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EXPERIMENT NO.

Object: To find the wavelength of white light with the help of a plane transmission diffraction
grating.
Apparatus required: A diffraction grating, spectrometer, mercury lamp, prism, reading lens.
Formula used: The wavelength λ of any spectral lines can be calculated by the formula:
(a +b) sin θ = n λ

or λ = (a +b) sin θ
n

where (a +b) = grating element


θ = angle of diffraction
n = order of the spectrum

Procedure for the determination of angles of diffraction:


The spectrum obtained in a grating is shown in fig.
(1) Rotate the telescope to the left side of direct image and adjust the different spectral lines
(violet, green and red) turn by turn on the vertical cross wire for first order. Note down the
reading of both the verniers in each setting.
(2) Rotate the telescope further to obtain the second order spectrum and again the spectral
lines on the vertical cross wire and note the readings.
(3) Now rotate the telescope to the right of the right of the direct image and repeat the above
procedure for first order as well as for second order.
(4) Find out the difference of the same kind of verniers (V1 fromV1 and V2 fromV2) for each
spectral line in the first order and then in the second order. The angle is twice the angle
of diffraction for that particular color. Half of it will be angle of diffraction.
(5) Find out the angles of diffraction for other colors in first and second orders.

Result: The wavelength is given in the table.


Color of Spectral line .λ .λ %
Observed 0A Standard 0A Error
Violet I …. … …
Violet II …. … …
Blue …. … …
Blue Green … …. …
Green …. …. …
Yellow I … …. …
Yellow II … … …
Red … … ….

Sources of error and Precautions:


(1) Before performing the experiment, the spectrometer should be adjusted.
(2) Grating should be set normal to the incident light.
(3) While taking observation, telescope and prism table should be kept fixed.

VIVA-VOCE

Q. 1. What do you mean by diffraction of light?


Q.2. What is difference between interference and diffraction?
Q.3. What is diffraction grating?
Q.4. What are requisites of a good grating?
Q.5. What is grating element?
Q.6. How many orders do you get here? Why?
Q.7. What is main difference between a prism spectrum and a grating spectrum?
Q.8. Why is the prism spectrum more intense than the grating spectrum?
Q.9. What is dispersive power of grating?
Q.10. On what factors does the dispersive power of a grating depend?
Q.11. What will happen if the width of clear space and ruled space is made equal?

Observations:
No. of rulings per inch on the grating, N = ……
Least count of spectrometer = ……cm.
Reading of telescope for direct image = ……
Reading of telescope after rotating it through 900
Reading of circular scale when reflected image is
obtained on the cross wire = ……
0 0
Reading after rotating the prism table through 45 or 135 = …
.
Determination of angles of diffraction:
Spectrum on left Spectrum on right
side, reading of side, reading of
Order of Color of Kinds of telescope telescope 2θ = Mean
spectrum light vernier M.S V.S Total M.S V.S Total a-b degrees
(a) (b)
degrees degrees
Violet V1 .. … … … … … … …
First V2 … … … … … … … …

Green V1 .. … … … … … … …
V2 … … … … … … … …

Red V1 .. … … … … … … …
V2 … … … … … … … …
Violet V1 .. … … … … … … …
Second V2 … … … … … … … …

Green V1 .. … … … … … … …
V2 … … … … … … … …

Red V1 .. … … … … … … …
V2 … … … … … … … …

Calculations: Grating element (a + b) = 2.54/ N= ….per cm.


where N is number of ruling per inch on the grating.
The wavelength of various spectral lines in the first order (n= 1)
Can be calculated by

λ = (a+b) sinθ = (a+b) sinθ


1
λ violet = ……A0
Calculate λ for other spectral lines.

Wavelength in second order is given by


λ = (a+b) sinθ
2
λ violet = ……A0
Calculate λ for other spectral lines.
Mean value of λ violet = …….A0.

Figure.1

Figure.2