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Mariya Chukhray ISM- Period 7

Parenthood, Planned. “Birth Control Methods & Options | Types of Birth Control.

18 total methods of birth control with birth control implant, IUD, sterilization, and vasectomy being the most successful

Fertility awareness, withdrawal method, breast feeding, and outercourse are lifestyle birth control methods

The implant or Nexplanon is inserted into the arm and releases progestin hormone lasting up to 5 years

Implant: hormone thickens mucus in the cervix making it difficult for sperm to swim through and can also stop eggs from leaving the ovaries, but doesn’t protect from std’s

UID: There are two types, copper ones and hormonal(progestin) ones. The copper has no hormones and lasts up to 12 years and sperm doesn’t like copper so it avoids it

The hormonal IUD works like the implant, thickening the mucus

The copper IUD also works as an emergency birth control method if it is inserted after 5 days of intercourse

The shot is to be taken every 3 months, it also contains progestin

Nuvaring: flexible ring you wear inside vagina, contains estrogen and progestin to prevent pregnancy by thickening mucus and stopping ovulation

Patch: worn in certain parts of your body that absorbs estrogen and progestin

Birth control pill: taken everyday to stop ovulation

A majority of the birth control methods contain the same hormone, projection, which lead to the same results. However the only difference is how they’re transmitted into the body

Male and female condoms protect from std’s by preventing sperm to enter

A diaphragm is a silicone cup women insert into the cervix to prevent sperm from entering and is best used with spermicide to kill sperm, cervical caps smaller but the same

The sponge works like the diaphragm and is inserted deeper into the cervix while paired with spermicide

Sterilization or tubal ligation is known as getting your tubes tied and lasts for life, however you can never get pregnant in the future and it costs a hefty $6000.

Vasectomy is male sterilization, it works by cutting or blocking tubes in the scrotum

The source was very informative and discussed all the possible birth control methods from surgical ones to lifestyle choices, however the source was based more towards potential patients seeking birth control methods and less towards people wanting to find out how each method works in depth including the science behind it.

Mariya Chukhray ISM- Period 7

“What Happens during Prenatal Visits?” Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of

Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human


The first visit is after the 8th weeks of pregnancy

Many tests are taken during the first visit;

urine test

blood pressure

weight, height

determine blood type for rh factor or protein found in rbc

If mom is negative and father is positive, the baby would require special care

physical exam

hepatitis, rubella, HIV, syphilis

pap smear for HPV and cervical cancer

Blood count: hemoglobin and hematocrit

Ultrasounds throughout the visits

Genetic history is also asked along with any current illnesses and stress levels

If below 28 weeks pregnant you go in every month

28 to 36 weeks you go in every two weeks

36 weeks to birth you go in weekly

As visits to the gynecologist progress, the tests vary

Throughout weight gain is checked, blood pressure, fundal height of baby to check growing, fetal heart rate, swelling in hands in feet of mother, fetuses position in uterus

Gestational diabetes is checked for

Vaccines are recommended such as the whooping cough

Genetic tests are also o ered if the mother wants it, they test for down syndrome, chromosomal problems, cystic fibrosis,

Trimesters are every three months

The source provided all the information for about what goes on throughout gynecologist visits for pregnancy’s and it was very diligent about listing all the tests and procedures because it was backed up by further sources as well.

Mariya Chukhray ISM- Period 7

“What Infections Can A ect Pregnancy?” Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of

Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common infection in pregnant women and is risked through STI’s or douching

Chlamydia during pregnancy, if left untreated, it can lead to the infant having eye infections or pneumonia

Antibiotic Ointment is often put on the baby after birth to kill any undetected chlamydia bacteria

Cytomegalovirus is spread through bodily fluids and can spread into a fetus, however there are no recent health issues and pops up active every once in a while

The baby with cytome- can develop health issues such as seizures, hearing loss, vision loss, or mental ability. There are drugs that decrease this risk

Fifth disease is a B12 human parvovirus and are sometimes harmless to the baby by just leaving it with red washed cheeks

Rare cases lead to miscarriages and is passed by people not washing their hands

No vaccine for fifth disease

Gonorrhea can lead to low weight and miscarriages

The fetal membrane and fluid and rip and become infecting which can permanently blind the baby

Group B Streptococcus: serious but antibiotics help if you’re tested positive

Genital herpes: Late in pregnancy the fetus leads to dire consequences on the mother and the baby and can cause brain damage, blindness, and damage to organs.

The mother can experience kidney or liver failure and can potentially die along with the baby. A c section and meds can be used to prevent genital herpes

Hepatitis B and virus: can be transferred to the baby which will later on liver probs

Human papillomavirus (HPV)- vaccine

Listeria: eating food with bacteria in it which causes pregnancy loss, preterm birth, or still birth

Rubella: noted to cause birth defects

Syphilis: similar to listeria results along with instant birth after death. Babies who survive have trouble with numerous organs

Toxoplasmosis- parasite obtained from feces

Zika- caused by mosquito bite, pregnancy loss, complications, and defects

The list of diseases on this website was overwhelming to keep up with, however it provides the reader with a full list with descriptive explanations which is helpful.