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Burning fuels
ripening of fruit ADVANTAGE
cooking food
super glue setting
Change in which one or more DEFINITION
chemical new substances are formed. steel rusting
reaction concrete setting EXAMPLE
with growth, respiration, photosynthesis and
Chemical reactions are a vital part of life itself
digestion all involving chemical reactions
Even after plants and animals die, the decay of their remains involves chemical reactions
physical change in which no new substances are produced

occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen

zinc + oxygen ---> zinc oxide
Oxidation butter & cooking oils going off
which takes place in the cells of
living organisms, is the oxidation of sugars
Some substances,(copper), react with oxygen but do not burn These are oxidation but not combustion reactions

when a substance burns in oxygen

burning of fossil fuels
burning rocket fuels
Combustion methane (natural gas) + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water
hydrogen + oxygen ---> water
All combustion reactions are also oxidation reactions because substances react with oxygen when they burn

when a substance loses oxygen. This is the opposite of oxidation

extraction of metals from their ores
For example, iron is extracted from its ore haematite,
Reduction which contains iron oxide, by reaction with carbon.
The iron oxide loses its oxygen to form iron
iron oxide + carbon ---> iron + carbon dioxide

ADVANTAGE when a compound breaks down into simpler substances

DISADVANTAGE when a substance is decomposed using heat
6.1 DEFINITION A Thermal decomposition silver oxide ---> silver + oxygen
calcium carbonate (limestone) ---> calcium oxide (lime) +carbon dioxide
when a substance is decomposed using electricity
of substances that can be decomposed by electricity have to be
reactions B Electrical decomposition (electrolysis)
molten or dissolved first
Some metals, such as sodium, are extracted
Decomposition from their ores by electrical decomposition
sodium chloride ---> sodium + chlorine
much less common than thermal or electrical decomposition
One very important example is the decomposition of silver bromide
This reaction is used in photography. Films are coated with silver
C Decomposition by light bromide and other similar substances. On the parts of the film that are
silver bromide ---> silver + bromine exposed to light, silver metal forms. In developing, the unexposed silver
bromide is washed off leaving silver on parts of the film which were
exposed to light. In this way the negative of the photograph is produced.

the reaction between an acid and a base producing a salt and water
Metal oxides, metal hydroxides and metal carbonates are all examples of bases
Indigestion is caused by excess hydrochloric acid.
indigestion tablets with acid in your stomach It can be cured using indigestion tablets which
Neutralisation (acid- base) contain the base calcium carbonate
hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate ----> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water
(in your (in indigestion
stomach) tablet)

when a solid is produced from solutions that are mixed together.

when a solution of potassium iodide is added to a solution of lead nitrate
a yellow solid (precipitate) is formed
lead nitrate + potassium iodide ---> lead iodide + potassium nitrate
It removes the dissolved calcium particles that
Hard water can be softened by adding washing soda
make the water hard as a precipitate of calcium carbonate

a more reactive element takes the place of a less reactive one in a compound
can be used to extract met als from compounds
Displacement chromium can be extracted from chromium oxide by heating it with aluminium
chromium oxide + alum inium ---> chromium + aluminium oxide


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