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analysis of slopes made of soil. It is shown that the 47Z

computation can i n c o ~ a t e a failure criterion which H~MEL, JV
agrees well with ~ a t trad~tlonally used in soil mechanics. Rock strength from failure cases .Leftbank slope stability
[[he behaviour of many idealized slol~es and of two ~sdbaz~ study-Libby Dam and Lake Koocanusa,Montama.Final report.39F,11T~
m~nt dams is predicted trader two different loading con- DEPT.ARMY, MISSOURI RIV.DIV.CORPS ENGR,OMAHA, USA.JULY 1974,239P.
ditions: that which &~lles dan-ing sequential construct- Slope stability problems involving fault and Joint
ion in the field contra~ted ~Ith that which applies dur- hounded rock masses occurred in the left abutment and
ing testing in %he centrifuge laboratory. Autho left bank areas of Libby Dam during construction.Results
of investigations are summarized in the report where
468 emphasis has been placed on determination and interpret-
WHALLEY, WB Q%~ I~NIV.BELFAST, GB ation of in-situ shear strengths for geologic discontin-
~ac~ors affecting the slope sta~illty of lateral uities in hard rock slopes .It was impossible to obtain
moraine faces with angles greater than 90 degrees. the degree of geologic information needed to reliably
Symposium. Summaries of papers. evaluate the stability of the left bank rock ribs due to
MIDLAND SOIL MECH, FOLE~D.ENU,NG SOC.SYMP.0N ENGNG BE- the size and their structural complexity.Nevertheless
HAVIOI]K OF GLACIAL MATERIALS,BIRMINGHAM, APRIL, 1975. several conclusions were drawn concerning 1.failure con-
The steepness of the proximal faces of Alpine moraines ditions for small rock wedges, shear strength
has indicated a problem in explaining their stability. parsmeters for geologic discontinuities,end3.1eft bank
A simple Culmann stability analysis for F=I showed that rib stabillty.Auth.
very large values of angle (greater than 65deg. ) are
required to give stability with the apparent cohesion 473
intercepts determ~led from depth ].5in and large scale PITEAU, DR
triaxial tests. Cementation by salts from percolating Plan geometry and other factors relating to
water has been discounted. It is thought that slow natural rock slope stability applied to design of
compaction with a consolidation load due partly to De Beers mine.Report.57F,24T,17R.
alternating positive and negative pore water pressures TECH .BULL. 190. DEFT. ~ G Y , MINES, RESOURCES, OTTAWA, CDN.
may give rise to the very high bulk densities deter- JUNE, 1974,120P.
mined in the field ~ud that such processes may help ex- As part of a ms,or study relating to the stability of
plain the anomalous steepness of these slopes. rock slopes of De Beers mine and four other mines in
Kimberly, an attempt was made to determine the controlling
469 factors which either lead to or detract from the stab-
BOSS-BROWN, DM DAMES AND MDORE, L.AoCALIF.UBA ility of the slopes.The main objective was to assess
The influence of excavation technique on whether the natural breskback of the slopes would Jeopar-
rock slope design. Abstract of paper for Soc. dise the main railway line near the pit .A study was made
Min.~ugrs 1975 AIME Ann.Meetlng,New York. of the slope breakback and other related factors in the
MIN. ENGNG. ALME,V26, NI2, DEC. 197~, P60. four big holes of the diamond mines in the area.
Factors such as blastlng,face cleaning,water control and
the use of rock improvement techniques are discussed and
related to rock slope design.The extra costs incurred Groundwater problems
are related to the steeper slope angles usually obtained.

47O 474
GRAHAM, J ROY ,MILIT. COLL. KINGSTON, CDN An assessment, using three field studies, of the
Landslides in the Magho districk of Fermauagh, theoretical concept of the efficiency of drainage
Northern Ireland. IBF,2T,23 R . layers in an embankment.lOF,7R.
EI~GNG GEOL.V8, N4, DEC. 1974, P341-359. G~DTECHNIQUE,V24,N4, DEC. 1974, P467-474.
"Notational slumps,shallow debris slides and active Three embankments (one at Selset Dam-Teesdale, one at
shallow rotational slides are identified on slopes dev- Miraflores Dam, Colombia, and the M6 motorway trial e ~
eloped on rocks of Carboniferous age.The rotational slides bankment at Ki11~g~on-Wastmorland) have been studied.
occur on shales which weather to produce a clay-rich soil. In each case, the pore-water pressure that might be
Direct shear tests ware conducted on the soil and conve- expected to develop in the absence of drainage was cal-
ntional stability analyses suggest that the residual coh- culated. This was then compared with the measured pore-
esion parameter is significant.Stability calculations inv- pressure to estimate the degree of dissipation due to
olve the use of a dimensionless stability coefficient.Auth. the drainage system. By relating this to the calculated
efficiency, the theoretical concept can be assessed in
471 comparison with observed behaviour.
LEE3CF 475
An evaluation of the stability of natural slopes 00CKSEI~E, JE
in plastic Champlain clays.llF,4T,27R. HIGHT,Z~
CAN. GEOTECH.J .Vll,N1, FEB, 1974, P165-181. Some geotechnical aspects of road design and construction
A method of stability analysis was developed to accomod- in glacial materials. Symposium.~mm~ies of papers.
ate the distinctly monlinear nature of the strength MIDLAND SOIL MECH.FOUND.ENGNG.80C.SYMP.ON ~GNG.BE-
envelopes for these clays in the low stress range app- HAVIOUR OF GLACIAL MAT .,BIRMINGHAM, AFRIL,1975.
ropriate to stability problems.Using this method natural A comparison of the engineering properties of glacial
slope failures were evaluated using strength character- materials investigated at the sites of ms,or road schemes
istics determined with block samples from sites of recent in Cumbria, Cleveland, the GlasgDw area and Northern Ire-
slides in Quabac.The results of stability analyses of land is presented. ~ v a t i o n s in design and field con-
eleven slides indicate that the field strength generally trol were necessary to incorporate some of these materials
approaches the post-peak condition.To verify this,the into embankments and to allow their safe excavation in
state of stress of two slpoes before sliding was deter- cutting. Particular reference is made to the inclusion
mined by a finite element method accounting for work-sof- of 'wet' boulder cl~vs within selected embankments and
tening behaviour .Auth. the use of the Benke1-~n Beam and a 18rge compaction

machine as field control tools. The performance of a narrowed part just above the cone-shaped point, of
these materials during construct%gn is discussed and 36me. diameter. This has advantages in that i) Results
attention is drawn to some of the difficulties they pose; are con~arable to those of the discontintous mechanical
these include their resilient behaviour under traffic sotundings, and 2) more detailed information is obtained
loading, their susceptilbility to m~isture content change, regarding the composition and strength of various soil
and the unpredictable ground water conditions with which layer s.
they are associated.Auth.
COCKSEDGE, JE Analysis of a circular raft in adhesive contact with a
HIG}~2,IY~ thick elastic layer. 13F,4T,33R.
Artesian slopes in glaciated landscapes and their GEOTECHNIQUE, V2h, N4, DEC .1974, P561-580.
influemce on the stability of road cuttings. Symposium. The problem ~onsidered is that of a circular raft of
Summaries of papers. finite flexibility in adhesive contact with a thick iso-
MIDLAND SOIL MECH.FOUND.~GNG.SOC.SYMP.ON ENGNG.BE. tcopic elastic layer underlain by a rigid base. Using
HAT/DUR OF GLACIAL MAT.,BIRMINGH~M, APRIL 1975. the displacemant finite element method, solutions are
An artesian slope is defined and the conditions necessary obtained for a homogeneous layer and also for one particu-
for its development are reviewed. The stability problems lar form of linearly heterogeneous layer. Eight-noded
posed both during and after construction of road cuttings isoparametric elements are used, and the accuracy of
in the till capping layer of an artesian slope are exa- the numerical solution is shown to be adequate, provided
mined. Two case histories are presented in which the that certain simple procedures are followed.
existence of gla~_ial artesian slopes was recognised
and extensive drainage measures were necessary to ensure 481
stability of road cuttings. Auth. GRAHAM, J
Plasticity solutions To stability problems in sand.
Influence of dynamic loads due to explosions 8F, IT,Z4R.
CAN.GEOTECH. J.VlI, N2,MAY, 1974, P238- 247.
or earthquakes Plasticity solutions for failut-e loadings in sand have
reached the stage where confidence can be expressed in
477 the available computational procedures. However, pre-
AWOJOBI, ~D UNIV. L~30S NIGERIA. dicted loads often do not agree particularly well with
SOBAYO, OA laboratory model results, and significantly over-estlmate
Ground vibrations due TO seismic detonation in oil the ultimate loading on full-scale structures. If care
exploration. 8F, 5R. is taken in specifying boundary conditions to conform
INT. J. E~qTHQ. ENGNG. STRUCT. DYNAM.VB, N2, OCT- D ~ . 1974, wi%h observations of model behaviour, then ~Dod agree-
P171-181. ment is obtained between theoretical and model results.
This paper records an empirical relation based on field By using the curvature of the Mohr.Coulomb envelope
tests in Mid-Western and Rivers States of Nigeria. The in the an~ulysis, it has beeu possible tO s~gest limits
depth of the buried explosive is introduced as an additional TO the magnitude of the scale-effect in sands. These
parameter TO the extent of vibration at the building site, have been con~ared with corresponding experimental values
the distance of the building from the expiosive, the energy for passive retaining walls and surface footings. Reasonable
content of the explosive, and the frequency of detonation; trends of behaviour have been established. Auth.
and the resulting empirical relation shows the effects of
these parame.ters on the extent of surface vibration. 4~
478 Accurate measurement of dlsplacement.2F.
~,JW The effects of lateral displacements on building structures
Dynamic behaviour of buildlng-foundation systems.lhF,26R. may be accurateSJ and economically measured by the method
INT .J.E&~THQ. ~GNG. STRUCT. DYNAM .V3 ,N2,0 CT- DEC. 1974, described here .The temsiorztug device of the Ports Mark II
P121-138. Horehole Extensometer is graduated To 0.0025 cm.Some relat-
A discussion of the effects of soil-structure interaction ively inexpensive hardware has been used To adapt this ins.
on the dynamic response of linear structures which res- trument for measuring horizontal dlsplacem~nts using steel
pond as single-degree-of-freedom systems in their fixed tape.Reference points can be mounted on the columns of
base condition is pcesented. The structures a~e presumed existing buildings or in boreholes.Measucemants can be taken
to be supported at the surfaces of a homogeneous, elastic by one person and over distances of 6m displacements can be
half space and to be excited at the base. The free-field measured To an accuracy of 0.O91 cm under ideal conditions.
ground motions investigated include a harmonic motion, a Auth.
relatively s i d l e pulse-type excitation and an actual
earthquake record. Comprehensive response strata are
presented for a range of the parameters defining the pro-
blem and the results used To assess the accuracy of a
Rock and soil improvement
simple method of analysis the latter is discussed only
briefly. Emphasis is laid on results which show that
the interaction effect warrants design considerations.
Experimental and numerical techniques
Bolts and anchors
479 IS~M
Suggested methods for rockbolt testing. 8F.
The dutch cone test: study of the shape of the elec. ISRM COMMISSION ON STANDARD.ZAB.FIELD TESTS.
trical cone. Conference.Session one.7F,3R . COMMXTfnF~ ON FIELD TESTS,DOCUMENTjN23MAR.1974,16P.
PROC .EIGH~ INT.CONF.ON SOIL MECH.FOUND.ENGNG. This pap_r is presented in three sectio.n~:_ I) Suggested
FDSCOW, VI. i, 1973, PISI- 18~. methods for determining the strength of a rockbolt
Delft soil mechanics laboratory has carried out an exten- anchor (pull test); 2) Suggested method for determining
sive series of tests, the results of which are discus- rockbolt tension using a Torque wrench; 3) Suggested
sad in this paper, on the shape of the electrical cone ~ethod for moniToring rockbolt tension using load cells.
used for sounding the soil. A cone is suggested which has For each suggested metl~d the scope, of the test,