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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Overview of the Maisotsenko cycle – A way towards dew point


evaporative cooling
Muhammad H. Mahmood a,d, Muhammad Sultan a,d,e,n, Takahiko Miyazaki b,d,
Shigeru Koyama b,d, Valeriy S. Maisotsenko c
a
Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
b
Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
c
Idalex Inc. and Coolerado Inc., 3980 Quebec Street, Suite #210, Denver, CO 80207, USA
d
International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Bosan Road, Multan 60800, Pakistan

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle) is a thermodynamic conception which captures energy from the air by
Received 7 August 2015 utilizing the psychrometric renewable energy available from the latent heat of water evaporating into the
Received in revised form air. The cycle is well-known in the air-conditioning (AC) field due to its potential of dew-point eva-
27 April 2016
porative cooling. However, its applicability has been recently expanded in several energy recovery ap-
Accepted 12 August 2016
Available online 25 August 2016
plications. Therefore, the present study provides the overview of M-Cycle and its application in various
heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; cooling systems; and gas turbine power cy-
Keywords: cles. Principle and features of the M-Cycle are discussed in comparison with conventional evaporative
M-Cycle cooling, and consequently the thermodynamic limitation of the cycle is highlighted. It is reported that
Evaporative cooling
the standalone M-Cycle AC (MAC) system can achieve the AC load efficiently when the ambient air
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning
humidity is not so high regardless of ambient air temperature. Various modifications in MAC system
(HVAC)
Gas turbine design have been reviewed in order to investigate the M-Cycle applicability in humid regions. It is found
Heat recovery that the hybrid, ejector, and desiccant based MAC systems enable a huge energy saving potential to
Applications achieve the sensible and latent load of AC in humid regions. Similarly, the overall system performance is
significantly improved when the M-Cycle is utilized in cooling towers and evaporative condensers.
Furthermore, the M-Cycle conception in gas turbine cycles has been realized recently in which the
M-Cycle recuperator provides not only hot and humidified air for combustion but also recovers the heat
from the turbine exhaust gases. The M-Cycle nature helps to provide the cooled air for turbine inlet air
cooling and to control the pollution by reducing NOx formation during combustion. The study reviews
three distinguished Maisotsenko gas turbine power cycles and their comparison with the conventional
cycles, which shows the M-Cycle significance in power industry.
& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
2. Principle and features of the Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
3. M-Cycle HVAC systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
3.1. Standalone M-Cycle AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
3.1.1. Chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
3.2. Hybrid M-Cycle AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
3.3. Ejector M-Cycle AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
3.4. Desiccant M-Cycle AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
3.4.1. Solid desiccant system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544

n
Corresponding author at: Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan.
E-mail address: muhammadsultan@bzu.edu.pk (M. Sultan).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.022
1364-0321/& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
538 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

3.4.2. Liquid desiccant system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545


4. M-Cycle cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
4.1. M-Cooling tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
4.2. M-Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
5. M-Cycle conception in gas turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
5.1. M-HAT cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
5.2. M-ABC cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
5.3. M-SAB cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
5.3.1. Compressed based system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
5.3.2. Ejector based system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

1. Introduction chamber will improve the combustion efficiency as well as mini-


mize the NOx formation.
In 21st century, clean energy is the basic need of human beings. The M-Cycle conception was proposed as early as 1976 by
Most of the currently existing energy consuming and producing Maisotsenko and his colleagues in Soviet Union via patent num-
systems are inefficient and/or involved in environmentally harm- bers SU979796 and SU620745. Many applications and designs of
ful technologies. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) M-Cycle have been realized which are protected by various patents
systems; and cooling systems are the big energy consumers in all over the world. Some of the important U.S. patents are:
today's modern society. Most of them are based on vapor com- US4350570 (1982); US4842052 (1989); US4971245 (1990);
pression cycles which are not only consuming primary energy but US4976113 (1990); US4977753 (1990); US5453223 (1995);
also responsible for global warming [1]. On the other hand, 80% of US5812423 (1998); US5838587 (1998); US6497107 (2002);
the world's primary energy is produced by fossil fuels such as oil, US6581402 (2003); US6705096 (2004); US20040103637 (2004);
gas and coal, which are diminishing rapidly across the world [2,3]. US6776001 (2004); US6779351 (2004); US6854278 (2005);
In addition, the existing renewable energy and nuclear power are US6948558 (2005); US7007453 (2006); US7197887 (2007);
contributing only 13.1% and 6.5% of the total energy needs, re- US7228699 (2007); and US8613839 (2013). Many system designs
spectively [3,4]. In case of energy producing systems, gas turbines based on M-Cycle conception produced by Coolerado Corporation
with air-water mixtures are commonly employed for power pro- [5,6] have been commercialized all over the world for various
duction because of the high electrical efficiency and specific power cooling and AC applications [7–12]. However, the M-Cycle applic-
output. Conversely, a significant amount of waste heat discharged ability in the other applications e.g. water distillation [13,14];
into the atmosphere which results in poor thermal efficiency. power industry (e.g. gas turbines, engines, energy and exergy
From the prospective of above-mentioned energy consuming towers etc.) [15–18]; and pollution control (i.e. NOx reduction in
systems, direct and indirect evaporative cooling systems are uti- gas turbines) [17–19] etc. is under research and development
lized as low cost air-conditioning and cooling techniques. Unlike stage. The details of the applications will be discussed in the re-
conventional vapor compression system, these systems are en- levant sections. The broad spectrum applications of the M-Cycle
vironmentally friendly but couldn’t be utilized in many situations are given in Fig. 1 [20] which shows its significance in thermal
due to thermodynamic limitations. For example, these have been engineering.
found unfeasible AC systems in case of climatic conditions of The present study provides the first review on M-Cycle in any
Oman and Saudi Arabia [1]. Although vapor compression systems reputed journal. Principle and features of the cycle are discussed in
were found applicable solution but consume huge amount of comparison with conventional evaporative cooling. The paper is
primary energy [1,4]. Similarly from the prospective of energy categorized into three main sections based on HVAC systems,
producing systems, evaporative cooling systems along with heat cooling systems, and gas turbine power cycles. In each section,
exchangers are used for provision of: (i) inlet air cooling, (ii) hu- fundamental approach of the cycle is explained in order to achieve
midified air, and (iii) heat recovery in turbines. the corresponding objectives, and consequently cycle performance
In this regards, Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle) is actively con- as well as limitation is discussed with the reference literatures.
nected with above-mentioned energy consuming and producing
systems. It can play a significant role in order to establish the
advance HVAC and cooling systems for various applications. Be- 2. Principle and features of the Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle)
sides, it can improve the existing gas turbine power cycles to
achieve the higher thermal efficiency by providing inlet air cool- The M-Cycle is a thermodynamic process which captures en-
ing, humidified air, and waste heat recovery. The M-Cycle uniquely ergy from the air by utilizing the psychrometric renewable energy
combines the thermodynamic processes of heat transfer and dew- available from the latent heat of water evaporating into the air
point evaporative cooling by utilizing the psychrometric renew- [7,21–23]. It combines thermodynamic processes of heat transfer
able energy available from the latent heat of water evaporating and evaporative cooling to facilitate product temperature to reach
into the air. In one way it enables the product (i.e. air or any fluid) the dew-point temperature of the ambient air. In other words, it is
temperature to approach the ambient air dew-point temperature. also an advance indirect evaporative cooling (IEC) by which the air
On the other way it acts as a humidifying recuperator con- can be cooled to the dew-point temperature rather than wet-bulb
secutively. Hence, it can be used as cooler as well as humidifying temperature [24]. However, apart from the cooled air the M-Cycle
heater simultaneously in HVAC and cooling applications. Similarly produces saturated hot air which is required by many applications.
it can be used as turbine inlet air cooler and humidifying re- Thus, the M-Cycle is a heat recovery process [13,25–28] by which
cuperator in the gas turbines power cycles. It is worthy to mention the system efficiency can be increased tremendously for various
that the application of saturated hot air in the combustion applications (see Sections 3–5).
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 539

Nomenclature MAC M-Cycle air-conditioning


MCT Maisotsenko cooling tower
ABC air bottoming cycle M-Cycle Maisotsenko Cycle
AC air-conditioning M-ABC Maisotsenko air bottoming cycle
CCT conventional cooling tower M-HAT Maisotsenko humid air turbine cycle
COP coefficient of performance [-] M-SAB Maisotsenko sub-atmospheric Brayton cycle
DAC desiccant air-conditioning T temperature [°C or K]
DEC direct evaporative cooling VAC vapor compression air-conditioning
D-MAC desiccant M-Cycle air-conditioning W humidity ratio [g/kgDA]
EAC ejector air-conditioning
E-MAC ejector M-Cycle air-conditioning Subscript
ɛ effectiveness [-]
HAT humid air turbine cycle dp dew-point
HVAC heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning wb wet-bulb
H-MAC hybrid M-Cycle air-conditioning
IEC indirect evaporative cooling

The basic principle and features of the M-Cycle can be ex- Sequential decrement of dry-bulb temperature in the wet-channel
plained from Fig. 2(a) and (b) representing the old and modified brings the effective wet-bulb temperature to be ideally equal to
M-Cycle, respectively. The psychrometric representation of old and the dew-point temperature. Hence for an ideal heat transfer sur-
modified M-Cycle is shown in Fig. 2(c). It consists of two kinds of face, the product air can be sensible cooled to the dew-point
primary channels named as wet and dry channels. The product as temperature of the ambient air. Moreover, saturated hot air (3) is
well as working channels are devoted for air flow in case of old rejected from the wet-channel equivalent to the evaporated water
M-Cycle (Fig. 2a)., whereas modified M-Cycle (Fig. 2b) gives the and recovered heat. Depending upon the nature of M-Cycle ap-
freedom to recover the heat from any fluid/gas by using an addi- plication, the product and working channels can be interchanged
tional dry-channel. For cooling and AC applications, the product/ in order to utilize the saturated hot air (see Section 5).
process air flows into the dry-channel whereas working air flows Using the air inlet and outlet conditions, the M-Cycle perfor-
into the wet-channel. For example, ambient air (1) is flowed into mance is usually estimated by dew-point effectiveness. It is the
the dry-channel where it is sensibly cooled at constant humidity ratio of inlet and outlet dry-bulb temperature difference to the
to cycle point (2) by transferring the heat to the wet-channel. The temperature difference between inlet dry-bulb and the corre-
operational principle of M-Cycle is based on diverting the cooled sponding dew-point temperature [29–31]. The dew-point effec-
air (2) to the wet-channel in order to use as working air. It results tiveness (ɛdp) is given by Eq. (1) as follows:
in subsequently decrement of effective dry-bulb (1 - 2a; 2b; 2c;
T1 − T2
2) and wet-bulb (1w - 2a,w; 2b,w; 2c,w; 2dp) temperatures of ɛdp =
T1 − T1, dp (1)
the working air in the wet-channel as shown in Fig. 2(d).

Electronics cooling [20,49] Electro hydrodynamic systems


M-CYCLE Automobile AC [20, 98]
Oxidators / Concentrators [20] MEMS
Evaporative systems
[1,7,8,10,11,20,21,24,30,32,34, Humidifiers [1,51]
35,37-40,44, 45,51,53-55,58-
Heating Ventilation and 61,63-66,70,71] Air coolers [53-55]
Plate exhchangers
Air-Conditioning Desiccant systems Fluid coolers [134-137]
[1,7,8,10-12,20,21,23,24,30, [14,51,53, 93-98]
32,34, 35,37-40,44-46,49,51, Heat pumps [46, 52,145] Fluidized beds
53-55,58-1,63-66,70,71,78- Hybrid systems
81,130-132,134-137,142-149] [12,23,37,58, 78-81] Condensers [146,149]
Tube exhchangers
Refrigerant machines [46,
52,130-132,134-137,142-149]
M-HAT cycle [15,17,155,158] Rotary exhchangers
Power Industry Gas turbine cycles
[13,15-18,25-27,37,150,151, [13,15,17,18,26,27,37,150,151, M-ABC cycle [18]
154, 155,158,159,168] 154,155, 158,159,168]
M-SAB cycle [13,25,168]
Exergy tower [15-18]

Water Distillation / Combustion cycles [20,25] Stirling cycle [25]


Desalination
[13,14,20] Fuel Cells Otto cycle [25] Transportation
[US Patent No. 6779351B2]
Diesel cycle [25]
Power stations
Regenerators [16,20] Combine cycle [25]
Heat Recovery
[15-17,19,20,25,168] Recuperators [17-19,168]
Air heater [20]

Combustion systems [15, 20, 25] Fluid heater [15,25]

Fig. 1. Broad spectrum applications of the Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle), reproduced from [20].
540 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

2
1 2 1 dry-channel
dry-channel
3
3 2
wet-channel
wet-channel
1
dry-channel

h3
3 3

Humidity ratio

Humidity ratio
1w
h1
2a,w
2b,w
2c,w
Tdp W1 2dp

2 1 2 2c 2b 2a 1
Dry-bulb temperature Dry-bulb temperature
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of Maisotsenko Cycle for: (a) old M-Cycle, (b) modified M-Cycle, (c) psychrometric representation, and (d) sequential temperature decrement in
wet-channel.

However, the conventional evaporative cooling performance is point temperature rather than wet-bulb temperature. In other
obtained by commonly known wet-bulb effectiveness (ɛwb) as gi- words, at certain absolute humidity the wet-bulb temperature
ven by Eq. (2) [22,32] that is similar to Eq. (1) but corresponding to increases with the increase in dry-bulb temperature whereas the
the wet-bulb temperature. dew-point temperature remains constant.
The versatile applicability of the M-Cycle has been studied in
T1 − T2
ɛ wb = the literature for various energy recovery applications. In this
T1 − T1, wb (2) study it has been categorized into three main sections based
The parameters of Eqs. (1) and (2) are similar as explained on HVAC, cooling and gas turbine power cycles. The coming headings
Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. The conventional DEC (i.e. isenthalpic will discussed each section in details.
cooling) and IEC (i.e. sensible cooling) processes are presented on
Fig. 3(a) and (b), respectively in order to compare with M-Cycle
versatility. It can be noticed that the theoretical limit of DEC and 3. M-Cycle HVAC systems
IEC processes is wet-bulb temperature whereas it is dew-point
temperature in case of M-Cycle [7,32,33] as elaborated in Fig. 2(c). The M-Cycle based HVAC technologies are getting much at-
The wet-bulb effectiveness achieved by the M-Cycle is up to 1.80 tention by the researchers because of the dew-point evaporative
[7,9,21,30,32,34–36] whereas it can be ideally equal to 1.0 for DEC/ cooling potential. Many HVAC system designs are investigated in
IEC techniques. Unlike conventional evaporative cooling, the the literature in order to achieve the sensible and latent load of AC
M-Cycle efficiency increases with the increase in temperature at for various applications which include: conventional AC for re-
Winlet r11.2 g/kgDA [32,37], because of its dependency on dew- sidential and office buildings [8,10,35,38–43]; chilled ceiling and/

Fig. 3. Principle operation of conventional evaporative cooling techniques showing their cooling limit for: (a) DEC, and (b) IEC.
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 541

or displacement ventilation [24,44]; data center cooling [11,45– system is found more sustainable in comparison with three kinds
47]; gas turbine inlet air cooling [16]; greenhouse AC [48]; elec- of IEC system because of the high exergy efficiency at dead state
tronic cooling [49]; automobile batteries cooling [50]; manu- temperature Z 23 °C. Dead state is a reference temperature at
facturing and storage processes [51]; frost formation for energy which thermodynamic system is in equilibrium with the en-
recovery [52] etc. The additional potential applications are high- vironment. Therefore, it works more efficiently in hot and dry
lighted in Fig. 1. The coming sections will discuss the M-Cycle climatic conditions because higher inlet temperature results in
HVAC system designs in detail for many applications. However, more sensible heat transfer between dry and wet channels [20,34].
short summary of the studied M-Cycle HVAC systems is provided In addition to above mention scenarios, the standalone MAC
in Table 1 which gives the quick overview of the presented work. can also be used as passive cooling technology for displacement
ventilation as well as cooling load reduction. The coming sub-
3.1. Standalone M-Cycle AC heading discusses the applicability of MAC as passive cooling
technology.
The standalone M-Cycle AC (MAC) (see Fig. 2) unit provides two
types of air flows simultaneously i.e. (1) sensibly cooled air and 3.1.1. Chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation
(2) saturated hot air, which can be used for cooling in summer and The importance of passive cooling, chilled ceiling and dis-
humidification cum heating in winter seasons [1,32,51,53–55]. The placement/natural ventilation is well-known in the literature [72–
basic working principle of the system is elaborated in Section 2; 76]. It helps in cooling load reduction and improves in indoor air
however the detail design varies according to the cooling capacity quality by possessing high ventilation. The M-Cycle being an ad-
and ambient conditions. The advantages of evaporative cooling vance IEC system has been successfully considered for chilled
over conventional vapor compression AC (VAC) are well known in ceiling displacement ventilation [24,44,77]. The concept was ori-
the literature [37,38,56,57]. In particular, the standalone MAC ginally recognized by Miyazaki et al. [24,77] in which the authors
possesses huge energy saving potential and consumes 10 times performed the system dynamic simulation while using the solar
less primary energy as compared to typical VAC system chimney as a system driving force. The schematic diagram of the
[11,20,37,58,59]. It provides the conditioned air to inhabitant proposed system is shown in Fig. 5 [24,77]. The study concludes
without recirculating the indoor air [7,39,60,61]. On the other that the system is feasible as a solar energy driven cooling system
hand, typical VAC system recirculates about 85% of the indoor air because the sufficient air flow to the M-Cycle evaporative cooling
in order to make the system cost effective [37]. The fresh air intake channel could be induced by the solar chimney. The system can
is very obligatory for some of the AC applications e.g. hospitals/ also achieve the radiative load of 40–50 W m  2 without increasing
clinics where the patients are sensitive to indoor air quality [1], the ceiling temperature. Furthermore, the system reduces 10% of
and greenhouses when the plants require sufficient amount of CO2 the maximum cooling load by replacing quarter of the ceiling area
for effective photosynthesis [62]. In this regard, the standalone with the proposed system. Similarly, another study [44] on
MAC systems have been successfully studied for different kinds of M-Cycle based displacement ventilation system showed the im-
applications [8,10,11,24,35,38–40,44–46,63–66]. provement in sensible load removal of 18–72% for the supply air
A standalone MAC system has been experimentally in- RH ranging from 90% to 10%, respectively.
vestigated in detail for building AC [7,8,21,30,32,40,67–69]. In the From the above prospective it has been concluded that the
cited literature the authors established energy and mass con- standalone MAC can achieve the AC load of an active or passive AC
servation balance equations, and performed mathematical simu- system irrespective of temperature only when the humidity is not
lation for heat and mass transfer of the standalone M-Cycle unit. so high. On the other hand the system design can be modified by
The mathematical model was validated against the experimental many ways in order to achieve the AC loads in humid regions. The
result which gives the accurate agreement. It is the most accurate details about such modifications are discussed in the coming
approximations from any available M-Cycle models as far as our sections.
understanding is concern. Effect of inlet air conditions on the
M-Cycle supply air temperature and dew-point effectiveness is 3.2. Hybrid M-Cycle AC
shown in Fig. 4(a) and (b), respectively. It can be noticed from
Fig. 4(a) that the system delivers highly cooled air at relatively The hybrid M-Cycle AC (H-MAC) combines the features of vapor
lower humidity ratio and higher temperature of inlet air, because compression AC (VAC) and M-Cycle AC (MAC), though the opera-
of the corresponding lower dew-point temperature. Fig. 4(b) gives tional scheme could be different depending upon the system de-
more comprehensive outlook in order to optimize the ideal inlet sign. A simple schematic of the system is shown in Fig. 6 [78–80].
air conditions for the system. The dew-point effectiveness of the It can be seen that the MAC unit cools the air sensibly to a certain
system increases with the increase in inlet air temperature at temperature whereas the VAC unit achieves the remaining sen-
Winlet ¼11.2 g/kgDA. However, it starts decreasing when the hu- sible and latent load of AC by cooling below the dew-point. Fur-
midity ratio exceeds from 11.2 g/kgDA. It can be concluded that the thermore, the return air from the conditioned space can be passed
standalone MAC is efficient when the ambient air humidity ratio is through the M-Cycle wet-channel followed by the condenser's
r11.2 g/kgDA. It is also concluded that the system can provide vicinity in order to improve the overall system performance.
desired thermal comfort in residential and commercial buildings The H-MAC system was experimentally investigated by Na-
when inlet temperature and humidity ratio are up to 45 °C and tional Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2009 [78]. It has
11.2 g/kgDA, respectively [7,8,40,67]. On the other hand, the sys- been reported that the system enables energy saving potential of
tem cooling capacity increases at higher temperatures [32] which 80% as compared to conventional VAC system [12,37,58,78,79]. In
also motivate its applicability in various industrial applications another study the H-MAC system has been simulated for hot and
[37]. humid climates [23]. The authors proposed a particular H-MAC
Furthermore, the system is practically investigated for National design and developed the numerical simulation model to in-
Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in a project funded by National vestigate the overall system performance. The system cooled the
Science Foundation and NASA [11,45,46]. Through the complete ambient air below the dew-point, and in this regard condensation
retrofit of a conventional AC system, the cooling energy has been occurred in the dry-channels due to the lower temperature in wet-
reduced up to 70% in summer and 90% in winter by means of channel (working air) as compared to dry-channel dew-point
M-Cycle unit. In another study [38,70,71] the standalone MAC temperature. The lower working air temperature was achieved by
542
Table 1
Summary of the studied M-Cycle HVAC systems.

System type Reference(s) Study type Findings, conclusions, and remarks Application(s)

Standalone M-Cycle [32,63] Experiment þ Simulation Depending upon flow rate, high cooling performance of M-Cycle AC was ob-  Conventional HVAC
AC tained with:  Building AC
 ɛwb ¼ 0.85–1.15  Office AC
 ɛdp ¼ 0.15–0.78 (different design schemes of standalone MAC with solar
[12,35,55,61] Experiment þ Analysis  10% higher COP by modified M-Cycle than old M-Cycle and electric energy utilization)
 14% performance increment via porous surface treatment in wet channels
[54,58,60,64] Simulation þ Analysis  60% higher ɛwb by M-Cycle as compared to IEC
 Modified M-Cycle is advantageous for commercial applications with higher

M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555
COP in hot and dry climates
[7,8,21,30,40,67–69] Simulation þ Experiment Analysis on different M-Cycle schemes concludes that its performance is
mainly depends on:
 Working to product air ratio
 Air flow rate
[10,38,71] Energy & Exergy Analysis  High exergy efficiency of M-Cycle AC at dead state temperature Z 23°C
 M-Cycle AC is more sustainable than different IEC systems
[24,44,77] Simulation þ Analysis Developed solar chimney based M-Cycle conception for chilled ceiling and  Building ventilation
displacement ventilation systems.  Office ventilation
 40-50 Wm  2 radiative load is achieved without increase in ceiling
temperature
 18-72% improvement in sensible load removal for supply air RH of 90-10%,
respectively
[11,45,46] Experiment þ Analysis In comparison with conventional VAC systems, M-Cycle AC reduces cooling  Data Center cooling
energy requirements up to:
 70% in summer
 90% in winter
Hybrid M-Cycle AC [78,79] Experiment þ Analysis Hybrid M-Cycle AC system enabled energy saving potential of 80% as compared  Rooftop AC
to conventional VAC system
[23,81] Simulation þ Experiment  11-35% saving of annual cooling energy for different climatic cities  Building AC
 25-50% reduction in compressor as compared to conventional VAC system
E-MAC [82,90,92] Theoretical & Psychrometric Analysis  Binary fluid is considered for E-MAC due to higher COP than single fluid  Conventional AC
 System enabled higher COP than conventional VAC system with less energy
consumption
Desiccant M-Cycle AC [43,48,110] Simulation þ Experiment Supply air conditions of dehumidified air was cooled from 50-80 °C to  18 °C.  Building AC
 Greenhouse AC
[51] Simulation þ Analysis Electricity consumption was reduced significantly in various AC applications as Air-conditioning for
compare to conventional VAC systems.  Thermal comfort
 Manufacturing processes
 Storage system
[16] Simulation þ Analysis  M-DAC was resulted the most economically inlet cooling technology for a 50  Turbine inlet air cooling
MWe gas turbine power
 Possessed life savings of 31.882 MUS$ and life span of 25 years was yielded
for UAE climatic conditions
[14] Theoretical & Psychrometric Analysis  Elimination of heat exchanger is proposed in M-Cycle based DAC system  Conventional AC
 Therefore, saving of 45% cost as compared to conventional DAC system
[93] Experiment þ Analysis Dew-point effectiveness of  1.20 was achieved by liquid M-DAC when inlet
air humidity ratio was 9-20 g/kgDA.
[117,119,121] Experiment þ Simulation Membrane based liquid D-MAC system enabled significant energy saving
potential as compared to conventional AC technologies.
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 543

35
condenser
exhaust
Winlet = 25.0 g/kgDA saturated
Outlet temperature [°C]
air
30 warm air evaporator

fan
Winlet = 16.5 g/kgDA
25
inlet air
20 return and/or
ambient air
Winlet = 11.2 g/kgDA
M-Cycle unit supply air
15
20 25 30 35 40 45 Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the hybrid M-Cycle AC (H-MAC) system [78–80].
Inlet temperature [°C]

0.8 expansion solar


condenser valve collector
Dew-point effectiveness [-]

exhaust vapor
air pump generator
0.7 Winlet = 25.0 g/kgDA
Ejector
Winlet = 16.5 g/kgDA
0.6 saturated
warm air fan

0.5 inlet air


return and/or
Winlet = 11.2 g/kgDA ambient air
0.0 M-Cycle
evaporator supply air
20 35 40 45 unit
25 30
Inlet temperature [°C] Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of the ejector M-Cycle AC system (E-MAC), reproduced
from [82].
Fig. 4. Effect of inlet air conditions on the performance of standalone M-Cycle AC
unit for: (a) supply air temperature, reproduced from [7,32,40,67]; and (b) dew-
point effectiveness, reproduced from [32]. 3.3. Ejector M-Cycle AC

mixing the return air from the conditioned space. Results showed The ejector M-Cycle AC (E-MAC) combines the features of
that the MAC unit successfully accomplished 40–47% of total ejector AC (EAC) and M-Cycle AC (MAC). In other words, it replaces
cooling load depending upon the ambient conditions. Moreover, the compressor of H-MAC with the ejector and the associated
the system enables higher latent heat transfer rate at various re- assembly. The simplified schematic diagram of the E-MAC system
lative humidity when compared with conventional IEC. It has been is shown in Fig. 7 [82]. The operational mechanism of E-MAC is
concluded that the MAC unit as a pre-cooling unit under humid similar to the H-MAC, however the ejector in the E-MAC system is
climates will lead to huge energy saving with improved efficiency applied as a jet compressor which is operated by thermal heat
and reduced vapor compression cooling capacities [23]. In a si- most preferably solar energy or low grade waste heat as shown in
milar simulation based study [81] the annual cooling energy sav- Fig. 7. The details of the ejector working principle can be found
ing of 11–35% was obtained by H-MAC system when operated in from the Ref. [83–86]. The conventional EAC system enables very
different climatic cities. Furthermore, 25–50% less compressor size low COP as compared to the VAC or other AC systems [86,87].
was obtained when compared with conventional vapor compres- Therefore, the combination of EAC with other AC systems (e.g.
sion system. absorption, VAC, MAC etc.) have been studied with the aim to

solar chimney M-Cycle

Sun 1m
dry
M-Cycle channel wet
dry-channel
channel 3m (ad)

5m
convective
solar heat transfer wet-channel 0.3m
chimney radiative (aw)
heat transfer

Schematic diagram Geometric outlook

Fig. 5. Schematic and geometric representation of solar chimney and M-Cycle in a passive cooling system, reproduced from [24,77].
544 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

Exhaust Desiccant Heat Heat


air Block-II Source Exchanger
(7) (5)
(8) Q Outdoor air
[kW]
(6)
Desiccant IEC cooling
Block-I via M-Cycle
Outdoor Supply
air (1) (2) (3) air

(4)

Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of solid desiccant M-Cycle AC (D-MAC) system, re-


produced from [53].

3.4.1. Solid desiccant system


Fig. 8. Performance comparison between EAC and E-MAC systems at different
ambient conditions, reproduced from [82].
The conventional solid DAC system has shown the potential for
various kinds of AC applications e.g. residential and office build-
ings [99–102]; automobiles [103]; wet markets [104]; drying
grains [105]; greenhouses [62]; marine ships [106,107]; museums
increase the overall system performance [82,88,89]. However, the
[108,109]; hospitals; product storage and preservation etc. The
literature on E-MAC system is limited.
M-Cycle being an advance IEC can improve the existing DAC sys-
Buyadgie et al. [82] conducted a study on E-MAC system in
tems for different applications covering all kinds of climates.
order to analyze the system performance for various climatic
Moreover, the solid D-MAC system has the ability to utilize the
conditions. The proposed system uses the binary fluid because of
exhaust waste heat from the M-Cycle wet-channel for desiccant
the higher COP than the single fluid [90–92]. The single and binary
regeneration, which will increase the system COP. Recent studies
fluid based EAC are identical in terms of evaporator, refrigerant
have shown its applicability for multiple applications e.g. thermal
condenser, vapor generator, thermal pump, expansion valve and
comfort [14,53,58,110]; turbines inlet air cooling [16]; greenhouses
ejector, however the binary fluid based EAC possesses an addi-
[48]; manufacturing and storage processes [51].
tional fractionating condenser. The purpose of the fractionating
Miyazaki et al. [53] investigated the potential of solid D-MAC
condenser is to separate the mixed fluid (coming from the ejector)
system by means of theoretical and experimental analysis. The
into the working and refrigerant fluids. The proposed system is
simple schematic of the proposed system is shown in Fig. 9 [53]. In
similar to the one shown in Fig. 7. It is important to mention that
addition to M-Cycle unit, the system was consisting of two de-
the refrigerant and fractionating condensers are presented as
siccant beds, a heat exchanger, and a thermal heat unit. A nu-
single unit on Fig. 7 in order to avoid the complexity in under-
merical simulation model was developed by the author to simu-
stating the system operation. The performance of E-MAC and
late the system dynamic performance, and reasonable agreement
conventional EAC system has been compared at different ambient
was obtained between the experimental and simulation results.
conditions as shown in Fig. 8 [82]. It can be noticed that the E-MAC
The dew-point effectiveness (ɛdp) by the M-Cycle unit (as given by
system possesses higher COP than the conventional EAC system at
Eq. (1)) was found about 0.60–0.75 for supply air flow ratio of
RH less than 60% when the ambient air temperature is 30 °C. On
r0.75, respectively. The instantaneous variation of final cooling
the other hand the E- MAC delivers higher COP throughout the RH
effect of M-Cycle on dehumidified air was determined as shown in
range when the ambient air temperature is 43 °C. It was concluded
Fig. 10. Results showed that the M-Cycle successfully cooled the
that the E-MAC in humid areas should be considered only if the
dehumidified air from 50 to 80 °C to the supply air conditions of
ambient air temperature is more than 40 °C. Furthermore, the
 18 °C.
system yields the minimum energy consumption for processing of
According to an experimental study [100], the coefficient of
unit air flow rate.
performance (COP) by the standalone DAC system is limited to
0.35-0.44 for regeneration temperature of 60–75 °C. However, the
3.4. Desiccant M-Cycle AC
theoretical COP by the solid D-MAC system is ranging from 0.60 to
1.10 for regeneration temperature of 70 °C to 90 °C, respectively
The desiccant M-Cycle AC (D-MAC) system combines the fea-
[53]. Another comparative study [16] on four different cooling
tures of desiccant AC (DAC) and M-Cycle AC (MAC). It has been
recently studied by many researchers in order to establish an ef-
ficient AC system for humid climates [1,14,16,51,53,93,94]. The
100
system can be supplement of standalone MAC in order to be fea- dehumidified
sible for all kinds of climates. It achieves the latent load of AC by 80 air, (2)
Temperature [°C]

M-Cycle
desiccant dehumidification whereas sensible load is accomplished
inlet air, (3)
by evaporative cooling [1,95–97]. In principle, M-Cycle gives better 60
evaporative cooling as compared to conventional DEC/IEC techni- M-Cycle
exhaust air
ques [30], as explained in Section 2. It also helps to reduce the
40
system cost by eliminating heat exchanger which costs about 45%
of the conventional DAC system [14]. Moreover, the concept of outdoor air, (1) and (5)
desiccant integrated MAC (as a single unit) protected by the US 20
supply air, (4)
patent [98] sound more feasible in order to develop a compact
system. The concept covers the variety of solid and liquid de- 0
0 400 800 1200
siccants however the literature in this field is limited. The coming
Time [s]
headings briefly discuss the potential of M-Cycle in solid and li-
quid based DAC applications. Fig. 10. Cooling performance of solid D-MAC system, reproduced from [53].
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 545

system showed that the solid D-MAC is the most economically


justified inlet cooling technology for a 50 MWe gas turbine power
plant in UAE. It possesses life savings of 31.882 MUS$ and life span
of 25 years. Furthermore, a numerical simulation based analysis
showed the potential of solid D-MAC for reduction in electricity
consumption of various applications [51]. A payback period of less
than 5 years is obtained when the load hours was more than or
equal to 4000.

3.4.2. Liquid desiccant system


Liquid DAC systems have been widely studied for AC in humid
areas [111–113]. Solar operated liquid DAC systems have shown a
huge energy saving potential as compared to conventional AC
system [114–116]. However, the system performance is dependent
on the sensible AC loads. The MAC can be a good supplement to
achieve the sensible AC loads distinctly. Furthermore, the thermal
energy from the M-Cycle exhaust air can be used to regenerate the
desiccant economically.
In this regard, a liquid D-MAC system was experimentally in-
vestigated for humid climates [93]. The system prototype was
developed which uses lithium bromide as desiccant solution. The
system top view for one channel pair is presented in Fig. 11 which
shows the working principle of M-Cycle in the liquid D-MAC sys-
tem [93]. Effects of operating parameters on system performance
are analyzed. According to the results, the dew-point effectiveness
of about 1.20 is obtained when inlet air humidity ratio was ranging
from 9 to 20 g/kgDA. It is worth mentioning that the dew-point
effectiveness exceeds from unity because the dew-point tem-
perature by the dehumidified air is well below than the inlet air. It
can be seen from Fig. 12(a) and (b) that the cooling ability (ΔT) and
dew-point effectiveness (ɛdp) increases with the increase in air
inlet temperature. It is because of M-Cycle dependency on dew-
point temperature [37] as explained in Section 2. Therefore, the Fig. 12. Effect of air temperature on the performance of the liquid D-MAC system,
reproduced from [93].
liquid D-MAC has a potential to achieve the sensible AC loads
(after desiccant dehumidification) for various humid climates. The
study concludes that the moisture removal capacity (in dehumi- tradeoff between COP and system size [119]. According to the
difier) and sensible heat (in M-Cycle unit) can be improved sig- analysis, the system enables the energy saving potential as com-
nificantly at the same time by increasing the liquid desiccant flow pared to conventional AC technologies. The detail energy saving
rate or inlet concentration. Furthermore, a new conception of potential will be demonstrated in the future after field installation
membrane AC based on liquid D-MAC is proposed recently [117– of the system as reported by the authors [117].
121]. Significance of membrane AC is well-known because of the
isothermal dehumidification [122,123], though the efficiency is
debatable. In the cited references [117–121], the authors developed 4. M-Cycle cooling
numerical model of the proposed membrane/desiccant-MAC sys-
tem on the basis of their previous studies [124–126], and suc- In addition to HVAC systems, the M-Cycle possesses huge po-
cessfully validated the model with the experimental data within tential for cooling applications. In this regard, present study fo-
710% error. It has been concluded that there is an inherent design cusses on M-Cooling towers and M-Condensers. A short summary
of studied M-Cooling towers and M-Condensers is provided in
Table 2. The coming subheadings will discuss each applications in
detail.

4.1. M-Cooling tower

Cooling tower is a heat rejection device which rejects waste


heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a
lower temperature [127–129]. The most common applications for
cooling towers are providing cooled water for AC, manufacturing
and power generation processes. The schematic diagrams for
conventional (CCT) and Maisotsenko (MCT) cooling towers are
shown in Fig. 13(a)–(d) [37,130–132]. In addition, the corre-
sponding psychrometric processes are elaborated on Fig. 14(a) and
(b) [130,132], respectively. It can be seen that the CCT cools the hot
water from the cooling tower to the ambient air wet-bulb tem-
Fig. 11. Schematic diagram of liquid desiccant M-Cycle AC (D-MAC) system, re- perature using DEC technique [130,133]. On the other hand the
produced from [93]. MCT cools the water stream towards the dew-point of the ambient
546 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

Table 2
Summary of the studied M-Cooling tower and M-Condenser systems.

System type Reference (s) Study type Findings, conclusions, and remarks Application (s)

M-Cooling Tower [131,135] Simulation þ Analysis  COP of 0.20-0.90 was obtained depending on available conditions  Cooling
 Unlike CCTs, COP of MCT increases with the increase in ambient air  Open circuit cooling tower
temperature  Close circuit cooling tower
 Advantageous in hot climates  Manufacturing processes
[130,132] Simulation þ Analysis  COP was found up to 0.86 with evaporation rate of 2.2%  Heat recovery in power generation
[137] Simulation þ  Three MCT design schemes are investigated processes
Validation  Water can be conditionally cooled to the dew-point temperature of
ambient air
M-Condenser [146,149] Experiment þ  9–58% (with an average of 30%) higher energy efficiency ratio is  Refrigeration
Analysis achieved as compared to air-cooled condenser  Air-conditioning
 Heat pump systems
 Industrial/chemical processes

saturated saturated hot air (2)


hot air (2)
hot
hot water
water

wet channel

wet channel
packing

ambient
air (1)
(1)
cooled ambient
water air (1) water

saturated water for hot water


hot air (2) evaporation saturated ambient
hot air (2) air (1)
hot
ambient
water
wet channel

air (1)
dry channel
wet channel

wet channel

dry channel

plate

plate

cooled water cooled water


Fig. 13. Schematic diagram for: (a) general cooling tower flow scheme, (b) CCT, (c) close circuit MCT, and (d) open circuit MCT, reproduced from [37,130–132].

air [130,131,134–136]. In both open and close circuit based MCTs, Therefore, MCT fill can be designed as retrofit to the operational
the air in dry-channel is sensibly cooled before it enters to the CCT in order to substantially decrease cooled water temperature.
wet-channel for evaporative cooling which enables it to cool the The open and close circuit based MCTs are compared with the
water near to the dew-point temperature of the ambient air CCTs in order to analyze the M-Cycle applicability in cooling
[134,137]. Furthermore, it also helps to reduce the pressure drop towers [132]. In comparison with open circuit, the close circuit
and fan power. The major differences between CCT and MCT are air MCT has no direct contact of air with the process fluid i.e. water or
flow route and water distribution through the fill (packing). a glycol/water mixture. Results showed that the both MCTs cooled
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 547

Air-cooled Condenser Evaporator


CCT
fan

Humidity ratio [g/kgDA]


T2wb
Compressor

2 fan
T1wb

refrigerant outlet
micro-channels
Schematic
M-Condenser
T1dp

refrigerant
cooled water

inlet
temperature
fan heat/mass
Dry-bulb temperature [°C] exchange
dry-channel wet-channel

Fig. 15. Experimental setup for performance comparison between the air-cooled
and M-Condenser, reproduced from [147,148,150].
MCT 2
condensers of the air-conditioning, refrigeration and power pro-
Humidity ratio [g/kgDA]

ducing systems [142,143]. The Maisotsenko condenser (M-Con-


denser) is an evaporative condenser that can considerably enhance
the energy efficiency of the system by rejecting the heat efficiently
[37,144–148].
T1wb Gillan et al. [149] performed an experimental study on
M-Condenser in order to compare its performance with the con-
ventional air-cooled condenser. Fig. 15 [146,147,149] shows the
experimental setup which mainly consist of: (1) compressor,
T1dp (2) air-cooled condenser, (3) M-Condenser, (4) fans, and (5) valves.
1 The arrangement of valves facilitated in determination of perfor-
cooled water mance parameters of air-cooled and M-Condenser independently.
temperature The M-Condenser was composed of aluminum based micro
channels for refrigerant flow, whereas the product and working
Dry-bulb temperature [°C] channels are realized by cellulose sheets and plastic coating as
shown in Fig. 15. Effect of ambient conditions on energy efficiency
Fig. 14. Psychrometric representation of cooling tower operation for: (a) CCT; and
(b) close/open circuit MCT, reproduced from [130,132,133]. ratio (EER) was determined for air-cooled and M-Condenser as
shown in Fig. 16 [149]. It can be noticed that the EER by the
M-Condenser remains stable by increasing the ambient air tem-
the water at lower temperature than the CCT and enable double perature from 26.7 °C to 43.3 °C whereas it decreases in case of air-
evaporation rate. Furthermore, the open circuit MCT has been cooled condenser. Furthermore, the M-Condenser obtained 30%
preferably proposed by the authors because of its simple fill
higher EER (on an average) as compared to air-cooled condenser
structure, and has been analyzed by many other researchers
with a minimum of 9% and a maximum of 58%.
[37,130,135,137]. Morosuk et al. [135] simulated the COP of the
MCT for various ambient air conditions. According to the results,
the MCT yields the COP from 0.20 to 0.90 depending on the
available conditions. Unlike the CCTs the COP of the MCT increases
with the increase in ambient air temperature which distinguishes
its applicability in hot climates. In another simulation based study
[130] the COP of the MCT was found up to 0.86 along with 2.20%
evaporation rate. Furthermore, Sverdlin et al. [137] analyzed the
M-Cycle base cooling tower using a simulation program which was
validated on the basis of real field data from existing cooling
towers. It was concluded that the M-Cycle based cooling towers
can conditionally reduce the water temperature up to the dew-
point of the ambient air.

4.2. M-Condenser

One of the key component in vapor compression, absorption


cooling and refrigeration system is the condenser, which could be Fig. 16. Effect of ambient air conditions on the performance of air-cooled and
air-cooled, water-cooled or evaporative condenser [138–141]. The M-Condenser, reproduced from [150]. Lines are obtained from the best fit of ex-
M-Cycle as an advance IEC process can be efficiently applied to the perimental data.
548 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

5. M-Cycle conception in gas turbines water before combustion reduces the compressed air temperature
at the inlet to the recuperator, which improves the energy re-
The gas turbine usually consists of: (1) a compressor, (2) a covery rate. Furthermore, humidifying the gas turbine working
combustion chamber, (3) a turbine, and (4) a generator [150,151]. fluid helps in reduction of NOx formation during the combustion
A simple layout of open cycle gas turbine operating on ideal process.
Brayton cycle is shown in Fig. 17(a). Referring to T-S diagram From the above prospective the M-Cycle roles in the im-
shown in Fig. 17(b), the ideal Brayton cycle is made up of four provement of gas turbine efficiency can be listed as follows:
completely irreversible processes i.e. (1-2) isentropic compres-
sion; (2-3) constant pressure heat addition; (3-4) isentropic – To supply hot and humid air into the combustion chamber that
expansion; and (4-1) constant pressure heat rejection. The detail improves the cycle efficiency, and consequently augments the
insight of the operational principle can be found from the Ref. power generation.
[152]. – To recover the thermal energy from the exhaust gasses in order
The gas turbine with the working fluid of air-water mixture to improve the cycle efficiency.
enables high electric efficiency and high specific power output to – To provide cooled air to the compressor for turbine inlet air
specific investment cost below that of combined cycles [153,154]. cooling which improves the compressor efficiency.
– To reduce the NOx formation during combustion process by
Various humidified gas turbine cycles have been proposed in the
providing excessive moist air.
literature (e.g. direct water-injected cycles, steam-injected cycles,
and evaporative cycles with humidification towers etc.), though
In order to achieve the above mentioned M-Cycle roles, the
only few are available commercially. In addition, the Maisotsenko
coming sub-sections explain the recently proposed three different
gas turbine conceptions based on humidified gas turbine cycles
Maisotsenko gas turbine cycles. In addition, a short summary of
have been recently proposed [13,16–18,25–27,155]. The details
the studies M-Cycle gas turbines is presented in Table 3, which
about particular gas turbine type can be found from the cited re-
gives the quick overview of the present work. It is worthy to
ferences. The key features of the humidified gas turbine can be mention that the M-Cycle is a heat recovery conception, and is not
explained as [153]: Addition of water or steam increases the limited to the discussed cycles only. Its applications could be more
combustion chamber efficiency as well as mass flow rate passing versatile, though the study focuses only few cases because of the
through the turbine, and consequently enhances the specific limited literature.
power output. In this regard, the compressor work remains con-
stant (if the water/steam is added after the compressor), and least 5.1. M-HAT cycle
work is required to increase the pressure of a liquid as compared
to a gas. The overall cycle efficiency increases by utilizing the The evaporative gas turbine or humid air turbine (HAT) cycle
turbine exhaust heat for generating hot water and/or steam in involves in injection of water in the humidification tower with a
order to preheat the combustion air in the recuperator. Addition of water loop recirculation system [17,153]. The importance of HAT
cycle is well-known in the literature and considered as one of the
most efficient humidified gas turbine cycle [153]. Gallo [156]
compared the HAT cycle performance with the other gas turbine
power cycles. According to the results the HAT cycle obtained
optimum efficiency at moderate pressure ratio whereas the spe-
cific work output increases with the increase in pressure ratio
[17,156]. Furthermore, it achieved the highest efficiency of 54.8%
among the other studied cycles when the turbine inlet tempera-
ture and pressure ratio was about 1300 °C and 12, respectively.
Similarly another study [157] showed the maximum efficiency of
54.6% for the total pressure ratio of 20.
The Maisotsenko humid air turbine (M-HAT) cycle is one of
recently proposed humidified gas turbine cycle [15–17,25–
27,37,155,158,159]. The simplified schematic diagram of the
M-HAT cycle is shown in Fig. 18(a). It works on evaporative gas
turbine principle in which the humidification tower is replaced by
the M-Cycle air saturator assembly [17,37,159] e.g. shell and tube
air saturator [17,155], as shown in Fig. 18(a). The operational
scheme of the M-Cycle shell and tube air saturator is shown in
Fig. 18(b) [155]. Referring to Fig. 18, air at state (1) is compressed
adiabatically to state (2) by the compressor. The compressed air
enters into the M-Cycle air saturator where it is heated and hu-
midified at state (3) by utilizing the waste heat from the turbine
exhaust gases, and consequently supplied to the combustion
chamber. The turbine exhaust gases enter into the M-Cycle air
saturator at state (5) and exit at state (6). The detailed operational
procedure can be found from [17,155].
Saghafifar and Gadalla [17] performed the detailed analysis of
M-HAT power cycle with a comprehensive model of air saturator.
The comparative analysis between HAT and M-HAT cycles has been
conducted by the authors in order to optimize the effect of com-
Fig. 17. Open cycle gas turbine operating on ideal Brayton cycle: (a) simple layout; pressor pressure ratio, inlet air temperature, combustor outlet
(b) T-s diagram. temperature, water inlet temperature, and air saturator degree of
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 549

Table 3
Summary of the studied M-Cycle gas turbines.

Turbine type Reference (s) Study type Findings, conclusions, and remarks Application (s)

M-HAT [15,17,155,158] Simulationþ Analysis  Possessed higher thermodynamic efficiency than humidified gas turbine  Producing power
cycles including HAT cycle  Inlet air pre-cooling
 Facilitate heat recovery with higher efficiency  Compressors inter coolers
M-ABC [18] Simulationþ Analysis  Enabled higher efficiency as compared to conventional ABC at optimum  Heat recovery from exhaust
operating conditions gases
 Facilitate heat recovery with higher efficiency  Cooling and heating during
M-SAB [13,168] Energy & Exergy Analysis  Compressor based M-SAB cycle possessed higher efficiency as compared turbine cycles
to conventional open Brayton cycle at certain conditions
 Ejector based M-SAB cycle design was found optimum choice when
electricity price is high and heat price is low

5.2. M-ABC cycle


shell and tube saturated combustion
air saturator hot air chamber Conventional combined power cycles operating on gas turbine
cool (3) fuel topping cycle and a steam turbine bottoming cycle are considered
exhaust (6) as the most efficient combined power cycles [18,150,151]. How-
gases ever, it has been reported that the fact is not applicable for the
(4)
small scale power plants with capacity of r50MWe [154], because
fresh air (2) (5) combust
of the condenser and heat recovery steam generator in the steam
hot gases
(1) compre- hot bottoming cycle [18]. In this regard, organic Rankine cycle (ORC)
ssed air exhaust [160–163] and air bottoming cycle (ABC) [164–167] has been ex-
Generator
gases tensively studied in order to replace the steam bottoming cycle.
Compressor Turbine The ABC cycle was proposed in the late 1980s and is well-known
in the literature due to its simplicity and compact design [18].
torque Maisotsenko air bottoming cycle (M-ABC) [18] is a recently
proposed ABC cycle which is an integration of Maisotsenko gas
turbine cycle [17] as a bottoming cycle to a topping simple gas
saturated turbine cycle [150,151]. In the M-ABC, the conventional air heat
hot air (3) water exchanger of the ABC is replaced by the M-Cycle air saturator cum
hot heat exchanger. The schematic diagram of the M-ABC cycle is
(5) (6) cool
turbine turbine shown in Fig. 19 [18]. It can be seen that the hot exhaust gases
exhaust exhaust from turbine No. 1 enters into the M-Cycle air saturator cum heat
gases gases exchanger at state (4) where it transfer its heat using the M-Cycle
water principle and exit at state (5). On the other hand the compressed
water water air at state (7) is heated and humidified simultaneously by means
(2) of M-Cycle principle, and supplied to the turbine No. 2 at state
compre- (11). A comprehensive analysis of M-ABC is reported by Saghafifar
ssed air and Gadalla [18]. The authors developed a thermodynamic model
for M-ABC with the detailed air saturator model. It has been
water cold water out concluded that the M-ABC enables higher efficiency as compared
to conventional ABC at the optimum operating conditions. The
Fig. 18. Maisotsenko humid air turbine (M-HAT): (a) simplified schematic diagram specific work output by the M-Cycle air saturator was 43% higher
of M-HAT cycle; (b) operational scheme of M-Cycle shell and tube air saturator than the conventional heat exchanger. Consequently, the efficiency
[156] in M-HAT cycle. was enhanced by 3.7%, which is equivalent to 2600 t of natural gas
fuel saving per year. Furthermore, the authors reported that the
humidification. Maximum efficiency by the M-HAT was achieved replacement of conventional ABC power plants with the MBC can
when water addition in the upper section of the air saturator yield savings of 0.655 US$M every year for the plant operating
(Fig. 18b) was limited to cool the exhaust gases. It has been con- hours of 8000 h/year and fuel cost of 5.5 US$/GJ. Hence, it has been
cluded that air saturator in comparison with conventional heat concluded that the M-ABC has thermodynamic superiority over
exchanger can increase the plant efficiency and specific work ABC, which can setup an advance combined power cycle.
output by 7% points and 44.4%, respectively. In addition, the im-
provement results in 13,000 t of natural gas fuel saving per year. 5.3. M-SAB cycle
Moreover, the M-HAT cycle possesses greater efficiency than the
HAT cycle at higher pressure ratios. It is worth mentioning that the The modern gas turbine engines are based on well-known open
specific work output by the M-HAT cycle was continuously greater Brayton cycle (see Fig. 17) [150,151], which begins with air com-
than one achieved by the HAT cycle regardless of compression pression (in the compressor) followed by constant pressure heat
pressure ratio. Similarly various studies [15,37,155,158,159] con- addition (in the combustion chamber) and finally terminates in
clude that the thermodynamic efficiency of M-HAT cycle is sig- the gas turbine at the ambient pressure conditions. The overall
nificantly higher than any humidified gas turbine cycle including disadvantage of the cycle is the significant amount of waste heat
the HAT cycle. Consequently, the present study concludes that the discharged into the atmosphere which results in poor thermal
M-HAT cycle has challenged the HAT cycle for the title of optimal efficiency [168]. In this regard, inverse Brayton cycle [169] have
humidified gas turbine cycle. been investigated with different configuration in order to increase
550 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

Fig. 19. Schematic diagram of the Maisotsenko air bottoming cycle (M-ABC), reproduced from [18].

the overall cycle performance [170–175]. In this cycle heated cycles one by one.
working medium at atmospheric pressure is initially expanded in
the gas turbine. After that the working medium heat is recovered 5.3.1. Compressed based system
by the heat exchanger, and finally the cooled gas is sucked by the Khalatov et al. [168] analyzed the compressor based M-SAB
compressor to the atmospheric pressure. The cycle works below cycle while recovering the turbine waste heat. The schematic
the atmospheric pressure and referred as sub-atmospheric cycle diagram of the cycle is shown in Fig. 20 [25,26,168]. The cycle
[168]. It is believed that the reverse Brayton cycle is not com- configuration is similar to the [25,26], however an additional solar
mercially feasibly because of the greater compressor size and energy utilization unit is proposed for pre-heating (process 1-2)
employed higher operational energy [168]. On the other hand, the in order to improve the cycle efficiency. The air is heated and
M-Cycle as an innovative humidifying recuperator can sig- humidified simultaneously by the M-Cycle assembly (process 2-
nificantly improve the cycle performance by providing extremely 3) while recovering the turbine waste heat (process 5-6). The
saturated hot air to the combustion chamber (before turbine) and saturated hot air improves the combustion efficiency as well as
cooled air to the compressor (after turbine) simultaneously reduces the NOx emission when used in combustion chamber
[13,25,26,168]. Consequently, it will improve the fuel combustion (process 3-4). The combust hot gases at atmospheric conditions
efficiency as well as compressor efficiency at the same time. Fur- are expanded in the gas turbine (process 4-5). The energy from
thermore, simple designs of atmospheric combustion chamber the hot gases at state (5) is recovered before it goes to the com-
and cheaper materials could be employed in the turbine industry pressor by means of M-Cycle assembly (process 5-6) and an
[168]. additional heat exchanger (process 6-7), which consequently
The Maisotsenko sub-atmospheric Brayton (M-SAB) cycle con- improves the compressor efficiency. Analysis showed that the
ception was realized recently by Maisotsenko et al. [25,26] in M-SAB cycle can achieve the thermal efficiency of 0.45-0.82 at pre-
which the authors proposed various possible configurations of heating (T2) and combustion temperature (T4) of 40–90 °C and
M-SAB cycle. On the basis of available literature, the present study 160–340 °C, respectively. It is worth mentioning that the pre-
discuses two kinds of M-SAB cycle which are based on: (1) com- heating shows significant improvement in thermal efficiency by
pressor [168], and (2) ejector [13]. The compressor based M-SAB the M-SAB cycle because of the versatile features of M-Cycle at
cycle is similar to the conventional reverse Brayton cycle. However, higher temperature as explained in Section 2. Unlike open Brayton
the compressor is replaced by the steam-air ejector in case of cycle the higher regeneration rate promotes the thermal efficiency
ejector based M-SAB cycle. The coming sub-headings discuss these of the M-SAB cycle. The study concluded that the M-SAB cycle
M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555 551

power generation and low temperature cooling is required si-


multaneously despite of the available heat cost.
From the above prospective the present study concludes that
the M-Cycle possesses huge energy recovery potential in various
power producing gas turbines. It addition to provide hot and hu-
midified air for combustion, the M-Cycle recovers the turbine
waste heat efficiently as compared to conventional heat ex-
changers. Furthermore, the nature of the M-Cycle helps to provide
the cooled air to the compressor simultaneously, which increases
the compressor efficiency. Another silent feature of the M-Cycle is
the pollution control by reducing NOx formation during combus-
tion which can lead towards an environment friendly gas turbine
power cycle.

Fig. 20. Schematic diagram of the compressor based M-SAB cycle, reproduced from 6. Conclusions
[25,26,169].
The present study provides the overview of Maisotsenko Cycle
possesses higher efficiency as compared to conventional open (M-Cycle) and its applicability in various energy recovery appli-
Brayton cycle at certain conditions. cations. The M-Cycle uniquely combines the thermodynamic
processes of heat transfer and evaporative cooling to enable the
5.3.2. Ejector based system product temperature to approach the ambient air dew-point
Buyadgie et al. [13] proposed the ejector based M-SAB cycle temperature. The cycle is well-known in air-conditioning (AC) field
and investigated its performance for various applications. The due to the dew-point evaporative cooling conception. On the other
schematic diagram of the turbo-ejector based M-SAB cycle is hand its applicability has been expanded recently in various heat
shown in Fig. 21 [13]. The principle operation of the cycle is similar recovery applications, though the studies are limited. Therefore,
the one based on compressor as explained in Fig. 20 [25,26,168], the current study is categorized into three main sections based on
though the compressor is replace by the steam-air ejector. Each HVAC systems, cooling systems, and gas turbine power cycles. In
process of the cycle is labelled on the Fig. 21 which gives the detail each section, fundamental approach of the cycle is explained in
insight of the cycle. According to the results the replacement of order to achieve the corresponding objectives, and consequently
mechanical compressor with the steam-air ejector results in 2-4 cycle performance as well as limitation is discussed with the re-
times higher power generation, and yields15–20% capital cost re- ference literatures. The detailed schematics of various M-Cycle
duction of the system. In addition, the electricity used to operate applications are explains and short summaries are provided in
the fans for the M-Cycle assembly decreases two times per power tables for all sections which describe the recent findings on
unit. The authors concluded that the turbo-ejector M-SAB cycle M-Cycle researches.
design is the optimum choice when the electricity price is high The study concludes that the standalone M-Cycle AC (MAC)
and heat price is low. Furthermore, it is more beneficial when the system can achieve the AC load efficiently for various applications

Fig. 21. Schematic diagram of the ejector based M-SAB cycle, reproduced from [13].
552 M.H. Mahmood et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 66 (2016) 537–555

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