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Form 3 Physics

Sample Questions

MC Questions

1. Mercury-in-glass thermometers A and B have the same length of scale and width of bore.
Thermometer A has a linear scale from -20°C to 120°C and the length of its scale is
280 mm. Thermometer B has a bulb with twice the volume of the bulb of thermometer A. Which of
the following statements about thermometer B are correct?
(1) The working range of thermometer B is -20°C to 50°C.
(2) The scale of thermometer B is not linear.
(3) The sensitivity of thermometer B is 4 mm/°C.

A. (1) and (2) only


B. (1) and (3) only
C. (2) and (3) only
D. (1), (2) and (3)

2. Two solid substances P and Q of equal mass were separately


heated by two heaters of equal power. The graph shows the
variation of the temperatures of the substances with time.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(1) The melting point of P is lower than that of Q.
(2) The specific latent heat of fusion of P is larger than that
of Q.
(3) The specific heat capacity of solid state of P is larger than that of Q.

A. (1) only
B. (3) only
C. (1) and (2) only
D. (2) and (3) only

3. A girl of height 1.5 m is facing a vertical plane mirror with its lower edge on the ground. Her eyes
are 1.4 m above the ground. If the girl can just see her foot, what is the minimum height of the
mirror?

A. 0.7 m
B. 0.75 m 1.5 m
1.4 m
C. 1.4 m
D. 1.5 m mirror

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Structured Questions

1. A student performs an experiment with the setup shown in the figure to


meassure the specific heat capacity of liquid X. 2.5 kg of the liquid X is thermometer
heated by a heater of 1500 W. The temperature (T) of the liquid X at
different time (t) is recorded in the following table. (The heater is switched
stirrer
on at t = 0 s)

heater
T / °C 27 33 36 42 48 51 57
t/s 30 60 90 120 150 180 210

(a) Plot a graph of T against t in the graph paper below. Scales of 1 cm


to 5 °C and 1 cm to 20 s should be used. (4 marks) Polystyrene cup

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(b) Neglecting any heat loss, find the specific heat capacity of liquid X from the graph.
(2 marks)

(c) Find the initial temperature of liquid X. (1 mark)

(d) Explain how the energy lost to the surroundings can be greatly reduced by (i) using a
polystyrene cup as the container, and (ii) covering the cup with a lid. (2 marks)

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2. Read the following passage and answer the following questions.

The Space Shuttle Orbiter is an amazing technological


achievement. It is the world's first and so far only
reusable spacecraft. One of the keys to this reusability is
the Orbiter's Thermal Protection System (TPS). The
most visible aspect of the TPS is the Orbiter's external
tiles. Underneath its protective layer of tiles and other
materials, the Space Shuttle is of rather ordinary
aluminum construction, similar to many large aircraft.

The properties of aluminum demand that the maximum temperature of the Orbiter's structure be
kept below 175°C in operations. But aerothermal heating during liftoff and reentry (in other
words, heating caused by friction with the air) will create surface temperatures high above this
level and in many places will push the temperature well above the melting point of aluminum
(660°C).

Thousands of tiles of various sizes and shapes cover a large percentage of the Space Shuttle
Orbiter's exterior surface. There are two main types of tiles, referred to as Low-temperature
Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) and High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI).

LRSI tiles cover relatively low-temperature areas of an orbiter where the maximum surface
temperature runs between 370°C and 650°C, primarily on the upper surface of fuselage around
the cockpit. These tiles have a white ceramic coating that keeps the orbiter cool under the
radiation of the sun.

HRSI tiles cover areas where the maximum surface temperature runs between 650°C and
1260°C. They have a black ceramic coating, which helps them radiate heat during reentry. Most
of these tiles cover the bottom of the Orbiter.

(a) Explain in molecular terms how the surface of a Space Shuttle Orbiter is heated up during
reentry to the Earth. (2 marks)

(b) Why must the external tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter be good heat insulators?
(1 mark)

(c) A space shuttle usually orbits around the Earth with its bottom facing “downwards”.
Explain this in terms of heat transfer? (2 marks)

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3. You are given the following apparatus.

Thermometer
heater
stand and clamp

Describe how you should conduct an experiment to demonstrate that heat is transferred mainly by
convection in air instead of conduction. You should also describe the expected results from the
experiment. (6 marks)

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