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VoLTE Evolution & Architecture

VoLTE
• VoLTE Fundamentals
• Handset Requirements
• LTE Network Support
• IMS Architecture
• CS Network Support
• QCI & Prioritization of VoLTE
Disclaimer : Views expressed in this blog or Video are strictly mine
Traffic over Radio and not of my employers or Equipment Manufacturers

http://TelecomTutorial.info
What is VoLTE
Originating Network

Terminating Network
LTE IMS
LTE or
IP Network PSTN
Calling Party PSTN or LTE IP
Network Called Party

IMS enables a packet-based network to provide multiple services


on single Control/Service Layers via different access network.

• Access agnostic
• Services independent
Key Drivers to IMS • Open architecture
• Multi-device
• Vendor independent
http://TelecomTutorial.info
VoLTE Building blocks
VoLTE : Voice over LTE VoLTE Benefits to users
• Voice calls over a 4G LTE network • HD Voice
• LTE Packet Network used for carrying voice • Fast Call connection (0.25s)
payload over all IP Network

SIP Enabled LTE Network IMS Core Voice Core


User Equipment Radio , Core ( SIP Network ) PSTN
Handset

IP Nw

SIP
SERVER http://TelecomTutorial.info
VoLTE Network - Building blocks
SIP Enabled IMS Core
LTE Network Voice Core
Smartphone or
Handset
Radio , Core (SIP) PSTN
1 2 3 4
• SIM Card (ISIM) • Radio • SIP Servers • Control Plane
 IMPI  EnodeB  P-CSCF  MSS
 IMPU  I-CSCF  MSC
 S-CSCF
• Handset • LTE Core • User Plane
 SIP-UA  MME , SGW , • Other IMS Core  MGW
PGW  TAS
 HSS  BGw
 DNS  MRF
 PCRF
http://TelecomTutorial.info
VoLTE Handset Components (User Equipment)
Universal Integrated
Circuit (UICC)
1
SIM USIM ISIM
GSM LTE VoLTE SIP User Agent (SIP-UA)

• SIP User Agent (SIP-UA)


1. Resides in the UE
IMPI IMPU 2. Transmit & receive SIP Messages
3. Provides telephony functionality
• Private Entity • Public Identity
4. Can act as
• Global identity • Like a • User Agent Client (UAC) : send SIP request
allocated by telephone No. • User Agent Server (UAS) : As a server to
home network SIP URI , Ex : tel receive requests and send response
:- +919810602654
http://TelecomTutorial.info
VoLTE Building blocks
SIP Enabled
Smartphone or LTE Network IMS Core Voice Core
Handset Radio , Core (SIP) PSTN
1 2 3 4
Universal
Integrated
Circuit (UICC)
 IMPI
 IMPU

SIP User
Agent (SIP-
UA)

http://TelecomTutorial.info
LTE Architecture Control
Plane
User
2 Plane

S6a
MME HSS OCS PCRF

S11 Gy Gx

LTE-UU enB
ENodeB
S1-U S-GW S5 P-GW
SGi
Internet
IMS

Control Plane
User Plane
http://TelecomTutorial.info
VoLTE Building blocks
User Equipment LTE Network IMS Core Voice Core
Handset Radio , Core (SIP) PSTN
1 2 3 4
Universal
Integrated
Circuit (UICC)

SIP User
Agent (SIP-
UA)

http://TelecomTutorial.info
IMS VoLTE Architecture & Specs
3
IMS SPECS
3GPP 23.228

• GSMA FCM.01
• GSMA IR.92
http://TelecomTutorial.info
LTE to VoLTE Journey

S6a
MME HSS PCRF

enB S11 Gx

S-GW P-GW
S5

SGi
eNB ( EnodeB )
MME ( Mobility Management Entity )
Internet SGW ( Serving Gateway )
HSS ( Home Subscriber Server )
PCRF ( Policy charging rules function )
PGW ( Packet Gateway )

http://TelecomTutorial.info
Here is IMS

S6a
MME HSS PCRF

enB S11 Gx

S-GW P-GW
IMS
S5 IP Telephony
SGi

IMS ( IP Multimedia Subsystem )


Internet

http://TelecomTutorial.info
SIP Server
IMS ( IP Multimedia Subsystem )

SIP
Server
S6a
MME HSS PCRF

enB S11 Gx

Media Other IMS


S-GW P-GW Networks / PSTN
S5 Gateway
SGi

SIP Service
Internet • Session set-up, session tear-down, session control
and routing functions.
• Records for billing purposes for all sessions
• SIP registrar for VoLTE UEs http://TelecomTutorial.info
Media Gateway
IMS ( IP Multimedia Subsystem )

SIP
Server
S6a
MME HSS PCRF

enB S11 Gx

Media Other IMS


S-GW P-GW Networks / PSTN
S5 Gateway
SGi
Media Gateway
• Responsible for the control/media plane
interworking at the network
Internet
• Interconnect point to circuit-switched networks.
• Transcoding of the media plane.
• Interconnect to other IMS Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
Role of IPCAN

SIP
IP Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) Server

Internet Access
Network
Media Other IMS
LTE Gateway Networks / PSTN

Or Wifi

Or DSL , Cable

http://TelecomTutorial.info
The Proxy
Proxy CSCF
Or
SIP P-CSCF SIP Server
LTE
Proxy S-CSCF

Media Other IMS


SIP Proxy Gateway Networks / PSTN
• First Point of Entry point to IMS Network
• Typically Belongs to VPLMN
• Function : Integrity of SIP Messages , Ensures the security ,
Authenticates & identity of the UE
• Find out Home SIP Server & Routes Traffic to same
http://TelecomTutorial.info
The Interrogator

Interrogator SIP Server


LTE SIP Proxy
I-CSCF S-CSCF
P-CSCF

HSS

Interrogator
• Belongs to Home Network
• Interrogates the HSS to determine SIP Server Media Other IMS
• During Registration Gateway Networks / PSTN
• During MT Call routing
http://TelecomTutorial.info
HSS ( Home Subscriber Server )

Interrogator SIP Server


LTE SIP Proxy
I-CSCF S-CSCF
P-CSCF

HSS
HSS (Home
Subscriber
Server)

HSS ( Home Subscriber Server ) Media Other IMS


• Stores Profile of User Gateway Networks / PSTN
• Equivalent to HLR of Circuit Domain
http://TelecomTutorial.info
The Telephony App Server (TAS)

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF

Telephony App
HSS Server
(TAS)

Telephony App Server


• Types of App Servers : Telephony Service , Video Service
, Multimedia Service
• TAS : Telephony Brain to IMS & Equivalent to MSC
Media Other IMS
• Provides : Call waiting, hold, forwarding, transfer , Networks / PSTN
Gateway
blocking services, Malicious Caller Identification , Lawful
interception , Announcements, , Conference
http://TelecomTutorial.info
Media Control

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF

HSS TAS

Media Control Media


• Control for media channels Control
• Performs Call Related Signaling for calls with PSTN ( ISUP ) Media Other IMS
• Performs protocol conversion between ISUP and the IM Gateway Networks / PSTN
subsystem protocols
http://TelecomTutorial.info
Media Gateway

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF

HSS TAS

Media Gateway
• Voice Payload handling Media
• Interface between IP / PSTN Network Control Other IMS
• RTP to PCM & Vice versa conversion Media Networks / PSTN
• Codec Handling Gateway
• Echo cancellation
http://TelecomTutorial.info
( IBCF & TrGW ) , ( MGCF & IMS-MGW )

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF

HSS TAS

IBCF SIP/IMS PSTN MGCF


All Media Entities Control Control
• IBCF (Interconnection Border Control Functions) IMS PSTN
• TrGW (Transition Gateway)
TrGW Gateway Gateway IMS-MGW
=============================================
• MGCF (Media Gateway Control Function) Other IMS Other PSTN
• IMS-MGw (IP Multimedia-Media Gateway Function) Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
ATCF & ATGW

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF
Access
ATCF
Control
Media ATGW TAS
Gateway
HSS

IBCF MGCF
All Media Entities
• ATCF (Access Transfer Control Function)
TrGW IMS-MGW
• ATGW (Access Transfer Gateway)

Other IMS Other PSTN


Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
All Media Entities

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF

ATCF
ATGW HSS TAS

All Media Entities IBCF MGCF


• ATCF (Access Transfer Control Function)
• ATGW (Access Transfer Gateway) TrGW IMS-MGW
• IBCF (Interconnection Border Control Functions)
• TrGW (Transition Gateway)
• MGCF (Media Gateway Control Function) Other IMS Other PSTN
• IM-MGw (IP Multimedia-Media Gateway Function) Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function)
PCRF
Gx Rx

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
Gm P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF
ATCF
ATGW

PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function) HSS TAS


• Apply Policy to PDN or IPCAN Session - Provides
priority of Bearers used for Making VoLTE calls & SIP
Signaling ( QCI – 1 for Voice , QCI – 5 for SIP ) IBCF MGCF
• Helps Voice call to pass thru even in case of Radio TrGW IMS-MGW
Congestion
• Act as Anchoring point between PCSCF & PGW over Other IMS Other PSTN
Gm Protocol reference Point Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
MRF ( Media Resource Function )
PCRF

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF
ATCF
ATGW

MRF
HSS TAS
MRF ( Media resource function )
• Deals with Call conferencing & things
associated with RTP Mixing such as IBCF MGCF
transcoding, multiparty conferencing, network TrGW IMS-MGW
announcements/tones, etc.
• It is also used for Announcement & Media Other IMS Other PSTN
related functionalities Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
BGCF .. B Number routing Table
PCRF

SIP Proxy Interrogator SIP Server


LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF
ATCF
ATGW

MRF

HSS TAS
BGCF ( Breakout Gateway Control BGCF
Function )
• BGCF does routing the call to destination IBCF MGCF
Network TrGW IMS-MGW
• Equivalent to Routing Table in Network ,
Similar to B Table of MSC Other IMS Other PSTN
Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
Complete VoLTE IMS Picture
PCRF

Control Layer
Session and
SIP Proxy SIP Interrogator SIP Server
LTE
P-CSCF I-CSCF S-CSCF

ATCF
ATGW MRF

Services
App &
BGCF

Layer
HSS TAS

IBCF MGCF

Transport
TrGW IMS-MGW

Layer
Other IMS Other PSTN
Networks Networks
http://TelecomTutorial.info
Practical deployment
External
PCRF
1 Cloud IMS Hardware

SIP Proxy SIP Interrogator SIP Server


LTE I-CSCF S-CSCF
P-CSCF Cloud MRF
External ATCF
ATGW
4
2 SBC
Gateway BGCF
MRF

TAS
HSS
External 3
IBCF MGCF Cloud TAS
TrGW IMS-MGW
BONUS TIP External

http://TelecomTutorial.info
The Big Picture ..

User Equipment LTE Network IMS Core Voice Core


Handset Radio , Core (SIP) PSTN
1 2 3 4
Universal
Integrated
Circuit (UICC)

SIP User
Agent (SIP-
UA) TrGW IMS-MGW

http://TelecomTutorial.info
What if LTE Radio is Congested ??
Packet Packet
Resource
Priority QCI Delay Error Loss Example Services
Type
Budget Rate
1 5 non-GBR 100ms 10−6 Volte , IMS Signaling
2 1 100ms 10−2 Volte , Conversational Voice
3 3 50ms 10−3 Real Time Gaming, V2X messages
Guaranteed
Volte , Conversational Video (Live
4 2 Bit Rate 150ms 10−3
Streaming)
(GBR)
Non-Conversational Video (Buffered
5 4 300ms 10−6
Streaming)
6 6 300ms 10−6
7 7 non-GBR 100ms 10−3 Internet Services , Video (Buffered
Streaming) TCP-Based (for example,
8 8 300ms 10−6
Best Effort www, email, chat, ftp, p2p and the like)
9 9 300ms 10−6

http://TelecomTutorial.info
Changes in Core Network to support VoLTE
• Default & dedicated • Sv Link – SRVCC • Sv Link – SRVCC
Bearer Enable • IMS APN SGW / PGW • IMS & MGW – IP
• IMS APN IP Pool Selection Reachability
• PGW - SBC / PCSCF • Paging Policy - VoLTE • Break in & Break out
Reachability Calls Calls Config
• Disable Gy for IMS • QCI – 1,5 Testing & • Common Codec
Validation between MSS &
IMS

Packet Core Packet Core Voice Core


SGW / PGW MME MSS / MSC

http://TelecomTutorial.info
BONUS TIP
I don’t have I-SIM in my Network ?

Do existing 3G or LTE customer using USIM need


to go for SIM Swap for availing VoLTE Services ?
USIM itself can be used to Avail VoLTE Services , Deriving the IMPU and IMPI for
authentication can be done by VoLTE stack/client residing on the UE ( ISIM is not
Mandatory )
Derived
IMPI :- <IMSI>@ims.mnc<3-digit MNC>.mcc<3-digit MCC>.3gppnetwork.org
Derived
IMPU :- <MSISDN>@ims.mnc<3-digit MNC>.mcc<3-digit MCC>.3gppnetwork.org
http://TelecomTutorial.info
Thanks
VISIT MY WEBSITE
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FOR

Free Download – Video 1080p (MP4)


Free Download – Presentation (PDF)
Vikas Shokeen
Vikas.Shokeen@gmail.com

http://TelecomTutorial.info