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Site Visits

Entry Number: 1

Date: 03-10-17

Site: Jack in The Box Gully Site no.1

Objectives:

 To collect soil samples


 To measure and record temperature and humidity levels
 To count and record the number and different types of plants and animal species
 To calculate species diversity.
 To record signs of human activity

Activities:

Temperature and humidity were recorded outside and inside of the gully with a
hydrometer with built in thermometer. While walking through the gully signs of human activity,
along with other observations, were recorded by use of camera and pen & paper. A quarter of a
Ziploc bag was filled with soil from the site using a spatula. The students were split into 4 pairs.
One member of the pair counted the different types of plants present and their frequencies. The
other member counted the different types of animals and their frequencies. This was done for
five minutes which gave a total of 20 minutes collectively. The results were complied to
calculate species diversity

Observations:

Human activity

Human activity was present at the very opening of the gully. There was a trash bag filled
with some items of garbage, bottles and plastic items at the opening.(fig. 1.1) Another observed
presence of human activity were a distinct trail and some orange tags line along the trails of the
gully. (fig 1.2 & 1.3) Walking towards site no.2 a shirt and a bucket were also spotted (fig. 1.4 &
1.5).
Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3

Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5

Plant Species

There was a fair amount of diversity in plants at site no.1. Majority of the species found
were small plants, specifically species 2. Majority of the plants were observed to be closer to the
rock faces that near the trail. The numbers of the plants in each species were somewhat low.

Table showing Plant species and Their Frequencies


Plant Species Frequencies
1 60
2 136
3 1
4 8
5 2
6 5
7 3
Ʃn(n−1)
SAMPLE CALCULATION: D =
N(N−1)

60(59)+136(135)+1(0)+8(7)+2(1)+5(4)+3(2)
=
215(214)

21984
=
46010

= 0.478
Animal Species

The species diversity in animals at site no.1 was fairly low. Low numbers of each species
were also observed which could have been influenced by the rain fall that occurred shortly
before arrival.

Table showing animal Species and Their Frequencies


Animal Species Frequencies
Millipede 1 32
Millipede 2 3
Slug 4
Lizard 2
Spiders 7
Worm 1
Christmas Worm 1
Snail 17
Stick Insect 1
Ʃn(n−1)
SAMPLE CALCULATION: D =
N(N−1)

32(31)+3(2)+4(3)+2(1)+7(6)+1(0)+9(8)+8(7)1(0)
=
67(66)

1182
=
4422

= 0.267

Millipede 1 Millipede 2 Snail Spider

Stick Insect Slug Christmas Worm

Soil

The soil was found to be water-logged since there was rainfall prior to arrival. While
obtaining the soil sample from site no.1 the soil was observed to be fairly clumped together.
Temperature and Humidity

The temperature at site no.1 was recorded as 29°C and the humidity recorded was 75%

Other Observations

There was surrounding walls of rock present in the gully.

Comments:

Overall there was higher diversity in within the animals than plants. The animals may
have had better suited conditions to live in than the plants to survive in which caused the
diversity to be more. The numbers per species however were extremely low which could have
resulted from the previous rainfall that had occurred so the numbers recorded could have been
somewhat inaccurate. The rock faces would have provided some sort of surface run off which
would have then added nutrients to the soil and thus provided better conditions for the plant
species and other organisms living in the soil.

Follow-up Activities:

 The soil sample was taken back to school in order to perform nitrate, phosphate, and pH
test on the soil.
 Students travelled to site no.2 in Jack in The Box Gully where the same objectives and
activities were done.
 A soil sample was also collected from site no.2 to be carried back to school in order to
test for phosphates, nitrates, and pH.
Entry Number: 2

Date: 03-10-17

Site: Jack in The Box Gully Site no.2

Objectives:

 To collect soil samples


 To measure and record temperature and humidity levels
 To count and record the number and different types of plants and animal species
 To calculate species diversity.
 To record signs of human activity

Activities:

Temperature and humidity were recorded outside and inside of the gully with a
hydrometer with built in thermometer. While walking through the gully signs of human activity,
along with other observations, were recorded by use of camera and pen & paper. A quarter of a
Ziploc bag was filled with soil from the site using a spatula. The students were split into 4 pairs.
One pair member counted the different types of plants present and their frequencies. The other
pair member counted the different types of animals and their frequencies. This was done for five
minutes which gave a total of 20 minutes collectively. The results were complied to calculate
species diversity

Observations:

Human activity

The only indication of human activity at site no.2 was the presence of a very distinct trail.
There was extremely minimal human activity in this part of the gully

Plant Species

There was a very high level of plant diversity observed at site no.2. The most prevalent
species was species 2 with extremely high numbers. Overall most of the plant species had high
numbers of plants present. The plants were also found more so near the rock faces than at the
trails. There was a fair amount of average sized plants and taller trees.
Table showing Plant species and Their Frequencies
Plant Species Frequencies
1 100
2 232
4 17
7 118
8 50
9 149
10 2
11 2

Ʃn(n−1)
SAMPLE CALCULATION: D =
N(N−1)

2(1)+2(1)+100(99)+232+(231)+117(116)+118(117)+50(49)+149(148)
=
770(769)

115376
=
592136

= 0.195
Animal Species

There was a fair amount of different species present at site no.2. The numbers were also
fairly high in each species present. More areas of the site were being utilized as habitats for the
animals such as within the cracks the rock faces.

Table showing Animal Species and Their Frequencies


Animal Species Frequencies
Snail 174
Millipede 44
Whistling Frog 2
Ants 100+
Slug 1
Whip Scorpion 7

Ʃn(n−1)
SAMPLE CALCULATION: D =
N(N−1)

100(99)+9(8)+31(30)+34(33)+7(6)+37(36)+2(1)+100(99)+1(0)+7(6)
=
328(327)

23342
=
107256

= 0.218
Soil

The soil was slightly water-logged and while collecting soil samples the soil particles
were more separated from each other.

Temperature and Humidity

The temperature at site no.2 was recorded as 27°C and the humidity recorded was 85%

Other Observations

There was surrounding walls of rock present in the gully.

Comments:

At site no.2 the plant species were more diverse than the animal. The animals present had
more habitats to occupy since there were so many different types of plants present and they most
likely had a more variable diet suited for them in that area since there was more diversity in
plants than animals. This also meant the secondary consumers that may have been present had a
better diet since the primary consumers and detritivores had a vast supply of food which allowed
them to reproduce more. The numbers per species observed were fairly reasonable which could
have been caused by the satisfactory conditions present. The plant species were also flourishing
in this part of the gully, which could have been caused by the nitrate and phosphate levels
present. The rock faces would have provided some sort of surface run off which would have then
added nutrients to the soil and thus provided better conditions for the plant species and other
organisms living in the soil.
Follow-up Activities:

 The soil sample was taken back to school in order to perform nitrate, phosphate, and pH
test on the soil.
 The calculations were compared to site no.1 calculations.
 The phosphate and nitrates levels were compared to those of site no.1.
 The calculations from both site no.1 & no.2, phosphate and nitrates levels, plant and
animal species, and the other observations were used to compare Jack in The Box Gully
to Lammings Gully.

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