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# Long Term Evolution

J. Hämäläinen, 2016
Department of Communications and Networking
Contents
1 Principles of RLB
3 Some details on RLB
a) eNodeB powers and antennas
b) Path loss and shadowing margin
c) Interference, SINR and data rate
Network planning consists of 3 phases:
- Dimensioning, detailed planning and optimization
Network Planning
Our focus area Dimensioning Note: We omit core network
150

140

130
EIRP 58dB
Path Loss [dB]
120

110
+ Margins 23dB
Sensitivity -100dB
1000 x 5000 x
100

90
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Allowed PL 135 dB
Distance from BS [km]

Detailed planning
TX power 43dBi
Antennas 2
Input from Antenna tilt 5o
dimensioning Parameter x, y, z

## Network planning tools BS + RS Configurations and

System simulations topology plan

Optimization

+
Operating network
(drive tests, monitoring) Optimized system
1. Principles of RLB
Background

## • Radio Link Budget (RLB) is a basic tool in radio engineering. It is used to

compute estimates for e.g.
– Received power in terminal/eNodeB Can be used to estimate
user rates
– Allowed propagation loss
– Connection range between transmitter and receiver
• RLB take into account the gains and losses from the transmitter, the
communication medium (wireless channel in our case) and the receiver.
• Typical parameters are related to the propagation model (radio
environment), antennas (antenna directivity/gains), feedlines (cable
attenuation) and the receiver properties (product specific sensitivity, noise
figure)
Example: RLB in LTE cell coverage
estimation
User on the distance where
minimum required rate can be
provided – assuming a certain
with 3-sector
transmission

## Example: We require that user

should reach 1Mbit/s data rate when
10% of the cell resources are
allocated for him/her.
Question: How far from eNodeB
user can be? This distance gives cell
range under above constraint
Simplified RLB
EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power,
contains transmitted power and antenna gain

BS Transmitter BS to MS
Transmitter Total transmission power 43 dBm (20 W)
characteristics Transmitter antenna gain 15 dBi
EIRP 58 dBm
Margins
Channel
characteristics Interference margin 4 dB
Penetration loss 10 dB
Total Margin 21 dB
System gain 158.7 dB
Number that is
used to estimate Allowed Propagation Loss 137.7 dB
the cell range
Simplified RLB: Terminology

## • dBi = dB(isotropic). It is the forward gain of a certain antenna compared to

the ideal isotropic antenna which uniformly distributes energy to all
directions.
• dBm = dB(1 mW) is a measured power relative to 1 mW (e.g. 20W is
10*log(1000*20)= 43 dBm
• Effective isotropic radiated power is the amount of power that would have
to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all
directions and is a theoretical construct) to produce the peak power density
observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain.
– EIRP can take into account the losses in transmission line and connectors and
includes the gain of the antenna.
RLB through equations

## • In this case the Allowed Propagation Loss (APL) can be calculated as

follows:
APL = EIRP - min { PRX } - M Total
= PTX + GA - min { PRX } - M SF - M I - M Penetration

## Here min { PRX } = Receiver sensitivity [dBm]

PTX = Transmission power in BS [dBm]
GA = BS antenna gain [dBi]
M I = Interference Margin [dB]
M Penetration = Indoor penetration loss [dB]

## Penetration loss simply depends on the expected building wall losses.

The RLB principle
• TX/RX parameters depend on
TX/RX parameters the network deployment
Data rate requirement – Equipments (eNodeB, UE,
User resource allocation antennas), site properties
• Data rate requirement
Link budget – Depends on the service
– Data rate can be mapped to
required signal to interference
Allowed propagation loss and noise ratio (SINR)
• User resource allocation
Path loss model – Traffic expectations
• Path loss model
System range – Environment/clutter type

10
• In the following we go
through this LTE
budget in details
• This is a snapshot from
excel tool that is given
for participants
• There will be some
solved examples
discussed later.

12
Resource allocation and rate
requirements

Parameter Comment
Number of This is estimated by assuming the operation
PRBs bandwidth and number of users served at the same
time. In case of 10MHz band we have 50 resource
blocks (48 for data). Then 10PRB takes 10/48 of all
resources
Data rate In this case we assume 2Mbits/s target rate
Remark on rate requirement

• In case of constant bit rate service (like real time video) the
2Mbits/s requirement defines how much resources user
continuously employs
video) the data transfer happens in bursts so instantaneous rate
can be high while there are time gaps between transmissions
for user (time multiplexing of users)
– (s)he needs round 0.1 seconds for all 48 PRBs OR
– (s)he is given 5PRBs for 1 second time period
– Other options – of course – are possible as well
Transmission characteristics

Parameter Comment
eNodeB TX Typical value is 20W-60W (43dBm-48dBm)
power 20W on 5MHz band (as in WCDMA/HSPA)
40W on 10MHz band (most usual test case for Rel.8 LTE)
60W on 20MHz band
Antenna Discussed later in more details. Typical 1.3 m high panel
gain antenna at 2 GHz band gives 18 dBi gain in main
direction
Cable loss Loss between the eNodeB antenna and the low noise
amplifier. The cable loss value depends on the cable
length, cable type and frequency band.

Parameter Comment
UE Noise NF measures of degradation of the SNR by the
Figure (NF) components in the RF receiver chain, product specific.
Typical values: 6-11dB
Thermal Thermal noise = Boltzmann constant x T (Kelvin) x Effective
Noise bandwidth. Here
Boltzmann constant = 1.38 x 10^(-23) J/K (J = Ws)
Reference temperature 20 Celsius = 290 Kelvin
Effective bandwidth = Number of PRB’s x 180kHz
Noise Floor
PHICH = Physical HARQ Indicator Channel
UE receiver (2/2) PDCCH = Physical DL Control Channel

Parameter Comment
SINR Required Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio
depends on the data rate, number of PRBs and link
efficiency. We consider this in more details later in
this slide set
SINR
overhead from reference signals, PBCH, PDCCH and PHICH.
RX antenna gain Depends on the receiver antenna, usually 0dBi for
Margins and losses

Parameter Comment
Body loss Body loss is typically included for voice link budget
where the terminal is held close to the user’s head.
3-5dB for voice.
Shadowing loss Depends on the propagation environment. Typical values:
4-7dB. Will be discussed later in more details.
Interference Interference margin accounts for the increase in the
margin terminal noise level caused by the other cell
interference. If we assume a minimum G-factor of −4
dB, that corresponds to 5.5dB IM
(10*log10(1+10^(4/10)) = 5.5 dB). Typical values for
IM: 3dB – 8dB.
Indoor Depends on the building types. In urban area 20dB,
penetration loss in suburban/rural area with light buildings 10dB.
Allowed propagation loss
APL = PTX + GA( NodeB) - LCable + GA(UE) - min { PRX }
- M SF - M I
- LC - Lbody - LPenetration
3. Some details on RLB
RLB elements:
a) eNodeB powers and antennas
eNodeB transmission power

## • For macro eNodeB typical value is 20W-60W (43dBm-48dBm)

– 20W on 5MHz band (as in WCDMA/HSPA)
– 40W on 10MHz band (most usual test case for Rel.8 LTE)
– 60W on 20MHz band
• For micro eNodeB typical value is 5-10W (37dBm-40dBm)
• For pico eNodeB typical value is 100mW-2W (20dBm-33dBm)
– 3GPP limit for pico eNodeB TX power is 250mW (24dBm)
– There are many ‘pico’ products with TX power 250mW-2W
• For femto eNodeB TX power is limited to 100mW (20dBm)
– Typical values are some tens of milliwatts
Example eNodeB products

## Ericsson 6201 multi-standard

macro base station, indoor
installation

## Nokia macro base station,

outdoor wall installation
Macro eNodeB antennas: 3-Sector site
solutions
• Site = location for base 1
station, antennas, cables, etc.
• The use of 3 sectors in each 2
site is the most common
approach 3
• Omnidirectional antennas can
be used in cells with low load
• Here color code refers to 1 1
coverage areas of different 2 2
antennas (frequencies can be
same or different in different 3 3
sectors) 1 1
2 2
24 3 3
Typical macro eNodeB site antenna

## • Dual band X-polarization antenna for each sector

each sector antenna
– Dual band: 800MHz and 2100 MHz
– Design contains only 3 antennas but still 6 feeder
cables needed

25
Panel antenna example: Kathrein 742 215

## • Kathrein multi-band dual-polarization

panel antenna (model 742 215)
• Typical macrocell eNodeB antenna
– Round 18dBi antenna gain
– Support 2100MHz and 800MHz bands
• Let us look this antenna in more details
and compare antenna measurements with
the general 3GPP modeling used in
simulations (see antenna slides for more
details)

26
Horizontal and vertical gain patterns

27
Comparison with Gmain q3dB(H ) GFB q3dB(V ) SLL

## 3GPP model 18dBi 65 deg 30dB 6.2 deg -18dB

Kathrein 742215
Simple gain model

## Source: F. Gunnarsson et al: “Downtilted Base Station

q tilt
Antennas – A Simulation Model Proposal and Impact on
HSPA and LTE Performance”, IEEE VTC 2008 = 10 degrees
‘High power’ pico eNodeB

## • Ericsson indoor pico (6401), multistandard

• TX output power: 1W
• http://www.ericsson.com/ourportfolio/products/rbs-6401

29
Model for pico eNodeB antenna gain
pattern 1/2
• Horizontal gain pattern
GH ( )
5dBi

0dBi
-180deg -100deg-70deg -15deg 15deg 70deg 100deg 180deg

-10dBi

30
Model for pico eNodeB antenna gain
pattern 2/2
• Vertical gain pattern
GV ( )
0dBi

-3dBi
-180deg -100deg -70deg -15deg 15deg 70deg 100deg 180deg

## • Total gain pattern

G ( , )  GH ( )  GV ( )
Example

• Two 2W indoor
nodes with given
antenna gain
patterns
powers simulated
by WinProp tool
• 2GHz carrier
• Excellent indoor
coverage obtained

32
‘Low power’ Femto base stations

Vodafone 3G femto
Nokia 3G femto base station
base station
RLB elements:
b) Path loss and shadowing margin
b1) Average path loss
Single slope model

## • The most commonly used average path loss model is the

so-called single-slope model

where
– “L0” is the average path loss at reference distance “r0”
– “n” is the path loss exponent (which depends on antenna heights,
carrier frequency, and propagation environment)
– In free space n = 2

## ➢ The single-slope model is valid, e.g., when

dealing with homogeneous environments
Free space model

model, i.e.,

## In this situation, we have that

Dual-slope model
• Another path loss modeling approach is provided by the dual-
slope model, i.e.,

## where “r0” is known as the break-point distance

Linear loss model
• In waveguide propagation and absorbing propagation
environments, the linear loss model can be sometimes used

## • Linear model is suitable for tunnels, and indoor propagation

through walls (i.e., excellent signal propagation)
Environment types (1)
– Outdoor propagation environments:
Subdivision is done into:
• Base station antenna located above roof tops, and
• Base station antenna located below roof tops
Environment types (2)

## – Outdoor to indoor propagation

environments
Subdivision is done again into same
categories as outdoor case:
• Base station antenna located
above roof tops
• Base station antenna located
below roof tops
Environment types (3)

## – Indoor propagation environments

Subdivision is done, e.g., into:
• Number of floors in a building to be covered,
• Landscape of the (office) building, and so on
– Offices or flats with many rooms
– Corridors, tunnels, etc.
Okumura-Hata Model (1)
• (Okumura-) Hata model is one of most common models
for signal prediction in large macrocells
– This model exists in many version, and is defined for limited
ranges of parameters
• Originally, this model is valid for:
– Distances: 1-100 km
– Frequency ranges: 150-1500 MHz (it was extended later)

43
Okumura-Hata Model (2)
• Okumura used extensive
measurements of base station-to-
mobile signal attenuation in the
city of Tokio (Japan)
– He developed a set of curves that
gives the median attenuation
(relative to free space) of signal
propagation in irregular terrain
– The base station heights for these
measurements were 30-100 m

## ➢ The Hata model is an empirical formulation of the graphical

path-loss data provided by Okumura (model is isotropic)
– Closed-form formulas provided by Hata simplify path loss calculations
(four different environments were defined)

44
Okumura-Hata Model (3)
• The original Hata model is given by

## where the parameters (and their corresponding units) are

150 and 1500 MHz
Okumura-Hata Model (4)
• The correction factor for the mobile antenna height
“ai(hMS)” depends on the size of the coverage area:
– Large/dense city (i.e., “i = 1”),
– Medium/small size city (i.e., “i = 2”),
– Suburban area (i.e., “i = 3) and rural/open area (i.e., “i = 4”)
Okumura-Hata Model (5)
➢ Correction factor for the mobile antenna height (cont’d)
Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. Range (1)

Carrier frequency

48
Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. Range (2)

Carrier frequency

49
Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. BS Antenna Height

Carrier
frequency

50
Okumura-Hata Model (6)

## • In mobile communication systems (like GSM and

3G), base station antennas are rarely placed on
locations over 40 meters in height
may use towers that higher than 100 meters
– The height of the FM- and TV-mast (Helsinki-Espoo)
located in Latokaski (Espoo), has a current height of 326
meters (third highest structure in Finland)
• In the next slide, we illustrate the impact of the
environment type in the path loss attenuation
– It is found that difference between large and medium
size cities is small, while
– Path loss attenuation in suburban and open areas is far
more smaller than in city environments
Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. Range (3)

Environment Type

52
Okumura-Hata Model (7)
• Later on, Okumura-Hata model was extended to the 1500-
2000 MHz frequencies, in the COST 231 research program
– The distance interval was also extended
• ITU-R sector adopted this model in Recommendation P.529

## where MS antenna height correction factor is the same as in

the previous model, and the additional term is given by
Okumura-Hata Model (8)
• Finally, an extension to the Okumura-Hata model for
distances between 20-100km is given by the expression

## Note: The COST 231 extension of the Okumura-Hata model is

a single slope model for distances in the range of 1-20 km
Remark on path loss models

## • Okumura-Hata model represents the most well-know macrocell

model
• Walfisch-Ikegami model is an other well-known model for urban
area
• In network planning tools above-mentioned models are used with
– Several different clutter types can be defined with different additional
dB/m loss factors
– Planning tool design companies are usually not publishing all their
models
• There are also several models for small outdoor and indoor cells
– Yet, the smaller are the cells, the worse are the ‘isotropic models’ that
don’t take into account the environment (e.g. building) structure.
– When high carrier frequency communication take place in cellular
systems (5G) ray tracing models become more important.
55

56
Example: Path loss measurements
• Obstacles with a size from tens to hundreds of
wavelengths (on the different propagation paths)
cause a variation of the path loss around the Shadowing
average path loss “L”
• This variation is random but, however, it is Tx
correlated when measured in nearby locations
• Shadowing, caused for e.g. by big buildings, can Rx
be critical for mobile users located in cell edge
areas
coverage holes
➢ In many measurements, it has been observed that shadow fading “Ls”
can be described with a log-normal distribution*, and the probability
density function is given by
L2s

1 2 s2
f ( Ls )  e
2  s
* Loss measured in logarithmic scale (i.e., [dB]) is normally distributed
– Carrier frequency: 2.0 GHz

## Network area/ Standard

Parameter deviation
Dense urban /
8,5 dB
Urban
Sub-urban 7,2 dB
Rural 6,5 dB

0.9

## Scaled probability distribution function (PDF)

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

standard deviation “σs” is 4 dB (o), 8 dB (*), and 12dB (x)

## • The cumulative distribution function (CDF) is given by

 L0 
L0

PLs  L0    f (t ) dt  1  Q  ,
0 s 
where “Q(x)” is the Marcum Q-function,

 t2
1  1  x 
Q( x) 
2 e
x
2
dt 
2
erfc 
 2

1

0.9

## Cumulative distribution function (CDF)

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

standard deviation “σs” is 4 dB (o), 8 dB (*), and 12dB (x)
Combined path loss and shadowing (1)
added on top of average path loss
• This margin is based on the required target power level
(i.e., maximum allowed path loss in the link budget) to
guaranteed a given outage probability in the system
• Let us denote
– “Lmax” = maximum allowed attenuation (link budget parameter)
– “Pout” = allowed outage probability at cell edge (QoS of network)
– “Ltot” = Total loss including shadowing and average path loss
• Then we set
(*) PLtot  Lmax   Pout Ltot  L  Ls
S-72.3216 RC Systems I (5
”Lmax” = maximum allowedcr) Lecturesattenuation
2013
3-5, Autumn (system specific parameter)
”Ltot” = Total loss at cell
63
edge (network design parameter)
Combined path loss and shadowing (2)
• From formula (*) we obtain
1  PLs  Lmax  L   Pout
• Then, using the Marcum function representation we get
 Lmax  L 
Q    Pout
 s 
• It is common to use the inverse Marcum’s function to obtain
the (average) path loss that fulfill target requirements, i.e.,
L  Lmax   sQ1 Pout 
• Yet, note that the inverse Marcum’s function does not exist in
closed-form
S-72.3216 RC Systems I (5
”Lmax” = maximum allowedcr) Lecturesattenuation
2013
3-5, Autumn (system specific parameter)
”Ltot” = Total loss at cell
64
edge (network design parameter)
Inverse Marcum’s function
0
10

-1
10

-2
10
Q(x)
Q(x)

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
x
x
Combined path loss and shadowing (3)
• Revisiting the derived formula that combines path loss and

L  Lmax   sQ 1
Pout 
• The (average) path loss on the left-hand side depends on:
– Distance between transmitter and receiver,
Okumura-
– Antenna heights of both, transmitter and receiver, Hata model
– Carrier frequency, environment type, …
• The value on the right-hand side depends on:
– Allowed attenuation (system specific parameter: link budget)
– Outage probability (network target performance: guaranteed QoS)

so-called SF margin is given by
M SF   s  Q 1
Pout 
Combined path loss and shadowing (4)

## Lmax Edge reliability (i.e., “Pout”) depends on

Path Loss
50%

L Ltot

90%
Ltot devidation (σSF) grows
L

➢ As “σSF” grows for same fading margin, the edge reliability is reduced
➢ As “σSF” grows, a larger fading margin is required to maintain the
same edge reliability

67
RLB elements:
c) Interference, SINR and data rate
Co-channel interference: general formulation (1)

## • General formulation for the Interfering TX #1

K
r  S 0   S k  nW d1 Interfering
k 1 TX #2
where “S0” is the desired Receiver
d2
signal, “Sk” refers to the d0
interfering signal originated
in the k-th (co-channel) dK Source
transmitter, and “nW” is of desired
Interfering signal
TX #K
noise (i.e., Thermal noise)
Interference in LTE, illustration

## Desired signal from

serving eNodeB
Interfering signal from
other eNodeB
Interfering signal from

eNodeB
S-72.3216 RC Systems I (5
cr) Lectures 11-12, Autumn
2013
70
Co-channel interference: general formulation (2)

  P
E S0
2
0
RX
P
0
TX
  P
/ L0 E S k
2
k
RX
P k
TX
/ Lk   P
E nW
2
N

## Here “L0” refers to the path loss attenuation between the

receiver and the source of desired signal, “Lk” corresponds
to the path loss attenuation between the “k-th” interfering
transmitter and the receiver, “PN” the AWGN power
• The instantaneous path loss can be written as follows:
Antenna gain Lk (dk )
x Lk = Average path loss
Gk (j k )× L × hk
SF 2
k
Co-channel interference: general formulation (3)

k
LSF
k  10 10
linear scale
where “ξk” is a sample from a zero mean Gaussian process,
with standard deviation “σk”
characteristics, then
k  k
– In most studies of cellular systems, the correlation between shadow
– A typical value for correlation, which corresponds to BS antennas
located above the roof-top of buildings, is 0.5
– Correlation between adjacent sector antennas is 1.0
LTE: General formulation of SINR

## • Now, the general formula for the SINR is given by

P L × h0 G0 (j 0 ) L0 (d0 )
TX SF 2
0 0
SINR= K

åP L × hk × dk ×Gk (j k ) / Lk (dk ) + PN
TX SF 2
k k
k=1

## • This formula can be used in simulations. We have

PkTX =transmission power of kth eNB (for certain PRB)
k =SF towards kth eNB
LSF
hk = kth eNB signal fast fading channel power response (for certain PRB)
2

## Gk = Antenna gain pattern towards kth eNB

dk = 1 if kth eNB is transmitting on this PRB, otherwise 0
Lk (dk ) = Distance dependent path loss towards kth eNB
PN = AWGN power
General formulation of SINR

transmission on all PRB’s, then we obtain wideband SINR
that is also called as Geometry-factor (G-factor)

0 G0 (j 0 ) L0 (d0 )
P0TX LSF
Gfactor = K

å k Lk dkGk (j k ) / Lk (dk ) + PN
P TX SF

k=1
• G-factor can be used to describe the network deployment,
see the next slide
– 30% of UEs with ITU modiﬁed Vehicular A at 30 km/h and
– 10% of UEs with ITU modiﬁed Vehicular A at 120 km/h
Cell selection Best cell selected with 0 dB margin
Uplink: Max 24 dBm (latest 3GPP speciﬁcations use 23 dBm
Geometry factor Transmission power
Antenna conﬁguration Downlink: 1 × 2, 2 × 2
Uplink: 1 × 2, 1 × 4
• G-factor distribution depends on the network
LMMSE receiver with Maximal Ratio Combining
depends on
1
– Antennas, sectorization
0.9
– Applied average path loss model
0.8
– Frequency reuse (e.g. δ ) 0.7

• Example: 0.6

CDF
0.5

## – 3GPP micro 0.3

0.2
3GPP, macro 1
3GPP, macro 3
Cell edge: 5%-ile level 0.1
3GPP, micro indoor:outdoor = 50:50
0
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Interference margin for 3GPP Macro 1: Geometry (dB)

## M I =10× log10 (1+10 )

-G G-factor has value -4dB
=Figure
5.5dB onof cell
9.9 Distribution edge
the average wide-band channel SINR (geometry factor) macro ca
3 and micro

The corresponding downlink system performance numbers for LTE SIMO and 2 ×
Source (picture): transmission
Holma, Toskala:
schemes areLTE for inUMTS,
presented Wiley
Figure 9.10 and Figure 9.11, respecti vely.
Notes on the G-factor distribution

## • Distribution shows that G-factor varies in macrocell

deployment between -5dB and 15dB
– Thus, in fully loaded macro network the (average) SINR is
limited to 15dB and data rates are limited accordingly
– The 50% level of G-factor CDF indicates that (average) SINR in
fully loaded macro network is close to 4dB
• If microcells are added to the network much higher SINR
values can be reached
• In e.g. indoor small cells very high SINR values are
possible
Mapping between SINR/G-factor and
throughput in LTE
• When creating RLB we require a certain bit rate on the cell edge.
– We may, for example, require that rate on cell edge is 1Mbps when user can be
allocated 10% of the radio resources.
• We can use the following very simple approximation for a bit rate
(throughput):
(*) TP = BW× M × A× log2 (1+ SINR/ B) = NPRB × BWPRB × SE
where SE is the Spectral Efficiency and
– BW is the allocated bandwidth (in terms of PRBs)
– A and B are factors that are selected such that SE approximates the LTE link
spectral efficiency.
– Factors A and B depend on the number of antennas and physical layer
performance.
– M = number of data streams
Mapping between SINR and throughput

## • Previous spectral efficiency formula provides an approximation for the

Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) schemes (also called as
Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)) applied in the system.
Resulted parameters of the
configurations
MIMO M A B
SIMO 1x2 1 0.62 1.8
MIMO 2x2 2 0.42 0.85
MIMO 4x4 4 0.40 1.1
MIMO 8x8 8 0.33 1.4

## • We note that these parameters represent

approximations based on certain simulations. Thus,
different assumptions on channel estimation and
detection algorithms may lead to slightly different
results.
Spectral efficiency
30

25
Spectral efficiency [bits/s/Hz]

20

SIMO (1x2)
Max SE 15
MIMO (2x2)
MIMO (4x4)
MIMO (8x8)
10
Max SE
5
Max SE

0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
SINR [dB]
LTE Rel.8 peak bit rate examples
Modulatio Stream Ideal SE Practical LTE Max bit
n s [bits/s/Hz] SE rate (20MHz)
[bits/s/Hz]
64QAM 1 6.0 3.75 75Mbps
64QAM 2 12.0 7.5 150Mbps
64QAM 4 24.0 15.0 300Mbps
• If carrier aggregation approach is used (LTE-Advanced), then rate
can be multiplied by number of carriers.
• Maximum spectral efficiencies may take place only when SINR is
extremely large => reachable in practical macrocellular networks
only in special cases.
• Note the difference between ideal and practical SE
• These spectral efficiencies set upper limit for SE growth in previous
slide

81
Urban area example (DL)
• Assume the link budget parameters below, 10MHz band, 2GHz carrier, 35 meter
base station Communication
height andSystems
1.5 meterII,
UEExercise
height. 3, 2014
• Compute the coverage in case of large city for 2Mbps service when eNodeB
allocates 4 PRBs for the user (12 users/cell served simultaneously).
– Problem
the service RLB
coverage (excelcan
if eNodeB in Noppa):
allocate allAssume thePRBs
for this user
(target rate being
2.1GHz the same
carrier, 2 Mbps)?
25 meter base station antenna height and 1.5 meter UE height:
– Increase the user rate 5Mbps and solve problem again

Parameter Value
BS TX power 40W
BS antenna gain 18dBi
BS cable loss 2dB
UE noise figure 7dB
Interference margin 4dB
RX antenna gain 0dBi
RX body loss 0dB
Indoor penetration loss 20dB
BS antenna configuration 2x2/4x4 MIMO
• Case 2Mbit/s and 4 PRB’s:
Results – Range in large city = 300 meters
– Range in suburban area = 680 meters
• Case 2Mbit/s and 48 PRB’s:
– Range in large city = 880 meters
– Range in suburban area = 2.0 km
• Case 5Mbit/s and 4 PRB’s:
– Range in large city = 110 meters
– Range in suburban area = 240 meters
• Case 5Mbit/s and 48 PRB’s:
– Range in large city = 650 meters
– Range in suburban area = 1.5 km
Remark on range (1/3)

## • Question: We increase the amount of radio resources 12 times (4

PRB ->48 PRB) but range is not increasing directly proportionally.
Why range increase is so small?
• Answer: If more PRB’s are used, less data needs to be loaded per
PRB => SE and accordingly SINR requirement decreases
– In 2Mbit/s case SINR requirement decreases from 8.8dB to -7.5dB, the
difference being 16.3dB (see next slide)
– In 5Mbit/s case SINR requirement decreases from 24.2dB to -2.8dB, the
difference being 27.0dB (see next slide)
– This increases allowed propagation loss with same amounts. Yet, if distance
from/to eNodeB is short, then the path loss increases fast as a function of
distance (see next slides)
Remark on range (2/3)
10

## 9 LTE 2x2 MIMO maximum

spectral efficiency
8 (7.5bits/s/Hz)
Spectral efficiency [bits/s/Hz]

7 SISO Spectral
Efficiency
6

5
MIMO Spectral
efficiency (2x2)
4

3
Shannon AWGN
2 bound (SISO)

0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
SINR [dB]
Remark on range (3/3)

16.3dB

27.0dB
Other remarks

## • In 4 PRB case we can serve 12 users at the same time while in 48

PRB case we can serve only single user.
– Range extension by using more resources per user can take place only
• User usually needs 2-5Mbit/s rates just during very short time
periods
– In e.g. web browsing/streaming video data is transferred in bursts.
– Thus, if instantaneous rate is high, user will have good use experience.
Rural area example
• In suburban area LTE is used on 800MHz to provide mobile
– Note: interference margin is decreased to 2dB.
• Assume three cases:
1. User is inside a light single house with 10dB indoor penetration loss
2. User is outside the house
3. User has a LTE based fixed wireless system containing directive antenna with
10dBi gain (2dB cable loss) on the house rooftop (7 meters height). LTE
receiver is connected to indoor WiFi (through cable) that provides indoor
connectivity.
• What is the maximum distance from eNodeB to receiver (= rooftop
antenna) for 2Mbit/s and 5Mbit/s services if receiver can apply 4/8
PRBs?
Illustration of connection options
eNodeB

Yagi antenna
(10dBi gain)
Antenna cable
(2dB loss)

and WiFi
router

Outdoor UE

Results

## 4 PRB case: 8 PRB case:

• Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss • Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss
– 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 3.1km – 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 4.6km
– 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 1.1km – 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 2.6km
• Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss • Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss
– 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 5.9km – 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 8.9km
– 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 2.2km – 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 5.0km
• Rooftop directive antenna + indoor • Rooftop directive antenna + indoor
distribution distribution
– 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 25.0km – 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 37.6km
– 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 9.0km – 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 20.9km
Remarks

## • If cell dimensioning is done based on outdoor coverage,

then indoor coverage can be achieved using additional
directive rooftop antenna
– Costs falling on the user/subsidized by operator or government?
– Shared directive antennas + local distribution one good option
(village case)
• If only fixed wireless based connectivity is assumed very
large cells can be used
– There will be large coverage holes outdoors and especially for
direct indoor coverage
– Doubling the cell range decreases the required number of
eNodeB’s to ¼ from original case.

## • Note that besides

data rate the same
parameters are
used as in DL
• The UL data rate
with 10PRB’s is
1Mbit/s while it was
2Mbit/s in DL.
• Yet the ALP is
almost the same as
in DL.
UE resource allocation and rate

Parameter Comment
Number of This is decided by eNodeB after estimating the
PRBs required bandwidth and scheduling uplink users that
are served at the same time. Thus, in this case 1
Mbit/s takes 10/50 of all resources. In (Rel.8/9)
uplink PRB’s are given continuously in frequency.
Data rate In uplink we have 1Mbit/s while in DL we assumed
2Mbits/s target rate (APL will be almost the same)
UE transmission characteristics

Parameter Comment
UE TX In uplink maximum TX power is 23dBm. It is assumed here since
power this RLB consider cell edge user. Power control is used in uplink
=> TX power can be less than 23dBm as well.
UE UE antenna gain depends on the device type. Typical value
antenna is 0dBi while fixed wireless LTE transceivers may have even
gain 10dBi antenna gain.
Body loss Not visible in this UL RLB but 3-5dB body loss can be
subtracted.
EIRP EIRP = TX power + antenna gain (-body loss)
TX power UE power is divided between PRB’s. Thus, with larger

Parameter Comment
eNodeB NF measures of degradation of the SNR by the
Noise components in the RF receiver chain, product specific.
Figure The minimum performance requirement is approximately
5 dB but the practical performance can be better like 2 dB.
Thermal Thermal noise = Boltzmann constant x T (Kelvin) x Effective
Noise bandwidth. The bandwidth depends on the number of
allocated resource blocks. With 10 PRB’s we have -
121dBm.
Noise Floor

Parameter Comment
SINR Required Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio
depends on the data rate, number of PRBs and link
efficiency.
UL this is given per PRB)
RX antenna gain eNodeB antenna gain, same as in DL
Margins and losses

Parameter Comment
eNodeB cable Same as in DL.
loss
loss
Interference Interference margin reflects the increase in the eNodeB
margin receiver noise level caused by the interference from (other
cell) users. Since LTE uplink is orthogonal, there is no intra-
cell interference but we still need a margin for the other cell
interference. This margin depends on the UL target capacity.
That is, there is a tradeoff between capacity and coverage.
loss
Allowed propagation loss
APL = PTX + GA(UE) - LBody + GA(eNodeB) - min { PRX }
- M SF - M I
- LCable - LPenetration
Example: Recall the first DL example

## • Assume the previous link budget parameters (from DL example) 10MHz

band, 2GHz carrier, 35 meter base station antenna height and 1.5 meter
UE height
– eNodeB Noise Figure = 2dB (In DL for UE it was 7dB)
– Antenna configuration is now 1x2 SIMO (2 eNodeB antennas, 1 UE TX antenna)
• Compute the coverage in case of large city for 1.3Mbps service when
eNodeB allocates 5 PRBs for the user (10 users/cell served
simultaneously)
• Ranges when assuming 1.3Mbit/s and 5 PRB’s:
– Range in large city = 300 meters
– Range in suburban area = 680 meters
Rural area example (UL)
• In suburban area LTE is used on 800MHz to provide mobile
– Note: interference margin is decreased to 2dB.
• Assume three cases:
1. User is inside a light single house with 10dB indoor penetration loss
2. User is outside the house
3. User has a LTE based fixed wireless system containing directive antenna with
10dBi gain (2dB cable loss) on the house rooftop (7 meters height). LTE
transceiver is connected to indoor WiFi (through cable) that provides indoor
connectivity.
• What is the maximum distance from transmitter to eNodeB for
1.3Mbit/s service if receiver can apply 5/10 PRBs?
Illustration of connection options
eNodeB

Yagi antenna
(10dBi gain)
Antenna cable
(2dB loss)

and WiFi
router

Outdoor UE

Results

## 5 PRB case: 10 PRB case:

• Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss • Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss
– 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 3.1km – 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 4.35km
• Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss • Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss
– 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 6.0km – 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 8.4km
• Rooftop directive antenna + indoor • Rooftop directive antenna + indoor
distribution distribution
– 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 25.3km – 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 35.5km