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LOGICAL OPPOSITION

1. Meaning

 Type of disagreement between propositions


Exists when propositions differ either in terms of their quality or quantity

2. Kinds

A. Contradictory opposition

 Has propositions that differ in terms of their quality and quantity


o One is affirmative while the other is negative
o One is universal and the other is particular
o A and O, E and I are contradictories.
o Propositions are contradictories when their value cannot be both true and false
at the same time.

Examples:

A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. False

A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. True

E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. False

E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. True

 Rules of contradictory opposition:

1. If one is true, the other is false.


2. If one is false, the other is true.

B. Contrary opposition

1
 Has propositions that differ in terms of their quality but not in quantity.
o They are both universal propositions.
o One is affirmative while the other is negative.
o A and E are contraries.
o Propositions are contraries if they can be both false (undetermined) but not
true at the same time.

Examples:

A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. False

A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. Undetermined

E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. False

E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. Undetermined

 Rules of contrary opposition:

1. If one is true, the other is false.


2. If one is false, the other is undetermined.

C. Sub-contrary opposition

 Has propositions that differ in terms of their quality but not in quantity.
o They are both particular propositions.
o One is affirmative while the other is negative.
o I and O are sub-contraries.
o Propositions are sub-contraries if they can be both true (undetermined) but not
false at the same time in their value.

Examples:

I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. True

2
O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. Undetermined

I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. True

O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. True


I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. Undetermined

O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. False


I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. True

 Rules of sub-contrary opposition:

1. If one is true, the other is undetermined.


2. If one is false, the other is true.

D. Subaltern opposition

 Has propositions that differ in terms of their quantity but not in quality.
o It exists in the A and I, E and O propositions
o Propositions are subalterns if a universal proposition is opposite to its
corresponding particular proposition.

Examples:

A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. True

A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. Undetermined

I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. False


A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. False

I – Some Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


A – All Ilocanos are Filipinos. Undetermined

E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. True


O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. True

3
E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. False
O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. Undetermined

O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. False


E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. False

O – Some Ilocanos are not Filipinos. True


E – No Ilocanos are Filipinos. Undetermined

 Rules of subaltern opposition for universal propositions:

1. If the universal is true, the particular is true.


2. If the universal is false, the particular is undetermined.

 Rules of subaltern opposition for particular propositions:

1. If the particular is true, the universal is undetermined.


2. If the particular is false, the universal is false.