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Effect of Plastic Optical Fibers on Properties of Translucent Concrete Boards

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First International Conference on Engineering Sciences’ Applications, ICESA
College of Engineering
University of Kerbala

Paper Designation No. C41-7

Effect of Plastic Optical Fibers on Properties of Translucent Concrete Boards


Prof. Dr. Shakir Ahmed Salih 1, Assist.Prof.Dr. Hasan Hamodi Joni 2 Safaa Adnan
Mohamed 3
1
(Department of Building and Construction Engineering, Technology University, Baghdad Email:
professorshakir@yahoo.com ),+9647902960244
2
(Department of Building and Construction Engineering, Technology University, Baghdad Email:
hassan_jony@yahoo.com), +9647901609533
3
(Department of Highway and Transportation Engineering, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad Email:
engsafaa2013@yahoo.com ),+9647902566129

ABSTRACT
With the economic growth and science technology development, more and more large-scale
civil engineering structures such as tall buildings, underground buildings and landmark
buildings and so on are built around the world. Those buildings are isolated environments only
based on man-made lights. At the same time, most of the big buildings are built close to each
other like sky scrapers. When many buildings are stacked close to each other, they will block
natural sunlight. With the aim of eliminating these and other drawbacks, consideration has
been given to the development of a translucent concrete, which is obtained by combining the
advantages of two representative materials in construction and sensing field: concrete and
optical fiber, to develop a novel functional material that has an important value for application
in construction and sensing. This paper discusses the mechanical effects of inclusion of plastic
optical fiber (POF) into self- compact mortar (SCM) produced by special boards with
dimensions (300×150×15 mm), (300×150×25 mm) and (300×150×50 mm), with 4% POF
volume fraction content and (2.0, 3.0 mm) diameter, which could be used in many applications
(ceiling, external wall, partitions, floor tiles, etc.). The experimental results show that an optical
fiber can be easily combined with SCM but requires great care in the preparation process. The
tests results of boards indicated that air dry density ranges between (1798.0 - 2022.7 kg/m3 ) ,
flexural strength between (3.87-5.06 MPa) and flexural toughness between (0.32-0.47 MPa) for
samples at 28 days age.

Keywords - translucent concrete, plastic optical fiber, self-compact mortar, boards.

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1. Introduction
The concrete currently used in the construction industry generally consists of at least cement, water
and aggregates (fine or coarse). As is well known, traditional concrete has a grayish color, and its high
density prevents the passage of light through it, which means that it is also impossible to distinguish
bodies, colors and shapes through it[1,2].
Transparent concrete is a concrete based building material with light-Tran missive properties due to
embedded light optical elements usually optical fibers. Light is conducted through the stone from one end to
the other. Therefore the fibers have to go through the whole object. Translucent concrete is also known as the
transparent concrete and light transmitting concrete because of its properties[3–5]. Translucent concrete can
be used as building material for interior and exterior walls it could reduce the power consumption of
illumination, this concrete can be used as flooring a passable surface illuminated from below. During the day
it looks like typical concrete pavement but at sunset the paving blocks begin to shine and in different
colors[6,7]. Hungarian architect, Aron Losonczi, first introduced the idea of light transmitting concrete in 2001
and then successfully produced the first transparent concrete block in 2003, named LiTraCon. However, his
transparent concrete did not have smart sensing properties In 2009, Professor Zhi Zho introduced a smart
transparent concrete-novel construction material was manufactured with POF and FBG by drilling through the
cement and mortar in order to utilize the light guiding ability of POF and the sensing properties of FBG[7–
10]. When a solid wall provides the ability to transmit light, it means that a home can use fewer lights in their
house during daylight hours. It has very good architectural properties for giving good aesthetical view to the
building. Energy saving can be done by utilization of translucent concrete in building.

2. Experimental Work
2.1 Materials
The materials include a description of the cement, fine aggregate, mineral and chemical admixtures, and
plastic optical fibers (POF) used in this research.
2.1.1Cement
The cement used was ordinary portland cement manufactured in Iraq. The cement was tested and
checked according to IOS 5:1984 [11]Tables (1) and (2) show the chemical properties and the
physical properties of cement.
2.1.2 Aggregate
Al-Ekhaider natural sand was used throughout this research as the fine aggregate. All particles greater than
600µm and smaller than 150µm were removed by sieving. Sand grading and the sulfate content were within
the requirements of the IOS No.45/1984[12] and the results of chemical and physical properties of the sand
used show that the specific gravity, absorption %, dry loose-unit weight kg/m3, and sulfate content as SO3 are
2.60, 2.00%,1595kg/m3, 0.24% respectively.
2.1.3 Water
Tap water was used for both mixing and curing of composite products.
2.1.4 Mineral admixture
Densified silica fume was used as a partial replacement of cement (10% by wt.) in this study Table (4)
shows some properties of the product where was produced by a well established Materials Company.
2.1.5 Chemical admixture
(High range water reducing) One of the generations of Polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizer, designed
for the production of SCM was used (Glenium 51). Table (5) shows the main characterization of this product.
2.1.6 Plastic optical fibers
The plastic optical fibers is PMMA (Poly Methyl Methacrylate) fibers manufactured by a specialized
company, three different types of (POF) were used 2.0 and 3.0mm. Table (6) shows the details of POF.

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Table (1): Chemical composition and main compounds of cement. *


Limits of Iraqi specification
Oxides composition Content %
No.5/1984[13]
CaO 61.12 ---
SiO2 20.18 ---
Al2O3 5.00 ---
Fe2O3 3.30 ---
MgO 3.80 <5.00
SO3 2.34 <2.80
L.O.I. 3.16 <4.00
Insoluble residue 0.14 <1.5
Lime Saturation Factor, L.S.F. 0.96 0.66-1.02
Main compounds (Bogue's equations)
C3S 50.47 ---
C2S 19.78 ---
C3A 7.67 ---
C4AF 10.04 ---
*Chemical analysis has been conducted by Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control.

Table (2): Physical properties of cement. *


Limits of Iraqi specification
Physical Properties Test results
No.5/1984
Specific surface area (Blaine Method), m2/kg 330 ≥230
Setting time (Vicat Apparatus),
Initial setting, hr:min 3:00 ≥00:45
Final setting, hr:min 5:30 ≤10:00
Compressive strength, MPa
3 days 19.6 ≥15.00
7 days 28.9 ≥23.00
Soundness (Autoclave Method), % 0.09 ≤0.8
*Physical analysis has been conducted by Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control.

Table (3): Grading of sand compared with requirements of Limits of IOS No.45/1984[12].
Sieve size (mm) Cumulative passing % Limits of IOS No.45/1984
10.00 100 100
4.75 100 95-100
2.36 100 95-100
1.18 100 90-100
0.60 100 80-100
0.30 57.3 15-50
0.15 0 0-15

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Table (4): Chemical analysis of the densified silica fum. *


Oxide composition Oxide content %
SiO2 94.10
Al2O3 0.38
Fe2O3 0.01
Na2O 0.00
K 2O 0.07
CaO 1.20
MgO 0.15
SO3 0.22
L.O.I. 3.87
*Test has been carried out at the National Center of Geological Survey and Mining.

Table (5): Typical properties of (Glenium 51).


Main action Concrete super plasticizer
Color Light brown
pH. Value 6.6
Form Viscous liquid
Subsidiary effect Hardening
Relative density 1.082 - 1.142 kg/liter
Viscosity 128  30 cps at 20C
Transport Not classified as dangerous
Labeling No hazard table required
*Given by the manufacture.

2.2 Preparation of the plastic optical fiber in mold


The fabrication process of standard translucent concrete requires a very high skillness during the
preparation of the molds and the arrangement and alignment of the plastic optical fibers according
to its content. Some holes with orthogonal arrays are drilled into the plastic sheet. Details of
arrangement and number of fibers are shown in Table (6) and Figs.1 and 2 .( POFs) are through
the holes the two plastic sheets which are fixed on the slots of base wood formwork as shown in
Fig.3.

Table (6): No. of (POF) in the three types of boards


Dimensions of the board
Diameter of (POF)(mm) No. of (POF)
(mm)
(300×150×15mm) 2.0 557
(300×150×25mm) 2.0 557
(300×150×50mm) 3.0 250

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Fig.1: The plastic sheets used in the present work.

Fig.2: Details of boards of wood mold.

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Fig.3: Details of fixing the POFs through the plastic sheets for Boards.

2.3 Mix proportions


After many trail mixes the adopted mix for use in this study to produce a SCM estimated in kg/m3 are
listed as below:-

 Portland cement – type I = 495 kg/m3.

 Natural fine sand (150 – 600 μm) = 1375 kg/m3.

 Densified silica fume = 55 kg/m3.

 Water = 247.5 kg/m3.

 Superplasticizer (Glenium 51)= 20 kg/m3.

2.4 Mixing procedure


It is necessary in SCM to achieve desirable concrete performance and homogeneity by using enough
mixing time to ensure that all particles of material intervened together. In this study Hobart mixer of
(0.001m3) capacity was used to produce the test mixes. This mixer is compliant with the requirements of
ASTM C305-99[13].
2.5 Curing of specimens
After 48 hours the hardened specimens were de-molded, and cured in water as shown in Fig.4 with a
temperature of 23±2 Cº for 28 days age. The optical fibers were cut and the plastic sheets were removed.
After that, the surface on both sides was polished to produce a highly-smooth surface.

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Fig.4: Test specimens after casting.


3. Fresh Mixes Tests
3.1 Mortar slump flow test
The slump flow is used to assess the horizontal free flow of self -compacting mortar in the absence of
obstructions according to EFNARC, 2002[14]. The diameter of the mortar circle is a measure for the filling
ability of the mortar. The apparatus is shown in Fig.5.

Fig.5 : Mortar flow test (mini cone).

3.2 Mortar V-funnel test


Viscosity and filling ability can be assessed by the V-Funnel flow time according to EFNARC, 2002[14].
The apparatus is shown in Fig.6.

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Fig.6: Mini V-funnel test apparatus[14].


4. Hardened Properties’ Tests on Produced Boards
4.1 Flexural strength (Modulus of Rupture)
The modulus of rupture test has been carried out at 28 days age conducted on the boards with dimensions
(300×150×15mm), (300×150×25mm) and (300×150×50mm) under central line loading according to ASTM
C1185-03[15]using flexural testing machine of 50 kN capacity, see Fig.7. The average of three boards was
taken.
The flexural strength (modulus of rupture) has been calculated as follows; where the flexure surface under
line loads, as defined in equation (1).
𝟑𝑷𝑳
(1) 𝑹 = 𝟐
𝟐𝒃𝒅
where:
R: Flexural strength (MPa).
P: Maximum load (N).
L: Length of span (mm).
b: Width of specimen (mm).
d: Average thickness (mm).

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Figure (7): The flexural test machine and the tested boards.

4.2 Flexural toughness


Toughness is usually derived from analysis of the load-deflection curve in flexural, for this purpose, the test
is carried out using the three samples for three types of boards that used in modulus of rupture tests
(300×150×15 mm), (300×150×25 mm) and (300×150×25 mm) respectively under central point loading. A dial
gage of 0.01mm sensitivity was used to determine the mid span deflection. The test is conducted at age of 28
day.
There are two different types of test method for determining flexural toughness; the first is mostly used
worldwide, which is the ASTM C1018[16], and the second is JSCE SF-4 which is used in Japan Gopalaratnam
et al.[17]. In this research, JSCE SF-4 Method techniques will be used to evaluate the flexural toughness.
JSCE SF-4 Method: this method provides an absolute value of the flexural toughness called “Absolute
Toughness Value”, TJSCE, which is defined as the energy required deflecting the fiber reinforced concrete beam
to a midpoint-deflection of (L/150) of its span, as defined in equation (2). In addition to the absolute toughness
value, TJSCE, a flexural toughness factor, FJSCE, is defined in equation (3) (Gopalaratnam et al.[17]) and Fig.8.

(2) 𝑻𝑱𝑺𝑪𝑬 = (𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝑶𝑨𝑩𝑪)


(3) 𝑭𝑱𝑺𝑪𝑬 = (𝑻𝑱𝑺𝑪𝑬 . 𝑺)⁄(𝜹𝟏𝟓𝟎 . 𝒃𝒉𝟐 )
where:
TJSCE: Absolute toughness value, (kN.mm).
FJSCE: Flexural toughness factor, (N/mm2).
S: Span length, (mm).
b: Width of specimen, (mm).
h: Depth of specimen, (mm).

Fig. 8: Flexural toughness parameter according to JSCE SF-4 standard (Gopalaratnam et al.)[17].

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First International Conference on Engineering Sciences’ Applications, ICESA
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4.3 Density
According to the ASTM C1185-03[15],the average air dry density of the produced boards has been
measured using the three type of board, which are of different thickness, (15, 25 and 50 mm). All the boards at
28 days age with and without POF. The procedure of the test is as follows
1. Determining the volume of the specimen using the water displacement method. Water displacement
can be obtained per test methods ASTM C 20,in which the volume (V) of test specimen is obtained
by subtracting the suspended weight (W) as shown in Fig.9 and the saturated weight (S), as equation
(4):

(4) V = W − S
where:
V: Volume (cm3).
W: Saturated weight (g).
S: Suspended weight (g).
2. Determining the mass by drying out the test specimen in an oven at (90 ± 2°C) for 24 hours. The
density of the specimen in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) using the equation (5):
W
(5) Density = × 1000000
V
Where:
W: Dry mass of specimen (g).
V: Volume ( mm3 ).

Fig.9: The suspended weight test machine.

5. Results and Discussion


From the fresh mixes test, it can be concluded that; it is possible to produce mortar mixes having a self-
compacting ability with slump flow D (mm), V-funnel Tv (sec) was (255mm,7.3sec) respectively. The
proposed mix proportion are (1:2.5:0.45) and 10% silica fume as a replacement by weight of cement content
with all mixes.
Density
According to the ASTM C1185-03[15], the dry density of the translucent concrete boards is determined
and compared with requirement. The produced boards are of different thickness, (15, 25 and 50 mm) and

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First International Conference on Engineering Sciences’ Applications, ICESA
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various diameters POF (2.0mm, 3.0mm) test results are compared with reference board of the same thickness,
but without POF. Fig.10 show that the air dry density of the translucent concrete boards are (1798.00, 2011.7
and 2022.7 kg/m3 ) for board thickness (15, 25 and 50 mm ) respectively, while the air dry density of the
reference board (without POF) for the same thickness are(2038.30, 2060.4, 2155.5 kg/m 3).This range is lower
than the range of the conventional concrete densities which are of about (2300- 2400) kg/m3.The translucent
concrete board with thickness 15 mm is considered as light weight structural material ACI 213R-03[18]. This
behavior is ascribed to the inclusion of POF which is consided as light weight material hence the density
decrease on the POF content is increased.
Flexural strength (Modulus of Rupture)
These results indicate that there is a decrease in the modulus of rupture by about (32.53, 40.86 and 21.99%)
for (15, 25 and 50mm) thickness of boards respectively as compared with reference sample (without POF).
This reduction in flexural strength is due to the low modulus of elasticity and due to the nature of POF surface
which cases (debonding) and weaken the interfacial transition zone between the POF surface and the matrix.
This leads to increase the propagation of micro cracks because of the poor physicochemical bonding strength
with cement paste. This behavior is also reported by (Bashbash et al.)[19] Fig.11 shows the relationship
between the flexural strength and the thickness of board. The translucent concrete boards contain POF with a
2.0 mm in diameter have the highest value of modulus of rupture as compared with 3.0 mm.
Modulus of toughness
Flexural toughness can be defined as the area under the load-deflection curve in flexure, which is the total
energy absorbed prior to complete failure of the specimen (ACI 544.1R)[20]and(JSCE-SF4)[17].
The load - deflection diagram for all types of boards are plotted in Fig.12 and this figure shows that the
brittleness nature of the SCM which decreases with inclusion of the POF. This means that the POF increases
the ductility of the SCM leading to produce translucent concrete with a ductile behavior relation to its reference
products. It can be concluded from these figures that the reference concrete (without POF) fails suddenly once
the deflection due to ultimate flexural strength is exceeded, while, the concretes reinforced with POF sustain
considerable loads even at deflections considerably in excess of the fracture deflection of reference concretes.
The load in translucent concrete board was increased gradually until reaching a maximum load of (0.38, 0.758
and 3.66 kN) for (15, 25 and 50 mm) board thickness respectively after that the deflection was increased at a
sustained load. After that, the load starts decreasing without breaking the specimen. When the deflection
reaches 1.7 mm, the corresponding load is reduced to a minimum value (0.002kN).

2200

2100 2155.5
Density of the Board, kg/m 3

2060.4
2000 2038.3
2011.7 2022.7

1900 ref-15mm
15mm-with POF
1800 ref-25mm
1798
25mm-with POF
1700 ref-50mm
50mm-with POF
1600
Thickness of board
Fig.10: Density results for all type of translucent boards and their references

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First International Conference on Engineering Sciences’ Applications, ICESA
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7 7.5
6.95
6
Flexural Strength MPa

5
4.87 5.06
4
4.11
3.8
3

2 15 mm
25mm
1
50mm
0
Reference Board Translucent concrete Board
Fig.11: Relationship between the flexural strength and the thickness of board.

4.5
15mm with POF 2.0mm

4 15mm without POF


25mm wit POF 2.0mm
3.5 25mm without POF
50mm with POF 3.0mm
3 50mm without POF
Load(kN)

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Deflaction (mm)

Fig.12: Load-deflection curves for all translucent concrete boards and reference boards.
6. Conclusions
From the discussion of test results, the following conclusion could be drawn:-
1. A novel architectural material called translucent concrete can be produced by adding optical
fiber (POF) for the SCM mixture.
2. The fabrication process of standard translucent concrete requires a very high skill during the
preparation of the molds and the arrangement and alignment of the (POF) according to its
content.

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3. It can be noted that the density percentage of translucent concrete board is significantly
affected by the inclusion of POF, so the POF volume fraction and POF diameter size due to
the low weight of POF .So it is possible to produce special boards with minimum density
1798.00 kg/m3.
4. The reduction in flexural strength ( 14.28, 40.86 and 20.53%) due to the nature of POF
surface which cases (debonding) and weaken the interfacial transition zone between the POF
surface and the matrix.
5. Due to the ductile behavior of translucent concrete compared with reference samples (boards
without POF), the flexural toughness of boards ranges between (0.32 to 0.47 MPa) due to
inclusion of POF.
References
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Mixture,” US20090298972 A1, December 3, 2009.
2. Paul, S., “translucent concrete,” Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 3, Oct. 2013.

3. Kashiyani, B. K., Raina, V., Pitroda, J., and Shah, B. K., “A Study on Transparent Concrete:
A Novel Architectural Material to Explore Construction Sector,” Engineering and Innovative
Technology (IJEIT), 2013, Vol. 2, pp. 83.

4. POF - Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication: With 72 Tables. Springer; 2002.
5. Large, M., Poladian, L., Barton, G., Eijkelenborg, M.A., “Microstructured Polymer Optical
Fibres, ” Springer, 2007, pp.248.
6. Bureau, M., “Light Transmitting Concrete Panels – A New Innovation in Concrete
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9. Losonczi, A., “Translucent Building Block and a Method For Manufacturing the Same, ”
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11.“Iraqi specification, No.5/1984., ‘Portland cement’.”


12. “Iraqi specification No.45/1984., ‘Aggregate from natural sources for concrete and
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17. Gopalaratnam, V. S., Shah, S. P., Batson, G., Criswell, M., Ramakishnan, V., and
Wecharatana, M., “Fracture toughness of fiber reinforced concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, vol.
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18. “ACI 213R-03: Guide for Structural Lightweight-Aggregate Concrete,” Scribd Available:
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