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I.

Introduction
Hydrostatic pressure, which is a pressure water exerts due to its weight per unit area at
some depth sometimes represented as elevation head. Some principles which always
apply to hydrostatic pressure are that this pressure depends only on the depth of water
above the reference point, pressure increases in direct proportion to the depth of
water, pressure in a continuous volume water is the same at all points that are at the
same elevation or depth, and pressure in any point at the water acts in all directions at
the sam points. From these principles, it can be determined that a linear relation
should exist between the pressure and the force at some depth or elevation.
The hydrostatic pressure is formulated using 3 different components according to
Bernoulli equation, which is pressure head, elevation head, and the velocity head. The
magnitude of velocity component is depends on the elevation, the velocity will
increase as the elevation decrease to maintain a constant pressure.
Any fluid moving through a pipe obeys the Law of Continuity, which states that the
product of average velocity (v), pipe cross-sectional area (A), and fluid density (ρ) for
a given flow stream must remain constant. With an approach using water as an
incompressible fluid,we may simplified the flow equation.

II. Methodology
In this Lab experiments, we determined the hydrostatic pressure, velocity, and flow by
filling some water in reservoir and pipes with orifice holes. There are 3 types of pipe
used in this experiment, 0.04ft, 0.06ft and 0.08ft diameter pipes. The filled reservoir is
moved to 3 different elevations to measure the change in energy based on elevation of
the water reservoir. The pressure, velocity, and flow then calculated based on the
elevation of each orifice outlet using Bernoulli and basic fluid equation.
For the effects slope, we used 45 degree fitting to connect pipe from the reservoir. The
elevation of each orifice holes is measured using a plumb bob. The pressure, velocity,
and flow of each orifice outlet then re-calculate only for the lowest reservoir
elevation.

Objectives:

- Understand the reason for changes in energy based on elevation of a water


reservoir
- Determine the amount of pressure, velocity, and flow at the outlet of the water
collumn
- Understand and explain the effects slope has on energy created from elevation
head

Resources:

 Gravitational Acceleration (𝑔) = 32.174 ft/s2


 Unit Weight of Water = 62.4 lbs/ft3
 Elev. Head Pressure = 0.433 lbs/in2/ft of elev.
 Torricelli’s Equation 𝑣 = √2𝑔ℎ
 Continuity Equation Q = v.A
Where :
h is the elevation difference between reservoir outlet and outlet orifice
g is gravitational acceleration
v is water velocity
Q is water flow
A is area of the orifice outlet

III. Results and Analysis


Measurement Results :

Table 1 Measurement Results for 90 degrees fitting

90 degree fitting
Pipe Diameter (ft) 0.04 0.06 0.08
Pipe Diameter (mm) 12.7 19.08 25.4
Up Half-down Fall-down Up Half-down Fall-down Up Half-down Fall-down
ho (ft) 7.17 6.52 5.07 7.16 6.5 5.07 7.16 6.56 5.08
h1(ft) 4.77 4.13 2.66 4.74 4.07 2.61 4.72 4.11 2.62
D1(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.015 0.015 0.015
h2(ft) 3.76 3.13 1.66 3.72 3.05 1.6 3.71 3.1 1.61
D2(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.015 0.015 0.015
h3(ft) 2.57 1.92 0.46 2.54 1.85 0.45 2.59 1.94 0.45
D3(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.015 0.015 0.015
Table 2 Measurement Results for 45 Degrees fitting

45 degree fitting
Pipe Diameter (ft) 0.04 0.06 0.08
Pipe Diameter (mm) 12.7 19.08 25.4
Up Half-down Fall-down Up Half-down Fall-down Up Half-down Fall-down
ho (ft) 5.07 5.07 5.08
h1(ft) 2.66 2.61 2.62
D1(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.015
h2(ft) 1.66 1.6 1.61
D2(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.015
h3(ft) 0.46 0.45 0.45
D3(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.015

Calculation Example :
The Calculation example is shown for scenario : fitting 90 – using 0.04ft diameter pipe,
orifice 1.
- Hydrostatic Pressure (psi)
𝒑𝒔𝒊
𝑷𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟑𝟑 ⁄𝒇𝒕 × 𝒉𝟏

𝒑𝒔𝒊
𝑷𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟑𝟑 ⁄𝒇𝒕 × 𝟒. 𝟕𝟕 𝒇𝒕

𝑷𝟏 = 𝟐. 𝟎𝟔𝟓𝟒𝟏 𝒑𝒔𝒊
- Velocity (ft/sec)
𝒗 = √𝟐𝒈𝒉

𝒗 = √(𝟐𝒈(𝒉𝟎 − 𝒉𝟏 ))

𝒗 = √(𝟐𝒈(𝟕. 𝟏𝟕 − 𝟒. 𝟕𝟕))
𝒗 = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟒𝟐𝟕𝟐 𝒇𝒕/𝒔𝒆𝒄
- Flow (ft3/sec)
𝑸 = 𝒗. 𝑨
𝝅
𝑸 = 𝒗. 𝒅𝟐
𝟒
𝝅
𝑸 = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟒𝟐𝟕𝟐 × 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟐
𝟒
𝒇𝒕𝟑⁄
𝑸 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟗𝟕𝟔 𝒔𝒆𝒄

- Fitting 90 degrees
0.04ft diameter pipe

Table 3. Calculation Results for 0.04ft diameter pipe


Pipe Diameter D (ft) 0.04
Pipe Diameter (mm) 12.7
Up Half-down Fall-down
Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow
psf ft/sec ft3/sec psf ft/sec ft3/sec psf ft/sec ft3/sec
ho (ft) 7.17 6.52 5.07
h1(ft) 4.77 4.13 2.66
2.06541 12.4272 0.000976 1.78829 12.40128 0.000974 1.15178 12.45306 0.000978
d1(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01
h2(ft) 3.76 3.13 1.66
1.62808 14.81306 0.001163 1.35529 14.76955 0.00116 0.71878 14.81306 0.001163
d2(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01
h3(ft) 2.57 1.92 0.46
1.11281 17.20467 0.001351 0.83136 17.20467 0.001351 0.19918 17.22336 0.001353
d3(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01

Figure 1 Velocity and Flow vs Pressure on 0.04ft diameter pipe

0.06 ft diameter pipe

Table 4 Calculation Results for 0.06ft diameter pipe

Pipe Diameter D (ft) 0.06


Pipe Diameter (mm) 19.08
Up Half-down Fall-down
Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow
psf ft/sec ft3/sec psf ft/sec ft3/sec psf ft/sec ft3/sec
ho (ft) 7.16 6.5 5.07
h1(ft) 4.74 4.07 2.61
2.05242 12.47887 0.00098 1.76231 12.50462 0.000982 1.13013 12.58158 0.000988
d1(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01
h2(ft) 3.72 3.05 1.6
1.61076 14.87808 0.001169 1.32065 14.89968 0.00117 0.6928 14.94281 0.001174
d2(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01
h3(ft) 2.54 1.85 0.45
1.09982 17.24203 0.001354 0.80105 17.29792 0.001359 0.19485 17.24203 0.001354
d3(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.01
Figure 2 Velocity and Flow vs Pressure on 0.06ft diameter pipe

0.08ft diameter pipe

Table 5. Calculation Results for 0.08ft diameter pipe

Pipe Diameter D (ft) 0.08


Pipe Diameter (mm) 25.4
Up Half-down Fall-down
Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow
psf ft/sec ft3/sec psf ft/sec ft3/sec psf ft/sec ft3/sec
ho (ft) 7.16 6.56 5.08
h1(ft) 4.72 4.11 2.62
2.04376 12.53033 0.002214 1.77963 12.55598 0.002219 1.13446 12.58158 0.002223
d1(ft) 0.015 0.015 0.015
h2(ft) 3.71 3.1 1.61
1.60643 14.89968 0.002633 1.3423 14.92126 0.002637 0.69713 14.94281 0.002641
d2(ft) 0.015 0.015 0.015
h3(ft) 2.59 1.94 0.45
1.12147 17.14848 0.00303 0.84002 17.24203 0.003047 0.19485 17.26068 0.00305
d3(ft) 0.015 0.015 0.015

Figure 3 Velocity and Flow vs Pressure on 0.08ft diameter pipe


- Fitting 45 degrees

Table 6 Calculation Results for 45 degree fitting

Pipe Diameter (ft) 0.04 0.06 0.06


Pipe Diameter (mm) 12.7 19.08 19.08
Falldown
Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow Pressure Velocity Flow
(psi) (ft/s) (ft/s2) (psi) (ft/s) (ft/s2) (psi) (ft/s) (ft/s2)
ho (ft) 5.07 2.19531 5.07 2.19531 5.08 2.19964
h1(ft) 3.17 3.06 3.14
1.37261 11.0572 0.00087 1.32498 11.37275 0.00089 1.35962 11.17296 0.0019744
d1(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.015
h2(ft) 2.46 2.35 2.37
1.06518 12.9595 0.00102 1.01755 13.22976 0.00104 1.02621 13.20542 0.0023336
d2(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.015
h3(ft) 1.64 1.48 1.42
0.71012 14.8564 0.00117 0.64084 15.19899 0.00119 0.61486 15.34645 0.0027119
d3(ft) 0.01 0.01 0.015

Figure 4 Velocity and Flow vs Pressure on 45 degrees fitting

Figure 5 Velocity vs Pressure Comparison between 90 degrees and 45 degrees fitting


IV. Discussion

- Based on the calculation, it can be inferred that the pressure is vary within the
elevation of the reservoir. Higher the elevation of the reservoir, higher the pressure
measured at the orifices. Pressure at the orifices is a result of the action of gravity
acting on the mass of the fluid at certain elevation measured to a horizontal datum.
This term is basically derived by the Bernouli’s Equation 𝑃 = 𝜌. 𝑔. ℎ , where P is the
pressure, ρ is the fluid density, g is the gravitational acceleration, and h is the head
elevation of the fluid.
- The pressure increase in line with the outlet’s elevation increasing. The pressure also
increase as well as the elevation of the reservoir. Only the affects of the diameter of
the outlet that has nothing to do with the pressure.
- Cross sectional area of the orifices has nothing to do with the pressure at the outlet of
the orifices. This is explained by the Hydrostatic Pressure formula saying the pressure
is affected by the elevation of the fluid at certain point.
- Slope of the pipe does affects the pressure at the outlet of the orifices. The slope
affects the elevation of the orifices outlet. When the pipe was tilted, the outlet’s
elevation will increase due to vertical projection by the angle. The pressure at the
outlet will increase as well as the elevation.
- Flow rate at the outlet of the orifices with 90 degress fitting tend to be higher than
flow rate at the outlet of the orifices with 44 degress fitting. It might be happen
because the elevation of the outlet by 45 degress fitting is higher than the outlet
elevation by 90 degress fitting. The higher elevation of the outlet caused the relative
distance between outletand the water still elevation decrease then the velocity will
also decreased. This is in line with Toricelli’s Equation,
𝑣 = √2𝑔ℎ

Where the v is velocity of the fluid, g is the gravitational acceleration, and h is the
distance between the outlet’s elevation and the water still elevation. The flow rate is
described by continuity equation,

𝑄 = 𝑣𝐴
where Q is the flow rate, v is the velocitu of he fluid, and A is the cross sectional of
the orifices outlet. Based on the formula, it can be inferred that the flow rate linear
with the velocity of the fluid and the cross sectional of the fluid. Higher the velocity
of the fluid, higher the amount of the flow rate as well as the cross sectional area.

V. Conclusion

- Higher pressure outlet of the orifice is at the highest elevation of the outlet for
each pipe and each fitting
- Only water elevation affects the pressure
- Cross sectional of the outlet doesn’t affects the pressure, yet it affects the flow
rate of the fluid
- Slope of the pipe affects the elevation of the outlet and the flow rate of the fluid

VI. References

[1] CENE 333L - Lab 1: Hydrostatic – Elevation Head

[2] http://iamechatronics.com/notes/general-engineering/397-fluid-mechanics-law-
of-continuity

[3] http://web.itu.edu.tr/~bulu/fluid_mechanics_files/lecture_notes_04.pdf

VII. Appendices

1. Excel Calculation File


2. Hand Calculation