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FM Receiver
Alfonso Miguel A. Alvaran, Aileen U. Balbido, John Dereck A. De Guzman, Rachelle B. Delos Santos,
John Luis G. Gonzaga, Charl G. Legista, Jazper Rae A. Millo, Ross Elmart L. Trinidad, BSECE4C

Abstract-- Many of the different radio receiver types have been transmitted by local radio stations. The sound is reproduced
around for many years. The component technology, and in either by a loudspeaker in the radio or an earphone which plugs
particular semiconductor technology has surged forwards into a jack on the radio. The radio requires electric power,
enabling much higher levels of performance to be achieved in a provided either by batteries inside the radio or a power cord
much smaller space. The most familiar form of radio receiver is a
which plugs into an electric outlet. All radios have a volume
broadcast receiver, often just called a radio, which
receives audio programs intended for public reception control to adjust the loudness of the audio, and some type of
transmitted by local radio stations. Frequency modulation is "tuning" control to select the radio station to be received.
widely used for FM radio broadcasting. An advantage of Of the radio waves, FM is the most popular one.
frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio Frequency modulation is widely used for FM radio
and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better than an broadcasting. It is also used in telemetry, radar, seismic
equal power amplitude modulation (AM) signal. In this paper, the prospecting, and monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG,
researchers used a simple circuit of FM receiver using LM386IC two-way radio systems, music synthesis, magnetic tape-
and a 2N2222 transistor. Results showed that the circuit was recording systems and some video-transmission systems. An
already capable of receiving static signals but no pertinent
advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-
frequencies were observed.
to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference
Index Terms
better than an equal power amplitude modulation (AM) signal.
Radio receiver This paper aims to devise a simple FM receiver to perceive its
Antenna operation.
Radio frequency
Demodulation II. METHODOLOGY
Broadcast receiver
Modulation Modulation
A message carrying a signal has to get transmitted over
a distance and for it to establish a reliable communication; it
I. INTRODUCTION needs to take the help of a high frequency signal which should
not an ect the original characteristics of the message signal. The

ver the years, many different types of radio receiver characteristics of the message signal, if changed, the message
have been designed. The different types of receiver contained in it also alters. Hence, it is a must to take care of the
have arisen out of the needs of the day and the message signal. A high frequency signal can travel up to a
technology available. Early radio receivers had poor longer distance, without getting an ected by external
performance compared to those used today. Nowadays with disturbances. We take the help of such high frequency signal
advanced techniques like digital signal processing, and high which is called as a carrier signal to transmit our message
performance semiconductors and other components, very high signal. Such a process is simply called as Modulation.
performance radios are commonplace. Modulation is the process of changing the parameters of the
A radio receiver is an electronic device that receives carrier signal, in accordance with the instantaneous values of
radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a the modulating signal.
usable form. An antenna is used to catch the desired frequency
waves. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the Advantages of Modulation
desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked The antenna used for transmission, had to be very
up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power large, if modulation was not introduced. The range of
of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the communication gets limited as the wave cannot travel a distance
desired information through demodulation. without getting distorted. Following are some of the advantages
Many of the different radio receiver types have been for implementing modulation in the communication systems.
around for many years. The component technology, and in 1) Reduction of antenna size
particular semiconductor technology has surged forwards 2) No signal mixing
enabling much higher levels of performance to be achieved in a 3) Increased communication range
much smaller space. The most familiar form of radio receiver is 4) Multiplexing of signals
a broadcast receiver, often just called a radio, which 5) Possibility of bandwidth adjustments
receives audio programs intended for public reception 6) Improved reception quality

This circuit recovers the audio signal and discards the

RF carrier. Some of the audio is fedback to the oscillator as an
automatic frequency control voltage. This ensures that the
FM Demodulation oscillator frequency is stable inspite of temperature changes.
Demodulation should provide an output signal whose After which, the audio signal voltage is increased in
amplitude is dependent on the instantaneous carrier frequency amplitude by a voltage amplifier. And lastly, the power level is
deviation and whose frequency is dependent on the rate of the increased sufficiently to drive the speaker by the power
carrier frequency change. amplifier.

LM386 is a low voltage audio amplifier and frequently
used in battery powered music devices like radios, guitars, toys
etc. The gain range is 20 to 200, gain is internally set to 20
(without using external component) but can be increased to 200
by using resistor and capacitor between PIN 1 and 8, or just with
a capacitor. Voltage gain simply means that Voltage out is 200
times the Voltage IN. LM386 has a wide supply voltage range
4-12v. Below is the Pin diagram of LM386.

FM Characteristics Curve

The block diagram above show the step-by-step flow

of signal from the antenna until it reaches the speaker. There are
signals from many radio transmitters in this band including
signal voltages in the antenna.

LM386 Pin Diagram

2N2222 Transistor
The 2N2222 is a common NPN bipolar junction
transistor (BJT) used for general purpose low-
power amplifying or switching applications. It is designed for
low to medium current, low power, medium voltage, and can
The main start of the blocks is the RF Amplifier block. operate at moderately high speeds.
The RF amplifier selects and amplifies the desired station from The 2N2222 is considered a very common transistor
the many. It is adjustable so that the selection frequency can be and is used as an exemplar of an NPN transistor. It is frequently
altered. This is called tuning. In cheaper receivers, the tuning is used as a small-signal transistor, and it remains a small general
fixed and the tuning filter is wide enough to pass all the signals purpose transistor of enduring popularity.
in the FM band. The 2N2222 was part of a family of devices described
Next in line is the mixer, the selected frequency is by Motorola at a 1962 IRE convention. Since then it has been
applied to the mixer. The output of the oscillator is also applied made by many semiconductor companies
to the mixer. The mixer and oscillator form a frequency changer
circuit. Then, the output from the mixer is the intermediate FM Receiver Circuit
frequency. The IF is the fixed frequency of 10.7 MHz. No
matter what the frequency of the selected radio station is, the IF
is always 10.7 MHz. Then, the IF signal is fed to the IF
The advantage of the IF amplifier is that its frequency
and bandwidth is fixed, no matter what the frequency of the
incoming signal is. This makes the design and operation of the
amplifier much simpler. The amplified IF signal is fed to the

Above is an FM receiver with minimum components the transmitted signal. Because transmitted FM signals use
for local FM reception. Transistor BF495 (T2), together with a more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is
10k resistor (R1), coil L, 22pF variable capacitor (VC), and commonly used with the higher (VHF or UHF) frequencies
internal capacitances of transistor BF494 (T1), comprises the used by TV, the FM broadcast band, and land mobile radio
Colpitts oscillator. The resonance frequency of this oscillator is systems. For the FM receiver, the presented circuit is one of the
set by trimmer VC to the frequency of the transmitting station simplest receiver circuits with expected results although, the
that we wish to listen. That is, it has to be tuned between 88 and device was not able to receive anticipated signals. As a
108 MHz. The information signal used in the transmitter to recommendation, stick to the transistor offered by the circuit. It
perform the modulation is extracted on resistor R1 and fed to is a great factor on why the circuit does not performed well.
the audio amplifier over a 220nF coupling capacitor (C1).
One should be able to change the capacitance of the
variable capacitor from a couple of picofarads to about 20 pF. V. REFERENCES
A 22pF trimmer is a good choice to be used as VC in the circuit. [1] Electronics Radio, “Radio Types: Types of Radio Receiver,” Electronics
It is readily available in the market. If you are using some other Notes. [Online]. Available: https://www.electronics-
capacitor that has a larger capacitance and are unable to receive [Accessed:
the full FM bandwidth (88-108 MHz), try changing the value of
[2] “Simple FM Receiver | Electronics Circuit with Full
VC. Its capacitance is to be determined experimentally. The Explanation,” Electronics For You, 24-Feb-2018. [Online]. Available:
self-supporting coil L has four turns of 22 SWG enamelled
copper wire, with air core having 4mm internal diameter. It can [Accessed: 25-Oct-2018].
[3] “Radio receiver,” Wikipedia, 12-Oct-2018. [Online]. Available:
be constructed on any cylindrical object, such as pencil or pen,
having a diameter of 4 mm. When the required number of turns . [Accessed: 25-Oct-2018].
of the coil has reached, the coil is taken off the cylinder and [4] D. C. Anselmo, “FM receiver,”, 17-Oct-2012. [Online].
stretched a little so that the turns don’t touch each other. Available:
[Accessed: 25-Oct-2018].
Capacitors C3 (100nF) and C10 (100µF, 25V), together with
R3 (1k), comprise a band-pass filter for very low frequencies,
which is used to separate the low-frequency signal from the
high-frequency signal in the receiver. A good reception can also
be obtained with a piece of isolated copper wire about 60 cm
long. The optimum length of copper wire can be found
The performance of this receiver depends on several
factors such as quality and turns of coil L, aerial type, and
distance from FM transmitter. IC LM386 is an audio power
amplifier designed for use in low-voltage consumer
applications. It provides 1 to 2 watts, which is enough to drive
any small-size speaker. The 22k volume control (VR) is a
logarithmic potentiometer that is connected to pin 3 and the
amplified output is obtained at pin 5 of IC LM386. The receiver
can be operated off a 6V-9V battery.

During the conduct of the study, there is a significant change of
transistors to be used. The researchers used 2N222 transistor
instead of a BF949 transistor, which is not available during the
conduct of the experiment. The circuit can receive static signals
but no pertinent frequencies, between 88MHz to 108Mhz,

Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation
which conveys information by varying the frequency of a
carrier wave; the older amplitude modulation or AM varies the
amplitude of the carrier, with its frequency remaining constant.
With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier
frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude
of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of