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# Prof. Prac.: What is a bid bulletin?

## a. Printed documents stipulating the procedural aspects of the contract

b. Instructions issued prior to bidding to supplement or modify the contract
c. Instructions stipulating the manner on how bids are to be prepared
d. Additional information on contract documents issued before bidding date

Bid Bulletin:
"Additional information on contract documents issued to bidders before date of bidding."
Instructions to Bidders:
"List of instructions stipulating the manner on how bids are to be prepared and conditions for the award of contract."
Special Provisions:
"Instructions which may be issued prior to the bidding to supplement and/or modify the drawings, specificaions, and/or
general conditions of the contract."
General Conditions:
"Printed documents stipulating the procedural and the administrative aspects of the contract."

Arch'l Design: Being the architect of a well-known coffee shop, you specified that the circular hanging downlights shall be centered
directly above all coffee tables. The ceiling height of the coffee shop is 4.10m. According to the specs sheet of your lighting fixture, the
lamp's beam angle is 43.5°. If your clients require that the direct lighting should lit the surface of the table exactly up to its edges only
and their coffee tables measure 63.5cm (h) x 163cm (Φ), what would be your instructions to the Contractor regarding the mounting
height of the lighting fixture you specified?
a. 0.94m from the ceiling
b. 1.42m from the ceiling
c. 1.75m from the ceiling
d. 1.63m from the ceiling

## Correct answer: b. 1.42m from the ceiling

Given Data:
Ceiling Height from Floor = 4.10m
Beam Angle = 43.5°
Table Height from Floor = 63.5cm or 0.635m
Tabletop Diameter = 163cm or 1.63m
Height from Table to Lamp (H) = ?
Mounting Height from Lamp to Ceilng (m) = ?

Solution:
m = 4.10m - (H) - 0.635m
m = 3.465m - H

When can solve the the height measured from the table to the lamp (H) by analyzing the illumination as a PLANE TRIANGLE.

The beam angle, which is 43.5° (angle at the triangle's apex), is directly opposite the horizontal measurement of the table
top, which is 1.63m (side at the triangle's base). Since the lamp is centered above the table, it is positioned exactly at the
midpoint of the table top's 1.63m (or 1.63m/2 = 0.815m).

So now, we can create a RIGHT TRIANGLE by just dividing the 43.5° beam angle and the base (the opposite side) into 2 and
solve for H (the adjacent side of the right triangle):

Tan(43.5°/2) = (1.63m/2) / H
Tan(21.75°) = 0.815m / H
H = 0.815m / Tan(21.75°)
H = 2.043m