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As per the last digit of my Roll No

L-578686, I was assigned topic for
2nd assignment “Leadership
About Leadership
We shall define leadership in such a
manner that it can encompass all
the recent approaches to the
subject. “It is the ability to influence
a group toward the achievement of
goals.” The source of this influence
may be formal, such as that
provided by the possession of
managerial rank in an organization.
Since management position come
with some degree of formally
designated authority a person may
assume a leadership role simply
because of the position he or she
holds in the organization. But not all
leaders are managers nor for the
matter, are all managers’ leaders.
Leaders can arrange within a group
as well as by formal appointment to
lead a group.

Leadership Theories

Transition of Leadership Theories

We will consider a number of

approaches to explain what makes
an effective leader. Leaders always
have some universal personality
traits to some great degree, than
non- leaders.
Trait Theories
When Margaret Thatcher was Prime
Minister, she was regularly singled
out for her leadership singled out for
her leadership. She was termed as
confident iron-willed, determined
and decisive. They are actually traits
and whether Thatcher’s advocate
and critics recognized her in such
terms they become trait theorist
supporters. The media describe
Ronald Region Nelson Mandela,
Quaid-e-Azam as charismatic,
enthusiastic and courageous Trait
Theories are those, which seek
personality, social physical or
intellectual traits that dufferiautiate
leader from non-leaders. It is
optirutstic to believe that could be
consistent and unique traits that
would apply universally to all
effective leaders, no matter where
they were.
Why has not the trait approved proven
more successful in explains
leadership? It our looks the need of
followers, fails to clarify the relative
importance of various trait, it does
not separate cause from effect and
it regions situational factors.

Behavioral Theories
The in ability to strike “gold” in the
trait mines led researches to book at
the behavioral that specific leaders.
Behavioral theories propose that
specific behaviors differential
leaders from non-leaders. It the
behavioral approved to leadership
were successful, it would have
implications, it quite different from
those of the trait approach. If trait
approved had been successful, it
would have provided a basis for
selecting the “sight” persons to
assume for mal positions in-group
and organization requiring
leadership. In contrast behavioral
studies were to run up critical
behavioral determinist, of
leadership, we can train people to
be leaders.
Summary of Behavioral Theories
In general they had modest success
in identifying consistent relation
ships between patterns of leadership
between behavior and group
performance what seems to be
missing in consideration of
situational factors that influence
success or failure situations change
and leadership styles need to
change with them. Unfortunately,
the behavioral approaches do not
recognize changes in the situation.
Contingency Theories
It become increasingly clear to these
who were studying the leadership
phenomenon that predicating
leadership success was more
complex than isolating a few trait or
preferable behaviors. The failure to
obtain an situational influences. The
relation ship styles and
effectiveness suggestion that under
condition a style would be
appropriate, while style would be
more suitable for condition C. But
what were the conditions a, b, c, and
so further? It was nothing to say that
leadership effectiveness was
dependent on the situation and
another to be able to isolate those
situational conditions. Moderation
that effect leadership effectiveness
and are used in the development of
contingency theories include the
degree of structure in the task being
performed, the quality of leadership,
the leader’s position power, sub-
ordinates, role clarity, group norms
and sub-ordinates maturity these
are 5 situational variables.
Fiedler Contingency Model
It sap that effective groups depend
upon a proper match between a
leader’s style of inter acting with
sub-ordinates and the degree to
which the situation gives contract
and influence to the leader. Fiedler
developed an instrument which be
called the least preferred co-under
(LDC) question that property to
ensure whether a person is task or
relation ship oriented. He isolated
these situational criteria i.e. leader
member relations, task structure
and position power.
Leader Member Relations

The degree of confidence trust and

respect sub-ordinates have in their
Task Structure
The degree to which job
assignments are procedurized.
Position Power
Influence devised from one’s
formed structure position in the
organization, includes power to have
fine discipline promote and give salary
in wears.
As a whole, reviews of the major
studies that tested the overall validity
of the Fiedler model led to a generally
position conclusion. That in there is
considerable evidence to support at
least substantial parts of the model.
But additional variables are probably
needed if an improved model is to file
in some of the meaning gaps.
Cognitive Resource Theory
This is a theory of leadership style,
that a leader obtains effective group
performance by first making effective
plans, decisions, and stratifies and
then communicates through direction
Situational Theory
This theory has gained a story
following among management
development specialist. This is called
situational leadership theory. It is
used as a major training device at
many big companies. The theory
actually focuses on follower’s
readiness situational leadership is a
contingency theory that focuses on
the follower’s successful leadership in
achieved by relating the right style
which theory and behavioral argue is
contingent level of the followers
readiness realness refers to the extent
to which people have the ability and
willingness to accomplish a specific
task similarly, followers in reality and
those who accept or reject the leader.
Regardless of what the leader does
effectiveness depends on the action of
her or his followers. Telling,
participants, delegates are the
components of the theory.
Leader member exchange (LMX)
theory leaders crests in group and out
group, and sub-ordinates with in
group status will have higher
performance ratings less turn their
Path- Goal Theory
It status that a leader’s behavior is
acceptable to sub-ordinates insofar as
they view it as a source of either
immediate or further satisfaction
Telling, Selling participants, delegates
and the components of the theory.
Leader Participation Model
It provides a sent of rules to
determine the form and amount of
participation decision making in
different situations.
The Most Recent Approaches to
Attribution Theory
It proposes that leadership is
merely an attribution that people
make about other individuals.
Charismatic Leadership
It finds that followers make
attribution of heroic or extra ordinary
leadership abilities when they observe
certain behaviors.
Transactional Leadership:
A leader who guides or motivates
his follower in the direction of
established goals by clarifying role
and task requirements.
Transformational Leadership
Leader who provides individualized
consideration and inter-linked
situation, and who possess charisma.
Visionary Leadership
The ability to create and articulate
a realistic, reliable aftertime vision of
the future for an organization or its
limit that group out of and improves
upon the present.
Contemporary Issues In
Do men and women rely on
different leadership styles inherent
superior to the other. Actively men
and women leadership styles tent to
be more alien then different but that
women’s prosperity to rely on shared
leadership in more in time with
organization needs in the 1990s than
the direction style often-proper rule by
Manager should be some to
consider national culture as a
improvement reliable in closing
leadership style.
Link between biologic are
leadership suggest that the subject of
leadership is not the sole province of
psychologists and sociologists. In the
future improved understanding of the
leadership may in are as singly come
from chemist and pharmacology.
Leadership is not value free so
people should look at the moral
content of a leader’s goals and the
means he or she uses to achieve
those goals.
Few about team leadership
The teams are growing in
popularity, Rule of the leader in the
team is of trainer, coach trouble
manager facilitation etc.
About leading through
It refers to putting employees in
charge of what they do. However, it
ignores the extent to whiled
leadership can be shared and the
condition faltering success of shared
leadership. In case of empowerment,
the role of leader is to show trust
provide vision, remove performance
blocking behaviors, offer
encouragement motivate and coach
For practical study I selected my
own organization i.e. National
Database and Registration Authority
(NADRA) which was established in
March, 2000 by the merger of
following two organizations:

i) National Database Organization (NDO),

which was established in 1998.

ii) Registration Department, which was

established in 1973.
As can be seen from the appended
Organization Chart (Annex.A), there is
one Headquarter at Islamabad, four
Provincials Headquarters, four
Regional Headquarters, District
Registration Offices (DROs) and Sub
District Registration Offices (SDRO).
Establishment of modern and fully
computerized NSRCs is NADRA’s great
success. Besides DROs / SDROs
following modernized offices are
dealing with the people: -
NSRC: NADRA Swift Registration Center.

SSRC: Satellite Swift Registration Centers.

MRV: Mobile Registration Van.

C.C: Call Centers.

CDPs: Central Distribution Points.



The development and

establishment of an improved and
modernized system of registration in
the country through appropriate
means including technologically
advanced, effective and efficient
means like computerization,
automation, creation of data bases,
data warehousing, networking,
interfacing of data bases and related
facilities and services.
a) The broadening of the
registration base to bring within it’s
preview all persons and things i.e. all
animate or inanimate things, plants,
animals, objects, substances, items,
concepts, ideas, laws, customs,
qualities, signs, symbols,
circumstances, affairs, events, acts,
deeds, works, transactions,
documents, pieces of moveable or
immovable property, tangible or
intangible property, rights, privileges,
duties, entities, living or non-livings
beings other than human being and
any thing that can be possessed or
owned or explained whether known or
b) The establishment and
maintenance of multiple
purposes databases, data
warehousing, networking,
interfacing of databases and
related facilities and services.

In simple words NADRA has two

main functions i.e. making database
of all citizens and things and issuance
of Computerized National Identity
Cards (CNICs).
Leadership i.e. top management
belongs to Army. We shall discuss
briefly how leadership theories are
being applied in NADRA, what are
their merits and demerits. Conclusion
and recommendation will also be
Trait Theories
Theories that sought personality
social, physical or intellectual traits
that differentiate leaders from non-
leaders are found in the leadership
style to the extent that people leading
the NADRA are confident, determined
and decisive.
Behavioral Theories
Tough talking intense and
altercative style is perhaps prepared
style for all leaders who believe in
behavioral theories. These
characteristics of NADRA leadership
However, situation change and
leadership styles needs to change
with them unfortunately the
behavioral approaches of the
leadership of NADRA do not recognize
changes in situations.
Contingency Theories

a. Fiedler Model
Our assumption of Fiedler is that
an in all leadership style is
friend. This is visible in the
leadership of NADRA.
b. Cognitive Resource Theory
This is found in the leadership to
the extent that it makes
effective strategies and then
communicates them through
directive behavior.
c. Hersey And Blanchard


It focuses on follower’s
readiness. This is almost absent
in the leadership style of the
leadership of NADRA.
d. Leader-Member Exchange
Not applied

e. Path Goal Theory

Not applied in NADRA.

f. Leader-Participation Model
Totally absent in leadership
The most recent approaches to
leadership and NADRA
a. Attribution Theory
Leadership is fully committed
stead fast- through not
consistent in the decision-
b. Charismatic Theory
Not seen
c. Transactional Vs
The leadership is transactional
is it guides (though not
motivates) followers in the
direction of established goals by
clarifying roll and task
requirements. The leadership is
however, not transformational.
d. Visionary Leadership

Visionary leadership is not found

Conclusion and Recommendation:

Tough talking intense and

autocratic style of leadership is found
in NADRA which the top night has
inherited from Military Despite its
effectiveness in the Military, It has so
far not been successful in NADRA’s
corporate culture of member of
experience employee have left the
organization. The leadership to
improve NADRA’s performance and
make a harmonious working
environment should adopt
Participative and democrative
approach. Besides leadership need to
be charismatic and visionary.