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Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivat


Title
ion in English Classes

Author(s) ALLUAD, Joan; ISHIZUKA, Hiroki

Citation 北海道教育大学紀要. 人文科学・社会科学編, 68(2): 1-12

Issue Date 2018-02

URL http://s-ir.sap.hokkyodai.ac.jp/dspace/handle/123456789/9696

Rights

Hokkaido University of Education


北海道教育大学紀要(ft文・社会科学編)第68巻 第2号 平 成 30 年 2 月
Journal of Hokkaido University of Education(Humanities and Social Sciences)Vol. 68. No.2 February, 2018

Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and


Student Motivation in English Classes

ALLUAD Joan and ISHIZUKA Hiroki

Department of English Education, Asahikawa Campus, Hokkaido University of Education

モバイル時代の学習:英語授業におけるiPadの
使用と子どもの動機づけ

アルアド ジョアン・石塚 博規

北海道教育大学旭川校英語教育研究室

ABSTRACT

Learning in a mobile age has undeniably posited challenges for teachers and students
alike. Technology has become a prevalent tool in education and as a result, students need to
acquire new types of different skills so as to be successful learners. Many schools have
attempted to introduce a multitude of iPad initiatives in an effort to improve student
learning, and yet the scope to which this technology enhances student engagement and
learning in the classroom is still unfounded. In light of not enough evidence supporting the
use of iPads in language learning, the present study seeks to examine the link between iPad
use and student motivation by analyzing data obtained from two schools in the Philippines,
which involved 412 learners. Results revealed that iPad use is related to students’ motivation
in learning English. Technology-rich environments seemingly present more opportunities
through different technological tools that assist learning. The results suggest new
perspectives for educators to reflect upon. The results hopefully contribute in some ways to
fully maximize the use of technology to the advantage of learners.

a fundamental concern among teachers.


1.Introduction
Motivating students is a constant problem
In second language acquisition (SLA) throughout education and although there are no
research, second/foreign language (L2) learners’ clear cut solutions, there are several strategies
motivation is one of the most plentifully studied to help teachers with the dilemma of finding
areas (Agawa & Takeuchi, 2016). Motivation is ways to engage students (Linnenbrink &

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Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivation in English Classes

Pintrich, 2003). According to Sanacore, iPads, have been finding their places in schools
motivation is the key to academic success as all over the world. While the number sold to
well as promoting lifelong learning (as cited in educational institutions is not known since they
Granito & Chernobilsky, 2012, p. 2). The debuted in 2010, Apple has sold a whopping 338
reluctance to learn needs to be turned into the million iPads (Nations, 2016).
wish to learn and this often proves to be the Many educators are enthusiastic about the
most difficult task for some teachers. To use of iPads in education. According to Mango
motivate students, teachers need to know what (2015), educators “rave about their versatility,
interests students and what they already know connectivity, mobility as well as the potential
and what can make them successful. benefits of thousands of educational apps.”
In one of his most widely-quoted commentaries, This strong penetration is due as much to the
famed educational theorist John Dewey once appeal of this device as to its potential to
predicted, “If we teach today’s students as we increase engagement in learning. Since this
taught yesterday’s, we rob them of tomorrow,” device has just recently appeared in schools, the
st
and in today’s digital 21 century classrooms, studies on its impacts have been on the rise.
these perceptive words remain highly relevant. However, use of iPads has not yet garnered a
Students nowadays learn differently than they consensus among educators regarding its
did even a decade ago, and teachers are benefits on education. Some are still skeptical
expected to do more than just teach the and wary that the iPad may replace the teacher
curriculum. in the classroom instead of utilizing it as a tool
Technological revolutions have always for learning. While it is generally believed that
motivated educators. Integration of technology students would prefer classroom sessions that
is not just to hone the critical and analytical utilize i Pads , the extent to which this
thinking skills of students but to help students technology promotes student motivation is not
master the multi-dimensional abilities required yet thoroughly understood.
st
of them in the 21 century. Harris (2005) The present study attempts to clarify the
termed this technology integration in the effects of iPads on elementary students’
classrooms as “Trojan horse.” This metaphor of motivation toward English class. It is hoped that
the Trojan horse indicates that integration with this study can provide new insights for teachers
new technology is a catalyst that will lead to far- to fully maximize the use of technology to the
reaching changes in education. Technology has advantage of learners.
become a prevalent tool in education and as
such, Bruce and Hogan (1998) suggest that
2.Review of Related Literature
expectations toward students’ abilities in
language acquisition will significantly change. 2.1 Digital natives
st
It is imperative for educators of the 21 The current generation of students, known as
century to have a deeper understanding of the digital natives, has grown up with technology
impact of technology on education and meet the for their entire lives; they have never known a
st
needs of the 21 century learners. In just about time without texting, social media, or Internet
a handful of years, handheld devices, especially access at their fingertips. The concept of digital

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ALLUAD Joan and ISHIZUKA Hiroki

natives was coined by Prensky (2001). All sorts found that the iPad implementation in the
of digital toys and tools are considered to be an classroom led to new ways for teachers and
integral part of their life. students to interrelate with each other and to
Digital natives respond well to technology- retrieve information.
infused activities because they are widely Mango (2015), on the other hand, conducted
exposed to technology (Prensky, 2001). a study using college students in two classrooms
Technology and teacher motivation have to investigate the influence of the use of iPads
positive effects on student motivation (Atkinson, on their learning and engagement. The data
2000). Because students respond positively to analysis and results indicated that students
technology and are motivated by technology, believed that the iPads played a significant role
teachers should create activities that incorporate in their learning and engagement in classroom
some form of technological tool. Motivated activities, thus promoting active learning and
students will be more probable to accomplish paving a way for learning success.
success at their highest levels because of the Maggart (2013) investigated the use of tablet
opportunities that their teachers have made technology in the classroom and its impact on
accessible. (Granito & Chernobilsky, 2012). student motivation, self-efficacy, and engagement
during mathematics concepts and skills review.
2.2 Tablet technology, Student Motivation The researcher utilized quantitative analysis to
and Student Engagement examine how one-to-one tablet technology use
Studies on the impact of iPad use on impacted teachers’ perceptions of student
education have yielded positive results. Clark motivation as well as students’ perceptions of
and Luckin (2013) “overwhelmingly” reported their own motivation and self-efficacy. The
that “tablet devices have a positive impact on sample for this study consisted of two classroom
students’ engagement with learning.” (as cited teachers and 21 students. The results yielded
in Mango, 2015, para 6). Diemer and Streepey that a statistically significant relationship exists
(2014) on the other hand, found that the use of between iPad use and student motivation, and
iPads in the classroom increased students’ between iPad use and students’ perceptions of
perception of their engagement and sequentially self-efficacy during mathematics skills review.
left a positive effect on students’ active and The research supports the idea that one-to-one
collaborative learning. In another study, Hargis, tablet technology does impact students’ perceived
Cavanaugh, Kamali and Soto (2014) reported motivation and self-efficacy.
that the use of iPad mobile learning devices was Incorporating learning technologies into
associated with high engagement in a student- lessons has promising results in promoting
centered class. students’ motivation to learn. Technology has
Reid and Ostashewski (2011) conducted a the potential to increase student motivation in
study that involved introducing iPads into two the classroom. One study conducted by Tront,
elementary school classrooms. The project Amelink, and Scales (2012) investigated student
resulted in many positive learning experiences use of tablet PCs and its impact on student
with storytelling and other components of the learning behaviors. Tablet PCs had been
curriculum and the community. It was also identified as one form of instructional technology

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Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivation in English Classes

that could facilitate learning among engineering that students who reported a high level of
undergraduates. This study examined the engagement while using iPads described a high
degree to which student and faculty use of the level of learning as well. Age, gender, or
Tablet PC was linked to important student language variables were not found to be strong
learning behaviors. Results of the study revealed learning predictors. Students who regarded
that an increase in student’s engagement in the themselves as comfortable with a mode of e-
classroom was related to the frequency of learning reported significantly greater levels of
student use of the Tablet. perception of learning and engagement.
There are plenty of new technologies emerging, Those who reported being comfortable were
and language learning environment seems to be more likely to use iPads for learning and
more engaging and interesting. Wang, Teng and professional development in the future.
Chen (2015) explored the use of an iPad app in Furthermore, a number of students who initially
a Taiwanese classroom to examine the students’ described themselves as somewhat uncomfortable
English vocabulary acquisition. The results with e-learning technology also reported
revealed that students who received the iPad interest in continuing to use iPads.
vocabulary teaching instruction performed
better on the post test. Also, students believed
3.Purpose of the Study
that using technologies in the classroom can
facilitate language learning. Moreover, it was In light of the lack of conclusive evidence of
found that iPad apps in language teaching the influence of iPads on language learning
enhance students’ learning outcomes and motivation, this study seeks to explore how
students’ learning motivation. iPads impact motivation and English learning.
A study conducted by Flewitt, Messer and The current research aims to answer the
Kucircova (2014) discussed how iPads offer following questions:
innovative opportunities for early literacy
learning and present challenges for teachers RQ1: Is there any difference in the attitude
and children. They found variability in the ways toward English study between students using
iPads were used across the settings, but a the iPad and those not using the iPad?
commonality was that well-planned iPad-based RQ2: If the answer to the question above is
literacy activities stimulated children’s motivation affirmative, what kind of differences are there?
and concentration. They also offered rich RQ3: How does the use of the iPad affect the
opportunities for communication, collaborative learners’ attitudes toward learning English?
interaction, and independent learning.
Diemer, Fernandez, and Streepey (2012)
4.Study
reported on a multidisciplinary assessment of
student perceptions of engagement and learning To answer the aforementioned research
while using iPads. Student reactions were questions, a questionnaire was carried out at
measured via a survey asking them to rate their two elementary schools from the Philippines.
learning and engagement. Findings revealed School A was a public school and School B was
a private school. The pupils of School A

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ALLUAD Joan and ISHIZUKA Hiroki

belonged to unprivileged families and did not the private school, who were using iPads. There
use the iPad for learning English. On the other were 45 items in total; Section 1 (7 items),
hand, the pupils of School B belonged to families Section 2 (36 items) and Section 3 (18 items). A
living in a wealthy area and used the iPad while five-point Likert scale was used to answer the
learning English. questions in Section 2 and 3, from 1= Strongly
Disagree to 5= Strongly Agree.
4.1 Participants
Participants in this study were 413 Filipino 4.3 Procedure
th
pupils in the 5 grade. There were 165 pupils The questionnaire survey was carried out on
participating from the public school (School A) the first week of November, 2016. First, the
and the data of 164 pupils were used for survey was conducted in School A. The
analysis since one respondent was found to have participants were given the paper-based
answered incompletely. On the other hand, questionnaire along with the instructions on
there were 248 pupils participating from the how to answer the questions. Then, an online
private school (School B). The total data of 412 questionnaire was administered to the students
participants from both schools were the target of School B. All of their data except for one in
for the present study. School A were used for analysis. Similar
questionnaires were administered to the
4.2 Materials students in both schools. However, since iPads
The questionnaire used in this study was were only used in School B, the students of
developed by using Guilioteaux and Dornyei School A, who did not use iPads, were not asked
(2008) and Yorozuya et al. (2013). The question to answer Part 3 of the questionnaire.
items were composed of three parts. Section 1
dealt with the students’ profile such as gender, 4.4 Treatment
starting age of learning English, and experiences First, factor analyses of all the data collected
pertaining iPad device such as “Do you have a from the two schools were conducted. Then to
tablet at home?”, “How long have you been using investigate whether there were any differences
the iPad?” Section 2, on the other hand, aimed in the attitude toward English study between
at exploring students’ general motivation toward the two schools, a t test was conducted. Finally,
learning the English language. Items such as, “I a Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analyses
think learning English is useful for me,” and “I were performed using the date obtained in
learn English to get a better job in the future in a School B to see if there were significant
global community” were asked. In Section 3, the correlations between “iPad use” and motivational
items were developed by using Kitchakarn factors.
(2015). Participants were asked about their
attitudes toward iPad use in English class such
5.Results
as, “I like English lessons using an iPad” and “I
enjoy my English lesson using an iPad because 5.1 Factor analysis of School A and B
what we do is neither too hard nor too easy.” The factor analysis on the answers of Section
This section was used only for the students in 2 of the two schools revealed three different

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Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivation in English Classes

factors that affected the students of both schools the learner. 15) I learn English because I don’t
(Table 1). Factor 1 was named Self-Evaluation want to be left behind by other students in my
Towards Language Learning since it comprised class. 16) I learn English to get good grades
of the items related to their English skills: 30) I when I go to Junior High School. 17) I learn
can talk about myself in English. 31) I can English because I want to be praised and not to
express my feelings using English. 32) I can be scolded by my teachers/parents.
express my opinions to other students using
English. 33) I can explain the directions to other 5.2 T test comparison of School A and B
people when asked using English. 34) I can T test was administered to examine whether
understand news articles in English. 35) I can there are differences in the average factor
write a short story in English. 36) I can listen to scores between the two schools. As for the Self-
and understand English news. Evaluation Towards Language Learning and
The second factor was named Integrative Integrative Motivation, the scores of School B
Motivation as it comprised of items that express were significantly higher than those of School A,
one’s desire to get to know another language t(410) = -11.41, p <.05, d = 1.15; t(410) = -4.15,
along with its people and culture: 7) I learn p <.05, d = 0.42, respectively. As for Extrinsic
English to get to know English native speakers Mot iv at i on, the score of School A was
and to be able to live in a foreign country. 8) I significantly higher than School B, t(410) = 4.87,
learn English to get a better job in the future in a p <.05, d = .49.
global community.
5.3 Factor analyses of School B
Table 1 The Factor Analysis Result of Section 2 Another two factor analyses were conducted
on School B to examine the relationship between
the motivational factors and the use of ICT.
Five significant factors were found in the
analysis of Section 2 (Table 2). The first factor
was termed as Confidence in Four Skills: 32) I
can express my opinions to other students using
English. 33) I can explain the directions to other
people when asked using English. 35) I can write
a short story in English. 36) I can listen to and
understand English news. The second factor
was termed as Positive Attitude Toward
English Class: 5) I think the atmosphere in
English class is good. 6) I think that the manner
of teaching in English class is fitted for me. 2) I
take part in activities in English class because
The last factor was named as Extrinsic they are fun. 4) I am able to make myself pay
Motivation since it comprised of items attention during English class activities. 23) My
pertaining to motivation that arises from outside friends who are studying hard inspire me to

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ALLUAD Joan and ISHIZUKA Hiroki

study hard as well. 26) I think that I can succeed Table 2 School B’s Motivational Factors in
Learning English
in activities in English even they are a bit
difficult. 27) I think I can do more things now
using English than what I used to do. 28) I think
it is useful to reflect on what I learned in English
class. The third factor was termed as Integrative
Motivation: 7) I learn English to get to know
English native speakers and to be able to live in a
foreign country. 8) I learn English to get a better
job in the future in a global community. The
fourth factor was termed as Intrinsic Motivation:
12) I want to improve my English even if I’m
already good at it. 13) If I learn English more,
my English skills will improve. Finally, the fifth
factor was named as Positive Attitude Toward
Speaking: 19) I am not afraid of making
mistakes in class. 20) I am confident when I
speak in English before others students and I can
express myself well. 24) When I see my friends
speaking in English well, I feel I am as good as
them. Table 3 Factor Analysis on iPad Use

On the other hand, the analysis of the use of


iPads revealed two factors (Table 3): The first
factor was named as Positive Attitude Toward
iPads since it contained the items related to
their favorable response toward the use of
iPads: 12) I like English lessons using the iPad.
13) I enjoy my English lessons using the iPad
because what we do is neither too hard nor too
easy. The second factor was labeled as Anxiety
Toward iPads as it comprised the items pertaining
to the anxiety toward the device in their learning:
18) I feel more nervous in English class using
the iPad ... . 17) I am worried about my ability
to do well in English class using the iPad.

5.4 Correlation analyses on School B


To clarify whether the use of iPads affects were performed using factor scores obtained in
students’ motivation toward English learning, the above factor analyses. As can be described
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analyses in Table 4, Positive Attitude Toward iPads was

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Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivation in English Classes

positively correlated with Confidence in the Four differences may also have caused the differences
Skills, Positive Attitude Toward English Class, in learning attitude. Students from School A also
Integrative Motivation, and Intrinsic Motivation. had limited English proficiency compared to
On the other hand, Anxiety Toward iPads is students from School B. Students in School B
negatively correlated with Intrinsic Motivation came from higher income households and as
and yet positively correlated with Positive such they have more access to educational
Attitude Toward Speaking (Table 5). materials and more exposure to various media.
Regarding Extrinsic Motivation, School A
Table 4 Correlations Between Positive Attitude scored higher than School B. This rather
Toward the iPad and Motivational Factors contradictory result may due to the fact that
in School B
students from an economically disadvantaged
situation perceived the importance of mastering
English as a tool to help them lead a more
comfortable life. These different motivations
probably have emerged from the differences in
Table 5 Correlations Between Usefulness of the school environments and life experiences. As
iPad and Motivational Factors in School B
Bandura (2001) explained that individuals
construct cognitive representations of their
physical and social environment, and that
cognitive, affective, and even physiological
responses related to these representations shape
6.Discussion
individuals’ behaviors within the environment.
6.1 RQ1&2: Is there any difference in the It is also interesting to note that a vast
attitude toward English study between number of students who used iPads started to
students using the iPad and those not learn English earlier than their counterparts
using the iPad? What are the differences? (Figure 1 and 2). They started to learn the
The analyses revealed significant difference language between they were zero and two years
between the students who used iPads and the old. Early exposure to the English language
students who did not. The students who used seemingly facilitates the students to be more
iPads were found to be positive toward English adept with the English language and in turn
class and English learning in general. From makes the subject more enjoyable for them.
these results it can be stated that technology-
rich environments offer the opportunity for
students to access various materials through the
iPad that can facilitate learning. In addition,
Public schools in the Philippines function
differently from private schools in terms of
infrastructure, facilities, class sizes, parent
involvement, among others. These operational
Figure 1 . Starting learning age and the number
of students in School A

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ALLUAD Joan and ISHIZUKA Hiroki

usually carry offers an opportunity to introduce

learners to tools which could help them with


their study of vocabulary.

While students’ positive perception with the


Table 6 Questions with Highest Mean Scores
Figure 2 . Starting learning age and the number
of students in School B
6.2 RQ3: How does the use of the iPad
affect the learners’ attitudes toward
learning English?
The implications of this study about the
impact of the iPads on student motivation are
far-reaching. As illustrated in the results of this
study, student motivation was positively
influenced by the presence of an iPad. Among
the questions pertaining to iPads, question No. 2
(“The iPad makes learning English more iPads was high as indicated by the rest of the
enjoyable”) garnered the highest average with a questionnaire results, their anxiety level was
mean of 4.27 (Table 6). Majority of the students 3.11, which was not too high or low (Question
agree that iPads increases their creativity in No. 17 “I am worried about my ability to do well
learning English (Question No. 3). The possible in English class using an iPad”) This indicates
explanation to this is that students get to that some students felt a little anxiety to use the
explore the multiple apps available from the iPad as a main tool to get materials for school
portable device. So much so that the children classes.
seemingly were all keen to use iPads. Their
interest may be partly attributable with the
7.Conclusion
novelty of using iPads in school and the iPad’s
easy-to-use interface. The results of this study suggest that the use
This is somehow validated by Wieder (2011) of iPads can positively affect the students’
as he pointed out in his study that iPads motivation in learning English. It has to be
promote active learning, collaboration, and acknowledged that the participants of the two
student engagement. Through the classroom schools had many different variables other than
use of the iPad, students reported not only a the use of the iPad to be considered. It may
perception of increased engagement (active and take a while to fully grasp the entire spectrum
collaborative learning) but also a positive effect of the educational impacts of iPads on learners.
on their learning. The study only targeted Grade 5 students, and
Another question item that is remarkable is thus making the results difficult to generalize
question No. 6 (“Using iPads makes me learn and across populations. The benefits of the use of
use new words in English”) with a mean of 4.26. handheld devices such as the iPad are extensive,
This just shows that the device that learners and yet studies remain scarce. Research on

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Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivation in English Classes

handheld devices within English classes needs Learning Using iPads. Journal of Teaching and
Learning with Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 13-25.
to continue. The findings may help pave the
Garcia, E. R. (2011). There’s an app for that: A study of
way for a more comprehensive research on the
using Apple iPads in a United States History
area of iPad use in the classroom. For future Classroom. Winston-Salem, NC: Wake Forest
similar studies, in-depth interviews may be University, Department of Education.

used. Future research may also employ both the Guilloteaux, M., & Dornyei, Z. (2008). Motivating
language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation
qualitative and quantitative methods to explain
of the effects of motivational strategies on student
the dynamics of iPad use in the classroom. It motivation. TESOL QUARTERLY, 42(1).
should be highlighted here, however, that the Hargis, J., Cavanaugh, C., Kamali, T., & Soto, M. (2014).

iPad is a tool and not an end in itself and should A Federal Higher Education iPad Mobile Learning
Initiative: Triangulation of Data to Determine Early
only be used as such by learners who must
Effectiveness. Innovative Higher Education, Volume
always be at the focus of the classroom. 39, Issue 1, 45-57.
Technology should not be used for its own sake, Linnebrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of

but instead it should be a tool to enhance self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and
learning in the classroom. Reading & Writing
learning.
Quarterly, 19, 119-137.
Mango, O. (2015). iPad Use and Student Engagement in
the Classroom. The Turkish Online Journal of
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Student Perceptions of Classroom Engagement and

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ALLUAD Joan and ISHIZUKA Hiroki

Yorozuya, R., Izumi, E., Tamai, M., Naganuma, N., non-English speaking countries.
Tabushi, M., Ota, A,. & Shimazi, T. (2013). The final 10. I learn English to understand English songs and
report of a study on evaluation in primary school movies and to use English for travel.
foreign language activities: Developmental changes 11. I learn English not because I want to learn it but
and their implications. JES Journal 13, 212-227. because it is a subject in school.
12. I want to improve my English even if I’m already
good at it.
Appendix 1 13. If I learn English more, my English skills will
improve.
Questionnaire 14. I learn English because it makes me happy to
Section 1 1. better myself in English.
Gender: 15. I learn English because I don’t want to be left
Male Female behind by other students in my class.
2.Do you have computer at home? 16. I learn English to get good grades when I go to
Yes No junior high school.
3.How long have you been using the computer? 17. I learn English because I want to be praised and
1-2 years 5-6 years not to be scolded by my teachers/parents.
3-4 years more than 7 years 18. I want to know the level of my English skills
4.Do you have internet connection at home? through exam scores.
Yes No 19. I am sometimes silent because I am afraid of
5.Do you have a tablet at home? making mistakes in class.
Yes No 20. I feel embarrassed when I speak in English before
6.How long have you been using the tablet? other students and because of that I can’t express
1-2 years 5-6 years myself well.
3-4 years more than 7 years 21. I feel that I don’t need to study hard in English
7.How old were you when you started learning class when other students around me aren’t
English? working hard.
0-2 years old 5-6 years old 22. In pairs or groups, I prefer speaking in English
3-4 years old 7-8 years old rather than listening to it.
9-10 years old 23. My friends who are studying hard inspire me to
study hard as well.
Section 2 24. When I see my friends speaking in English well, I
No.Items feel that I’m not as good as them.
1. I think learning English is useful for me. 25. I want to enjoy learning English whether I’m good
2. I take part in activities in English class because at it or not.
they are fun. 26. I think that I can succeed in activities in English
3. I actually don’t want to learn English. even they are a bit difficult.
4. I am able to make myself pay attention during 27. I think I can do more things now using English
English class activities. than what I used to do.
5. I think that the atmosphere in English class is 28. I think it is useful to reflect on what I learned in
good. English class.
6. I think that the manner of teaching in English class 29. I want to set a goal and to know what I can do to
is fitted for me. reach the goal.
7. I learn English to get to know English native 30. I can talk about myself in English before other
speakers and to be able to live in a foreign country. 8. students.
I learn English to get a better job in the future in a 31. I can express my feelings using English.
global community. 32. I can express my opinions to other students using
9. I learn English because I’m interested in the people, English.
culture and history of foreign countries including 33. I can explain the directions to other people when

11
Learning in a Mobile Age: A Study on iPad Use and Student Motivation in English Classes

asked using English.


34. I can understand news articles in English.
35. I can write a short story in English.
36. I can listen to and understand English news.

Section 3
No.Items
1. The iPad makes me do my assignments easier. 2
. The iPad makes learning English more enjoyable. 3
. The iPad increases my creativity in learning
English.
4. I have more opportunities to practice my writing
skills while using the iPad.
5. While using the iPad, I can improve my reading
skills.
6. Using the iPad helps me learn and use new words
in English.
7. Using the iPad helps me practice my English
listening and speaking skills easily.
8. Using the i Pad improves my grammatical
knowledge in English.
9. Using the iPad helps me communicate with my
teacher and classmates easily.
10. I can learn more from books than from the iPad.
11. I wish I had more English lessons using the iPad at
school.
12. I like English lessons using the iPad.
13. I enjoy my English lessons using the iPad because
what we do is neither too hard nor too easy.
14. Learning English using the iPad at school is a
burden for me.
15. In English lessons using the iPad, I learn things that
are useful for me in the future.
16. In English lessons using the iPad, I usually
understand what to do and how to do it.
17. I am worried about my ability to do well in English
class using the iPad.
18. I feel more nervous in English class using the iPad
than that of the class using paper textbooks.

(アルアド ジョアン 旭川校教員研修生)


(石塚 博規 旭川校教授)

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