making processes could leverage on such data in order to improve energy
efficiency, and therefore competitiveness, of manufacturing companies. With the
outcomes of this paper, energy managers can approach the Internet of Things
adoption in a benefit-driven manner, addressing those energy management practices
that are more aligned with company maturity, measurable data and available
information systems and tools.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Energy consumption awareness; Energy-efficient
production management practices; Energy management practices; Framework

Ricardo Ponciano, Sebastião Pais, João Casal,

Using Accuracy Analysis to Find the Best Classifier for Intelligent Personal
Procedia Computer Science,
Volume 52,
Pages 310-317,
ISSN 1877-0509,
Abstract: An Intelligent Personal Assistant (IPA) is an agent that has the purpose
of helping the user with his daily tasks. This paper is focused on IPAs for
Internet of Things (IoT) environments. In this sense, a good IPA has the capability
of surveying his user behaviour and suggest tasks or make decisions with the
intention of simplifying the user interaction with his surroundings. With this in
mind, this paper focuses on studying the accuracy of various classifiers, with the
objective of finding the one that suits better the needs of an IPA for IoT. The aim
is to test each algorithm with a dataset of events, that relate to past behaviours
of the user, and find if there is an opportunity to notify the user that he/she may
want to take an action or create an automation based on the learned behaviour.
Keywords: Intelligent Personal Assistant; Internet of Things; WEKA; Accuracy;
Precision; Recall; Naive Bayes; J48; Decision Tree ;

A. Solano, N. Duro, R. Dormido, P. González,

Smart vending machines in the era of internet of things,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 76,
Pages 215-220,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a real-world deployment in building
an Internet of Things (IoT) system for vending machines. We also introduce a new
approach for mobile proximity payment for unattended point of sales. The basic idea
is to have a digital representation of a vending machine on Internet and be able to
order products from a smartphone in a fully contactless way, i.e. without
interacting with the vending machine. Our approach guarantees that when the
transaction occurs and the products are dispensed the consumer is physically close
to the vending machine. Open innovation, ubiquitous connectivity and pervasive
technologies are key aspects taken into consideration to build up a cost affordable
solution. The ultimate goal is to minimize the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for
vending operators while enhancing the consumer purchasing experience, driving up
the demand for mass adoption of the “Internet of vending machines”.
Keywords: Mobile communication systems; Payment schemes; Pervasive computing;
Ubiquitous computing; Authentication; Web-based services

Abhimanyu Roy, Ali M.S. Zalzala, Alok Kumar,

Disruption of Things: A Model to Facilitate Adoption of IoT-based Innovations by
the Urban Poor,
Procedia Engineering,
Volume 159,
Pages 199-209,
ISSN 1877-7058,
Abstract: This study examines the adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) based
innovations by urban poor communities. In recent years, IoT applications in social
networking, smart cities and m-health have been explored, but the social acceptance
of such applications remain largely unknown. A consumer segment on which IoT can
have a major positive impact is the urban poor, where IoT can provide access to
services such as healthcare, education and food security. However, to facilitate
adoption among the poor, IoT-based innovations must incorporate the unique
characteristics of this segment viz. low levels of technology awareness, social
acceptance and consumer need. The Disruption of Things refers to the process of
distribution the innovations that are based on IoT and replacing existing market
leaders and prevalent systems. The study was conducted in four stages – a
literature review, a survey with the target users, interviews with experts (both
technological and sociological) and a usability test with a prototype technology
system. The results from the surveys, interviews and usability tests were used to
develop a model for adoption of IoT-based innovations by the urban poor. The model
identifies five sources of innovation – nutrition, healthcare, employment,
education and finances. Based on these sources, a participative design process is
undertaken. Once developed the innovation must provide excellent service based on
three parameters – benefits (value of using the system to the users), support
provided to the users, and training/instructions given to them regarding system
use. Satisfied system's users would then be leveraged through three channels –
advertising, social media and word-of-mouth, in order to spur greater adoption of
the innovation among the urban poor. Accomplishing these systematic processes would
enable the Disruption of Things – replacement of existing market leaders by an IoT-
based innovation.
Keywords: IoT; urban poor; innovation

Afshan Samani, Hamada H. Ghenniwa, Abdulmutalib Wahaishi,

Privacy in Internet of Things: A Model and Protection Framework,
Procedia Computer Science,
Volume 52,
Pages 606-613,
ISSN 1877-0509,
Abstract: A new form of computation is being evolved to include massive number of
diverse set of conventional computing systems, sensors, devices, equipments,
software and information services and apps. This new form of computing environment
is known as the “Internet-of-Things” (IoT). The adoption of IoT is fast and the
“things” are becoming integral part of people day-to-day life as well as essential
elements in the businesses everyday activities and processes. Open characteristics
of IoT environments raises privacy concern as “things” are autonomous with some
degree of authority to sharing their capabilities and knowledge to fulfil their
individual or collective tasks. As such privacy becomes central and an inherit
computational aspect of the “things”. The work presented here is based on modelling
IoT as Cooperative Distributed Systems (CDS). It proposes a novel approach of
analysing and modelling privacy concepts and concerns. Privacy protection is
captured as a form of “sensitive information” management at the interaction level.
A privacy protection management framework for CDS at the interaction level is
proposed. The application of the framework has been demonstrated by extending
Contract Net Protocol (CNP) to support privacy protection for CDS.
Keywords: Privacy; IoT; Cooperative Distributed Systems (CDS).

Sahar Ben Yaala, Fabrice Théoleyre, Ridha Bouallegue,

Cooperative resynchronization to improve the reliability of colocated IEEE 802.15.4
-TSCH networks in dense deployments,
Ad Hoc Networks,
Volume 64,
Pages 112-126,
ISSN 1570-8705,
Abstract: With the large adoption of small and smart objects, the interest of
researchers to define new protocols to meet Internet of Things (IoT) requirements
is growing. In particular, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) aims to provide
high reliability and upper bounded end-to-end latency while interconnecting a large
collection of sensors and actuators. The TimeSlotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode of
IEEE 802.15.4 exploits a slow channel hopping approach to combat efficiently
external interference (e.g. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth). We envision in the future very dense
deployments and we investigate here the mutual influence among different colocated
TSCH networks. We first study analytically with a simple model the performance of
several TSCH networks, able or not to be synchronized with each other. We emphasize
the multiplication of collisions, exacerbated by clock drifts when no cooperation
is achieved. We also highlight experimentally that a mutual synchronization
improves very significantly the reliability. We propose here a mechanism to re-
synchronize distributively the border routers of different TSCH networks. Our
thorough experimental evaluation illustrates the relevance of our approach, able to
guarantee high-reliability, even in very dense topologies.
Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4-TSCH; Colocated networks; Dense deployments; Distributed
synchronization; Border routers; Collision avoidance; Experimental evaluation

Hafidi Mohamed, Mahnane Lamia,

Implementing flipped classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system into
learning process,
Computers & Education,
Volume 124,
Pages 62-76,
ISSN 0360-1315,
Abstract: Students nowadays are hard to be motivated to solve logical problems with
traditional teaching methods. Computers, Smartphone's, tablets and other smart
devices disturb their attention. But those smart devices can be used as auxiliary
tools of modern teaching methods. The flipped classroom is one such innovative
method that moves the solving problems outside the classroom via technology and
reinforces solving problems inside the classroom via learning activities. In this
paper, the authors implement flipped classroom as an element of Internet of Things
(IOT) into learning process of mathematical logic course. In the flipped classroom,
an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) was used to help students work with the
problems in the course outside the classroom. This study showed that perceived
usefulness, self-efficacy, compatibility, and perceived support for enhancing
social ties are important antecedents to continuance intention to use flipped
Keywords: Improving classroom teaching; Intelligent tutoring systems; Interactive
learning environments; Learning communities; Teaching/learning strategies

Kun Han, Shurong Liu, Dacheng Zhang, Ying Han,

Initially Researches for the Development of SSME under the Background of IOT,
Physics Procedia,
Volume 24, Part B,
Pages 1507-1513,
ISSN 1875-3892,
Abstract: The Internet Of Things (IOT) is proposed in the 1990s. The original
intention has been put forward is people to things and things to things can deliver
information like person as. IOT broke the human traditional thinking. This paper
researches the practical function of IOT to expand the theory of Services Sciences,
Management and Engineering (SSME). On the analysis of the key technology and model
of IOT, the events-driven SSME model based on IOT, and the IOT framework based on
SSME, it further studies the importance of IOT in the field of SSME.
Keywords: Internet; IOT; RFID; SSME

José Quevedo, Mário Antunes, Daniel Corujo, Diogo Gomes, Rui L. Aguiar,
On the application of contextual IoT service discovery in Information Centric
Computer Communications,
Volumes 89–90,
Pages 117-127,
ISSN 0140-3664,
Abstract: The continuous flow of technological developments in communications and
electronic industries has led to the growing expansion of the Internet of Things
(IoT). By leveraging the capabilities of smart networked devices and integrating
them into existing industrial, leisure and communication applications, the IoT is
expected to positively impact both economy and society, reducing the gap between
the physical and digital worlds. Therefore, several efforts have been dedicated to
the development of networking solutions addressing the diversity of challenges
associated with such a vision. In this context, the integration of Information
Centric Networking (ICN) concepts into the core of IoT is a research area gaining
momentum and involving both research and industry actors. The massive amount of
heterogeneous devices, as well as the data they produce, is a significant challenge
for a wide-scale adoption of the IoT. In this paper we propose a service discovery
mechanism, based on Named Data Networking (NDN), that leverages the use of a
semantic matching mechanism for achieving a flexible discovery process. The
development of appropriate service discovery mechanisms enriched with semantic
capabilities for understanding and processing context information is a key feature
for turning raw data into useful knowledge and ensuring the interoperability among
different devices and applications. We assessed the performance of our solution
through the implementation and deployment of a proof-of-concept prototype. Obtained
results illustrate the potential of integrating semantic and ICN mechanisms to
enable a flexible service discovery in IoT scenarios.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Information-Centric Networking; Context information;
Service discovery; Semantic similarity

Eileen Haggerty,
Healthcare and digital transformation,
Network Security,
Volume 2017, Issue 8,
Pages 7-11,
ISSN 1353-4858,
Abstract: As with most other industries, healthcare has seen significant benefits
from digital transformation (DX), with the adoption of new technologies helping to
deliver secure, high-quality patient care and drive greater business efficiency.
Electronic health records (EHR), digital imaging, e-prescription services and
enterprise resource planning systems are among the digital services that have been
integrated into the extensive IT systems of many healthcare organisations. As with
most other industries, healthcare has seen significant benefits from digital
transformation, as well as the impact of the burgeoning Internet of Things (IoT).
Healthcare providers have more access to patient data and applications than ever
before. However, the increased complexity of the IT networks that power today's
healthcare organisations, as well as the sheer volume of data traversing these, has
added to the challenge of ensuring network and data security, as Eileen Haggerty of
Netscout explains.

Martin Henze, Lars Hermerschmidt, Daniel Kerpen, Roger Häußling, Bernhard Rumpe,
Klaus Wehrle,
A comprehensive approach to privacy in the cloud-based Internet of Things,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 56,
Pages 701-718,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: In the near future, the Internet of Things is expected to penetrate all
aspects of the physical world, including homes and urban spaces. In order to handle
the massive amount of data that becomes collectible and to offer services on top of
this data, the most convincing solution is the federation of the Internet of Things
and cloud computing. Yet, the wide adoption of this promising vision, especially
for application areas such as pervasive health care, assisted living, and smart
cities, is hindered by severe privacy concerns of the individual users. Hence, user
acceptance is a critical factor to turn this vision into reality. To address this
critical factor and thus realize the cloud-based Internet of Things for a variety
of different application areas, we present our comprehensive approach to privacy in
this envisioned setting. We allow an individual user to enforce all her privacy
requirements before any sensitive data is uploaded to the cloud, enable developers
of cloud services to integrate privacy functionality already into the development
process of cloud services, and offer users a transparent and adaptable interface
for configuring their privacy requirements.
Keywords: Privacy; Cloud computing; Internet of Things; Model-driven development;
User acceptance

Eugenia Marilungo, Alessandra Papetti, Michele Germani, Margherita Peruzzini,

From PSS to CPS Design: A Real Industrial Use Case Toward Industry 4.0,
Procedia CIRP,
Volume 64,
Pages 357-362,
ISSN 2212-8271,
Abstract: During the last 10 years, manufacturing companies have faced new
challenges for improving their value proposition and being more efficient and
effective on the market, satisfying the customer needs. According to this trend,
several technologies have been developed and applied in different sectors and with
different aims, in order to support such the companies in their reconfiguration.
For example, the recent advances in Information and Communications Technologies
(ICT) could give also to manufacturing industries the competences required to
develop novel sustainable products embedded with a dedicated infrastructure able to
provide more service functionalities to customer. In this context, the application
of Internet of Things (IoT) have allowed developing the so named Product Service
Systems (PSSs). Moreover, the cross-fertilization between such the technologies
with the development of other ones have fostered the application of these novel ICT
technologies inside the manufacturing companies also at process level. This
approach has encouraged the study and development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs).
The present paper deals with a real industrial use case, where the application of
ICT technologies and specifically the adoption of IoT at a plant of plastic
extrusion pipes have allowed optimizing the production process in terms of energy
Keywords: Cyber Physical System design; CPS; ICT; IoT; Industry 4.0

Routaib Hayat, Essaid Sabir, Elarbi Badidi, Mohammed ElKoutbi,

A signaling game-based approach for Data-as-a-Service provisioning in IoT-Cloud,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: The impressive progress in sensing technology over the last few years has
contributed to the proliferation and popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT)
paradigm and to the adoption of Sensor Clouds for provisioning smart ubiquitous
services. Also, the massive amount of data generated by sensors and smart objects
led to a new kind of services known as Data-as-a-Service (DaaS). The quality of
these services is highly dependent on the quality of sensed data (QoD), which is
characterized by a number of quality attributes. DaaS provisioning is typically
governed by a Service Level Agreement (SLA) between data consumers and DaaS
providers. In this work, we propose a game-based approach for DaaS Provisioning,
which relies on signaling based model for the negotiation of several QoD attributes
between DaaS providers and data consumers. We consider that these entities are
adaptive, rational, and able to negotiate the QoD offering even in the case of
incomplete information about the other party. We use in the negotiation between the
two parties a Q-learning algorithm for the signaling model and a Multi Attributes
Decision Making (MADM) model to select the best signal. Moreover, we empirically
validate the MADM model using Shannon’s entropy. The results obtained in the case
of a multi-stages negotiation scenario show the convergence towards the pooling
Keywords: IoT; QoD; IoT-Cloud; Signaling game; Multi-attribute decision-making;

A. Luque, M. Estela Peralta, A. de las Heras, A. Córdoba,

State of the Industry 4.0 in the Andalusian food sector,
Procedia Manufacturing,
Volume 13,
Pages 1199-1205,
ISSN 2351-9789,
Abstract: The food industry is a key issue in the economic structure of Andalusia,
due to both the weight and position of this industry in the economy and its
advantages and potentials. The term Industry 4.0 carries many meanings. It seeks to
describe the intelligent factory, with all the processes interconnected by Internet
of things (IOT). Early advances in this field have involved the incorporation of
greater flexibility and individualization of the manufacturing processes. The
implementation of the framework proposed by Industry 4.0. is a need for the
industry in general, and for Andalusian food industry in particular, and should be
seen as a great opportunity of progress for the sector. It is expected that, along
with others, the food and beverage industry will be pioneer in the adoption of
flexible and individualized manufacturing processes. This work constitutes the
state of the art, through bibliographic review, of the application of the proposed
paradigm by the Industry 4.0. to the food industry.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; food industry; Andalusian Industry; technological

Muzzamil Noor, Haider Abbas, Waleed Bin Shahid,

Countering cyber threats for industrial applications: An automated approach for
malware evasion detection and analysis,
Journal of Network and Computer Applications,
Volume 103,
Pages 249-261,
ISSN 1084-8045,
Abstract: The widespread adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) in industrial systems
has made malware propagation more voluminous and sophisticated. Detection and
prevention against these malware threats rely on automated dynamic analysis
techniques. Malware writers on the other hand, are resorting towards analysis
evasion techniques that pose a great deal of challenge for the malware research
community. Various approaches mostly based on virtual machines or emulators have
been proposed for the analysis of such envisions. However, the practicality of
these approaches is still an open debate. This paper presents a malware analysis
system, capable of encountering known evasion methods of malware. A novel technique
for detection of malware evasive behavior is presented, which is based on measuring
the deviation from normal behavior of a program or malware. Evaluations and
analysis show that this approach is effective against detecting the variations in
malware behavior. Moreover, countermeasures implemented by the Analysis Evasion
Malware Sandbox (AEMS) are effective for large percentage of malware detection.
Keywords: Malware; Dormant functionality; Malware evasion detection; Analysis
evasion malware sandbox; AEMS; Malware attribute enumeration

Malcolm Townsend, Thanh Le Quoc, Gaurav Kapoor, Hao Hu, Wei Zhou, Selwyn Piramuthu,
Real-Time business data acquisition: How frequent is frequent enough?,
Information & Management,
Volume 55, Issue 4,
Pages 422-429,
ISSN 0378-7206,
Abstract: Effective data acquisition for business process monitoring has become a
critical element in today’s business world. While the need for monitoring is
generally agreed upon by both re- searchers and practitioners alike, the means and
mechanisms are often vague. This is especially salient with the fast growing
availability of various technologies to monitor in real-time through recent
advances such as the Internet of Things (IoT) with specific emphasis on Radio-
Frequency IDentification (RFID) and associated sensor networks. This study is
motivated by the lack of published literature in data acquisition and analytics
that specifically addresses sufficient real-time data acquisition for effective
managerial monitoring. As a step in addressing this void, we review and extend
existing literature in this general area by studying various requirements and
information sources that relate to effective management monitoring. We then design
an exploratory study to evaluate current managerial monitoring needs and the
importance of automated data collection technologies. Results from this study show
that the most important latent factor that influences an organization’s information
need is its dynamic competitiveness, and consequently, companies with a dynamic
supply chain would need a faster transaction and operations data system. The second
important latent factor is the behavioral performance, which renders it essential
to have a human-centric data system. This study provides evidence for the
significance in adopting technologies such as RFID and other IoT systems for real-
time monitoring in highly dynamic organizations and offers guidelines for
analytical technology adoption for various industries.
Keywords: RFID; Process monitoring; Monitoring frequency; Real-time data

P. Bellagente, C. Crema, A. Depari, P. Ferrari, A. Flammini, S. Rinaldi, E.

Sisinni, A. Vezzoli,
The “Smartstone”: using smartphones as a telehealth gateway for senior citizens,
Volume 49, Issue 30,
Pages 221-226,
ISSN 2405-8963,
Abstract: Abstract:
A possible solution to reduce healthcare costs in a world that is aging is the
adoption of telehealth technologies. Several solutions appeared, in the past
suggesting the use of smart devices (mobile phones or tablets) for supporting
telehealth. Unfortunately, elderly people may have difficulties in the use of such
devices even if user interfaces are becoming friendly and intuitive. This work
introduces the concept of “Smartstone”, that is the use of a (low-cost) smartphone
as a simple, effective, and portable gateway/edge server for mobile healthcare
towards cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The Smartstone is designed
in order to minimize the user interaction, thanks to its autonomous behavior. The
adoption of smart devices as a building block ensures state-of-the-art connectivity
and relatively high computational power, complemented by an ensemble of additional
onboard sensors. In particular, results about the management of a new
photoplethysmographic /bio-impedance monitor and a smart pill dispenser are
presented in this work.
Keywords: mHealth; telehealth; IoT; gateway; sensors

Majid Al-Ruithe, Elhadj Benkhelifa, Khawar Hameed,

Key Issues for Embracing the Cloud Computing to Adopt a Digital Transformation: A
study of Saudi Public Sector,
Procedia Computer Science,
Volume 130,
Pages 1037-1043,
ISSN 1877-0509,
Abstract: The world is changing faster than ever, and digital technologies are
bringing about unprecedented transformation and changing our work and lives in ways
we have never anticipated. Digital transformation topic is an actively discussed
these days. Internet of Things (IoT), big data, social media, cloud computing,
blockchain, and augmented reality are driving organisations to the next level of
digital customer engagement and IT-enabled business processes and services. Cloud
computing is a key pillar of the digital transformation technology ecosystem. This
paper highlights the cloud computing roles to achieve the digital transformation in
Saudi Arabia, and it seeks to empirically examine the cloud computing concerns in
the public sectors organisations of Saudi Arabia. An online questionnaire was
launched aiming at the existing cloud computing adoption and its concerns in Saudi
Arabia. Security, privacy and loss of governance are still the main obstacles for
adopting cloud computing technology, although some organisations recognized their
lack of knowledge in this field.
Keywords: Cloud computing; digital transformation; cloud digital transformation;
cloud concerns; Saudi Arabia; Saudi Vision 2030

J. Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz, Parmesh Ramanathan,

An IoMT based cyber training framework for orthopedic surgery using Next Generation
Internet technologies,
Informatics in Medicine Unlocked,
ISSN 2352-9148,
Abstract: Internet of Things based approaches and frameworks hold significant
potential in changing the way in which engineering activities are accomplished. The
information centric revolution underway has served as a catalyst in the design of
innovative methods and practices in several engineering and other domains. In this
paper, an Internet of Medical Things based framework for surgical training is
discussed in the broader context of Next Generation frameworks. The design and
development of this Internet of Medical Things based framework involving adoption
of Global Environment for Network Innovations based networking principles is
elaborated. The Virtual Reality based simulation environments incorporate haptic
based interfaces which support collaborative training and interactions among expert
surgeons and residents in orthopedic surgery from distributed locations. The impact
of using this Internet of Medical Things based framework for medical education has
also been studied; the outcomes underscore the potential of adopting such Internet
of Medical Things based approaches for medical education.
Keywords: Cyber physical systems; Internet of Things; Surgical training;
Telemedicine; Virtual reality; Internet of Medical Things

Georgios Lilis, Maher Kayal,

A secure and distributed message oriented middleware for smart building
Automation in Construction,
Volume 86,
Pages 163-175,
ISSN 0926-5805,
Abstract: In the era of the Internet of Things (IoT) and heterogeneous Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) systems, monolithic and proprietary Smart
Building (SB) systems are unable to address the challenges of scalability,
adaptability, and security. Improved integration and interoperability of the
existing and future technologies are essential for overcoming the barriers of SB
adoption. This paper proposes a real-time, brokerless, and message-oriented
middleware (MoM) system for interfacing and interconnecting the digital and
physical assets of the SB. It provides a holistic abstraction to the building
management system (BMS) of the underlying device protocols and building
construction properties, simplifying the design and reducing the overall system
cost. Its distributed architecture scales to any building construction regardless
of the devices' performance and connectivity limitations. A secure architecture
ensures the integrity of data and operations, and an extensive performance and
energy efficiency study validates the proposed design. While MoM systems have been
traditionally used in cloud computing, it is the first time that such approach,
based on building-distributed embedded electronics and the efficient ZeroMQ
messaging library, is successfully validated for a cyber-physical system like the
Keywords: Smart Building; ICT; Internet of Things; Distributed computing; Message-
oriented middleware; Building management system

Theodoros Anagnostopoulos, Kostas Kolomvatsos, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Arkady

Zaslavsky, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades,
Assessing dynamic models for high priority waste collection in smart cities,
Journal of Systems and Software,
Volume 110,
Pages 178-192,
ISSN 0164-1212,
Abstract: Waste Management (WM) represents an important part of Smart Cities (SCs)
with significant impact on modern societies. WM involves a set of processes ranging
from waste collection to the recycling of the collected materials. The
proliferation of sensors and actuators enable the new era of Internet of Things
(IoT) that can be adopted in SCs and help in WM. Novel approaches that involve
dynamic routing models combined with the IoT capabilities could provide solutions
that outperform existing models. In this paper, we focus on a SC where a number of
collection bins are located in different areas with sensors attached to them. We
study a dynamic waste collection architecture, which is based on data retrieved by
sensors. We pay special attention to the possibility of immediate WM service in
high priority areas, e.g., schools or hospitals where, possibly, the presence of
dangerous waste or the negative effects on human quality of living impose the need
for immediate collection. This is very crucial when we focus on sensitive groups of
citizens like pupils, elderly or people living close to areas where dangerous waste
is rejected. We propose novel algorithms aiming at providing efficient and scalable
solutions to the dynamic waste collection problem through the management of the
trade-off between the immediate collection and its cost. We describe how the
proposed system effectively responds to the demand as realized by sensor
observations and alerts originated in high priority areas. Our aim is to minimize
the time required for serving high priority areas while keeping the average
expected performance at high level. Comprehensive simulations on top of the data
retrieved by a SC validate the proposed algorithms on both quantitative and
qualitative criteria which are adopted to analyze their strengths and weaknesses.
We claim that, local authorities could choose the model that best matches their
needs and resources of each city.
Keywords: Internet of things; Smart cities; Dynamic routing models; Waste

Dimitris Mourtzis, Ekaterini Vlachou,

A cloud-based cyber-physical system for adaptive shop-floor scheduling and
condition-based maintenance,
Journal of Manufacturing Systems,
Volume 47,
Pages 179-198,
ISSN 0278-6125,
Abstract: Manufacturing, through the Industry 4.0 concept, is moving to the next
phase; that of digitalization. Industry 4.0 enables the transition of traditional
manufacturing systems to modern digitalized ones, generating significant economic
opportunities by reshaping of industry. This procedure requires high-performance
processes and flexible production systems. The adoption of the Internet of Things
(IoT) in manufacturing will enable effective and adaptive planning and control of
production systems. Towards that end, the proposed work presents a cloud-based
cyber-physical system for adaptive shop-floor scheduling and condition-based
maintenance. The proposed system demonstrated that it is possible to deploy a cost-
effective and reliable real-time data collection, processing, and analysis from the
shop floor. It also demonstrates that such collected data can be used in an
adaptive decision making system, which includes a multi-criteria decision-making
algorithm and a condition-based maintenance strategy aiming to improve factory
performances when compared to traditional approaches. The proposed system consists
of different modules (monitoring, adaptive scheduling, condition-based maintenance)
interconnected through the cloud-based platform, enabled by communication protocols
under the Industry 4.0 and IoT paradigms. The proposed system is applied and
validated in a real-case study from a high-precision mold-making industry.
Keywords: Cyber-physical system; Cloud manufacturing; Industry 4.0; Adaptive
scheduling; Condition-based maintenance

Mauricio A. Gomez, Abelghani Chibani, Yacine Amirat, Eric T. Matson,

IoRT cloud survivability framework for robotic AALs using HARMS,
Robotics and Autonomous Systems,
Volume 106,
Pages 192-206,
ISSN 0921-8890,
Abstract: The Internet of Robotic Things, which includes ambient assisted living
systems has been pushed to be developed by the research community for reasons such
as the population gap between elderly people and their caregivers. Due to the
critical mission that is assigned to those systems; interruptions, failures, worse
still, full malfunction should not be allowed to materialize. Such systems ought to
keep running in a proper way notwithstanding problems caused either by internal and
external system collapses or bad intentioned actions in their surroundings.
Therefore, including survivability features must be insured to Ambient Assisted
Living systems (AALs) using Humans, software Agents, Robots, Machines, and Sensors
(HARMS). HARMS stands for the model that allows through the indistinguishability
feature to any type of actor to communicate and interact. This work proposes a
framework which takes advantage of the Cloud to overcome the state explosion
problem encountered when using model checking. Model checking techniques are used
to find a possible solution when a problem is already faced by the system — instead
of its original purpose to detect errors on the systems during the design stage.
This paper presents the implementation of the proposed framework and validates the
functionality with experiments. The conducted experiments evaluate the advantages
of using cloud tools to offload the model checking capability for applications such
as multi-agent systems.
Keywords: Model checking; Cloud computing; Multi-agent systems; Heterogeneous
agents; HARMS

X. Krasniqi, E. Hajrizi,
Use of IoT Technology to Drive the Automotive Industry from Connected to Full
Autonomous Vehicles,
Volume 49, Issue 29,
Pages 269-274,
ISSN 2405-8963,
Abstract: Abstract:
The automotive industry has been around for quite some time and it has evolved ever
since, but the major transformation that is happening now from vehicles driven by
humans to vehicles driven by themselves will have a long term impact on society.
Today's cars are already connected and have been connected for some time, since
they can link to smartphones, offer emergency roadside assistance, register real-
time traffic alerts etc., but this evolution is about to change. The automobile
industry is on the brink of a revolution, to move to self-driving automobile
industry, and the driving force behind this is the fast developing technology, the
Internet of Things (IoT). IoT will transform the automobile industry and at the
same time, the automobile industry will provide a big boost to IoT. The potential
and the prospects of this technology is astonishing. This paper examines the market
and technical trends towards Autonomous Vehicles, evolution stages from early cars
to fully autonomous, the importance of IoT in driving this industry ecosystem,
advantages and disadvantages of Autonomous Vehincles, key issues and challenges
faced by the industry, standards activities around this industry and finally the
deployment use cases. The focus of this paper is more based on an industrial push
to identify issues and challenges of Autonomous Vehicles and less on any academic
research activity. The intention of this paper is to bring these issues and
challenges to the attention of IFAC technical committee and trigger some debate on
the opportunities for IFAC research in international stability.
Keywords: IoT; autonomous cars; autonomous vehicles; self-driving; driverless cars;

Mohamed Elshenawy, Baher Abdulhai, Mohamed El-Darieby,

Towards a service-oriented cyber–physical systems of systems for smart city
mobility applications,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 79, Part 2,
Pages 575-587,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: The wide adoption of smart city solutions has proven that information and
communication technologies can effectively address many of the challenges in modern
cities such as safety, mobility, and sustainability. A contemporary challenge in
smart city environments is to improve solution efficiencies by constructing systems
of systems where isolated domains are seamlessly combined to render integrated
services to stakeholders and end users. This paper proposes a coordination and
integration framework that supports day-to-day intelligent transportation
operations in smart cities in the context of the Internet of Things. The framework
defines three pillars to combine and integrate dispersed cyber–physical components
providing means to support coordinated planning among city stakeholders. The paper
discusses the operation of these pillars and demonstrates how they can be used to
enable the dynamic provisioning of integrated intelligent systems of systems
transportation operations.
Keywords: Smart cities; Cyber–physical systems; Internet of Things; Smantic web;
Service-oriented architecture; Intelligent transportation systems

K.S. Rekha, T.H. Sreenivas, A.D. Kulkarni,

Remote Monitoring and Reconfiguration of Environment and Structural Health Using
Wireless Sensor Networks,
Materials Today: Proceedings,
Volume 5, Issue 1, Part 1,
Pages 1169-1175,
ISSN 2214-7853,
Abstract: In the era of Internet of Things, there has been an increasing interest
in the adoption of emerging sensing technologies in the real-time applications such
as Structural Health, environmental and Traffic Monitoring Systems. The wireless
monitoring is gaining popularity as there is no wiring is required between the
sensors and data acquisition systems. Recent improvements in GSM and micro
controller technologies have led to the development of various Structural Health
Monitoring (SHM) systems. The SHM should observe the context and provide reliable
information about the integrity of the structure. There is a need for an embedded
system with dynamic reconfiguration mechanism which can adapt itself to the
unstable and ever changing environments of structural and traffic monitoring. The
implementation of dynamic reconfiguration is still challenging for real time
embedded system control software. The proposed framework should also support the
combined deployment of two heterogeneous applications on the same WSN. The
fundamental aim of this paper is to develop a real-time embedded system, which
provides flexible and robust mechanism for monitoring and reconfiguration of
environment and SHM.
Keywords: Remote Monitoring; Structural Health Monitoring; Internet of Things; GSM;
Dynamic reconfiguration; Heterogeneous System; Control Software

Marzieh Khakifirooz, Chen Fu Chien, Ying-Jen Chen,

Bayesian inference for mining semiconductor manufacturing big data for yield
enhancement and smart production to empower industry 4.0,
Applied Soft Computing,
Volume 68,
Pages 990-999,
ISSN 1568-4946,
Abstract: Big data analytics have been employed to extract useful information and
derive effective manufacturing intelligence for yield management in semiconductor
manufacturing that is one of the most complex manufacturing processes due to
tightly constrained production processes, reentrant process flows, sophisticated
equipment, volatile demands, and complicated product mix. Indeed, the increasing
adoption of multimode sensors, intelligent equipment, and robotics have enabled the
Internet of Things (IOT) and big data analytics for semiconductor manufacturing.
Although the processing tool, chamber set, and recipe are selected according to
product design and previous experiences, domain knowledge has become less efficient
for defect diagnosis and fault detection. To fill the gaps, this study aims to
develop a framework based on Bayesian inference and Gibbs sampling to investigate
the intricate semiconductor manufacturing data for fault detection to empower
intelligent manufacturing. In addition, Cohen’s kappa coefficient was used to
eliminate the influence of extraneous variables. The proposed approach was
validated through an empirical study and simulation. The results have shown the
practical viability of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Bayesian approach; Semiconductor manufacturing; Multi-collinearity; Yield
enhancement; Big data analytics; Smart production

Victor Chang, Yuanyuan Wang, Gary Wills,

Research investigations on the use or non-use of hearing aids in the smart cities,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
ISSN 0040-1625,
Abstract: This study aims to explore factors influencing behavioral intention to
adopt hearing aids among old adults in smart cities. It argues that trust is a
moderator to influence the relationship between attitude, subjective norm and
individual's behavioral intention in smart cities. This study tests hypotheses
using a sample of 103 respondents from six smart cities in China. The results
reveal that attitude is main factor influencing individual's behavioral intention.
Subjective norm and trust are both not statistically significant at the 95%
confidence interval in the model of multiple-regression. Interestingly, it finds
that trust moderates the relationship between subjective norm and individual's
behavioral intention. It means that the audiologists' advice can positively affect
person's behavioral intention in smart cities. The findings imply that the Theory
of Reasoned Action can be partially used to explain the person's behavioral
intention in Chinese context. This study contributes to encourage old people to use
smart hospitals to consult audiologists about hearing loss and hearing aids
rehabilitation. Hence, hearing aids can improve their quality of life (QoL), which
can be reflected by the improved standard of living, better access to treatments
and also the positive sentiment about their life, including comfort, friendship,
happiness and a closer connection to the society.
Keywords: Hearing aids; Hearing aids in smart cities; Measurement of older
generation's quality of life in smart cities

Evangelos Pournaras, Mark Yao, Dirk Helbing,

Self-regulating supply–demand systems,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 76,
Pages 73-91,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: Supply–demand systems in Smart City sectors such as energy,
transportation, telecommunication, are subject of unprecedented technological
transformations by the Internet of Things. Usually, supply–demand systems involve
actors that produce and consume resources, e.g. energy, and they are regulated such
that supply meets demand, or demand meets available supply. Mismatches of supply
and demand may increase operational costs, can cause catastrophic damage in
infrastructure, for instance power blackouts, and may even lead to social unrest
and security threats. Long-term, operationally offline and top-down regulatory
decision-making by governmental officers, policy makers or system operators may
turn out to be ineffective for matching supply–demand under new dynamics and
opportunities that Internet of Things technologies bring to supply–demand systems,
for instance, interactive cyber–physical systems and software agents running
locally in physical assets to monitor and apply automated control actions in real-
time. e.g. power flow redistributions by smart transformers to improve the Smart
Grid reliability. Existing work on online regulatory mechanisms of matching supply–
demand either focuses on game-theoretic solutions with assumptions that cannot be
easily met in real-world systems or assume centralized management entities and
local access to global information. This paper contributes a generic decentralized
self-regulatory framework, which, in contrast to related work, is shaped around
standardized control system concepts and Internet of Things technologies for an
easier adoption and applicability. The framework involves a decentralized
combinatorial optimization mechanism that matches supply–demand under different
regulatory scenarios. An evaluation methodology, integrated within this framework,
is introduced that allows the systematic assessment of optimality and system
constraints, resulting in more informative and meaningful comparisons of self-
regulatory settings. Evidence using real-world datasets of energy supply–demand
systems confirms the effectiveness and applicability of the self-regulatory
framework. It is shown that a higher informational diversity in the options, from
which agents make local selections, results in a higher system-wide performance.
Several strategies with which agents make selections come along with measurable
performance trade-offs creating a vast potential for online adjustments
incentivized by utilities, system operators and policy makers.
Keywords: Self-regulation; Supply; Demand; Smart city; Internet of things; Smart
grid; Optimization; Agent; Tree

Monika Mital, Ashis K. Pani, Suma Damodaran, Ram Ramesh,

Cloud based management and control system for smart communities: A practical case
Computers in Industry,
Volume 74,
Pages 162-172,
ISSN 0166-3615,
Abstract: In this study, the implementation of cloud based smart community
management and control system was undertaken. is a flexible
platform to manage and control the affairs of a condominium or society with
thorough participation, visibility and transparency. Our research is the first
attempt to study one such real life system of cloud based control and management in
a smart housing community in India. There is a dearth of exploratory studies that
explain the diffusion and adoption of cloud computing in different contexts and
from a multiple stakeholder perspective. So, the main contribution of our research
is to understand the framework of cloud computing based smart community services in
India and the emerging cloud computing ecosystems. This research has wide ranging
implications on the future of Internet of Things, and can be extended to elderly
health and support, energy efficient systems and smart cities.
Keywords: Cloud based management; Cloud based control; Cloud computing; Software as
a service; Smart community; Internet of Things (IOT)
Chen-Fu Chien, Tzu-yen Hong, Hong-Zhi Guo,
A Conceptual Framework for “Industry 3.5” to Empower Intelligent Manufacturing and
Case Studies,
Procedia Manufacturing,
Volume 11,
Pages 2009-2017,
ISSN 2351-9789,
Abstract: Leading nations have reemphasized manufacturing with national competitive
strategies such as Industry 4.0. The paradigm of production and manufacturing
system is shifting, in which the increasing adoption of intelligent equipment and
robotics, Internet of Things (IOT), and big data analytics have empowered
manufacturing intelligence. Leading companies are battling for dominant positions
in this newly created arena via providing novel value-proposition solutions and/or
employing new technologies to enhance smart production. However, most of emerging
countries may not ready for the migration of Industry 4.0. This study aims to
propose a conceptual framework of “Industry 3.5” as a hybrid strategy between
Industry 3.0 and to-be Industry 4.0, to address some of the needs for flexible
decisions and smart production in Industry 4.0. Empirical studies in hightech
manufacturing and other industries are used for illustration. Future research
directions are discussed to implement the proposed Industry 3.5 to facilitate the
migration of Industry 4.0.
Keywords: Smart Production; Semiconductor Manufacturing; Industry 3.5; Big Data;
Flexible Decision; Manufacturing Intelligence

Goya Choi, Changi Nam, Seongcheol Kim,

The impacts of technology platform openness on application developers’ intention to
continuously use a platform: From an ecosystem perspective,
Telecommunications Policy,
ISSN 0308-5961,
Abstract: With the development of information and communication technologies and
Internet of things, the open-platform strategy has come into the spotlight. Opening
a platform allows external firms or individuals to enter the platform ecosystem
without any restrictions. A platform connects diverse products and services, and
thus the aim of this study is to simultaneously investigate the effect of platform
openness on multiple groups of products and services from an ecosystem perspective.
This study specifically focuses on the manner in which Android's openness to both
applications and devices influences the intentions of application developers to
continuously participate in Android platform through the structural equation
modeling. First, openness to applications directly influences the participation
intention of application developers as well as the user base of the platform. An
increased user base leads to the enhanced participation intention of application
developers through indirect network effects. Second, openness to devices
contributes to increasing the user base, which in turn, positively influences the
intention of application developers. Openness to a device also incurs coordination
costs between applications and devices, and this has a partially negative effect on
the participation of application developers. The contributions of the study include
presenting an analytical model that offers a comprehensive understanding of the
mechanisms of platform openness to external developers.
Keywords: Technology platform; Platform openness; Platform ecosystem; Android;
Continuance intention to use
Maxwell H. Green, Philip Davies, Irene C.L. Ng,
Two strands of servitization: A thematic analysis of traditional and customer co-
created servitization and future research directions,
International Journal of Production Economics,
Volume 192,
Pages 40-53,
ISSN 0925-5273,
Abstract: The servitization literature has diverged, some adopting a goods-dominant
logic and some a service-dominant logic. While both literature streams deal with
servitization, their conceptual underpinnings and use of key terms are
fundamentally different and have become confused within literature. This lack of
clarity and understanding presents a challenge to both research and practice. The
paper asks what the points of convergence and divergence are between the two
streams of literature. The extant literature is reviewed to identify and understand
where and how the streams converge and diverge. A two-tiered thematic analysis with
both semantic and latent theme analysis is employed. Our findings highlight five
points of departure, as well as highlighting examples where both logics have been
applied. The five points of departure are the differing conceptualisations of:
Value-in-Use, Design of the Servitized Offering, Value Co-production and Value Co-
creation, Contextual Variety and Complexity, and Business Model of Solutions and
Outcomes. We also propose conditions under which one logic may be more appropriate,
in particular we find that adoption of a goods-dominant logic and service-dominant
logic are better suited to the pursuit of efficiency and effectiveness,
respectively. Finally, we identify future research directions, particularly within
the domain of the Internet-of-Things.
Keywords: Servitization; Service-dominant logic; Internet of things; Business
model; Value; Customer Co-Created Servitization

D. Mourtzis, E. Vlachou, G. Dimitrakopoulos, V. Zogopoulos,

Cyber- Physical Systems and Education 4.0 –The Teaching Factory 4.0 Concept,
Procedia Manufacturing,
Volume 23,
Pages 129-134,
ISSN 2351-9789,
Abstract: Manufacturing, through the Industry 4.0 concept, is moving to the next
phase of digitalization. Industry 4.0 supported by innovative technologies such as
Internet of Things, Cloud technology, Augmented and Virtual Reality will also play
an important role in manufacturing education, supporting advanced life-long
training of the skilled workforce. Advanced education, also called Education 4.0,
and networked ecosystems will develop skills and build competences for the new era
of manufacturing. Towards that, this work will present how the adoption of cyber-
physical systems and Industry 4.0 technologies, under the teaching factory paradigm
will re-shape manufacturing education, addressing the increased need for highly-
skilled employees. A teaching factory paradigm supported by Industry 4.0 technology
will be presented, considering the construction of a radio-controlled car.
Keywords: Education 4.0; Teaching Factories; Industry 4.0; Cyber-physical systems

Robert Davies, Tim Coole, Alistair Smith,

Review of Socio-technical Considerations to Ensure Successful Implementation of
Industry 4.0,
Procedia Manufacturing,
Volume 11,
Pages 1288-1295,
ISSN 2351-9789,
Abstract: The paper reviews the Industry 4.0 infrastructure and that beyond the
potential cost and efficiency gains from implementation, adoption is argued from
the perspective of leveraging internal capabilities to devolve Industry 4.0 as the
driver for creating competitive advantage. Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing
methods are presented as mutually supportive, where lean methods are enablers for
Industry 4.0 implementation, and conversely, Industry 4.0 realizes the extended
lean enterprise. The paper further argues that in addition to appreciating the
technical aspects of Industry 4.0, it is necessary to understand the socio-
technical requirements to ensure successful implementation.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Cyber-Physical Systems; Internet of Things; Smart
Factories; Socio-Technical Systems

Axel Ensslen, Till Gnann, Patrick Jochem, Patrick Plötz, Elisabeth Dütschke, Wolf
Can product service systems support electric vehicle adoption?,
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice,
ISSN 0965-8564,
Abstract: Plug-in electric vehicles are seen as a promising option to reduce oil
dependency, greenhouse gas emissions, particulate matter pollution, nitrogen oxide
emissions and noise caused by individual road transportation. But how is it
possible to foster diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles? Our research focuses on
the question whether e-mobility product service systems (i.e. plug-in electric
vehicles, interconnected charging infrastructure as well as charging platform and
additional services) are supportive to plug-in electric vehicle adoption in
professional environments. Our user oriented techno-economic analysis of costs and
benefits is based on empirical data originating from 109 organizational fleets
participating in a field trial in south-west Germany with in total 327 plug-in
electric vehicles and 181 charging points. The results show that organizations
indicate a high willingness to pay for e-mobility product service systems.
Organizations encounter non-monetary benefits, which on average overcompensate the
current higher total cost of ownership of plug-in electric vehicles compared to
internal combustion engine vehicles. However, the willingness to pay for e-mobility
charging infrastructure and services alone is currently not sufficient to cover
corresponding actual costs. The paper relates the interconnected charging
infrastructure solutions under study to the development of the internet of things
and smarter cities and draws implications on this development.
Keywords: Electric mobility; Electric vehicle; Smart city; Platform service;
Business model; Product service system

S. De Vito, E. Esposito, M. Salvato, O. Popoola, F. Formisano, R. Jones, G. Di

Calibrating chemical multisensory devices for real world applications: An in-depth
comparison of quantitative machine learning approaches,
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical,
Volume 255, Part 2,
Pages 1191-1210,
ISSN 0925-4005,
Abstract: Chemical multisensor devices need calibration algorithms to estimate gas
concentrations. Their possible adoption as indicative air quality measurements
devices poses new challenges due to the need to operate in continuous monitoring
modes in uncontrolled environments. Several issues, including slow dynamics,
continue to affect their real world performances. At the same time, the need for
estimating pollutant concentrations on board the devices, especially for wearables
and IoT deployments, is becoming highly desirable. In this framework, several
calibration approaches have been proposed and tested on a variety of proprietary
devices and datasets; still, no thorough comparison is available to researchers.
This work attempts a benchmarking of the most promising calibration algorithms
according to recent literature with a focus on machine learning approaches. We test
the techniques against absolute and dynamic performances, generalization
capabilities and computational/storage needs using three different datasets sharing
continuous monitoring operation methodology. Our results can guide researchers and
engineers in the choice of optimal strategy. They show that non-linear multivariate
techniques yield reproducible results, outperforming linear approaches.
Specifically, the Support Vector Regression method consistently shows good
performances in all the considered scenarios. We highlight the enhanced suitability
of shallow neural networks in a trade-off between performance and
computational/storage needs. We confirm, on a much wider basis, the advantages of
dynamic approaches with respect to static ones that only rely on instantaneous
sensor array response. The latter have been shown to be best choice whenever prompt
and precise response is needed.
Keywords: Distributed chemical sensing; Multisensors calibration algorithms;
Dynamic machine learning; Air quality monitoring; Indicative measurements; Internet
of Things

Alain Yee-Loong Chong, Martin J. Liu, Jun Luo, Ooi Keng-Boon,

Predicting RFID adoption in healthcare supply chain from the perspectives of users,
International Journal of Production Economics,
Volume 159,
Pages 66-75,
ISSN 0925-5273,
Abstract: Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an internet of things technology
that provides many benefits to the healthcare industry’s supply chain. However, a
challenge faced by healthcare industry is the limited adoption and use of RFID by
physicians and nurses. This research extended existing work by integrating unified
theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) (i.e. performance expectancy,
effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence) and individual
differences, namely personality (neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness to
experience, agreeableness and extraversion) and demographic characteristics (i.e.
age and gender) to predict the adoption of RFID in the healthcare supply chain.
Data was collected from 252 physicians and nurses. The research model was tested by
employing neural network analysis. During the course of this research, 11 variables
were proposed in a bid to predict the adoption of RFID by physicians and nurses. In
general, individual differences are able to predict the adoption of RFID better
compared to variables derived from UTAUT. This study contributes to the growing
interest in understanding the acceptance of RFID in the healthcare industry.
Keywords: RFID; Internet of things; Neural network; Healthcare; Technology adoption

Andres Auquilla, Yannick De Bock, Joost R. Duflou,

Improving Cluster-based Methods for Usage Anticipation by the Application of Data
Procedia Manufacturing,
Volume 24,
Pages 166-172,
ISSN 2351-9789,
Abstract: The wide adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure in recent
years has allowed capturing data from systems that make intensive use of electrical
power or consumables typically aiming to create predictive models to anticipate a
system’s demand and to optimize system control, assuring the service while
minimizing the overall consumption. Several methods have been presented to perform
usage anticipation; one promising approach involves a two step procedure:
profiling, which discovers typical usage profiles; and, prediction that detects the
most likely profile given the current information. However, depending on the
problem at hand, the number of observations to characterize a profile can increase
greatly, causing high dimensionality, thus complicating the profiling step as the
amount of noise and correlated features increase. In addition, the profile
detection uncertainty increases, as the cluster intra-variability becomes larger
and the distances between the centroids become similar. To overcome the
difficulties that a usage profile with high dimensionality poses, we developed a
methodology that finds the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset, containing binary
historical usage data, by performing dimensionality reductions to improve the
profiling step. Then, the profile detection step makes use of the transformed
actual data to accurately detect the current profile. This paper describes the
implementation details of the application of such techniques by the analysis of two
use cases: (1) usage prediction of a laser cutter machine; and, (2) occupancy
prediction in an office environment. We observed that the dataset dimensionality
and the cluster intra-variability was greatly reduced, making the profile detection
less prone to errors. In conclusion, the implementation of methodologies to enhance
the separability of the original data by dimensionality transformations improves
the profile discovery and the subsequent actual profile detection.
Keywords: usage profiling; cluster detection; dimensionality reduction;
logisticSVD; logisticPCA

Jacob Høxbroe Jeppesen, Emad Ebeid, Rune Hylsberg Jacobsen, Thomas Skjødeberg
Open geospatial infrastructure for data management and analytics in
interdisciplinary research,
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture,
Volume 145,
Pages 130-141,
ISSN 0168-1699,
Abstract: The terms Internet of Things and Big Data are currently subject to much
attention, though the specific impact of these terms in our practical lives are
difficult to apprehend. Data-driven approaches do lead to new possibilities, and
significant improvements within a broad range of domains can be achieved through a
cloud-based infrastructure. In the agricultural sector, data-driven precision
agriculture shows great potential in facilitating the increase in food production
demanded by the increasing world population. However, the adoption rate of
precision agriculture technology has been slow, and information and communications
technology needed to promote the implementation of precision agriculture is limited
by proprietary integrations and non-standardized data formats and connections. In
this paper, an open geospatial data infrastructure is presented, based on standards
defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The emphasis in the design was on
improved interoperability, with the capability of using sensors, performing cloud
processing, carrying out regional statistics, and provide seamless connectivity to
machine terminals. The infrastructure was implemented through open source software,
and was complemented by open data from governmental offices along with ESA
satellite imagery. Four use cases are presented, covering analysis of nearly 50 000
crop fields and providing seamless interaction with an emulated machine terminal.
They act to showcase both for how the infrastructure enables modularity and
interoperability, and for the new possibilities which arise from this new approach
to data within the agricultural domain.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Remote sensing; Open software; Open data; Farm
management information systems

Irina Harris, Yingli Wang, Haiyang Wang,

ICT in multimodal transport and technological trends: Unleashing potential for the
International Journal of Production Economics,
Volume 159,
Pages 88-103,
ISSN 0925-5273,
Abstract: The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in freight
transport as key enabler is well recognised. However the uptake of recent ICT
advances for multimodal freight transport provisions in the UK and Europe has been
slow. The aim of our paper is to explore the potential reasons for such a slow
adoption and assess how recent technological advances such as cloud computing and
Internet of Things might have changed the landscape and thus help to overcome these
barriers. Via an extensive review of 33 EU framework programme projects, we are
able to consolidate and present current major efforts in ICT developments in the
freight multimodal transport setting at European level. We further discuss barriers
inhibiting quick take-up of ICT applications in multimodal transport. Resolutions
were then explored by reviewing four key ICT development trends recently emerging
and evaluating their potential impact in reducing such barriers for deployment. Our
contribution is two-fold: it advances current knowledge by presenting an up-to-date
overview of existing and emerging ICT applications in the field of multimodal
transport and barriers to e-enabled multimodal transport. It also captures some of
the best practices in industry and aims to provoke a debate among practitioners and
academics via the analysis of how innovative use of recent technological
developments could potentially lower the barriers to multimodal ICT adoption and
lead to a more integrated freight transport network. Therefore it lays the
foundation for further research.
Keywords: ICT; Multimodal transport; Barriers to ICT adoption; Technological
trends; Cloud computing; Internet of Things

Matthew Krugh, Ethan McGee, Stephen McGee, Laine Mears, Andrej Ivanco, K.C. Podd,
Barbara Watkins,
Measurement of Operator-machine Interaction on a Chaku-chaku Assembly Line,
Procedia Manufacturing,
Volume 10,
Pages 123-135,
ISSN 2351-9789,
Abstract: Assembly operations in the automotive industry represent a substantial
proportion of overall manufacturing time and total manufacturing cost. With product
complexity increasing year after year, humans continue to remain a cost-effective
solution to the needs of flexible manufacturing. The human element is largely
marginalized in Manufacturing 2.0 and necessitates a better understanding of the
human's impact on the future of manufacturing. The work herein illustrates a method
through the use of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) to capture ubiquitous
data streams from human and automated machinery with the intention to make
available the data necessary and elucidate the potential to deepen the
understanding of the human impact on Industry 4.0 assembly systems.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; IIoT; Quality

Yupeng Liu, Yifei Chen, Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng,

Identification of key factors in consumers’ adoption behavior of intelligent
medical terminals based on a hybrid modified MADM model for product improvement,
International Journal of Medical Informatics,
Volume 105,
Pages 68-82,
ISSN 1386-5056,
Abstract: Background
As a new application technology of the Internet of Things (IoT), intelligent
medical treatment has attracted the attention of both nations and industries
through its promotion of medical informatisation, modernisation, and
intelligentisation. Faced with a wide variety of intelligent medical terminals,
consumers may be affected by various factors when making purchase decisions.
To examine and evaluate the key influential factors (and their interrelationships)
of consumer adoption behavior for improving and promoting intelligent medical
terminals toward achieving set aspiration level in each dimension and criterion.
A hybrid modified Multiple Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model was used for this
study, based on three components: (1) the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation
Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, to build an influential network relationship map
(INRM) at both ‘dimensions’ and ‘criteria’ levels; (2) the DEMATEL-based analytic
network process (DANP) method, to determine the interrelationships and influential
weights among the criteria and identify the source-influential factors; and (3) the
modified Vlse Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method, to
evaluate and improve for reducing the performance gaps to meet the consumers’ needs
for continuous improvement and sustainable products-development. First, a consensus
on the influential factors affecting consumers’ adoption of intelligent medical
terminals was collected from experts’ opinion in practical experience. Next, the
interrelationships and influential weights of DANP among dimensions/criteria based
on the DEMATEL technique were determined. Finally, two intelligent medicine bottles
(AdhereTech, A1 alternative; and Audio/Visual Alerting Pillbox, A2 alternative)
were reviewed as the terminal devices to verify the accuracy of the MADM model and
evaluate its performance on each criterion for improving the total certification
gaps by systematics according to the modified VIKOR method based on an INRM.
In this paper, the criteria and dimensions used to improve the evaluation framework
are validated. The systematic evaluation in index system is constructed on the
basis of five dimensions and corresponding ten criteria. Influential weights of all
criteria ranges from 0.037 to 0.152, which shows the rank of criteria importance.
The evaluative framework were validated synthetically and scientifically. INRM
(influential network relation map) was obtained from experts’ opinion through
DEMATEL technique shows complex interrelationship among factors. At the dimension
level, the environmental dimension influences other dimensions the most, whereas
the security dimension is most influenced by others. So the improvement order of
environmental dimension is prior to security dimension. The newly constructed
approach was still further validated by the results of the empirical case, where
performance gap improvement strategies were analyzed for decision-makers. The
modified VIKOR method was especially validated for solving real-world problems in
intelligent medical terminal improvement processes. For this paper, A1 performs
better than A2, however, promotion mix, brand factor, and market environment are
shortcomings faced by both A1 and A2. In addition, A2 should be improved in the
wireless network technology, and the objective contact with a high degree of gaps.
Based on the evaluation index system and the integrated model proposed here,
decision-makers in enterprises can identify gaps when promoting intelligent medical
terminals, from which they can get valuable advice to improve consumer adoption.
Additionally, an INRM and the influential weights of DANP can be combined using the
modified VIKOR method as integrated weightings to determine how to reduce gaps and
provide the best improvement strategies for reaching set aspiration levels.
Keywords: Intelligent medical terminal; Consumer adoption behavior; Evaluation
index system; DEMATEL technique; DANP (DEMATEL-based ANP); Modified VIKOR method

Matthew D. Steinberg, Petar Kassal, Irena Kereković, Ivana Murković Steinberg,

A wireless potentiostat for mobile chemical sensing and biosensing,
Volume 143,
Pages 178-183,
ISSN 0039-9140,
Abstract: Wireless chemical sensors are used as analytical devices in homeland
defence, home-based healthcare, food logistics and more generally for the Sensor
Internet of Things (SIoT). Presented here is a battery-powered and highly portable
credit-card size potentiostat that is suitable for performing mobile and wearable
amperometric electrochemical measurements with seamless wireless data transfer to
mobile computing devices. The mobile electrochemical analytical system has been
evaluated in the laboratory with a model redox system – the reduction of
hexacyanoferrate(III) – and also with commercially available enzymatic blood-
glucose test-strips. The potentiostat communicates wirelessly with mobile devices
such as tablets or Smartphones by near-field communication (NFC) or with personal
computers by radio-frequency identification (RFID), and thus provides a solution to
the ‘missing link’ in connectivity that often exists between low-cost mobile and
wearable chemical sensors and ubiquitous mobile computing products. The mobile
potentiostat has been evaluated in the laboratory with a set of proof-of-concept
experiments, and its analytical performance compared with a commercial laboratory
potentiostat (R2=0.9999). These first experimental results demonstrate the
functionality of the wireless potentiostat and suggest that the device could be
suitable for wearable and point-of-sample analytical measurements. We conclude that
the wireless potentiostat could contribute significantly to the advancement of
mobile chemical sensor research and adoption, in particular for wearable sensors in
healthcare and sport physiology, for wound monitoring and in mobile point-of-sample
diagnostics as well as more generally as a part of the Sensor Internet of Things.
Keywords: Potentiostat; Amperometry; Biosensor; Glucose test-strip; Radio-frequency
identification; Near-field communication; Wireless sensor; Internet of things.

Pierluigi Rippa, Giustina Secundo,

Digital academic entrepreneurship: The potential of digital technologies on
academic entrepreneurship,
Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
ISSN 0040-1625,
Abstract: Today's digital technologies, such as social media, business analytics,
the Internet of Things, big data, advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, cloud and
cyber-solutions and MOOCs, permeate every private and public organization. However,
even if this phenomenon has been analyzed for entrepreneurship in general, to the
best of our knowledge, the impact of digital technologies on academic
entrepreneurship remains not only slightly addressed. With the aim of filling this
gap, this paper proposes a novel contribution regarding the emerging concept of
Digital Academic Entrepreneurship. Based on a qualitative literature review, an
interpretative framework for Digital Academic Entrepreneurship is deductively
proposed that is composed of the following components: the rationale for the
adoption of digital technologies for academic entrepreneurship (why), the emerging
forms of digital academic entrepreneurship (what), the stakeholders involved
through the digital technologies to achieve the academic entrepreneurship goal
(who), and the processes of academic entrepreneurship supported by digital
technologies (how). The discussion section provides a conceptualization of Digital
Academic Entrepreneurship. The paper closes with the identification of a research
agenda for this promising and under-researched field.
Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship; Digital academic entrepreneurship; Digital
technologies; Entrepreneurial university

Ruhul Amin, SK Hafizul Islam, G.P. Biswas, Muhammad Khurram Khan, Lu Leng, Neeraj
Design of an anonymity-preserving three-factor authenticated key exchange protocol
for wireless sensor networks,
Computer Networks,
Volume 101,
Pages 42-62,
ISSN 1389-1286,
Abstract: Recently, Farash et al. pointed out some security weaknesses of
Turkanović et al.’s protocol, which they extended to enhance its security. However,
we found some problems with Farash et al.’s protocol, such as a known session-
specific temporary information attack, an off-line password-guessing attack using a
stolen-smartcard, a new-smartcard-issue attack, and a user-impersonation attack.
Additionally, their protocol cannot preserve user-anonymity, and the secret key of
the gateway node is insecure. The main intention of this paper is to design an
efficient and robust smartcard-based user authentication and session key agreement
protocol for wireless sensor networks that use the Internet of Things. We analyze
its security, proving that our protocol not only overcomes the weaknesses of Farash
et al.’s protocol, but also preserves additional security attributes, such as the
identity change and smartcard revocation phases. Moreover, the results of a
simulation using AVISPA show that our protocol is secure against active and passive
attacks. The security and performance of our work are also compared with a number
of related protocols.
Keywords: Anonymity preserving; Key exchange protocol; Wireless sensor network;
Internet of Things; Sensor node; Gateway node

Huawei Zhao, Ruzhi Xu, Minglei Shu, Jiankun Hu,

Physiological-signal-based key negotiation protocols for body sensor networks: A
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory,
Volume 65,
Pages 32-44,
ISSN 1569-190X,
Abstract: A body sensor network (BSN) is a type of network for Internet of Things.
A BSN typically consists of tens (dozens) of biosensor nodes distributed on/in the
human body, and these autonomous nodes can form a wireless network to measure
physiological signals and execute intelligent treatment automatically. BSNs have
wide application prospects in intelligent healthcare. Because physiological signals
measured and processed by BSNs involve patient privacy, security mechanisms must be
developed to secure BSNs, and therefore the adoption of available key negotiation
protocols is fundamental. Due to stringently limited operation resources, BSNs
require these protocols to be highly energy efficient. Recent development has
discovered that certain physiological signals can be used for efficiently
negotiating common keys among biosensor nodes. These signals and fuzzy technology
are used to design lightweight key negotiation protocols, and many solutions have
been proposed. In this paper, we explore and classify these solutions, and evaluate
their performance by analyzing their merits and drawbacks. Finally, we present open
research issues that should be solved in the future.
Keywords: Body sensor network; Key negotiation protocols; Physiological signals;
Fuzzy commitment; Fuzzy vault

Alexander Savelyev,
Russia's new personal data localization regulations: A step forward or a self-
imposed sanction?,
Computer Law & Security Review,
Volume 32, Issue 1,
Pages 128-145,
ISSN 0267-3649,
Abstract: The paper represents one of the first comprehensive analyses of Russian
personal data localization regulations, which became effective at September 1,
2015. This work describes in detail the main components of the data localization
mechanism: triggers of its application, scope, exemptions and enforcement. It also
takes into account the official and non-official interpretations of the law by
Russian regulators, some of which were developed with the participation of the
author. Special consideration is given to the jurisdictional aspects of the Russian
data protection legislation and the criteria of its application to foreign data
controllers. The author also reveals the rationale behind the adoption of data
localization provisions and analyzes their possible impact on foreign companies
operating in Russia and implementation of innovative IT-technologies (Cloud
computing, Big Data and Internet of Things). The paper concludes that most of the
potential benefits of data localization provisions, i.e. in the area of public law,
law enforcement activities and taxation. Nevertheless, data localization provisions
may still have medium-term positive impact on privacy, since they force all
stakeholders to revisit the basic concepts of existing personal data legislation
(the notion of personal data, data controller, processing, etc.), thus serving as a
driver for re-shaping existing outdated data privacy regulations and crafting
something more suitable for the modern IT-environment.
Keywords: Personal data; Data localization; Cloud computing; Big data; Transborder
data flows; Digital sovereignty

Kayleen Manwaring, Roger Clarke,

Surfing the third wave of computing: A framework for research into eObjects,
Computer Law & Security Review,
Volume 31, Issue 5,
Pages 586-603,
ISSN 0267-3649,
Abstract: During the last two decades, a “third wave of computing” has emerged: a
move from a model of accessing the Internet and other internetworks almost
exclusively via a desktop computer to alternative forms of distributed information
technologies, such as smartphones, wearable computers, and sensors and
microprocessors embedded in everyday objects. This paper undertakes a critical
review of the literature that offers and discusses definitions of this “third
wave”. Not surprisingly in an area of innovation, definitions are evolving,
overlapping and inconsistent. This paper analyses and consolidates the literature
in order to identify the key aspects of this new phenomenon. We have coined the
term “eObjects”1 for the central element of the “third wave”. The paper presents a
framework for research into the technologies and their implications, distinguishing
core from common attributes, and identifying categories of inter-device
interaction. A subsequent paper will apply the research framework to legal
research, with the intention of understanding areas in which litigation can be
anticipated, and uncovering areas where the law may not adequately deal with
emergent social and business practices.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; Pervasive computing; Internet of Things; Ambient
intelligence; Mobile computing; Technology regulation; eObjects

Zhangbing Zhou, Deng Zhao, Lu Liu, Patrick C.K. Hung,

Energy-aware composition for wireless sensor networks as a service,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 80,
Pages 299-310,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: With the wide-adoption of the Internet of Things, heterogeneous smart
things, serving as sensor nodes, require to work in a collective fashion for
achieving complex applications. To address this challenge, this article proposes a
service-oriented wireless sensor networks (WSNs) framework, and the cooperation
between sensor nodes is achieved through the functional integration of neighboring
sensor nodes. Generally, sensor nodes are encapsulated and represented as WSN
services, which are energy-aware, and typically have constraints on their spatial
and temporal aspects. WSN services are categorized into service classes according
to the limited number of types of their functionalities. Consequently, service
classes chains are generated with respect to the requirement of domain
applications, and the composition of WSN services is constructed through
discovering and selecting appropriate WSN services as the instantiation of service
classes contained in chains. This WSN services composition is reduced to a multi-
objective and multi-constrained optimization problem, which can be solved through
adopting particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA).
Experimental evaluation shows that PSO outperforms GA in finding approximately
optimal WSN services compositions.
Keywords: WSN services; Service classes chain; Energy-aware WSN service
composition; Spatial and temporal constraints

Leendert A. Verhoef, Bart W. Budde, Cindhuja Chockalingam, Brais García Nodar, Ad

J.M. van Wijk,
The effect of additive manufacturing on global energy demand: An assessment using a
bottom-up approach,
Energy Policy,
Volume 112,
Pages 349-360,
ISSN 0301-4215,
Abstract: The effect of disruptive technologies unrelated to the energy sector,
such as additive manufacturing (AM), tends to be overlooked in energy scenarios.
The present research assessed the potential effect of AM on the global energy
demand in four energy scenarios for 2050 with extended versus limited globalisation
and limited versus extensive adoption of AM. These scenarios were developed and
applied for two cases, namely the aerospace sector and the construction sector,
analysing the effect of AM on each phase in the value chain. In the aerospace
sector, energy savings of 5–25% can be made, with the largest effect in the use
phase because of weight reduction. In the construction sector, energy savings of 4–
21% are achievable, with the largest effects in the feedstock, transport and use
phases. Extrapolated to the global energy demand in 2050, a reduction of 26–
138EJ/yr, equivalent to 5–27% of global demand is achievable. It is recommended
that energy policymakers should consider integrating AM and other disruptive
technologies, such as robotics and the Internet of Things, into their long-term
energy planning, policies and programmes, including Nationally Determined
Contributions under the Paris Agreement on climate change.
Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Disruptive technologies; Energy; Energy
scenarios; Scenario planning; 1.5°C of global warming

Iain Docherty, Greg Marsden, Jillian Anable,

The governance of smart mobility,
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice,
ISSN 0965-8564,
Abstract: There is an active contemporary debate about how emerging technologies
such as automated vehicles, peer-to-peer sharing applications and the ‘internet of
things’ will revolutionise individual and collective mobility. Indeed, it is argued
that the so-called ‘Smart Mobility’ transition, in which these technologies combine
to transform how the mobility system is organised and operates, has already begun.
As with any socio-technical transition there are critical questions to be posed in
terms of how the transition is managed, and how both the benefits and any negative
externalities of change will be governed. This paper deploys the notion of ensuring
and enhancing public value as a key governance aim for the transition. It sets out
modes and methods of governance that could be deployed to steer the transition and,
through four thematic cases explores how current mobility governance challenges
will change. In particular, changing networks of actors, resources and power, new
logics of consumption, and shifts in how mobility is regulated, priced and taxed –
will require to be successfully negotiated if public value is to be captured from
the transition. This is a critical time for such questions to be raised because
technological change is clearly outpacing the capacity of systems and structures of
governance to respond to the challenges already apparent. A failure to address both
the short and longer-term governance issues risks locking the mobility system into
transition paths which exacerbate rather than ameliorate the wider social and
environmental problems that have challenged planners throughout the automobility
Keywords: Governance; Transition; Public value; Smart technology; Mobility;

Maheswaree Kissoon Curumsing, Niroshinie Fernando, Mohamed Abdelrazek, Rajesh Vasa,

Kon Mouzakis, John Grundy,
Understanding the Impact of Emotions on Software: A Case Study in Requirements
Gathering and Evaluation,
Journal of Systems and Software,
ISSN 0164-1212,
Abstract: Smart home technology has received growing interest in recent years with
a focus on automation and assistance, for example, Alexa, Google Home, Apple
HomePod, and many cheap IoT devices. Better supporting elderly people to continue
live in their home using smart home technology is a key target application.
However, most of the existing smart home solutions for the elderly are not designed
with people’s emotional goals in mind, leading to lack of adoption, lack of
engagement, and failure of the technology. In this paper, we introduce an emotion-
oriented requirements engineering approach to help identifying, modeling and
evaluating emotional goals. We also explain how we used this technique to help us
develop SofiHub - a new smart home platform for elderly people. SofiHub comprises a
range of devices and software for sensing, interaction, passive monitoring, and
emergency assistance. We have conducted multiple trials including initial field
trials for elderly people in real houses. We have used our emotion-oriented
requirements techniques to evaluate the participants’ emotional reactions before,
during, and after trials to understand the impact of such technology on elderly
people’s emotions to the Sofihub solution. Our analysis shows that SofiHub
successfully alleviates their loneliness, makes them feel safer and cared about. We
also found that the trial participants developed a strong relation with the system
and hence, felt frustrated when SofiHub did not respond in ways expected or
desired. We reflect on the lessons learned from the trials related to our emotion-
oriented design and evaluation experimental approach, including refining our set of
evaluation tools.
Keywords: Smart Home; Elderly; Independent Living; Emotions; Loneliness; Emotion-
Oriented development approach

S. Sciancalepore, G. Piro, E. Vogli, G. Boggia, L.A. Grieco, G. Cavone,

LICITUS: A lightweight and standard compatible framework for securing layer-2
communications in the IoT,
Computer Networks,
Volume 108,
Pages 66-77,
ISSN 1389-1286,
Abstract: With reference to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, many solutions have been
formulated to face the different facets of layer-2 security. Unfortunately, the
opportunities and subtleties arising from their joint adoption has been not
investigated, due to the lack of an integrating framework. To this end, hereby a
novel standard compatible framework is proposed, which is able to orchestrate
several layer-2 security mechanisms with a limited computational footprint.
Conceived as a distributed scheme, it covers the following key features: (i)
multiple security configurations in homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios; (ii)
adaption to dynamic networks; (iii) lean and scalable initialization
functionalities; (iv) lightweight Key Management Protocol; and (v) resilience to
several attacks. The robustness against security attacks have been evaluated
through a well-known automatic cryptographic protocol verifier, namely ProVerif.
Moreover, to further demonstrate its effectiveness, the proposed framework has been
implemented within the emerging OpenWSN protocol stack, experimentally evaluated,
and compared with respect to the ZigBee IP security architecture, which integrates
the Symmetric Key - Key Establishment protocol (SKKE). Results clearly show that,
although security features in constrained nodes incur not negligible computational
costs (which impair latencies and energy efficiency), the proposed approach always
guarantees better performances with respect to the ZigBee IP security architecture.
In fact, it speeds up the configuration of security services (up to 120%), while
ensuring relevant energy savings (larger than 50%).
Keywords: IoT; IEEE 802.15.4; Security; Key negotiation; Experimental evaluation

Idowu Ayoola, Mart Wetzels, Peter Peters, Sander van Berlo, Loe Feijs,
Do CHANGE platform: A service-based architecture for secure aggregation and
distribution of health and wellbeing data,
International Journal of Medical Informatics,
Volume 117,
Pages 103-111,
ISSN 1386-5056,
Abstract: Over the last decade, the adoption of open API standards offers new
services meaningful in the domain of health informatics and behavior change. We
present our privacy-oriented solution to support personal data collection,
distribution, and usage. Given the new General Data Protection Regulations in
Europe, the proposed platform is designed with requirements in mind to position
citizens as the controllers of their data. The proposed result uses NodeJS servers,
OAuth protocol for Authentication and Authorization, a publish-subscribe semantic
for real-time data notification and Cron for APIs without a notification strategy.
It uses Distributed Data Protocol to control and securely provision data to
distributed frameworks utilizing the data and those distributed applications are
exemplified. The platform design is transparent and modularized for research
projects and small businesses to set-up and manage, and to allow them to focus on
the application layer utilizing personal information. This solution can easily be
configured to support custom or new data sources with open API and can scale. In
our use cases, maintaining the separate ecosystem services was trivial. The adopted
distributed protocol was the most challenging to manage due to its high RAM usage.
And implementing a fine-grained privacy control by end-users was challenging in an
existing clinical enterprise system.
Keywords: IoT; Personal data; Health services; Privacy; Security; Data aggregation;
Data distribution

Wasim Ahmad Bhat,

Bridging data-capacity gap in big data storage,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 87,
Pages 538-548,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: Big data is aggressive in its production, and with the merger of Cloud
computing and IoT, the huge volumes of data generated are increasingly challenging
the storage capacity of data centres. This has led to a growing data-capacity gap
in big data storage. Unfortunately, the limitations faced by current storage
technologies have severely handicapped their potential to meet the storage demand
of big data. Consequently, storage technologies with higher storage density,
throughput and lifetime have been researched to overcome this gap. In this paper,
we first introduce the working principles of three such emerging storage
technologies, and justify their inclusion in the study based on the tremendous
advances received by them in the recent past. These storage technologies include
Optical data storage, DNA data storage & Holographic data storage. We then evaluate
the recent advances received in storage density, throughput and lifetime of these
emerging storage technologies, and compare them with the trends and advances in
prevailing storage technologies. We finally discuss the implications of their
adoption, evaluate their prospects, and highlight the challenges faced by them to
bridge the data-capacity gap in big data storage.
Keywords: Big data; Data-capacity gap; Optical storage; DNA storage; Holographic
storage; Magnetic storage

Daniela Loreti, Federico Chesani, Anna Ciampolini, Paola Mello,

A distributed approach to compliance monitoring of business process event streams,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 82,
Pages 104-118,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: In recent years, the significant advantages brought to business processes
by process mining account for its evolution as a major concern in both industrial
and academic research. In particular, increasing attention has been turned to
compliance monitoring as a way to identify when a sequence of events deviates from
the expected behaviour. As we are entering the IoT era, an increasing variety of
smart objects can be introduced in business processes (e.g., tags to track products
in a plant, smartphones and badge swiping to draw the activities of customers and
employees in a shopping centre, etc.). All these objects produce large volumes of
log data in the form of streams, which need to be run-time analysed to extract
further knowledge about the underlying business process and to identify unexpected,
non-conforming events. Albeit rather straightforward on a small log file,
compliance verification techniques may show poor performances when dealing with big
data and streams, thus calling for scalable approaches. This work investigates the
possibility of spreading the compliance monitoring task over a network of computing
nodes, achieving the desired scalability. The monitor is realised through the
existing SCIFF framework for compliance checking, which provides a high level
logic-based language for expressing the properties to be monitored and nicely
supports the partitioning of the monitoring task. The distributed computation is
achieved through a MapReduce approach and the adoption of an existing general
engine for large scale stream processing. Experimental results show the feasibility
of the approach as well as the advantages in performance brought to the compliance
monitoring task.
Keywords: Business process management; Distributed compliance monitoring; Stream
processing; MapReduce

Dongyoung Koo, Junbeom Hur,

Privacy-preserving deduplication of encrypted data with dynamic ownership
management in fog computing,
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 78, Part 2,
Pages 739-752,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: The explosion in the volume of data generated by end-point devices,
arising from IoT proliferation, has lead to the adoption of data outsourcing to
dedicated data centers. However, centralized data centers such as cloud storage
cannot afford to manage large stores of data in a timely manner. To allow low
latency access to large amounts of data, a new computing paradigm, called fog
computing, has been introduced. In a fog computing environment, privacy issues
surrounding outsourced data become more critical due to its complicated innards of
the system. In addition, efficient resource management is another important
criterion considering the application of pay-per-use in commercial fog storage. As
an extension of cloud storage, most fog storage service providers will choose to
adopt data deduplication techniques to minimize resource dissipation. At the same
time, data owners may update or remove outsourced data stored in the remote storage
to reduce expenses. In this paper, we propose the first privacy-preserving
deduplication protocol capable of efficient ownership management in fog computing.
It achieves fine-grained access control by introducing user-level key management
and update mechanisms. Data-invariant user-level private keys enable data owners to
maintain a constant number of keys regardless of the number of outsourced data
files. The update of user-level public keys for valid data owners at the remote
storage dramatically reduces communication overhead. Security and performance
analyses demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of
communication and key management in fog storage.
Keywords: Data deduplication; Fog computing; Data privacy; Data ownership
management; Efficiency

Giovanni Merlino, Stamatis Arkoulis, Salvatore Distefano, Chrysa Papagianni,

Antonio Puliafito, Symeon Papavassiliou,
Mobile crowdsensing as a service: A platform for applications on top of sensing
Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 56,
Pages 623-639,
ISSN 0167-739X,
Abstract: Consumer-centric mobile devices, such as smartphones, are an emerging
category of devices at the edge of the Internet. Leveraging volunteers and their
mobiles as a (sensing) data collection outlet is known as Mobile Crowd Sensing
(MCS) and poses interesting challenges, with particular regard to the management of
sensing resource contributors, dealing with their subscription, random and
unpredictable join and leave, and node churn. To facilitate and expedite the
(commercial) exploitation of this trend, in this paper we propose to adopt a
service-oriented approach to cope with MCS application deployment into a sensing
Cloud infrastructure, decoupling the MCS application domain from the infrastructure
one. To this purpose we provide the building blocks for implementing such a novel
take on MCS, which from a Cloud layering perspective can be identified as a
platform service, i.e., an MCS as a service (MCSaaS). A prototype implementation
that serves as a blueprint and a proof-of-concept of the proposed framework is
presented, while an evaluation of the effectiveness of the MCSaaS paradigm has been
provided using suitable mobility-related use cases for a validation of the concept,
as well as a modeling approach through the adoption of generalized stochastic Petri
Keywords: Cloud; IoT; Infrastructure as a Service; Volunteer contribution; Sensors
and actuators; Runtime customization