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17 Aufrufe

for link budget of LTE

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- The Glass Castle: A Memoir
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J. Hämäläinen, 2016

Department of Communications and Networking

Contents

1 Principles of RLB

2 LTE downlink RLB

3 Some details on RLB

a) eNodeB powers and antennas

b) Path loss and shadowing margin

c) Interference, SINR and data rate

4 DL Link Budget Examples

5 LTE Uplink Radio Link Budget

Network planning consists of 3 phases:

- Dimensioning, detailed planning and optimization

Network Planning

Our focus area Dimensioning Note: We omit core network

150

140

130

EIRP 58dB

Path Loss [dB]

120

110

+ Margins 23dB

Sensitivity -100dB

1000 x 5000 x

100

90

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Allowed PL 135 dB

Distance from BS [km]

Detailed planning

TX power 43dBi

Antennas 2

Input from Antenna tilt 5o

dimensioning Parameter x, y, z

System simulations topology plan

Optimization

+

Operating network

(drive tests, monitoring) Optimized system

1. Principles of RLB

Background

compute estimates for e.g.

– Received power in terminal/eNodeB Can be used to estimate

user rates

– Allowed propagation loss

– Connection range between transmitter and receiver

• RLB take into account the gains and losses from the transmitter, the

communication medium (wireless channel in our case) and the receiver.

• Typical parameters are related to the propagation model (radio

environment), antennas (antenna directivity/gains), feedlines (cable

attenuation) and the receiver properties (product specific sensitivity, noise

figure)

Example: RLB in LTE cell coverage

estimation

User on the distance where

minimum required rate can be

provided – assuming a certain

LTE eNodeB load.

with 3-sector

transmission

should reach 1Mbit/s data rate when

10% of the cell resources are

allocated for him/her.

Question: How far from eNodeB

user can be? This distance gives cell

range under above constraint

Simplified RLB

EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power,

contains transmitted power and antenna gain

BS Transmitter BS to MS

Transmitter Total transmission power 43 dBm (20 W)

characteristics Transmitter antenna gain 15 dBi

EIRP 58 dBm

Margins

Shadow fading margin 7 dB

Channel

characteristics Interference margin 4 dB

Penetration loss 10 dB

Total Margin 21 dB

Receiver UE Receiver (Max coverage)

characteristics Receiver sensitivity -100.7 dBm

System gain 158.7 dB

Number that is

used to estimate Allowed Propagation Loss 137.7 dB

the cell range

Simplified RLB: Terminology

the ideal isotropic antenna which uniformly distributes energy to all

directions.

• dBm = dB(1 mW) is a measured power relative to 1 mW (e.g. 20W is

10*log(1000*20)= 43 dBm

• Effective isotropic radiated power is the amount of power that would have

to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all

directions and is a theoretical construct) to produce the peak power density

observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain.

– EIRP can take into account the losses in transmission line and connectors and

includes the gain of the antenna.

RLB through equations

follows:

APL = EIRP - min { PRX } - M Total

= PTX + GA - min { PRX } - M SF - M I - M Penetration

PTX = Transmission power in BS [dBm]

GA = BS antenna gain [dBi]

M SF = Shadow fading margin [dB]

M I = Interference Margin [dB]

M Penetration = Indoor penetration loss [dB]

The RLB principle

• TX/RX parameters depend on

TX/RX parameters the network deployment

Data rate requirement – Equipments (eNodeB, UE,

User resource allocation antennas), site properties

• Data rate requirement

Link budget – Depends on the service

– Data rate can be mapped to

required signal to interference

Allowed propagation loss and noise ratio (SINR)

• User resource allocation

Path loss model – Traffic expectations

• Path loss model

System range – Environment/clutter type

10

2. LTE Downlink Radio Link Budget

LTE Downlink RLB

• In the following we go

through this LTE

downlink radio link

budget in details

• This is a snapshot from

excel tool that is given

for participants

• There will be some

solved examples

discussed later.

12

Resource allocation and rate

requirements

Parameter Comment

Number of This is estimated by assuming the operation

PRBs bandwidth and number of users served at the same

time. In case of 10MHz band we have 50 resource

blocks (48 for data). Then 10PRB takes 10/48 of all

resources

Data rate In this case we assume 2Mbits/s target rate

Remark on rate requirement

• In case of constant bit rate service (like real time video) the

2Mbits/s requirement defines how much resources user

continuously employs

• In usual case (e.g. web browsing, file downloading, streaming

video) the data transfer happens in bursts so instantaneous rate

can be high while there are time gaps between transmissions

for user (time multiplexing of users)

• Example: If user on cell edge download 1 Mbit file

– (s)he needs round 0.1 seconds for all 48 PRBs OR

– (s)he is given 5PRBs for 1 second time period

– Other options – of course – are possible as well

Transmission characteristics

Parameter Comment

eNodeB TX Typical value is 20W-60W (43dBm-48dBm)

power 20W on 5MHz band (as in WCDMA/HSPA)

40W on 10MHz band (most usual test case for Rel.8 LTE)

60W on 20MHz band

Antenna Discussed later in more details. Typical 1.3 m high panel

gain antenna at 2 GHz band gives 18 dBi gain in main

direction

Cable loss Loss between the eNodeB antenna and the low noise

amplifier. The cable loss value depends on the cable

length, cable type and frequency band.

UE receiver (1/2)

Parameter Comment

UE Noise NF measures of degradation of the SNR by the

Figure (NF) components in the RF receiver chain, product specific.

Typical values: 6-11dB

Thermal Thermal noise = Boltzmann constant x T (Kelvin) x Effective

Noise bandwidth. Here

Boltzmann constant = 1.38 x 10^(-23) J/K (J = Ws)

Reference temperature 20 Celsius = 290 Kelvin

Effective bandwidth = Number of PRB’s x 180kHz

Receiver Receiver noise floor = UE NF + Thermal noise

Noise Floor

PHICH = Physical HARQ Indicator Channel

PBCH = Physical Broadcast Channel

UE receiver (2/2) PDCCH = Physical DL Control Channel

Parameter Comment

SINR Required Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio

depends on the data rate, number of PRBs and link

efficiency. We consider this in more details later in

this slide set

Receiver Minimum required power in receiver required to detect

sensitivity the signal. Receiver sensitivity = Receiver Noise Floor +

SINR

Control channel Control channel overhead includes the overhead

overhead from reference signals, PBCH, PDCCH and PHICH.

5%-25% leads to 1dB-4dB overhead.

RX antenna gain Depends on the receiver antenna, usually 0dBi for

Margins and losses

Parameter Comment

Body loss Body loss is typically included for voice link budget

where the terminal is held close to the user’s head.

3-5dB for voice.

Shadowing loss Depends on the propagation environment. Typical values:

4-7dB. Will be discussed later in more details.

Interference Interference margin accounts for the increase in the

margin terminal noise level caused by the other cell

interference. If we assume a minimum G-factor of −4

dB, that corresponds to 5.5dB IM

(10*log10(1+10^(4/10)) = 5.5 dB). Typical values for

IM: 3dB – 8dB.

Indoor Depends on the building types. In urban area 20dB,

penetration loss in suburban/rural area with light buildings 10dB.

Allowed propagation loss

APL = PTX + GA( NodeB) - LCable + GA(UE) - min { PRX }

- M SF - M I

- LC - Lbody - LPenetration

3. Some details on RLB

RLB elements:

a) eNodeB powers and antennas

eNodeB transmission power

– 20W on 5MHz band (as in WCDMA/HSPA)

– 40W on 10MHz band (most usual test case for Rel.8 LTE)

– 60W on 20MHz band

• For micro eNodeB typical value is 5-10W (37dBm-40dBm)

• For pico eNodeB typical value is 100mW-2W (20dBm-33dBm)

– 3GPP limit for pico eNodeB TX power is 250mW (24dBm)

– There are many ‘pico’ products with TX power 250mW-2W

• For femto eNodeB TX power is limited to 100mW (20dBm)

– Typical values are some tens of milliwatts

Example eNodeB products

macro base station, indoor

installation

outdoor wall installation

Macro eNodeB antennas: 3-Sector site

solutions

• Site = location for base 1

station, antennas, cables, etc.

• The use of 3 sectors in each 2

site is the most common

approach 3

• Omnidirectional antennas can

be used in cells with low load

• Here color code refers to 1 1

coverage areas of different 2 2

antennas (frequencies can be

same or different in different 3 3

sectors) 1 1

2 2

24 3 3

Typical macro eNodeB site antenna

– 2 transmission branches in downlink and uplink in

each sector antenna

– Dual band: 800MHz and 2100 MHz

– Design contains only 3 antennas but still 6 feeder

cables needed

25

Panel antenna example: Kathrein 742 215

panel antenna (model 742 215)

• Typical macrocell eNodeB antenna

– Round 18dBi antenna gain

– Support 2100MHz and 800MHz bands

• Let us look this antenna in more details

and compare antenna measurements with

the general 3GPP modeling used in

simulations (see antenna slides for more

details)

26

Horizontal and vertical gain patterns

27

Comparison with Gmain q3dB(H ) GFB q3dB(V ) SLL

Kathrein 742215

Simple gain model

q tilt

Antennas – A Simulation Model Proposal and Impact on

HSPA and LTE Performance”, IEEE VTC 2008 = 10 degrees

‘High power’ pico eNodeB

• TX output power: 1W

• http://www.ericsson.com/ourportfolio/products/rbs-6401

29

Model for pico eNodeB antenna gain

pattern 1/2

• Horizontal gain pattern

GH ( )

5dBi

0dBi

-180deg -100deg-70deg -15deg 15deg 70deg 100deg 180deg

-10dBi

30

Model for pico eNodeB antenna gain

pattern 2/2

• Vertical gain pattern

GV ( )

0dBi

-3dBi

-180deg -100deg -70deg -15deg 15deg 70deg 100deg 180deg

G ( , ) GH ( ) GV ( )

Example

• Two 2W indoor

nodes with given

antenna gain

patterns

• Received wideband

powers simulated

by WinProp tool

• 2GHz carrier

• Excellent indoor

coverage obtained

32

‘Low power’ Femto base stations

Vodafone 3G femto

Nokia 3G femto base station

base station

RLB elements:

b) Path loss and shadowing margin

b1) Average path loss

Single slope model

so-called single-slope model

where

– “L0” is the average path loss at reference distance “r0”

– “n” is the path loss exponent (which depends on antenna heights,

carrier frequency, and propagation environment)

– In free space n = 2

dealing with homogeneous environments

Free space model

model, i.e.,

Dual-slope model

• Another path loss modeling approach is provided by the dual-

slope model, i.e.,

Linear loss model

• In waveguide propagation and absorbing propagation

environments, the linear loss model can be sometimes used

through walls (i.e., excellent signal propagation)

Environment types (1)

– Outdoor propagation environments:

Subdivision is done into:

• Base station antenna located above roof tops, and

• Base station antenna located below roof tops

Environment types (2)

environments

Subdivision is done again into same

categories as outdoor case:

• Base station antenna located

above roof tops

• Base station antenna located

below roof tops

Environment types (3)

Subdivision is done, e.g., into:

• Number of floors in a building to be covered,

• Landscape of the (office) building, and so on

– Offices or flats with many rooms

– Corridors, tunnels, etc.

Okumura-Hata Model (1)

• (Okumura-) Hata model is one of most common models

for signal prediction in large macrocells

– This model exists in many version, and is defined for limited

ranges of parameters

• Originally, this model is valid for:

– Distances: 1-100 km

– Frequency ranges: 150-1500 MHz (it was extended later)

43

Okumura-Hata Model (2)

• Okumura used extensive

measurements of base station-to-

mobile signal attenuation in the

city of Tokio (Japan)

– He developed a set of curves that

gives the median attenuation

(relative to free space) of signal

propagation in irregular terrain

– The base station heights for these

measurements were 30-100 m

path-loss data provided by Okumura (model is isotropic)

– Closed-form formulas provided by Hata simplify path loss calculations

(four different environments were defined)

44

Okumura-Hata Model (3)

• The original Hata model is given by

150 and 1500 MHz

Okumura-Hata Model (4)

• The correction factor for the mobile antenna height

“ai(hMS)” depends on the size of the coverage area:

– Large/dense city (i.e., “i = 1”),

– Medium/small size city (i.e., “i = 2”),

– Suburban area (i.e., “i = 3) and rural/open area (i.e., “i = 4”)

Okumura-Hata Model (5)

➢ Correction factor for the mobile antenna height (cont’d)

Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. Range (1)

Carrier frequency

48

Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. Range (2)

Carrier frequency

49

Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. BS Antenna Height

Carrier

frequency

50

Okumura-Hata Model (6)

3G), base station antennas are rarely placed on

locations over 40 meters in height

• Systems like television and radio broadcasting

may use towers that higher than 100 meters

– The height of the FM- and TV-mast (Helsinki-Espoo)

located in Latokaski (Espoo), has a current height of 326

meters (third highest structure in Finland)

• In the next slide, we illustrate the impact of the

environment type in the path loss attenuation

– It is found that difference between large and medium

size cities is small, while

– Path loss attenuation in suburban and open areas is far

more smaller than in city environments

Okumura-Hata Model: PL vs. Range (3)

Environment Type

52

Okumura-Hata Model (7)

• Later on, Okumura-Hata model was extended to the 1500-

2000 MHz frequencies, in the COST 231 research program

– The distance interval was also extended

• ITU-R sector adopted this model in Recommendation P.529

the previous model, and the additional term is given by

Okumura-Hata Model (8)

• Finally, an extension to the Okumura-Hata model for

distances between 20-100km is given by the expression

a single slope model for distances in the range of 1-20 km

Remark on path loss models

model

• Walfisch-Ikegami model is an other well-known model for urban

area

• In network planning tools above-mentioned models are used with

additional clutter corrections

– Several different clutter types can be defined with different additional

dB/m loss factors

– Planning tool design companies are usually not publishing all their

models

• There are also several models for small outdoor and indoor cells

– Yet, the smaller are the cells, the worse are the ‘isotropic models’ that

don’t take into account the environment (e.g. building) structure.

– When high carrier frequency communication take place in cellular

systems (5G) ray tracing models become more important.

55

b2) Shadow fading

56

Example: Path loss measurements

Shadow fading (1)

• Obstacles with a size from tens to hundreds of

wavelengths (on the different propagation paths)

cause a variation of the path loss around the Shadowing

average path loss “L”

• This variation is random but, however, it is Tx

correlated when measured in nearby locations

• Shadowing, caused for e.g. by big buildings, can Rx

be critical for mobile users located in cell edge

areas

– The effect of shadow fading may create large

coverage holes

➢ In many measurements, it has been observed that shadow fading “Ls”

can be described with a log-normal distribution*, and the probability

density function is given by

L2s

1 2 s2

f ( Ls ) e

2 s

* Loss measured in logarithmic scale (i.e., [dB]) is normally distributed

Shadow fading (2)

• Values obtained in shadow fading measurements*

– Carrier frequency: 2.0 GHz

Parameter deviation

Dense urban /

8,5 dB

Urban

Sub-urban 7,2 dB

Rural 6,5 dB

Shadow fading (3)

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

Shadow fading value [dB]

standard deviation “σs” is 4 dB (o), 8 dB (*), and 12dB (x)

Shadow fading (4)

L0

L0

PLs L0 f (t ) dt 1 Q ,

0 s

where “Q(x)” is the Marcum Q-function,

t2

1 1 x

Q( x)

2 e

x

2

dt

2

erfc

2

Shadow fading (5)

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

Shadow fading value [dB]

standard deviation “σs” is 4 dB (o), 8 dB (*), and 12dB (x)

Combined path loss and shadowing (1)

• In network planning, a Shadow Fading Margin (SFM) is

added on top of average path loss

• This margin is based on the required target power level

(i.e., maximum allowed path loss in the link budget) to

guaranteed a given outage probability in the system

• Let us denote

– “Lmax” = maximum allowed attenuation (link budget parameter)

– “Pout” = allowed outage probability at cell edge (QoS of network)

– “Ltot” = Total loss including shadowing and average path loss

• Then we set

(*) PLtot Lmax Pout Ltot L Ls

S-72.3216 RC Systems I (5

”Lmax” = maximum allowedcr) Lecturesattenuation

2013

3-5, Autumn (system specific parameter)

”Ltot” = Total loss at cell

63

edge (network design parameter)

Combined path loss and shadowing (2)

• From formula (*) we obtain

1 PLs Lmax L Pout

• Then, using the Marcum function representation we get

Lmax L

Q Pout

s

• It is common to use the inverse Marcum’s function to obtain

the (average) path loss that fulfill target requirements, i.e.,

L Lmax sQ1 Pout

• Yet, note that the inverse Marcum’s function does not exist in

closed-form

S-72.3216 RC Systems I (5

”Lmax” = maximum allowedcr) Lecturesattenuation

2013

3-5, Autumn (system specific parameter)

”Ltot” = Total loss at cell

64

edge (network design parameter)

Inverse Marcum’s function

0

10

-1

10

-2

10

Q(x)

Q(x)

-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

x

x

Combined path loss and shadowing (3)

• Revisiting the derived formula that combines path loss and

shadowing,

L Lmax sQ 1

Pout

• The (average) path loss on the left-hand side depends on:

– Distance between transmitter and receiver,

Okumura-

– Antenna heights of both, transmitter and receiver, Hata model

– Carrier frequency, environment type, …

• The value on the right-hand side depends on:

– Standard deviation of shadow fading (environment type),

– Allowed attenuation (system specific parameter: link budget)

– Outage probability (network target performance: guaranteed QoS)

so-called SF margin is given by

M SF s Q 1

Pout

Combined path loss and shadowing (4)

Path Loss

assumed “σSF” and shadow fading margin

50%

L Ltot

90%

Lmax Shadow fading standard

Ltot devidation (σSF) grows

L

➢ As “σSF” grows for same fading margin, the edge reliability is reduced

➢ As “σSF” grows, a larger fading margin is required to maintain the

same edge reliability

67

RLB elements:

c) Interference, SINR and data rate

Co-channel interference: general formulation (1)

received signal:

K

r S 0 S k nW d1 Interfering

k 1 TX #2

where “S0” is the desired Receiver

d2

signal, “Sk” refers to the d0

interfering signal originated

in the k-th (co-channel) dK Source

transmitter, and “nW” is of desired

Interfering signal

additive white Gaussian

TX #K

noise (i.e., Thermal noise)

Interference in LTE, illustration

serving eNodeB

Interfering signal from

other eNodeB

Interfering signal from

adjacent sector UE

eNodeB

S-72.3216 RC Systems I (5

cr) Lectures 11-12, Autumn

2013

70

Co-channel interference: general formulation (2)

P

E S0

2

0

RX

P

0

TX

P

/ L0 E S k

2

k

RX

P k

TX

/ Lk P

E nW

2

N

receiver and the source of desired signal, “Lk” corresponds

to the path loss attenuation between the “k-th” interfering

transmitter and the receiver, “PN” the AWGN power

• The instantaneous path loss can be written as follows:

Antenna gain Lk (dk )

x Lk = Average path loss

Gk (j k )× L × hk

SF 2

Shadow fading Fast fading

k

Co-channel interference: general formulation (3)

k

LSF

k 10 10

linear scale

where “ξk” is a sample from a zero mean Gaussian process,

with standard deviation “σk”

– If it is assumed that all TX-RX pairs admit the same shadow fading

characteristics, then

k k

• Shadow fading in different links is usually correlated

– In most studies of cellular systems, the correlation between shadow

fading in different links is assumed to be the same

– A typical value for correlation, which corresponds to BS antennas

located above the roof-top of buildings, is 0.5

– Correlation between adjacent sector antennas is 1.0

LTE: General formulation of SINR

P L × h0 G0 (j 0 ) L0 (d0 )

TX SF 2

0 0

SINR= K

åP L × hk × dk ×Gk (j k ) / Lk (dk ) + PN

TX SF 2

k k

k=1

PkTX =transmission power of kth eNB (for certain PRB)

k =SF towards kth eNB

LSF

hk = kth eNB signal fast fading channel power response (for certain PRB)

2

dk = 1 if kth eNB is transmitting on this PRB, otherwise 0

Lk (dk ) = Distance dependent path loss towards kth eNB

PN = AWGN power

General formulation of SINR

transmission on all PRB’s, then we obtain wideband SINR

that is also called as Geometry-factor (G-factor)

0 G0 (j 0 ) L0 (d0 )

P0TX LSF

Gfactor = K

å k Lk dkGk (j k ) / Lk (dk ) + PN

P TX SF

k=1

• G-factor can be used to describe the network deployment,

see the next slide

– 30% of UEs with ITU modiﬁed Vehicular A at 30 km/h and

– 10% of UEs with ITU modiﬁed Vehicular A at 120 km/h

Cell selection Best cell selected with 0 dB margin

Uplink: Max 24 dBm (latest 3GPP speciﬁcations use 23 dBm

Geometry factor Transmission power

Antenna conﬁguration Downlink: 1 × 2, 2 × 2

Uplink: 1 × 2, 1 × 4

Receiver algorithms Downlink: LMMSE (Linear Minimum Mean Square Error)

• G-factor distribution depends on the network

Uplink: deployment. G-factor

LMMSE receiver with Maximal Ratio Combining

depends on

1

– Antennas, sectorization

0.9

– Applied average path loss model

0.8

– Frequency reuse (e.g. δ ) 0.7

• Example: 0.6

CDF

0.5

0.2

3GPP, macro 1

3GPP, macro 3

Cell edge: 5%-ile level 0.1

3GPP, micro indoor:outdoor = 50:50

0

-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Interference margin for 3GPP Macro 1: Geometry (dB)

-G G-factor has value -4dB

=Figure

5.5dB onof cell

9.9 Distribution edge

the average wide-band channel SINR (geometry factor) macro ca

3 and micro

The corresponding downlink system performance numbers for LTE SIMO and 2 ×

Source (picture): transmission

Holma, Toskala:

schemes areLTE for inUMTS,

presented Wiley

Figure 9.10 and Figure 9.11, respecti vely.

Notes on the G-factor distribution

deployment between -5dB and 15dB

– Thus, in fully loaded macro network the (average) SINR is

limited to 15dB and data rates are limited accordingly

– The 50% level of G-factor CDF indicates that (average) SINR in

fully loaded macro network is close to 4dB

• If microcells are added to the network much higher SINR

values can be reached

• In e.g. indoor small cells very high SINR values are

possible

Mapping between SINR/G-factor and

throughput in LTE

• When creating RLB we require a certain bit rate on the cell edge.

– We may, for example, require that rate on cell edge is 1Mbps when user can be

allocated 10% of the radio resources.

• We can use the following very simple approximation for a bit rate

(throughput):

(*) TP = BW× M × A× log2 (1+ SINR/ B) = NPRB × BWPRB × SE

where SE is the Spectral Efficiency and

– BW is the allocated bandwidth (in terms of PRBs)

– A and B are factors that are selected such that SE approximates the LTE link

spectral efficiency.

– Factors A and B depend on the number of antennas and physical layer

performance.

– M = number of data streams

Mapping between SINR and throughput

Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) schemes (also called as

Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)) applied in the system.

Resulted parameters of the

configurations

MIMO M A B

SIMO 1x2 1 0.62 1.8

MIMO 2x2 2 0.42 0.85

MIMO 4x4 4 0.40 1.1

MIMO 8x8 8 0.33 1.4

approximations based on certain simulations. Thus,

different assumptions on channel estimation and

detection algorithms may lead to slightly different

results.

Spectral efficiency

30

25

Spectral efficiency [bits/s/Hz]

20

SIMO (1x2)

Max SE 15

MIMO (2x2)

MIMO (4x4)

MIMO (8x8)

10

Max SE

5

Max SE

0

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

SINR [dB]

LTE Rel.8 peak bit rate examples

Modulatio Stream Ideal SE Practical LTE Max bit

n s [bits/s/Hz] SE rate (20MHz)

[bits/s/Hz]

64QAM 1 6.0 3.75 75Mbps

64QAM 2 12.0 7.5 150Mbps

64QAM 4 24.0 15.0 300Mbps

• If carrier aggregation approach is used (LTE-Advanced), then rate

can be multiplied by number of carriers.

• Maximum spectral efficiencies may take place only when SINR is

extremely large => reachable in practical macrocellular networks

only in special cases.

• Note the difference between ideal and practical SE

• These spectral efficiencies set upper limit for SE growth in previous

slide

81

4. DL Link Budget Examples

Urban area example (DL)

• Assume the link budget parameters below, 10MHz band, 2GHz carrier, 35 meter

Radio antenna

base station Communication

height andSystems

1.5 meterII,

UEExercise

height. 3, 2014

• Compute the coverage in case of large city for 2Mbps service when eNodeB

allocates 4 PRBs for the user (12 users/cell served simultaneously).

– Problem

What happens1. forLTE downlink

the service RLB

coverage (excelcan

if eNodeB in Noppa):

allocate allAssume thePRBs

available 48 following link b

for this user

(target rate being

2.1GHz the same

carrier, 2 Mbps)?

25 meter base station antenna height and 1.5 meter UE height:

– Increase the user rate 5Mbps and solve problem again

Parameter Value

BS TX power 40W

BS antenna gain 18dBi

BS cable loss 2dB

UE noise figure 7dB

Interference margin 4dB

RX antenna gain 0dBi

RX body loss 0dB

Control channel overhead 1dB

Indoor penetration loss 20dB

Shadow fading margin 7dB

BS antenna configuration 2x2/4x4 MIMO

• Case 2Mbit/s and 4 PRB’s:

Results – Range in large city = 300 meters

– Range in suburban area = 680 meters

• Case 2Mbit/s and 48 PRB’s:

– Range in large city = 880 meters

– Range in suburban area = 2.0 km

• Case 5Mbit/s and 4 PRB’s:

– Range in large city = 110 meters

– Range in suburban area = 240 meters

• Case 5Mbit/s and 48 PRB’s:

– Range in large city = 650 meters

– Range in suburban area = 1.5 km

Remark on range (1/3)

PRB ->48 PRB) but range is not increasing directly proportionally.

Why range increase is so small?

• Answer: If more PRB’s are used, less data needs to be loaded per

PRB => SE and accordingly SINR requirement decreases

– In 2Mbit/s case SINR requirement decreases from 8.8dB to -7.5dB, the

difference being 16.3dB (see next slide)

– In 5Mbit/s case SINR requirement decreases from 24.2dB to -2.8dB, the

difference being 27.0dB (see next slide)

– This increases allowed propagation loss with same amounts. Yet, if distance

from/to eNodeB is short, then the path loss increases fast as a function of

distance (see next slides)

Remark on range (2/3)

10

spectral efficiency

8 (7.5bits/s/Hz)

Spectral efficiency [bits/s/Hz]

7 SISO Spectral

Efficiency

6

5

MIMO Spectral

efficiency (2x2)

4

3

Shannon AWGN

2 bound (SISO)

0

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

SINR [dB]

Remark on range (3/3)

16.3dB

27.0dB

Other remarks

PRB case we can serve only single user.

– Range extension by using more resources per user can take place only

when cell load is low.

• User usually needs 2-5Mbit/s rates just during very short time

periods

– In e.g. web browsing/streaming video data is transferred in bursts.

– Thus, if instantaneous rate is high, user will have good use experience.

Rural area example

• In suburban area LTE is used on 800MHz to provide mobile

broadband for single houses

– Note: interference margin is decreased to 2dB.

• Assume three cases:

1. User is inside a light single house with 10dB indoor penetration loss

2. User is outside the house

3. User has a LTE based fixed wireless system containing directive antenna with

10dBi gain (2dB cable loss) on the house rooftop (7 meters height). LTE

receiver is connected to indoor WiFi (through cable) that provides indoor

connectivity.

• What is the maximum distance from eNodeB to receiver (= rooftop

antenna) for 2Mbit/s and 5Mbit/s services if receiver can apply 4/8

PRBs?

Illustration of connection options

eNodeB

Yagi antenna

(10dBi gain)

Antenna cable

(2dB loss)

LTE receiver

and WiFi

router

Outdoor UE

Results

• Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss • Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss

– 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 3.1km – 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 4.6km

– 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 1.1km – 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 2.6km

• Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss • Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss

– 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 5.9km – 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 8.9km

– 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 2.2km – 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 5.0km

• Rooftop directive antenna + indoor • Rooftop directive antenna + indoor

distribution distribution

– 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 25.0km – 2Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 37.6km

– 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 9.0km – 5Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 20.9km

Remarks

then indoor coverage can be achieved using additional

directive rooftop antenna

– Costs falling on the user/subsidized by operator or government?

– Shared directive antennas + local distribution one good option

(village case)

• If only fixed wireless based connectivity is assumed very

large cells can be used

– There will be large coverage holes outdoors and especially for

direct indoor coverage

– Doubling the cell range decreases the required number of

eNodeB’s to ¼ from original case.

5. LTE Uplink Radio Link Budget

LTE Uplink RLB

data rate the same

parameters are

used as in DL

• The UL data rate

with 10PRB’s is

1Mbit/s while it was

2Mbit/s in DL.

• Yet the ALP is

almost the same as

in DL.

UE resource allocation and rate

Parameter Comment

Number of This is decided by eNodeB after estimating the

PRBs required bandwidth and scheduling uplink users that

are served at the same time. Thus, in this case 1

Mbit/s takes 10/50 of all resources. In (Rel.8/9)

uplink PRB’s are given continuously in frequency.

Data rate In uplink we have 1Mbit/s while in DL we assumed

2Mbits/s target rate (APL will be almost the same)

UE transmission characteristics

Parameter Comment

UE TX In uplink maximum TX power is 23dBm. It is assumed here since

power this RLB consider cell edge user. Power control is used in uplink

=> TX power can be less than 23dBm as well.

UE UE antenna gain depends on the device type. Typical value

antenna is 0dBi while fixed wireless LTE transceivers may have even

gain 10dBi antenna gain.

Body loss Not visible in this UL RLB but 3-5dB body loss can be

subtracted.

EIRP EIRP = TX power + antenna gain (-body loss)

TX power UE power is divided between PRB’s. Thus, with larger

eNodeB receiver (1/2)

Parameter Comment

eNodeB NF measures of degradation of the SNR by the

Noise components in the RF receiver chain, product specific.

Figure The minimum performance requirement is approximately

5 dB but the practical performance can be better like 2 dB.

Thermal Thermal noise = Boltzmann constant x T (Kelvin) x Effective

Noise bandwidth. The bandwidth depends on the number of

allocated resource blocks. With 10 PRB’s we have -

121dBm.

Receiver Receiver noise floor = eNodeB NF + Thermal noise

Noise Floor

eNodeB receiver (2/2)

Parameter Comment

SINR Required Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio

depends on the data rate, number of PRBs and link

efficiency.

Receiver Minimum power in receiver required to detect the signal.

sensitivity Receiver sensitivity = Receiver Noise Floor + SINR (in

UL this is given per PRB)

RX antenna gain eNodeB antenna gain, same as in DL

Margins and losses

Parameter Comment

eNodeB cable Same as in DL.

loss

Shadowing As in downlink. Values: 4-7dB.

loss

Interference Interference margin reflects the increase in the eNodeB

margin receiver noise level caused by the interference from (other

cell) users. Since LTE uplink is orthogonal, there is no intra-

cell interference but we still need a margin for the other cell

interference. This margin depends on the UL target capacity.

That is, there is a tradeoff between capacity and coverage.

Penetration As in downlink

loss

Allowed propagation loss

APL = PTX + GA(UE) - LBody + GA(eNodeB) - min { PRX }

- M SF - M I

- LCable - LPenetration

Example: Recall the first DL example

band, 2GHz carrier, 35 meter base station antenna height and 1.5 meter

UE height

– eNodeB Noise Figure = 2dB (In DL for UE it was 7dB)

– Antenna configuration is now 1x2 SIMO (2 eNodeB antennas, 1 UE TX antenna)

• Compute the coverage in case of large city for 1.3Mbps service when

eNodeB allocates 5 PRBs for the user (10 users/cell served

simultaneously)

• Ranges when assuming 1.3Mbit/s and 5 PRB’s:

– Range in large city = 300 meters

– Range in suburban area = 680 meters

Rural area example (UL)

• In suburban area LTE is used on 800MHz to provide mobile

broadband for single houses

– Note: interference margin is decreased to 2dB.

• Assume three cases:

1. User is inside a light single house with 10dB indoor penetration loss

2. User is outside the house

3. User has a LTE based fixed wireless system containing directive antenna with

10dBi gain (2dB cable loss) on the house rooftop (7 meters height). LTE

transceiver is connected to indoor WiFi (through cable) that provides indoor

connectivity.

• What is the maximum distance from transmitter to eNodeB for

1.3Mbit/s service if receiver can apply 5/10 PRBs?

Illustration of connection options

eNodeB

Yagi antenna

(10dBi gain)

Antenna cable

(2dB loss)

LTE receiver

and WiFi

router

Outdoor UE

Results

• Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss • Indoor user with 10dB penetration loss

– 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 3.1km – 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 4.35km

• Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss • Outdoor user with 0dB penetration loss

– 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 6.0km – 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 8.4km

• Rooftop directive antenna + indoor • Rooftop directive antenna + indoor

distribution distribution

– 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 25.3km – 1.3Mbit/s, suburban area, range = 35.5km

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