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Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223

Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Lecture 4
Kinematics of
Fluid Motion
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Isabel Loop – Vortex Motion


Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Chapter Summary
n Introduction
n Velocity Field - Lagrangian Vs Eulerian Viewpoint
n Acceleration Field
n Steady and Unsteady Flows
n Pathline, Streakline and Streamline
n Real and Ideal Fluids
n Laminar and Turbulent Flows
n Flow Dimensionality
n Frame of Reference
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.1 Introduction
n The use of fluids normally involve motions of
some type
n The slightest of shear stress and/or imbalance
in normal stress (pressure) cause the fluid to
move
n Kinematics – consider the motion without
reference to the forces that cause the motion.
n Basic concepts will be introduced as a basis
for analyzing fluid motion
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.2. Velocity Field – Lagrangian vs Eulerian

§ Velocity field, V , in general can be represented by :


Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.2. Velocity Field -Lagrangian Vs Eulerian

§ Analyzing Fluid Flow - LAGRANGIAN Vs EULERIAN


§ LAGRANGIAN Viewpoint : -
Following the movement of individual fluid particle with time.
Many particles followed and interaction considered.
Control mass Approach (as in Thermodynamics 1)
velocity description : u = u(t) = uxi + uyj + uzk : tangent to
streamline

LAGRANGIAN
APPROACH
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.2. Velocity Field -Lagrangian Vs Eulerian

§ EULERIAN Viewpoint : -
Focus on certain point in space and describe the motion of fluid
particles that pass this point as time goes on.
Control Volume Approach (as in Thermodynamics 1)
velocity description : u = u(x,y,z,t) = function of position along
a streamline and time

EULERIAN
APPROACH
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.3. Acceleration Field


§ Material derivative of particle A at time, t

§ In general, the material derivative is ..


Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.3. Acceleration Field


§ Local Derivative and Convective Derivative …

Material/Total Local Convective


Derivative Derivative Derivative
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.4. Steady and Unsteady Flow

n Steady and Unsteady Flow : -


– If flow parameters is not changing with time the flow
field is said to be STEADY FLOW
– If it is changing with time => UNSTEADY FLOW
Steady-Flow Unsteady-Flow

Probe

u u

Time, t Time, t
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.4. Steady and Unsteady Flow

n Steady and Unsteady Flow : -

Harrier VTOL Unsteady-Flow Steady-Flow


Fighter Plane
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline

n Physical Observations of Flow Pattern : -


– A few techniques are available to describe flow pattern
– Pathline ~ Lines traced out by individual particles of
fluids, Can be observed by following the path of a marker
as it moves in the fluid
Path of marker
A
Pathline through A
Pathline through B
B

If further markers were inserted at A & B and


pathlines were coincident, flow is STEADY
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline

n Physical Observations of Flow Pattern : -


– Streakline ~ Traced observed when a dye or smoke is
continuously injected at a fixed point or points within a
flow field

Streaklines
Fluid Flow
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline

Streaklines : -
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline


Physical Observations of Flow Pattern : -
Streamline ~ Lines representing the direction of velocity
throughout the flowfield at any instant in time. Thus there is
no flow across streamlines. Snapshot of streaklines

Uniform flow

Non-uniform flow

Tangent = velocity
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline

Physical Observations of Flow Pattern : -


Properties of Streamlines : ~
• velocity components normal to streamlines is zero
• In unsteady flow, shape changes with time
• In steady flow, unchanging with time and coincident with pathlines
and streaklines
• They vary in spacing - indicates the velocity variation
• Follows shape of solid boundaries except when separation occurs
• They cannot intersect
Stream-surface - A surface formed of streamlines
Stream-tube - Stream surface wrap around to form a tube
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline


Pathlines Vs Streaklines Vs Streamlines
:-
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.5. Pathline, Streakline & Streamline


Pathlines Vs Streaklines Vs Streamlines : -

(a) t = 4 s.(b) t = 7 s. (c) t = 10 s.


Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.6. Real and Ideal Fluid


Real Vs Ideal Fluid : -
Ideal fluid - fluid with no viscosity and incompressible. Fluid
‘slip’ at solid boundary. Velocity exist at the wall.
Real fluid -
No slip condition at the wall. No tangential velocity at the wall
Boundary Layer exists near the wall
Velocity profile developed - varies in traverse direction
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.6. Real and Ideal Fluid


Real Vs Ideal Fluid : -
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.7. Laminar and Turbulent Flows


Laminar and Turbulent Flow: -
Laminar Flow - steady, no mixing, smooth appearance. E.g.
Flow of fluid with high viscosity, honey, lubrication oil
Turbulent Flow - with mixing action throughout the flow-field :
with formation of eddies : characterized by statistical
fluctuation about mean value
Govern by Reynolds number , Re =rud/m
Turbulent flow
Re > Recrit
Laminar flow
Re < Recrit
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.7. Laminar and Turbulent Flows


Laminar and Turbulent Flow (Reynolds Experiment): -
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.8. Flow Dimensionality

Flow Dimensionality : -
the minimum number of space coordinates required to
specify it
One-Dimensional Flow - Velocity profile is uniform at any
station - e.g. Ideal fluid flow in pipe or duct.
Two-Dimensional Flow - Flow of real fluid in duct with
infinite width in cartesian x-y coordinates - Axi-symmetric
flow in circular pipe in cylindrical x-r coordinates
Three-Dimensional Flow - Flow of real fluid in duct with end
effects in x-y-z cartesian coordinates
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.8. Flow Dimensionality

Flow Dimensionality : -

1D Flow - uniform vel profile 2D Flow - velocity varies in x & y

2D Axi-symmetric flow General 3D Flow


Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

4.9. Frame of Reference

Frame of Reference –
The laws of mechanics are still applicable if the frame of
reference is moving at a constant velocity in straight line
It is easier to analyze Steady flow cf. Unsteady flow
Sometimes convenient to change frame of reference from a fixed
coordinates to moving coordinates (relative frame)

UNSTEADY STEADY
Department of Mechanical Engineering MEHB223
Mechanics of Fluids 1: Lecture 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

End of Lecture 4