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IV. Results and Discussion that is y = 1.1425x - 0.

2727 with R 2 value equals to


0.9999 and the second equation is the toluene vs
The acetic acid, diethyl ether and toluene of acetic acid that is y = 1.6833x - 1.5005 with R² values
different concentrations were titrated using equals to 1 (see Fig_). Both equations are in the form
phenolphthalein as an indicator and the acetic acid y = mx +b. The dissociation constant (n) is the slope
placed below the solvent and the following volumes of the line which is the m values of the equation. The
were recorded. Three trials were performed on each n value for diethyl ether is 1.1425 and 1.6833 for
concentration and average them to get the average toluene.
volume (see Table 1). There is a trend which is more
volume is needed to titrate for higher
concentrations.

Table 1: Volumes of different concentrations of


Diethyl Ether and Toluene
Moles of acetic acid were solved by dividing the
volume recorded to the experimental concentration.
Then grams of acetic acid can be distinguished by Figure _. Ether vs HoAc and Toluene vs HoAc
multiplying the moles of acid to its molar mass (see concentration graph
Table 2 and 3).
The distribution constant of the graph can be
obtained as there is a relationship between the y
intercept of the equation of the line and the
distribution constant as y-intercept is the logarithm
of the distribution constant. Therefore, 10 raises to
the value of the y-intercept is the distribution
Table 2. Moles and grams of acetic acid with diethyl constant (see Table 4).
ether as the upper portion solvent

Table 4. Experimental and Theoretical Distribution


Constant of the Graph
Table 3. Moles and grams of acetic acid with toluene
as the upper portion solvent Toluene has a higher % error than ether because
Experimental distribution coefficient is the ratio of the wrong method used in the experiment as the
between the grams of the upper and lower portion toluene was put on the lower portion resulting to a
of the solvents. Comparing it to their respective larger volume titrated that yields a large % error. This
theoretical distribution coefficient values, it shows study must be strictly performed to avoid this kind of
that the two concentrations of toluene have the situation. Even if the upper and lower portion is
highest % error (76.99% for 0.5N and 68.08% for determined by the density of the liquids, it will still
1.0N)(see Appendix). This was due to wrong method yield an error once not followed properly. Presence
as the toluene was put in the lower portion resulting of gas bubbles can yield to errors as it will tell that
to more solvents titrated yielding a large % error. the system is not in equilibrium and there should be
Then plot the data by getting the logarithm values a clear line between the two layers and no gas
of grams of the acetic acid of the upper portion vs bubbles for the solution be in equilibrium as patience
lower portions and let them as y versus x values will be tested in this study. The solution must be
respectively resulting to two equations of the line. shake properly to be equilibrium. Titration is also a
First equation is from the diethyl ether vs acetic acid factor for error as the grams of acetic acid relies on
the moles of acetic acid which relies to the volume
titrated. As it must be properly titrated to minimize
error as over titration results to higher % error. Even
if it is rapid titration or not, it must be titrated
properly. There is bias in shaking of the separatory
funnel and in titration part where you stop the
titration once the solution turns pink/purple as it will
be a factor for error.

V. Conclusion
It is recommended to be careful and at the same
time to strictly follow the methods that will be used
in the study. The methods to perform the study was
done properly except for the toluene part as the
error resulted from confusion and misconception.
The study aims to determine the distribution
coefficient between two immiscible liquids. The
objectives of the study were met, and it is better if
there is a machine to will do the shaking of the
solution and a machine that will do the titration of
the liquids to avoid bias.
V. Appendix
XTable 1. HOAc solutions
Solutions mL HOAc (glacial) mL HOAc Experimental N Aliquot
0.5N HOAc 2.9 100 0.5046 25
1N HOAc 14.3 250 0.99528 25
2N HOAc 11.5 100 2.001 25

Table 2. NaOH solutions


Solutions g NaOH / mL 0.5 NaOH mL NaOH Experimental N % purity
0.5 NaOH (1.1) 5 250 0.5 99
0.5 NaOH (1.2) 5.0549 250 0.5004351 99
0.5 NaOH (2.1) 5.085 250 0.503415 99
0.5 NaOH (2.2 5.0653 250 0.5014647 99
0.01 NaOH 5 250 0.0100683

Diethyl Ether as Upper Portion

Toluene as Upper Portion

Average mole and gram of each concentration


Experimental and Theoretical Distribution Coefficient Values