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Solutions Manual for Electromechanical Dynamics

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Woodson, Herbert H., James R. Melcher. Solutions Manual for Electromechanical Dynamics. vols. 1 and 2. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare). http://ocw.mit.edu (accessed MM DD, YYYY). License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike

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PROBLEM

2.1

LUMPED

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEENTS

We start with Maxwell"s equations for a magnetic system in integral form:

•di =

I Jda

B-da = 0

Using either path 1 or 2 shown in the figure with the first Maxwell equation we find that

J*da = ni

To compute the line must have HRO if E=pH is

H in the three

integral of H we first note that whenever

to remain finite.

p-* we

Thus we will only need to know

are assumed uniform

gaps (H1,H 2 and H 3 ) where the fields

because of the shortness of the gaps.

Then

fH*di = H(c-b-y) +

H 3 x

=

ni

path

1

C

r.

 

LUMPED

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

 

Using

the

second

Maxwell

equation

we write

that

the

flux

of

B into

the

movable

slab

equals

the

flux

of

B out

of

the

movable

slab

 

U

H 1 LD

=

HH 2 aD

+

UoH3bD

 

or

 

H1L =

H2a +

H3b

 

Note

that in

determining

the

relative

strengths

of

H 1 ,H 2 and H 3

in

equation we have let (a-x) = a, (b-y) = b to simplify the solution.

that we are

assuming

that

x/a << 1, y/b << 1

(c)

this

last

This means

(d)

Solving for H1 using (a),

(b), and (c)

 

ni(y/a + x/b)

 
 

HI

=

(c-b-y)(y/a + x/b)

+

L(y/a

*

x/b)

The

flux

of

B through

the

n

turns

of

the

coil

is

then

Because we

have

(x,y,i) = nB 1 LD = npoH LD

assumed

j

n

2 (y/a + x/b)LD i

(c-b-y)(y/a+x/b)

+

L(y/a'x/b)

that

the

air

gaps

are

short

compared

cross-sectional dimensions we must have

(c-b-y) << 1,

L

y/a

<<

1

and x/b

<<

1

to

their

in addition to the constraints of (d) for our expression for X to be valid.

If we assume that a>L>c>b>(c-b) as shown in the diagram, these conditions

become

x

y

<<

<<

b

b

PROBLEM 2.2

LURIPED

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

Because the charge is linearly related to the applied voltages we

know

Hence

that q 1 (v 1 ,V 2 ,e) = q 1 (v 1 ,O,e)

EV

q 1 (V 1 ,O,) = -

w

+

 

EVV 2

q 1 (O,V 2 ,8)

=

Ra-

w

q 1 (O,v

+

V

2 ,8)

(

+

1

,2,

S

) = v 1 (+o

(n/4+6)R

PROBLEM 2.3

2(V1,V2,)

The device has

cylindrical symmetry

= -Vl ~+

so that we assume that

the fields in the gaps

are essentially radial

and denoted as shown

in

the

fi-ure

Ampere's law can be

2

E

-2

()+/4-O)R

g

integrated around each of the current loops to obtain the relations

3

LUMPED

PROBLEM 2.3 (Continued)

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

gH 1

+

gH m

=

Nil

(a)

gH2

-

gHm

=

Ni 2

(b)

In addition, the net flux into the plunger must be zero, and so

0o(d-x)2nrH 1

-

2d(2rrr)0oH m -

(d+x)(2Tr)o H 2

(c)

These three equations can be solved for any one of the intensities. In particular we are interested in H I and H2, because the terminal fluxes can

be written simply in terms of these quantities. For example, the flux linking

the (1) winding is N

times the flux through the air gap to the left

Similarly, to the right,

Now,

if

we

use

the

values

,1

X 2

of

j 0oN(d-x)(21Tr)H 1

= poN(d+x) (27)H

2

H1

and H 2

found from (a) -

terminal relations of Prob. 2.3 with

PROBLEM

2.4

L

o

=

jo' rN2d

2g

(d)

(e)

(c), we obtain the

LIUPED ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

PROBLEM 2.4 (Continued)

Part a

i

Sf

i

=

Ma

fDAMPER

= M

dx 2

2

dt 2

-B

dxt

• t

;

M

M

2

-dx •x

dx

- f(t)-B - dt

dx

=- f(t)

dt 2

2

dx 2• +B

2

dt

f

coul

+

f

coul

- UdMg

dx

d Mdt

dX1 dt

dx

Id--I

dt

I

dx 1

dt

Part b

First we recognize

that

the

coul

=

block will move

-

dx

g;-

>

0

Then

for

t

>

0

which has a solution

M d2x

dt 2

B

dx

1d Mg

x(t) = - -

Equating sintWlarities at t

Then

since x(0

M

2

x(t)(0)

dt

) S=dx = -(0 )

=

=

d 2 x

-(dt 2

dt

Io

0

=

=-l

0

t

+

dMg

c 1 +c 2

2

d

dt

so

that

dx

dt

> 0, hence

-(B/M)

e

(0)

=

I

t

- io(t)

LUMPED

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

PROBLEM

2.4

(Continued)

 

dx (0+

I

; x(0+

Hence

x(t)

u-1(

t

+

Ud

0

2) (1-e-(B/M)

t

Actually, this

dx

solution will only hold until t o , where dx(t o )

point the mass will stop.

10o­

Jx

i~.

PROBLEM 2.5

Part a

Equation of motion

(1)

f(t)

M

x(t)

2

dt dt

+

B dt =

=

IoUo(t)

f(t)

I (B/M) t)

=

u

(t) - 1B

(1-e(

6

O0, at which

t

LUMPED

PROBLEM 2.5 (Continued)

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

as shown in Prob. 2.4 with Vd = 0.

(2)

f(t) = F ° u l(t)

Integrating the answer in (1)

Part b

x(t) =

F

[t

+ M (e -(B/M)t -1)]ul(t)

Consider the node connecting the

damper and the spring; there must be no

net force on this node or it will

suffer infinite acceleration.

or

-B

B/K

dx

+

dx

-

dt

K(y-x)

=

+ x = y(t)

0

1. Let y(t) = Auo(t)

X)

x'X

 

Bdx

 

K dt

-+x=O

 

t>O

 

x(t)

=

C e - K/Bt

 

t

>

0

But

at t = 0

 
 

B

dx

K J-t(O)

 

Ao

Now

since

x(t)

dx

and -(t) dt

are

zero

 

for

t

<

0

 

x(O

+

)

AK AK

C

x(t)

 

=

Ul(t)

e

-

(K / B)t

all

t

2. Let y(t) = Au

(t)

7

LUMPED'ELECTROMECHANICAL ELEMENTS

PROBLEM 2.5 (Continued)

Integrating the answer in (1)

-(K/B)t

x(t) = ul(t) Yo(1-e

all

PROBLEM 2.6

Part a

 

fl

=

f3

=

Part b

dx

B 3 d

; f2 = K 3 (x 2 -x 3 -t-Lo)

K 2 (x 1 -x 2 -t-Lo);

f 4

=

d

B 2 ~(x

f5 = Kl(h-x 1 -Lo)

t

k].

(.

1 -x 2 )

Summing forces at the nodes and using Newton's law

Kl(h-x1-Lo )

= K2(X1-X2-t-Lo) + B2 d dt (X1-X2)

K 2 (x

K 3 (x

1 -x

=

2 -x

2 -t-Lo)

+

+

M

1

B 2

2

xl

2

d

dt

d (x1-~2)

dt

d2x2

K 3 (x 2 -x 3 -t-L

o )

+ M 2

3 -t-L

o

)

=

f(t) + B 3

dt

2

dx 3

-

+

d2x 3

M

dt

2

2

LUMPED

PROBLEM 2.6 (Continued)

ELECTROMECHANICAL

ELEMENTS

Let's solve these equations for the special case

M1 =M2 = M 3 = B2 = B3 = Lo = 0

Now nothing is left except three springs pulled by force f(t). The three

equations are now

Kl(h-x 1 ) =

K 2 (x1-x 2 )

(a)

K 2 (x 1 -x 2 )=

K 3 (x 2 -x 3 )

(b)

K3 (x2-x3)= f(t)

(c)

We write the equation of geometric constraint

or

x 3 + (x 2 -x 3 ) +

(x 1 -X 2 ) + (h-x 1 )-h = 0

(h-x 3 ) = (x 2 -x 3 ) + (x 1 -x 2 ) + (h-x 1 )

(d)

which is really a useful identity rather than a new independent equation.

Substituting in

(a) and (b) into (d)

(h-x

3 )

K 3 (x 2 -x 3 )

3

K 3 (x 2 -x 3 )

+

2

K2

K 3 (x 2 -x 3 )

+

K1

=

3 (x 2 -x 3

)

3 +

2

+1

which can be plugged into (c)

1(K +

K

which tells us that three

K) 1

2

+

(h-x

3

)=f(t)

K

springs in series act like a spring with

K

K' = (-

K

3

+

K

2

+

1

K

-)

1

-1

b

I

PROBLEM 2.7

LUMPED

ELECTROMECHANICAL

73 z

ELEMENTS

B,

Node equations:

Node 1

2(x

Node 2

f 1

f3

=

B

dxl

x

ldt

B2

d(x2-x I )

dt

f

2

=

K x

1

1

f4 = K 2 (x 2 -x 1 )

dx1

d(x

B 1 dt

+ K11

2

2 -x 1 ) dt

B2

2 dt -x)

dNode

+

K 2 (x 2 -x 1 )

=

f

+

K 2 (x 2 -xl)

To find natural frequencies

let f = 0

B

1

dxl

dt

+

K

X, = 0

11

Let

Bl1

+

K, = 0

d(x

2 -x 1 )

B2

dt

+

K 2 (x

2 -x 1 )

x

1

=

st

e

s1 = - K1/B1

0

Let

(x 2 -x

1 )

B2s + K 2

00

s 2

= - K2/B

1i

st

e

The general solution when f = 0 is then

X

1

X 2

o

c 1

-(K

e

(x 2 -x 1 )

1 /BI)

+

x 1

t

c ele

-(K 1 /Bl)t

+

c 2 e

-(K2/B2)t

LUMPED ELECTROMECHANICAL ELEMENTS

PROBLEM 2.8

r

ae

From the diagram, the change in ir in the time At is 1iA.

Similarly,

di

dt

r

di

dt

=

=

-

lim ii

At-*O

At0 lim -

A8 =

A6

O At

- A

r

- At

=.

8

d8

d

dt

i

dO

rdt

LtVDLJ

Hence

(a)

(b)

Then, the product rule of differentiation on v gives

dv

dt

dv

-di

dt

r d

r

r

dr

dt

+

1i

2

dr

-

r dt 2

+

di

O6

dt

(r

dO

-)

dt

+

i

d

dt

(r

dO

-) d

(c)

and the required acceleration follows by combining these equations.