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Forum for Electromagnetic Research Methods and Application Technologies (FERMAT)

Research Methods and Application Technologies (FERMAT) Waroth Kuhirun , Pravit Boonek Winyou Silabut November ,

Waroth Kuhirun , Pravit Boonek Winyou Silabut

November , 2016

Kuhirun , Pravit Boonek Winyou Silabut November , 2016 Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University and Rajamangala

Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University and Rajamangala University of Technology Isan , Thailand

November , 2016 Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University and Rajamangala University of Technology Isan , Thailand

© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU

Copyright
Copyright

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

© The use of this work is restricted solely for academic purposes. The author of this work owns the copyright and no reproduction in any form is permitted without written permission by the author.

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU

Abstract
Abstract

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

Radiation pattern corresponds to the construction/deconstruction of far fields generated by the current distributed on the antennas. Consequently, changes in current distribution result in different radiation patterns and probably different mainbeam directions. That is, the mainbeam can probably be steered by varying the current distribution on the patch and ground. This paper investigates possibility of the mainbeam steering capability of a single antenna element.

Keywords — Antenna Element; Double Positive Material; Mainbeam; Steerable;

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Biography
Biography

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

et al, KU Biography Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. Waroth Kuhirun is Associate Professor at the
et al, KU Biography Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. Waroth Kuhirun is Associate Professor at the
et al, KU Biography Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. Waroth Kuhirun is Associate Professor at the

Waroth Kuhirun is Associate Professor at the Electrical Engineering Department at Kasetsart University, Thailand. His research work is focused on computational electromagnetics and antenna engineering. He is also working on algorithmic trading using digital signal processing.

Pravit Boonek is a D.Eng. student at Kasetsart University, Thailand. His research work is mainly on desiging mainbeam steerable antenna elements.

Winyou Silabut is a D.Eng. student at Kasetsart University, Thailand. His research work is mainly on designing miniaturised antennas using particle swarm optimisation.

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Outline
Outline

Introduction

Analytical Method

Possibility of the Mainbeam Steering Capability of A Single Antenna Element

Simulation Results

Conclusions

Acknowledgement

References

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

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Introduction
Introduction

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

The mainbeam direction of a single conventional antenna element cannot be steered. Conventionally, this makes possible by using antenna arrays. The electric /magnetic field intensity generated by the antenna arrays is the vectorial sum of the electric/ magnetic field intensity generated by each individual antenna element. Consequently, we can steer the mainbeam by manipulating the phase and/or magnitude and/or direction patterns of current so that the mainbeam direction coincides with the desired direction. This paper investigates possibility of the mainbeam steering capability of a single antenna element by randomly manipulating the permittivity pattern of the dielectric in between the patch and ground of an antenna . In addition, for the sake of

simplicity, permeability is set to be unity. Particularly, the dielectric is manipulated to be

double positive material (material with > 0 and > 0) extensively discussed in [2] .

One might argue that the return loss of the antenna element might be too high. This can

expectedly be solved by using an optimization technique, for example, particle swarm optimization in a similar way presented by Silabut and Kuhirun [1] . However, in this paper, computer simulations are performed for various cases; three cases which meet the requirements of high directivity and low return loss (< -10 dB) are selected.

ε

µ

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU

Analytical Method
Analytical Method

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

For the sake of simplicity, consider an ideal surface antenna element; the surface current

density on which is denoted by

J

S

 

. The electric field intensity

E

and the magnetic

 

A

 

H

field intensity equations[3-6] .

can be expressed in terms of vector potential in

the following two

and

E

=−

jAω

j

ωµ ε

o

o

∇ ∇• A

(

1

H

=

µ

O

∇×

A

)

where A can be expressed in terms of surface current density

A =

S

µ J

S

4

π

R

e

jkR

ds

J

(1)

(2)

S in the following

(3)

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Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

It should be noted that the mainbeam direction is the direction in which power density

or

1   S = EH ∗ × 2  2 1 E S =
1
S =
EH ∗
×
2
2
1
E
S =
2 η
O

(4)

(5)

is maximised at the far field. In other words, the mainbeam direction is the direction in

E

which the magnitude of electric field intensity is maximised at the far field. Therefore,

the mainbeam can be steered by changing the direction in which the magnitude of far- field electric field intensity is maximised.By considering equations 1, 3 and 5, it is easily seen that the mainbeam direction is a function of surface current density . Consequently, the mainbeam direction can be steered if we can manipulate the magnitude, direction and phase of surface current density .

J

S

J

S

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Possibility of the Mainbeam Steering Capability of A Single Antenna Element
Possibility of the Mainbeam Steering
Capability of A Single Antenna Element

Consider an antenna element as shown in figure 1. The surface current density on

J

S

the patch and ground corresponds to the permittivity and permeability patterns

(ε)

(µ)

of the dielectric in between the patch and ground. That is, the phase, magnitude and direction patterns of surface charge density depend upon the permittivity and permeability patterns of the dielectric in between the Patch and ground. Consequently, we can steer the mainbeam direction by manipulating the permittivity and permeability patterns of the dielectric in between the patch and ground plane. The reader might argue that it cannot be realisable but it is not the case. Implementation is made possible by using transmission line modeling concept. Although, by further investigation, only the case where permittivity/permeability of the dielectric strictly located in between the patch and ground is controlled is conveniently implemented, steering the mainbeam is still realisable. The implementation is not discussed in this paper. It is still in the process of manuscript preparation for patent application. The reader may consult [7] for further details.

J

S

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2016, Kuhirun et al, KU Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. Figure 1: Antennas excited by lumped

Figure 1: Antennas excited by lumped port with

E

Z

at feeding point in HFSS

(1 W with source impedance of 50 W) with Various Randomised Permittivity and Permeability Patterns of Dielectric: W =100 mm, D =60 mm, L =80 mm and h = 10 mm

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Simulation Results
Simulation Results

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First of all, relative permittivity patterns of dielectric are randomised for various cases. Three cases (a), (b) and (c) which meet the requirements of high directivity and low return loss (<-10 dB) are selected. Relative permittivity patterns for cases (a), (b) and (c) are shown in figure 2 and, for simplicity, set permeability to be unity as shown in figure 3. By computer simulation at the frequency of 2.45 GHz using HFSS, we obtain the corresponding phase patterns of the x -component surface current density in figures 4a, 4b and 4c, respectively, whereas the corresponding phase patterns of the y-component surface current density are shown in figures 5a, 5b and 5c, respectively. Also, the magnitude patterns of surface current density are shown in figures 6a, 6b and 6c, respectively. The results for corresponding 3-D radiation pattern shown in figures 7a, 7b and 7c, respectively. At particular cuts, we obtain 2-D radiation pattern shown in figures 8a, 8b and 8c,respectively. Figure 9 shows that selected cases (a), (b) and (c) meet the requirement of low return loss (< -10dB) at the frequency of 2.45 GHz.

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 2:

(a)

© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 2:

(b)

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 2: Relative Permittivity Patterns

(c)

Figure 2: Relative Permittivity Patterns of Dielectric in between the Patch and Ground for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (C)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (C) (a) (b) (c) Figure 3: Relative Permeability

(a)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (C) (a) (b) (c) Figure 3: Relative Permeability

(b)

Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (C) (a) (b) (c) Figure 3: Relative Permeability Patterns

(c)

Figure 3: Relative Permeability Patterns of Dielectric in between the Patch and Ground

for Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c)

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 4:

(a)

© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 4:

(b)

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 4: Phase Patterns of

(c)

Figure 4: Phase Patterns of the x-component surface current density for Various

Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 5: Phase Patterns

(a)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 5: Phase Patterns

(b)

Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 5: Phase Patterns of

(c)

Figure 5: Phase Patterns of the y-component surface current density for Various

Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c)

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 6:

(a)

© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 6:

(b)

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 6: Magnitude Patterns of

(c)

Figure 6: Magnitude Patterns of Surface Current Density for Various Selected

Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 7: 3-D Radiation

(a)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 7: 3-D Radiation

(b)

Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) (a) (b) (c) Figure 7: 3-D Radiation Patterns

(c)

Figure 7: 3-D Radiation Patterns for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a),(b) and (c)

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 8:

(a)

© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 8:

(b)

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

et al, KU (a) (b) Restricted to Educational USE ONLY. (c) Figure 8: 2D Radiation Patterns

(c)

Figure 8: 2D Radiation Patterns for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c)

for Various Selected Randomised Cases (a), (b) and (c) Figure 9: Return Loss for Various Selected

Figure 9: Return Loss for Various Selected Cases (a), (b) and (c) in dB

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Conclusions
Conclusions

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

By simulation results, it shows that, under the constraint of low return loss (< -10 dB), different relative permittivity patterns result in different patterns of surface current density including phase and magnitude patterns. This results in different radiation patterns with different mainbeam directions. This means that if we can manipulate the (relative) permittivity pattern of the dielectric in between the dielectric, we can steer the mainbeam direction of the antenna element.

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Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement

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The authors would like to thank Vuttichai Kesornpatumanun for manuscript preparation and Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University for financial support.

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© 2016, Kuhirun et al, KU

References
References

Restricted to Educational USE ONLY.

[1] W. Silabut and W. Kuhirun,“Design of a miniaturized dual -band antenna using particle swarm optimization,” Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, 2009. [2] N. Engheta, R. W. Ziolkowski, Metamaterials PHYSICS and ENGINEERING EXPLORATIONS, 1st ed., Wiley-Interscience, 2006.

[3] C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, 1st ed., John Wiley & Sons,

1989.

[4] W. L. Strutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1998. [5] W. L. Strutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, revised ed.,Wiley - Interscience, 2003. [6] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 3rd ed., JohnWiley & Sons,

2005.

[7 ] W. Kuhirun, P. Boonek and W. Silabut, “A Mainbeam Steerable Single Antenna Element,” in the process of manuscript preparation for patent application.

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