Sie sind auf Seite 1von 504

# LECTURE NOTES

ON

## HEAT & MASS TRANSFER

1
11 ME 354: HEAT TRANSFER (4 – 0 – 0 −4)

Course Objectives:

1. Develop the ability to apply energy balance to heat transfer systems to solve engineering problems.
2. Learn the ability to apply the definitions of conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer to
engineering systems.
3. Predict the thermal response of engineering systems to energy transfer mechanisms for transient
and steady state situations.
4. To have working knowledge of variety of engineering correlations to heat transfer analysis and
thermal design of engineering components and systems.

Course Contents

UNIT – I 12 Hours

Chapter 1: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer- Basic laws governing each mechanism; combined
mechanisms; Illustrative examples
Chapter 2: Conduction Basic Equations and Boundary Conditions: Conduction Basic Equations:
one dimensional conduction equation in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates; thermal
diffusivity;3-dimensional conduction equation in Cartesian coordinates; boundary conditions of first,
second and third kind; radiation boundary condition ;illustrative examples on formulation of
conduction problems.
Chapter 3: One Dimensional Steady State Conduction: Analysis of one dimensional steady state
conduction in slab, radial conduction in cylinders and spheres without and with heat generation; one-
dimensional steady state conduction in composite medium- concept of thermal potential and thermal
resistance; contact resistance; critical thickness of insulation for cylinders and spheres; analysis of
fins of uniform cross section with different tip conditions; one-dimensional steady state conduction in
solids with variable thermal conductivity. Illustrative examples

UNIT – II 10 Hours

Chapter 4 : Transient Conduction: Lumped system analysis with illustrative examples; Criterion
for neglecting internal temperature gradients in transient conduction analysis ;One dimensional
transient conduction in a slab subjected to convective boundary condition- solution of this problem in
the form of Transient-Temperature Chart. Similar charts for radial transient conduction in an infinite
cylinder and in a sphere; illustrative examples; Use of these charts to solve multi-dimensional
transient conduction problems-illustrative examples. Transient temperature charts for semi-infinite
solids; Conduction shape factor: Illustrative examples
Chapter 5: Finite Difference Methods for Conduction: Finite Difference equations for one
dimensional steady state conduction in slabs, cylinders and spheres; Finite difference equations for
two dimensional steady state conduction; Explicit finite difference equations for one dimensional
transient conduction in slabs, cylinders and spheres; Implicit Scheme for one dimensional transient
conduction; Illustrative examples.

## UNIT – III 12 Hours

Chapter 6: Convection-Basic Concepts: Basic concepts for flow over bodies-Velocity boundary
layer, thermal boundary layer, drag coefficient, general expression for heat transfer coefficient in

2
terms of temperature gradient; illustrative examples. Concepts for flow through duct- hydraulic
diameter; hydrodynamically developing and developed flow; thermally developing and thermally
developed flow; general expression for pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for flow through
ducts; illustrative examples; Concept of turbulence- Prandtl’s mixing length theory; velocity
distribution in turbulent flow through tubes; Dimensionless Parameters in Forced Convection Flow
and their physical significance.
Chapter 7: Forced convection for flow inside ducts: Analysis of hydro dynamically and thermally
developed laminar flow-COUETTE flow, flow inside a circular tube; expressions for friction factor
and pressure drop for hydro dynamically and thermally developed laminar and turbulent flows;
hydrodynamic and thermal entrance lengths; use of correlations to determine pressure drop and heat
transfer coefficient for hydro dynamically and thermally developed flow through tubes; illustrative
examples.
Chapter 8: Forced convection for flow over bodies: Integral method of analysis for laminar
incompressible boundary layer over a flat plate; Correlations for drag coefficient and heat transfer
coefficient for flow over a flat plate, flow across a cylinder, flow across a sphere and flow across tube
bundles

UNIT – IV 08 Hours

Chapter 9: Free convection :- Dimensionless parameters for free convective heat transfer problems;
Correlations for free convection from vertical plane surfaces, vertical cylinders, horizontal and
inclined plane surfaces, horizontal cylinders, enclosed spaces; combined forced and free convection;
illustrative examples
Chapter 10: Boiling & Condensation:- Nusselt’s theory for laminar film condensation on a vertical
plane surface; correlations for determining heat transfer coefficient for laminar and turbulent film
condensation on a plane vertical surface and horizontal tubes. Illustrative examples..

UNIT – V 10 Hours

Chapter 11: Heat Exchangers: Classification of heat exchangers; overall heat transfer coefficient;
expressions for mean temperature difference for parallel flow, counter flow heat exchangers;
correction factors for other type of heat exchangers; Limitations of LMTD method ;Effectiveness-
NTU method for heat exchanger analysis; illustrative examples
Chapter 12: Radiation Heat Transfer Among Surfaces in a Non-Participating Medium: Basic
concepts and terms used in radiation heat exchange analysis; Planck’s law,Stefan-Boltzman law,
Wein’s displacement Law,Kirchoff’s law and Lambert’s Law; Radiation heat exchanger between two
parallel infinite black and gray surfaces; Radiation exchange between two finite surfaces – Concept of
View Factor; View factor algebra; Hottel’s Cross string formula; Net work method for analysis of
radiation heat exchange in an enclosure.

Text Book :
“Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer”, F.P.Incropera, D.P.Dewitt, T.L.Bergman ,A.S.Lavine,
K.N.Seetharamu, T.R.Seetharam,Wiley IndiaPvt.Ltd,New Delhi, Sixth Edition, 201

Reference Books:
1. “ Heat Transfer – A basic Approach”,M.Necati Ozisik, McGraw Hill International Edition, 1985
2. ”Principles of Heat Transfer”, Frank Kreith & Mark S. Bohn , Sixth Edition, Thomson Learning,
2001

3
CHAPTER 1

## INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS AND BASIC LAWS OF

HEAT TRANSFER
1.1. Introduction:- We recall from our knowledge of thermodynamics that heat is a form
of energy transfer that takes place from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower
temperature solely due to the temperature difference between the two regions. With the
knowledge of thermodynamics we can determine the amount of heat transfer for any system
undergoing any process from one equilibrium state to another. Thus the thermodynamics
knowledge will tell us only how much heat must be transferred to achieve a specified change
of state of the system. But in practice we are more interested in knowing the rate of heat
transfer (i.e. heat transfer per unit time) rather than the amount. This knowledge of rate of
heat transfer is necessary for a design engineer to design all types of heat transfer equipments
like boilers, condensers, furnaces, cooling towers, dryers etc.The subject of heat transfer
deals with the determination of the rate of heat transfer to or from a heat exchange equipment
and also the temperature at any location in the device at any instant of time.
The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of a “temperature
difference”. The temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer, just as the
voltage difference for electric current flow and pressure difference for fluid flow. One of the
parameters ,on which the rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends, is the magnitude
of the temperature gradient in that direction. The larger the gradient higher will be the rate of
heat transfer.

1.2. Heat Transfer Mechanisms:- There are three mechanisms by which heat transfer can
take place. All the three modes require the existence of temperature difference. The three
mechanisms are: (i) conduction, (ii) convection and (iii) radiation

1.2.1Conduction:- It is the energy transfer that takes place at molecular levels. Conduction is
the transfer of energy from the more energetic molecules of a substance to the adjacent less
energetic molecules as a result of interaction between the molecules. In the case of liquids
and gases conduction is due to collisions and diffusion of the molecules during their random
motion. In solids, it is due to the vibrations of the molecules in a lattice and motion of free
electrons.
Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction:- The empirical law of conduction based on
experimental results is named after the French Physicist Joseph Fourier. The law states that
the rate of heat flow by conduction in any medium in any direction is proportional to the area
normal to the direction of heat flow and also proportional to the temperature gradient in that
direction. For example the rate of heat transfer in x-direction can be written according to
Fourier’s law as

4
Qx α – Ax ( ∂T∂x ) …………….
(1.1)

Or Q x = − k x Ax ( ∂T∂x ) …………….. ..
(1.2)

In equation (1.2), Qx is the rate of heat transfer in positive x-direction through area A x (Ax can
vary in the direction of x, for example, radial conduction in cylinders and spheres) of the
medium normal to x-direction, (dT/dx) is the temperature gradient and kx is the constant of
proportionality and is a material property called “thermal conductivity” of the material for
conduction in x-direction. Since heat transfer has to take place in the direction of decreasing
∂T
temperature, ( )
∂x
has to be negative in the direction of heat transfer. Therefore negative
sign has to be introduced in equation (1.2) to make Q x positive in the direction of decreasing
temperature, thereby satisfying the second law of thermodynamics. If equation (1.2) is
divided throughout by Ax we have

## q x = (Qx / Ax) = − kx ( ∂T∂x ) ………..

(1.3)
qx is called the heat flux in x-direction.

## Thermal Conductivity:- The constant of proportionality in the equation of Fourier’s law of

conduction, kx is a material property called the thermal conductivity for conduction along x-
direction (For isotropic solids thermal conductivity is independent of direction; i.e. k x = ky =
kz = k, where as for an-isotropic solids k x ≠ ky ≠ kz ).The units of thermal conductivity can be
obtained from equation (1.2) as follows:
qx
Solving for kx from Eq. (1.3) we have kx = − ∂T
( )
∂x
Therefore units of kx in SI system of units = (W/m2 ) * (m/ K) = W / (m – K) or
W / (m – 0 C). Thermal conductivity is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct heat. The
thermal conductivities of materials vary over a wide range as shown in Fig. 1.1.
It can be seen from this figure that the thermal conductivities of gases such as air
vary by a factor of 10 4 from those of pure metals such as copper. The kinetic theory of gases
predicts and experiments confirm that the thermal conductivity of gases is proportional to the
square root of the absolute temperature, and inversely proportional to the square root of the
molar mass M. Hence, the thermal conductivity of gases increases with increase in
temperature and decrease with increase in molar mass. It is for these reasons that the thermal
conductivity of helium (M=4) is much higher than those of air (M=29) and argon (M=40).For
wide range of pressures encountered in practice the thermal conductivity of gases is
independent of pressure.

5
The mechanism of heat conduction in liquids is more complicated due to the fact
that the molecules are more closely spaced, and they exert a stronger inter-molecular force
field. The values of k for liquids usually lie between those for solids and gases. Unlike gases,
the thermal conductivity for most liquids decreases with increase in temperature except for
water. Like gases the thermal conductivity of liquids decreases with increase in molar mass.

In the case of solids heat conduction is due to two effects: the vibration of lattice
induced by the vibration of molecules positioned at relatively fixed positions , and energy
transported due to the motion of free electrons. The relatively high thermal conductivities of
pure metals are primarily due to the electronic component. The lattice component of thermal
conductivity strongly depends on the way the molecules are arranged. For example, diamond,
which is highly ordered crystalline solid, has the highest thermal conductivity at room
temperature.

1000 Silver
Copper
Solid
metals
100 Sodium
Liquid
metals
Steel Oxides
10
Non-
k [W/(m-K)] Mercury Metallic
solids
1.0 Water
Fibres
Non-
Metallic Insulating He, H2
liquids Materials Non-
0.1 Metallic Evacuated
Plastics gases Insulating
Wood Oils materials
Foams
CO2
0.01
Fig. 1.1: Typical range of thermal conductivities of various materials

Unlike metals, which are good electrical and heat conductors, crystalline solids
such as diamond and semiconductors such as silicon are good heat conductors but poor
electrical conductors. Hence such materials find widespread use in electronic industry.
Despite their high price, diamond heat sinks are used in the cooling of sensitive electronic

6
components because of their excellent thermal conductivity. Silicon oils and gaskets are
commonly used in the packaging of electronic components because they provide both good
thermal contact and good electrical insulation.

One would expect that metal alloys will have high thermal
conductivities, because pure metals have high thermal conductivities. For example one would
expect that the value of the thermal conductivity k of a metal alloy made of two metals with
thermal conductivities k1 and k2 would lie between k1 and k2.But this is not the case. In fact k
of a metal alloy will be less than that of either metal.

## The thermal conductivities of materials vary with temperature. But for

some materials the variation is insignificant even for wide temperature range.At temperatures
near absolute zero, the thermal conductivities of certain solids are extremely large. For
example copper at 20 K will have a thermal conductivity of 20,000 W / (m-K), which is
about 50 times the conductivity at room temperature. The temperature dependence of thermal
conductivity makes the conduction heat transfer analysis more complex and involved. As a
first approximation analysis for solids with variable conductivity is carried out assuming
constant thermal conductivity which is an average value of the conductivity for the
temperature range of interest.

Thermal Diffusivity:- This is a property which is very helpful in analyzing transient heat
conduction problem and is normally denoted by the symbol α . It is defined as follows.

Heat conducted k
α = -------------------------------------- = -------- (m2/s) ……(1.4)
Heat Stored per unit volume ρCp

It can be seen from the definition of thermal diffusivity that the numerator represents the
ability of the material to conduct heat across its layers and the denominator represents the
ability of the material to store heat per unit volume. Hence we can conclude that larger the
value of the thermal diffusivity, faster will be the propagation of heat into the medium. A
small value of thermal diffusivity indicates that heat is mostly absorbed by
the material and only a small quantity of heat will be conducted across the material.

1.2.2. Convection :- Convection heat transfer is composed of two mechanisms. Apart from
energy transfer due to random molecular motion, energy is also transferred due to
macroscopic motion of the fluid. Such motion in presence of the temperature gradient
contributes to heat transfer. Thus in convection the total heat transfer is due to random
motion of the fluid molecules together with the bulk motion of the fluid, the major
contribution coming from the latter mechanism. Therefore bulk motion of the fluid is a
necessary condition for convection heat transfer to take place in addition to the temperature
gradient in the fluid. Depending on the force responsible for the bulk motion of the fluid,
convective heat transfer is classified into “forced convection” and “natural or free
convection”. In the case of forced convection, the fluid flow is caused by an external agency

7
like a pump or a blower where as in the case of natural or free convection the force
responsible for the fluid flow (normally referred to as the buoyancy force) is generated within
the fluid itself due to density differences which are caused due to temperature gradient within
the flow field. Regardless of the particular nature of convection, the rate equation for
convective heat transfer is given by

q = h ∆T …………………………………….. (1.5)

where q is the heat flux, ∆T is the temperature difference between the bulk fluid and the
surface which is in contact with the fluid, and ‘h” is called the “convective heat transfer
coefficient” or “surface film coefficient”. Eq.(1.5) is generally referred to as the Newton’s
law of cooling.If Ts is the surface temperature , Tf is the temperature of the bulk fluid and if
Ts > Tf, then Eq. (1.5) in the direction of heat transfer can be written as

## q = h [Tf – Ts] ………………………………...(1.6b)

The heat transfer coefficient h depends on (i) the type of flow (i.e. whether the flow
is laminar or turbulent), (ii) the geometry of the body and flow passage area, (iii) the thermo-
physical properties of the fluid namely the density ρ, viscosity μ, specific heat at constant
pressure Cp and the thermal conductivity of the fluid k and (iv) whether the mechanism of
convection is forced convection or free convection. The heat transfer coefficient for free
convection will be generally lower than that for forced convection as the fluid velocities in
free convection are much lower than those in forced convection. The heat transfer
coefficients for some typical applications are given in table 1.2.

## Table 1.2: Typical values of the convective heat transfer coefficient h

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Type of flow h ,W / (m2 – K)
Free convection
Gases 2 – 25
Liquids 50 – 1000
Forced Convection
Gases 25 – 250
Liquids 50 – 20,000
Convection with change of phase
Boiling or condensation 2500 – 100,000

1.2.3. Thermal Radiation:- Thermal radiation is the energy emitted by matter (solid, liquid
or gas) by virtue of its temperature. This energy is transported by electromagnetic waves (or
alternatively, photons).While the transfer of energy by conduction and convection requires
the presence of a material medium, radiation does not require.Infact radiation transfer occurs
most effectively in vacuum.

8
Consider radiation transfer process for the surface shown in Fig.1.2a.Radiation that
is emitted by the surface originates from the thermal energy of matter bounded by the
surface, and the rate at which this energy is released per unit area is called as the surface
emissive power E.An ideal surface is one which emits maximum emissive power and is
called an ideal radiator or a black body.Stefan-Boltzman’s law of radiation states that the
emissive power of a black body is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute
temperature of the body. Therefore if Eb is the emissive power of a black body at temperature
T 0K, then

G ρG E
qs
qsurr

## Surface of emissivity ε, absorptivity α, and

temperature Ts Surface of emissivity ε, area A, and temperature Ts

## Surroundings (black) at Tsurr

(a) (b)

Fig.1.2: Radiation exchange: (a) at a surface and (b) between a surface and large surroundings

Eb α T 4

Or Eb = σ T 4 ………………………………….(1.7)
−8
σ is the Stefan-Boltzman constant (σ = 5.67 * 10 W / (m2 – K4) ). For a non black surface
the emissive power is given by

E = ε σ T 4…………………………………(1.8)

where ε is called the emissivity of the surface (0 ≤ ε ≤ 1).The emissivity provides a measure
of how efficiently a surface emits radiation relative to a black body. The emissivity strongly
depends on the surface material and finish.
Radiation may also incident on a surface from its surroundings. The rate at which the
radiation is incident on a surface per unit area of the surface is calle the “irradiation” of the

9
surface and is denoted by G. The fraction of this energy absorbed by the surface is called
“absorptivity” of the surface and is denoted by the symbol α. The fraction of the

incident energy is reflected and is called the “reflectivity” of the surface denoted by ρ and
the remaining fraction of the incident energy is transmitted through the surface and
is called the “transmissivity” of the surface denoted by τ. It follows from the definitions of α,
ρ, and τ that
α+ ρ + τ = 1 …………………………………….(1.9)

Therefore the energy absorbed by a surface due to any radiation falling on it is given by

Gabs = αG …………………………………(1.10)

The absorptivity α of a body is generally different from its emissivity. However in many
practical applications, to simplify the analysis α is assumed to be equal to its emissivity ε.

Radiation Exchange:- When two bodies at different temperatures “see” each other, heat is
exchanged between them by radiation. If the intervening medium is filled with a substance
like air which is transparent to radiation, the radiation emitted from one body travels through
the intervening medium without any attenuation and reaches the other body, and vice versa.
Then the hot body experiences a net heat loss, and the cold body a net heat gain due to
radiation heat exchange between the two. The analysis of radiation heat exchange among
surfaces is quite complex which will be discussed in chapter 10. Here we shall consider two
simple examples to illustrate the method of calculating the radiation heat exchange between
surfaces.
As the first example let us consider a small opaque plate (for an opaque surface τ
= 0) of area A, emissivity ε and maintained at a uniform temperature T s. Let this plate is
exposed to a large surroundings of area Asu (Asu >> A) whish is at a uniform temperature Tsur
as shown in Fig. 1.2b.The space between them contains air which is transparent to thermal

## The radiation energy emitted by the plate is given by

Qem = A ε σ Ts4

The large surroundings can be approximated as a black body in relation to the small plate.
Then the radiation flux emitted by the surroundings is σ T sur4 which is also the radiaton flux
incident on the plate. Therefore the radiation energy absorbed by the plate due to emission
from the surroundings is given by

Qab = A α σ Tsur4.

The net radiation loss from the plate to the surroundings is therefore given by

## Qrad = A ε σ Ts4 − A α σ Tsur4.

10
Assuming α = ε for the plate the above expression for Qnet reduces to

## Qrad = A ε σ [Ts4 – Tsur4 ] ……………….(1.11)

The above expression can be used to calculate the net radiation heat exchange between a
small area and a large surroundings.
As the second example, consider two finite surfaces A1 and A2 as shown in Fig. 1.3.

Surroundings
A2, ε2, T2
A1, ε1, T1

## Fig.1.3: Radiation exchange between surfaces A1 and A2

The surfaces are maintained at absolute temperatures T1 and T2 respectively, and have
emissivities ε1 and ε2. Only part of the radiation leaving A1 reaches A2. Similar
considerations apply for the radiation leaving A2.If it is assumed that the radiation from the
surroundings is negligible when compared to the radiation from the surfaces A 1 and A2 then
we can write the expression for the radiation emitted by A1 and reaching A2 as

## Q1→2 = F1− 2 A1ε1σ T14……………………………(1.12)

where F1 – 2 is defined as the fraction of radiation energy emitted by A1 and reaching A2.
Similarly the radiation energy emitted by A2 and reaching A1 is given by

## Q2→1 = F2− 1 A2 ε2 σ T24 …………………………..(1.13)

where F2 – 1 is the fraction of radiation energy leaving A 2 and reaching A1. Hence the net
radiation energy transfer from A1 to A2 is given by

Q1 – 2 = Q1→2 − Q2→1

11
= [F1− 2 A1ε1σ T14] − [F2− 1 A2 ε2 σ T24]

F1-2 is called the view factor (or geometric shape factor or configuration factor) of A 2 with
respect to A1 and F2 - 1 is the view factor of A1 with respect to A2.It will be shown in chapter
10 that the view factor is purely a geometric property which depends on the relative
orientations of A1 and A2 satisfying the reciprocity relation, A1 F1 – 2 = A2 F2 – 1.

## Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient:- Under certain restrictive conditions it is possible to

simplify the radiation heat transfer calculations by defining a radiation heat transfer
coefficient hr analogous to convective heat transfer coefficient as

Qr = hrA ΔT

For the example of radiation exchange between a surface and the surroundings
[Eq. (1. 11)] using the concept of radiation heat transfer coefficient we can write

## ε σ [Ts4 – Tsur4 ] ε σ [Ts2 + Tsur2 ][Ts + Tsur][Ts – Tsur]

Or hr = --------------------- = -----------------------------------------------
[Ts – Tsur] [Ts – Tsur]

## 1.3.First Law of Thermodynamics (Law of conservation of energy) as applied to

Heat Transfer Problems : The first law of thermodynamics is an essential tool for solving
many heat transfer problems. Hence it is necessary to know the general formulation of the
first law of thermodynamics.
First law equation for a control volume:- A control volume is a region in space bounded by
a control surface through which energy and matter may pass.There are two options of
formulating the first law for a control volume. One option is formulating the law on a rate
basis. That is, at any instant, there must be a balance between all energy rates. Alternatively,
the first law must also be satisfied over any time interval Δt. For such an interval, there must
be a balance between the amounts of all energy changes.

First Law on rate basis :- The rate at which thermal and mechanical energy enters a control
volume, plus the rate at which thermal energy is generated within the control volume, minus
the rate at which thermal and mechanical energy leaves the control volume must be equal to
the rate of increase of stored energy within the control volume.
Consider a control volume shown in Fig. 1.4 which shows that thermal and
mechanical energy are entering the control volume at a rate denoted by Ein, thermal and

12
.
Eg . .
. Est Eout
Ein

## Fig. 1.4: Conservation of energy for a control volume on rate basis

.
mechanical energy are leaving the control volume at a rate denoted by Eout. The rate at
.
which energy is generated within the control volume is denoted by Eg and the rate at
.
which energy is stored within the control volume is denoted by Est. The general form of the
energy balance equation for the control volume can be written as follows:
. . . .
Ein + Eg − Eout = Est ……………………………(1.16)
.
Est is nothing but the rate of increase of energy within the control volume and hence can be
d Es
written as equal to
dt

First Law over a Time Interval Δt :- Over a time interval Δt, the amount of thermal and
mechanical energy that enters a control volume, plus the amount of thermal energy
generated within the control volume minus the amount of thermal energy that leaves the
control volume is equal to the increase in the amount of energy stored within the control
volume.
The above statement can be written symbolically as

## Ein + Eg – Eout = ΔEst …………………………..(1.16)

The inflow and outflow energy terms are surface phenomena. That is they are associated
exclusively with the processes occurring at the boundary surface and are proportional to the
surface area.
The energy generation term is associated with conversion from some other form
(chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, or nuclear) to thermal energy. It is a volumetric
phenomenon.That is, it occurs within the control volume and is proportional to the magnitude
of this volume. For example, exothermic chemical reaction may be taking place within the
control volume. This reaction converts chemical energy to thermal energy and we say that
energy is generated within the control volume. Conversion of electrical energy to thermal
energy due to resistance heating when electric current is passed through an electrical
conductor is another example of thermal energy generation

13
Energy storage is also a volumetric phenomenon and energy change within the
control volume is due to the changes in kinetic, potential and internal energy of matter within
the control volume.

## 1.4. Illustrative Examples:

A. Conduction

Example 1.1:- Heat flux through a wood slab 50 mm thick, whose inner and outer surface
temperatures are 40 0 C and 20 0 C respectively, has been determined to be 40 W/m2. What is
the thermal conductivity of the wood slab?

## Sketch for the example:

Known: T1 = 40 0 C; T2 = 20 0 C; L = 0.05 m;
T1 q = 40 W / m2.
T1
q Find: Thermal conductivity,k
T2
T2 Assumptions: (i) steady state conduction

## (iii) solid is of constant thermal conductivity

L

Solution: For steady state conduction across the thickness of the slab and noting that the slab
is not generating any thermal energy, the first law equation for the slab can be written as :
Rate at which thermal energy (conduction) is entering the slab at the surface x = 0 is equal to
the rate at which thermal energy is leaving the slab at the surface x = L.
That is

## By Fourier’s law we have Qx = − kA ( dTdx )

Separating the variables and integrating both sides w.r.t. ‘x’ we have
L T2
kA ( T 1−T 2 )
Qx ∫dx = − kA ∫dT . Or Qx =
L
T1
1

14
Qx k ( T 1−T 2 )
Heat flux = q = =
A L

qL 40∗0.05
Hence k= = = 0.1 W / (m – K)
T
( 1−T 2 ) ( 40−20 )

Example 1.2:- A concrete wall, which has a surface area of 20 m2 and thickness 30 cm,
separates conditioned room air from ambient air.The temperature of the inner surface of the
wall is 25 0 C and the thermal conductivity of the wall is 1.5 W / (m-K).Determine the heat
loss through the wall for ambient temperature varying from ─ 15 0 C to 38 0 C which
correspond to winter and summer conditions and display your results graphically.

## Known: T1 = 25 0 C ; A = 20 m2; L = 0.3 m :

T1
k = 1.5 W /(m-K) ;
Q
Find: Q for different values of T2 and plot Q vs T2 for different values of T2
T2
Assumptions: (i) steady state conduction
(ii) one dimensional conduction
(iii) solid is of constant thermal conductivity
L
By Fourier’s law,

Q = kA(T1 – T2) / L

## 1.5 x 20 x (25 – T2)

= -------------------------
0.30
Or Q = 2500 – 100 T2 ………..(1)
Solution: By Fourier’s law of conduction we have

## kA ( T 1−T 2 ) 1.5∗20∗( 25−T 1 )

For steady state Q = =
L 0.3

## Or Q = 2500 – 100 T2 ………………………………………………...(1)

15
Heat loss Q for different values of T2 ranging from – 15 0 C to + 38 0 C are obtained from Eq.
(1) and the results are plotted as shown: Scale x-axis : 1cm= 5 C ; y-axis : 1cm =1000W

Example 1.3:-
What is the
thickness
required of a
masonry wall
having a
thermal
conductivity of
0.75 W/(m-K),
if the heat
transfer rate is
to be 80 % of
the rate
through
another wall having thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/(m-K) and a thickness of 100 mm? Both
walls are subjected to the same temperature difference.

## Sketch for the example:

Let subscript 1 refers to masonry wall and subscript 2 refers to the other wall.

## Known: Q1/Q2 = 0.8 ; ; L2 = 100 mm :

T1
k 1= 0.75 W /(m-K) ; k 2= 0.25 W /(m-K) ;
Q1
Find: L1
T2
Assumptions: (i) steady state conduction
(ii) one dimensional conduction
(iii) solid is of constant thermal conductivity
L1

## Given that (T1 – T2)|masonry wall = (T1 – T2)|other wall , we have

16
Q1 k1 L2
---- = ----------
Q2 k2 L1

Q2 k1
Or L1 = ----------- L2 = (1 / 0.80) * (0.75/0.25) x 100 = 375 mm
Q1 k2

B. Convection:

Example 1.4:- Air at 40 0 C flows over a long circular cylinder of 25 mm diameter with
an embedded electrical heater. In a series of tests, measurements were made of power
per unit length, P required to maintain the surface temperature of the cylinder at 300 0 C
for different stream velocities V of the air. The results are as follows:

## Power, P (W/m) : 450 658 983 1507 1963

(a) Determine the convective heat transfer coefficient for each velocity and display your
results graphically. (h = P / 20.43)
(b)Assuming the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on velocity to be of the
form h = CV n , determine the parameters C and n from the results of part (a).

Ts

V,T∞
D

## Known: D = 0.025 m : Ts = 300 0 C ; T∞ = 40 0 C;

Find: (a) Heat transfer coefficient as a function of velocity of the fluid (b) To find the values
of C and n in the equation h = CVn

17
Assumptions: (i) Heat transfer from the surface of the solid to the flowing fluid is by
convection only.(i.e. radiation heat transfer between the surface of the solid and the fluid is
negligible)

Solution: If h is the surface heat transfer coefficient then the power dissipated by the cylinder
by convection is given by

## P = hAs (Ts - T∞)

where As is the area of contact between the fluid and the surface of the cylinder.

## Or h = P / 20.42 W/m2-k ………………………………..(1)

Values of h for different flow velocities are obtained and tabulated as follows:

## h, (W / (m2 – K) ) : 22.04 32.22 48.14 73.8 96.13

(a) A graph of h versus V can now be plotted as shown in Fig. P 1.4 (a).

## Scale: X axis 1cm= 1m/s ; Y axis 1cm= 10 W/m2k

18
(b) h = CVn

Therefore ln h = ln C + n ln V …………………………(2)

If ln h is plotted against ln V it will be straight line and the slope of which will give the value
of n. Also the intercept of this line w.r.t the axis on which ln V is plotted will give the value
of ln C from which C can be determined. The log –log plot is as shown in Fig. P 1.4(b).
Scale X axis 1cm=0.25; Y axis 1cm=0.5

ln C = 3.1 or C = 22.2

## (ln h – ln C) (4.55 – 3.10)

and n = ----------------------- = ------------------- = 0.571
ln V 2.5

## Therefore h = 22.2 V0.571 is the empirical relation between h and V.

19
Example 1.5:- A large surface at 50 0 C is exposed to air at 20 0 C. If the heat transfer
coefficient between the surface and the air is 15 W/(m 2-K), determine the heat transferred
from 5 m2 of the surface area in 7 hours.

Ts
h

## Known: Ts =50 0C; T∞ = 20 0 C; h = 15 W/(m2 – K) ; A = 5 m2 : time = t = 7 h ;

Find: Qtotal

Assumption (i) Steady state heat transfer; (ii)Heat transfer from the surface of the solid to
the surroundings is by convection only.(i.e. radiation heat transfer between the surface of the
solid and the surroundings is negligible)

## Example 1.6:- A 25 cm diameter sphere at 120 0 C is suspended in air at 20 0 C. If the

convective heat transfer coefficient between the surface and air is 15 W/(m2-K),
determine the heat loss from the sphere.

h
Ts

D
T∞

## Known: Ts = 120 0C;T∞ = 20 0C; h = 15 W/(m2-K);D = 0.25 m

Find: Q

20
Assumptions: (i) Heat transfer from the surface of the solid to the surrounding fluid is by
convection only.(i.e. radiation heat transfer between the surface of the solid and the fluid is
negligible)(ii) Steady state heat transfer

Solution: Q = hAs(Ts - T∞) = h 4πR2 (Ts - T∞) = 15 * 4π * (0.25/2)2 * (120 – 20) = 294.52 W

## Example 1.7:- A sphere 10 cm in diameter is suspended inside a large evacuated

chamber whose walls are kept at 300 K. If the surface of the sphere is black and
maintained at 500 K what would be the radiation heat loss from the sphere to the walls
of the chamber?. What would be the heat loss if the surface of the sphere has an
emissivity of 0.8?
Sketch for the example:

## Known: T1 = 500 K ; T2 = 300 K ; d1 = 0.10 m

T2
Find: (i) Q assuming the surface to be a black surface; (ii) Q assuming the surface to have an emissi
.
Assumptions: (i) Steady state Heat Transfer
T1

d1

## Solution: Surface area of the sphere = As = 4πR12 = 4π* (0.1/2)2 = 0.0314 m2

If the surface of the sphere is black then

## = 5.67 * 10 ─ 8* 0.0314 * (5004 – 3004)

= 96.85 W
If the surface is having an emissivity of 0.8 then

## Q = 0.8 Qblack = 0.8 * 96.85 = 77.48 W

Example 1.8:- A vacuum system as used in sputtering conducting thin films on micro
circuits, consists of a base plate maintained at a temperature of 300 K by an
electric heater and a shroud within the enclosure maintained at 77 K by circulating
liquid nitrogen. The base plate insulated on the lower side is 0.3 m in diameter and has
an emissivity of 0.25.
(a) How much electrical power must be provided to the base plate heater?

21
(b) At what rate must liquid nitrogen be supplied to the shroud if its latent heat of
vaporization is 125 kJ/kg?

Sketch:

## Known: T1 = 300 K ; T2 = 77 K ; d = 0.3 m ; ε1 = 0.25

Find: (a) Qr ; (b) Mass of nitrogen vapourized per unit time, mN2

Assumptions:

Solution: Surface area of the top surface of the base plate = As = (π / 4)d12 = (π / 4) * 0.32

= 0.0707 m2
4 4
(a) Qr = ε1σ As (T1 – T2 )

## = 0.25 * 5.67 * 10 ─ 8 * 0.0707 * (3004 – 774) = 8.08 W

.
(b) If mN2 = mass flow rate of nitrogen that is vapourised then

. 8.08
mN2 = Qr / hfg = ---------------- = 6.464 * 10-5 kg/s or 0.233 kg/s
125 x 1000

Example 1.9:- A flat plate has one surface insulated and the other surface exposed to the
sun. The exposed surface absorbs the solar radiation at a rate of 800 W/m2 and dissipates
heat by both convection and radiation into the ambient at 300 K. If the emissivity of the
surface is 0.9 and the surface heat transfer coefficient is 12 W/(m2-K), determine the
surface temperature of the plate.

22
Qsolar
T∞
Qr
Qconv Ts , ε , h

Insulated

## Known: T∞ = 300 K ; qsolar = 800 W / m2 ; ε = 0.9 ; h = 12 W / (m2 – K)

Find: Ts

Assumptions: (i) steady state heat transfer;(ii) the emissivity and the surface heat transfer
coefficient is uniform throughout the surface.

Solution: Energy balance equation for the top surface of the plate is given by

Qsolar = Qr + Qconv

## Equation (1) has to be solved by trial and error.

Trial 1:- Assume Ts = 350 K. Then LHS of Eq. (1) = 972.6 which is more than RHS of Eq.
(1). Hence Ts < 350 K.

Trial 2 :- Assume Ts = 340 K. Then LHS of Eq. (1) = 932.6 which is slightly less than

RHS. Therefore Ts should lie between 340 K and 350 K but closer to 340 K.

Trial 3:- Assume Ts = 342.5 K. Then LHS of Eq.(1) = 942.5 = RHS of Eq. (1).

Therefore Ts = 342.5 K

Example 1.10:- The solar radiation incident on the outside surface of an aluminum
shading device is 1000 W/m2. Aluminum absorbs 12 % of the incident solar energy and
dissipates it by convection from the back surface and by combined convection and

23
radiation from the outer surface. The emissivity of aluminum is 0.10 and the convective
heat transfer coefficient for both the surfaces is 15 W/(m2 –K). The ambient temperature
of air may be taken as 20 0 C. Determine the temperature of the shading device.

q solar qr
qc1

qc2

## Find: Temperature of the shading device, Ts

Assumptions: (i) Steady state heat transfer; (ii) the emissivity and the surface heat transfer
coefficient are uniform throughout the surface

Solution: Solar radiation flux absorbed by aluminum = qa = α qsolar = 0.12 * 1000 = 120 W /
m2.

## Under steady state conditions,the energy absorbed by aluminum is dissipated by convection

from the back surface and by combined convection and radiation from the outer surface.
Hence the energy balance equation can be written as

qa = qr + qc1 + qc2

## Therefore, qa = ε σ (Ts4 – α σT∞4) + h1(Ts - T∞) + h2 (Ts - T∞)

Or 120 = 5.67 * 10 ─ 8* 0.10 (Ts4 – 0.12 * 2934) + (Ts – 293) * (15 + 15)

## Eq.(1) has to be solved by trial and error.

Trail 1:- Assume Ts = 300 K. Then LHS = 15981 which is > RHS.

24
Trail 2 :- Assume Ts = 295 K. Then LHS = 15710.73 which is < RHS. Hence Ts should lie
between 300K and 295 K.

Trial 3 :- Assume Ts = 297 K . Then LHS = 15819 which is almost equal to RHS (Within
0.34 %)

Therefore Ts = 297 K.

25
CHAPTER 2

## GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF CONDUCTION

2.1.Introduction: In this chapter, the governing basic equations for conduction in Cartesian
coordinate system is derived. The corresponding equations in cylindrical and spherical
coordinate systems are also mentioned. Mathematical representations of different types of
boundary conditions and the initial condition required to solve conduction problems are also
discussed. After studying this chapter, the student will be able to write down the governing
equation and the required boundary conditions and initial condition if required for any
conduction problem.

## 2.2. One – Dimensional Conduction Equation : In order to derive the one-dimensional

conduction equation, let us consider a volume element of the solid of thickness Δx along x –
direction at a distance ‘x’ from the origin as shown in Fig. 2.1.Qx represents the rate

A(x) q’’’

Qx Qx + Δx

O
x Δx

## Fig. 2.1: Nomenclature for one dimensional conduction equation

of heat transfer in x – direction entering into the volume element at x, A(x) area of heat flow
at the section x ,q′′′ is the thermal energy generation within the element per unit volume and
Qx+Δx is the rate of conduction out of the element at the section x + Δx. The energy balance
equation per unit time for the element can be written as follows:

[ Rate of heat conduction into the element at x + Rate of thermal energy generation within
the element − Rate of heat conduction out of the element at x + Δx ]

## = Rate of increase of internal energy of the element.

26
∂E
i.e., Qx + Qg – Qx+Δx =
∂t

∂2 Q x
or Qx + q′′′ Ax Δx – {Qx + ( ) Δx + ( ) (Δx) / 2! + …….}
∂Q x
∂x ∂ x2
2

= [ρA(x)ΔxCpT]
∂t

Neglecting higher order terms and noting that ρ and Cp are constants the above equation
simplifies to

## Qx + q′′′ Ax Δx – {Qx + ( ∂Q∂ x ) Δx } = ρA ΔxC ( ∂T∂t )

x
x p

Or − ( ∂Q∂ x ) + q′′′ A = ρA
x
x x Cp ( ∂T∂t )
Using Fourier’s law of conduction , Qx = − k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) , the above equation simplifies to

∂x
{− k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) } + q′′′ Ax = ρAx Cp ( ∂T∂t )

Or {1/Ax }
∂x
{− k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) ………
……………(2.1)

Eq. (2.1) is the most general form of conduction equation for one-dimensional unsteady state
conduction.

2.2.1.Equation for one-dimensional conduction in plane walls :- For plane walls, the area
of heat flow Ax is a constant. Hence Eq. (2.1) reduces to the form

∂x
{k ( ∂T∂x ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t )
……………………..(2.2)

(i) If the thermal conductivity of the solid is constant then the above equation reduces to

27
2

( )
∂T
∂x
2 + (q′′′ / k) = (1/α ) ( ∂T∂t )
………………………(2.3)

(ii) For steady state conduction problems in solids of constant thermal conductivity
temperature within the solid will be independent of time (i.e.(∂T/ ∂t) = 0)
and hence Eq. (2.3) reduces to

( )
d T
dx
2 + (q′′′ / k) = 0 …………………………….

(2.4)

(iii) For a solid of constant thermal conductivity for which there is no thermal energy
generation within the solid q’’’ = 0 and the governing equation for steady state conduction is
obtained by putting q’’’ = 0 in Eq. (2.4) as

d2T
( )
dx
2 = 0 ………………………

(2.4)

## 2.2.2.Equation for one-dimensional radial conduction in cylinders:-

R
Qr
r

Qr

For radial conduction in cylinders, by convention the radial coordinate is denoted by ‘r’
instead of ‘x’ and the area of heat flow through the cylinder of length L,at any radius r is
given by Ax = A(r) = 2πrL. Hence substituting this expression for Ax and replacing x by r in
Eq. (2.1) we have

28
1 ∂
{ ( 2 πrL ) ∂r
{k 2πrL ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t )
1 ∂
Or
r ∂r
{ {k r ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) ………..
……….(2.5)

(i) For cylinders of constant thermal conductivity the above equation reduces to

1 ∂
r ∂r
{ {r ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ / k =
1 ∂T
( )
α ∂t
…….
…………….(2.6)

where α = k / ρCp.
(ii) For steady state radial conduction (i.e. (∂T/ ∂t) = 0 ) in cylinders of constant k, the above
equation reduces to

1 d
r dr
{r ( dTdr ) } + q′′′ / k = 0
…………………….(2.7)

(iii) For steady state radial conduction in cylinders of constant k and having no thermal
energy generation (i.e. q’’’ = 0) the above equation reduces to

d
dr
{r ( dTdr ) } =0 ………………………
(2.8)

## 2.2.3.Equation for one-dimensional radial conduction in spheres:- For one-dimensional

radial conduction in spheres, the area of heat flow at any radius r is given by Ar = 4πr2.
Hence Eq.(2.1) for a sphere reduces to

1 ∂
{
4πr 2 }
∂r
{k 4π r2 ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρCp ( ∂T∂t )
1 ∂
Or
r
2
∂r
{k r2 ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) …….
…………………(2.9)

(i) For spheres of constant thermal conductivity the above equation reduce to

29
1 ∂
r 2
∂r
{ r2 ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ / k =
1
α ( ∂T∂t )
……………………..(2.10)

(ii) For steady state conduction in spheres of constant k the above equation further reduce to

1 d
r 2
dr
{ r2 ( dTdr ) } + q′′′ / k = 0
……………………(2.11)

(iii) For steady state conduction in spheres of constant k and without any thermal energy
generation the above equation further reduces to

1 d
r
2
dr
{ r2 ( dTdr ) } =0
………………………(2.12)

Equation in compact form:- The general form of one – dimensional conduction equations
for plane walls, cylinders and spheres {equations (2..2), (2.5) and (2.9)} can be written in a
compact form as follows:

1 ∂
rn ∂r
{k rn ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) ………..
……….(2.13)

## Where n = 0 for plane walls,

n = 1 for radial conduction in cylinders
n = 2 for radial conduction in spheres,
and for plane walls it is customary to replace the ‘r’ variable by ‘x’ variable.

## 2.3.Three dimensional conduction equations: While deriving the one – dimensional

conduction equation, we assumed that conduction heat transfer is taking place only along one
direction. By allowing conduction along the remaining two directions and following the same
procedure we obtain the governing equation for conduction in three dimenions.

## 2.3.1. Three dimensional conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate system: Let us

consider a volume element of dimensions Δx, Δy and Δz in x y and z directions respectively.
The conduction heat transfer across the six surfaces of the element is shown in Fig. 2.3.

30
z
y

Δz
x

Qx + Δx
Qx

Δy

Δx

Qy Qz
Fig. 2.3: Conduction heat transfer across the six faces of a volume element

## = − (∂Qx/∂x) Δx by neglecting higher order terms.

= − ∂ / ∂x [− kx Δy Δz(∂T / ∂x)] Δx

## Similarly the net rate of conduction into the element

in y – direction = ∂ / ∂y[ky (∂T / ∂y)] Δx Δy Δz

## and in z – direction = ∂ / ∂z[kz (∂T / ∂z)] Δx Δy Δz.

Hence the net rate of conduction into the element from all the three directions

Qin = {∂ / ∂x[kx (∂T / ∂x)] + ∂ / ∂y[ky (∂T / ∂y)] + ∂ / ∂z[kz (∂T / ∂z)] } Δx Δy Δz

## Applying I law of thermodynamics for the volume element we have

31
Qin + Qg = ∂E / ∂t

## Substituting the expressions for Qin, Qg and ∂E / ∂t and simplifying we get

{∂ / ∂x[kx (∂T / ∂x)] + ∂ / ∂y[ky (∂T / ∂y)] + ∂ / ∂z[kz (∂T / ∂z)] } + q′′′ = ρ Cp (∂T / ∂t)

……………………(2.14)

Equation (2.14) is the most general form of conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate
system. This equation reduces to much simpler form for many special cases as indicated
below.
Special cases:- (i) For isotropic solids, thermal conductivity is independent of direction; i.e.,
kx = ky = kz = k. Hence Eq. (2.14) reduces to

{∂ / ∂x[k (∂T / ∂x)] + ∂ / ∂y[k (∂T / ∂y)] + ∂ / ∂z[k (∂T / ∂z)] } + q′′′ = ρ Cp (∂T / ∂t)

……………………..(2.15)
(ii) For isotropic solids with constant thermal conductivity the above equation further reduces
to

## ∂2T / ∂x2 + ∂2T / ∂y2 + ∂2T / ∂z2 + q′′′ / k = (1 / α) (∂T / ∂t)…………………….(2.16)

Eq.(2.16) is called as the “Fourier – Biot equation” and it reduces to the following forms
under specified conditions as mentioned below:

## Eq. (2.18) is called the “diffusion equation”.

(v) Steady state conduction without heat generation [i.e., (∂T / ∂t) = 0 and q’’’ = 0]:

## Eq. (2.19) is called the “Laplace equation”.

32
2.3.2. Three dimensional conduction equation in cylindrical coordinate system:

## It is convenient to express the governing conduction equation in cylindrical coordinate

system when we want to analyse conduction in cylinders. Any point P in space can be located
by using the cylindrical coordinate system r, θ and z and its relation to the Cartesian
coordinate system (See Fig. 2.4) can be written as follows:
z

P(x,y,z)

x
θ
r

y

## x = r cos θ ; y = r sin θ ; z = z. Using these transformations and after laborious simplifications

Eq. (2.15) reduces to

1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂T
r ∂r (
kr + ) k
∂ r r2 ∂ θ ∂ θ ( ) + k( )
∂z ∂ z
+ q’’’ = ρCp
∂t
…………..(2.20)

## For spherical solids,it is convenient to express the governing conduction equation in

spherical coordinate system. Any point P on the surface of a sphere of radius r can be located
by using the spherical coordinate system r, θ and φ and its relation to the Cartesian
coordinate system (See Fig. 2.5) can be written as follows:

33
z
OP’ = r sin φ.Hence

x = r sin φ cos θ ;
P(x,y,z)
y = r sin φ sin θ ;

z = r cos φ
r
φ

O
x
θ

P’
Fig: 2.5: Spherical coordinate system
y

Using the relation between x, y ,z and r, θ and φ, the conduction equation (2.15) can be
transformed into the equation in terms of r, θ and φ as follows.

1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T
r ∂r
2 (
kr2 )
+ 2 k
∂ r r ( sin φ ) ∂ θ ∂θ
2 ( ) + 2
r sin φ ∂φ(k sin φ
∂φ ) + q’’’ = ρCp
∂T
∂t

…………….(2.21).
2.4.Boundary and Initial Conditions:

The temperature distribution within any solid is obtained by integrating the above conduction
equation with respect to the space variable and with respect to time.The solution thus
obtained is called the “general solution” involving arbitrary constants of integration. The
solution to a particular conduction problem is arrived by obtaining these constants which
depends on the conditions at the bounding surfaces of the solid as well as the initial
condition. The thermal conditions at the boundary surfaces are called the “boundary
conditions” . Boundary conditions normally encountered in practice are:
(i) Specified temperature (also called as boundary condition of the first kind),
(ii) Specified heat flux (also known as boundary condition of the second kind),
(iii) Convective boundary condition (also known as boundary condition of the third kind) and
(iv) radiation boundary condition. The mathematical representations of these boundary
conditions are illustrated by means of a few examples below.

34
2.4.1. Specified Temperatures at the Boundary:- Consider a plane wall of thickness L
whose outer surfaces are maintained at temperatures T0 and TL as shown in Fig.2.6. For one-
dimensional unsteady state conduction the boundary conditions can be written as
y
T(x,t)
T0 TL T(x,y)
T = φ(x)

L T2
b
Ψ(y)
a

x
T1
x
Fig. 2.6: Boundary condition Fig.2.7: Boundary conditions of
of first kind for a plane wall first kind for a rectangular plate

## (i) at x = 0, T(0,t) = T0 ; (ii) at x = L, T(L,t) = TL.

Consider another example of a rectangular plate as shown in Fig. 2.7. The boundary
conditions for the four surfaces to determine two-dimensional steady state temperature
distribution T(x,y) can be written as follows.

## (iii) at x = a, T(a,y) = T2 for all values of y; (iv) at y = b, T(x,b) = φ(x)

2.4.2. Specified heat flux at the boundary:- Consider a rectangular plate as shown in Fig.
2.8 and whose boundaries are subjected to the prescribed heat flux conditions as shown in the
figure. Then the boundary conditions can be mathematically expressed as follows.

35
qb T(x,y)
y

q0 qa
b

a
x
insulated

## (iv) at y = b, − k (∂T / ∂y)|y = b = qb for 0 ≤ x ≤ a ;

2.4.3. Boundary surface subjected to convective heat transfer:- Fig. 2.9 shows a plane
wall whose outer surfaces are subjected to convective boundary conditions.The surface at x =
0 is in contact with a fluid which is at a uniform temperature T i and the surface heat transfer
coefficient is hi. Similarly the other surface at x = L is in contact with another fluid at a
uniform temperature T0 with a surface heat transfer coefficient h0. This type of boundary
condition is encountered in heat exchanger wherein heat is transferred from hot fluid to the
cold fluid with a metallic wall separating the two fluids. This type of boundary condition is
normally referred to as the boundary condition of third kind. The mathematical representation
of the boundary conditions for the two surfaces of the plane wall can be written as follows.

## (ii) at x = L, − k(dT / dx)|x = L = h0 [T|x = L − T0]

36
T(x)
Surface in contact with fluid at T0 with surface heat transfer coefficient h0

L
Surface in contact with fluid at Ti with surface heat transfer coefficient h i

x
Fig. 2.9: Boundaries subjected to convective heat transfer for a plane wall

## 2.4.4.Radiation Boundary Condition:Fig. 2.10 shows a plane wall whose surface at x =L is

having an emissivity ‘ε’ and is radiating heat to the surroundings at a uniform temperature T s.
The mathematical expression for the boundary condition at x = L can be written as follows:

T(x,t)
Surface with emissivity ε is radiating heat to the surroundings at Ts 0K

x
Fig. 2.10: Boundary surface at x = L subjected to radiation heat transfer for a plane wall

## In the above equation both T| x = L and Ts should be expressed in degrees Kelvin.

37
2.4.5. General form of boundary condition (combined conduction, convection and
radiation boundary condition): There are situations where the boundary surface is
subjected to combined conduction, convection and radiation conditions as illustrated in Fig.
2.11.It is a south wall of a house and the outer surface of the wall is exposed to solar
radiation. The interior of the room is at a uniform temperature T i. The outer air is at uniform
temperature T0 . The sky, the ground and the surfaces of the surrounding structures at this
location is modeled as a surface at an effective temperature of Tsky.
x
L

qconduction αqsolar

qconvection

## − k (dT / dx)|x = L + αqsolar = ε σ [(T|x = L)4 − Tsky4] + h0[T|x = L − T0]

38
2.5. Illustrative Examples:

## A. Derivation of conduction Equations:

Example2.1.By writing an energy balance for a differential cylindrical volume element in the
‘r’variable (r is any radius), derive the one-dimensional time dependent heat conduction
equation with internal heat generation and variable thermal conductivity in the cylindrical
coordinate system.

Sketch :

r
Qr
dr
Qr

Qg
Qr+dr
Qr+dr

## Assumptions: One dimensional time dependent radial heat conduction

Solution:
A cylindrical element of thickness dr in the radial direction at a radius r is shown in the figure
above. For unsteady state one dimensional radial conduction with heat generation is given by
Qr + Qg – Qr+dr = (∂E / ∂t)

## Or ─ (∂Qr ∂r)dr + Qg = (∂E / ∂t) ……………………………..(1)

where Qr is the rate of conduction into the element at radius r = ─ k 2πrL (∂T /∂r)

## Qg is the rate of heat generation within the element = 2π rL dr q′′′

(∂E / ∂t) is the rate of increase of the energy of the element. = 2π rL dr ρCp (∂T / ∂t)
where dV=2πrLdr-------- volume

39
Substituting these expressions in Eq.(1) we get

## [ ─ ∂ /∂r (─ 2π rLk (∂T /∂r) )]dr + 2π rL dr q′′′ = 2π rL dr ρCp (∂T / ∂t)

Simplifying we get

## (1 / r) ∂ /∂r [kr(∂T/∂r)] + q′′′ = ρCp (∂T / ∂t)

Example2.2.By writing an energy balance for a differential spherical volume element in the
variable (r is any radius), derive the one-dimensional time dependent heat conduction
equation with internal heat generation and variable thermal conductivity in the spherical
coordinate system.

Sketch:

dr

Qr+dr
Qr

Qg

## Assumptions: One dimensional time dependent radial heat conduction

Solution: Consider a spherical element of thickness dr at any radius r as shown in the figure
above. The energy balance equation for one – dimensional radial unsteady state conduction
with heat generation is given by

## Where Qr = rate of heat conducted in to the element at radius r = - k 4π r2 (∂T / ∂r),

Qg = rate of heat generation within the element = (4/3)π [(r + dr)3 – r3 ] q′′′

40
(∂E / ∂t) = rate of increase of energy of the element = ρ (4/3)π [ (r + dr) 3 – r3 ](∂T/∂t)

## Neglecting higher order terms like (dr)3 and (dr)2 we have

(r + dr)3 – r3 = 3 r2 dr.

Therefore Qg = 4 π r2 dr q′′′

## and (∂E / ∂t) = ρ 4 π r2 dr Cp(∂T/∂t).

Substituting the expressions for Qr, Qg and (∂E / ∂t) in Eq. (1) we have

## ─ [∂ /∂r{- k 4π r2 (∂T / ∂r)}]dr + 4 π r2 dr q′′′ = ρ 4 π r2 dr Cp(∂T/∂t)

Simplifying the above equation and noting that if k is given to be constant we have

## Example2.3.By simplifying the three-dimensional heat conduction equation, obtain one

dimensional steady-state conduction equation with heat generation and constant
thermal conductivity for the following coordinate systems:
(a) Rectangular coordinate in the ‘x’ variable; (b) Cylindrical coordinate in the r variable.
(c) Spherical coordinates in the ‘r’ variable

Find: Differential equation for one dimensional time dependent heat conduction with heat
generation

Assumptions: One dimensional time dependent radial heat conduction with heat generation

Solution: (a) The general form of conduction equation for an isotropic solid in rectangular
coordinate system is given by

∂ / ∂x (k∂T / ∂x) + ∂ / ∂y (k∂T / ∂y) + ∂ / ∂z (k∂T / ∂z) + q′′′ = (ρ Cp) (∂T / ∂t)
…………..(1)
For steady state conduction (∂T / ∂t) = 0 ; For one dimensional conduction in x – direction
we have
∂T / ∂y = ∂T / ∂z = 0 . Therefore ∂T / ∂x = dT / dx .
Therefore Eq. (1) reduces to

41
d / dx (k dT / dx) + q′′′ = 0.

## For constant thermal conductivity the above equation reduces to

d2 T / dx2 + q′′′ / k = 0.
(b) The general form of conduction equation in cylindrical coordinate system is given by

(1 / r) ∂ / ∂r (kr ∂T / ∂r) + (1 / r2) ∂ / ∂θ(k ∂T / ∂θ) + ∂ / ∂z (k∂T / ∂z) + q′′′ = ρCp( ∂T / ∂t)

For steady state conduction, ( ∂T / ∂t) = 0 ; For one-dimensional radial conduction we have
∂T / ∂θ = 0 and ∂T / ∂z = 0. Therefore ∂T / ∂r = dT / dr. With these simplifications the
general form of conduction equation reduces to

## For constant thermal conductivity the above equation reduces to

(1 / r) d / dr (r dT/dr) + q′′′ / k = 0.

(a) The general form of conduction equation in spherical coordinate system is given by

## (1/r2) ∂ / ∂r(kr2 ∂T / ∂r) + {1/(r2 sin 2 φ)}∂ / ∂θ (k ∂T/∂θ)

+ {1/(r2 sin φ)} ∂ /∂φ (k sin φ ∂T/∂φ) + q′′′ = ρCp (∂T/ ∂t) ………..(1)

For steady state conduction (∂T ∂t) = 0 ; For one dimensional radial conduction we have

## ∂T/∂θ = 0 and ∂T/∂φ = 0. Therefore ∂T / ∂r = dT / dr. Substituting these conditions in

Eq. (1) we have (1/r2) d / dr (kr2 dT / dr) + q′′′ = 0.

## Example2.4.A plane wall of thickness L is subjected to a heat supply at a rate of q0 W/m2 at

one boundary surface and dissipates heat from the surface by convection to the ambient
which is at a uniform temperature of T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient of
h∞.Write the mathematical formulation of the boundary conditions for the plane wall.

Sketch :

42
h,T∞

q0
Boundary conditions are :
L (i)at x = 0; ─ k (dT / dx)x = 0 = q0

## (ii) at x = L; ─ k(dT / dx)x = L = h(T|x=L - T∞)

Example2.5.Consider a solid cylinder of radius R and height Z. The outer curved surface of
thecylinder is subjected to a uniform heating electrically at a rate of q0 W / m2.Both the
circular surfaces of the cylinder are exposed to an environment at a uniform
temeperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.Write the mathematical
formulation of the boundary conditions for the solid cylinder.

## Sketch : Known: (i) Solid cylinder of radius R;

2
(ii)Surface heat flux at radiyus R = q0 W/m ; (iii) The two circular faces are exposed to
ambient at T∞ with surface heat transfer coefficient h

Solution:
h,T∞ Boundary conditions are:
z (i) at r = 0; (∂T/∂r) = 0 (axis of symmetry)
R
(ii) at r = R; k(∂T/∂r) = q0

## q0 (iv) at z = Z; ─ k(∂T/∂r) = h [ T|z = z ─ T∞]

q0
Z

h , T∞

Example2.6. A hollow cylinder of inner radius ri, outer radius r0 and height H is subjected
to thefollowing boundary conditions.

43
(a) The inner curved surface is heated uniformly with an electric heater at a constant rate of
q0 W/m2,
(b) the outer curved surface dissipates heat by convection into an ambient at a uniform
temperature, T∞ with a convective heat transfer coefficient,h
(c) the lower flat surface of the cylinder is insulated, and
(d) the upper flat surface of the cylinder dissipates heat by convection into the ambient at T ∞
with surface heat transfer coefficient h. Write the mathematical formulation of the boundary
conditions for the hollow cylinder.

## Sketch for example 2.6:

Solution:
hz,T∞
hr,T∞ Boundary conditions are:
(i) at r = ri, ─ k(∂T/∂r) = q0 for all z;

## (ii) at r = ro, ─ k(∂T/∂r) = hr[T|r=r2 - T∞]

q0
H for all z
q0
(iii) at z = 0, (∂T/∂z) = 0 for all r.

(iv) at z = H,

## ─ k(∂T/∂z)z =H = hz[T|z=H - T∞]

for all r
ri from the problem: hz=hr=h
Insulated ro

## C. Formulation of Heat Conduction Problems:

Example2.7. A plane wall of thickness L and with constant thermal properties is initially
at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly one of the surfaces of the wall is subjected to
heatingby the flow of a hot gas at temperature T∞ and the other surface is kept
insulated. Theheat transfer coefficient between the hot gas and the surface exposed to it
is h. There is no heat generation in the wall. Write the mathematical formulation of the
problem to determine the one-dimensional unsteady state temperature within the wall.

## Sketch for example 2.7:

44
T = Ti at t = 0

L
Insulated h∞,T∞
T = T(x,t)

Solution:
Governing differential equation to determine T(x,t) is given by

## Initial condition is at time t = 0 T = Ti for all x.

The boundary conditions are : (i) at x = 0, (∂T / ∂x)x=0 = 0. (Insulated) for all t >0

## (ii) at x = L, ─ k (∂ T / ∂ x)x=L = h∞ [T|x=L ─ T∞] for all t>0

Example2.8. A copper bar of radius R is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly the
heating of the rod begins at time t=0 by the passage of electric current, which generates
heat at a uniform rate of q’’’ W/m3. The outer surface of the dissipates heat into an
ambient at a uniform temperature T∞ with a convective heat transfer coefficient h.
Assuming that thermal conductivity of the bar to be constant, write the mathematical
formulation of the heat conduction problem to determine the one-dimensional radial
unsteady state temperature distribution in the rod.

## Sketch for example 2.8:

h,T∞

T = Ti at t ≤ 0
q’’’ for t ≤ 0
R

Solution:

45
The governing differential equation to determine T(r,t) is given by

## Initial condition is : At t = 0, T = Ti for all r

Example2.9. Consider a solid cylinder of radius R and height H. Heat is generated in the
solid at auniform rate of q’’’ W/m3. One of the circular faces of the cylinder is insulated and
theother circular face dissipates heat by convection into a medium at a uniform
temperature of T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient of h. The outer curved surface
of the cylinder is maintained at a uniform temperature of T0. Write the mathematical
formulation to determine the two-dimensional steady state temperature distribution
T(r,z) in the cylinder.

## Sketch for example 2.9:

z Solution: The governing differential equation to determine T(r,z) is given by
h, T∞
(1/r)∂ /∂r(r∂T/∂r) + ∂2T/∂z2
T0
+ q’’’/k = 0
Boundary conditions are:
(i) at r = 0, ∂T/∂r|r=0 = 0, for all z (axis
H
of symmetry).
R (ii) at r = R, T = T0 for all z.

## (iii) at z = 0 , ∂T/∂z|z=0 = 0 for all r.

(iv) at z =rH,
─ k (∂T/∂z)z=H = h (T |z=H ─ T∞)
for all x.
Insulated
for all r.

Example2.10. Consider a rectangular plate as shown in Fig. 2.10. The plate is generating
heatat a uniform rate of q’’’ W/m3. Write the mathematical formulation to determine two
dimensional steady state temperature distribution in the plate.

46
h,T∞

T0

bb
a
a
x

Insulated
Fig. 2.10 : Schematic for example 2.10

## (iii) at y = 0, ∂T / ∂y = 0 for all x ; (iv) at y = b, ─ k(∂T / ∂y)|y=b = h[T |y=b ─ T∞].

Example2.11. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its
simple form as

## (a) Is heat transfer in this medium steady or transient?

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimensional?
(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?
(d) Is thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable?

## ∂2T / ∂x2 = (1/α) (∂T / ∂t)

It can be seen from this equation that T depends on one space variable x and the time variable
t. Hence the problem is one dimensional transient conduction problem. No heat generation
term appears in the equation indicating that the medium is not generating any heat.The

47
thermal conductivity of the medium does not appear within the differential symbol indicating
that the conductivity of the medium is constant.

Example2.12. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its
simple form as
(1/r) d / dr(r k dT/dr) + q’’’ = 0.

## (a) Is heat transfer steady or unsteady?

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimensional?
(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?
(d) Is the thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable?

## (1/r) d / dr(r k dT/dr) + q’’’ = 0.

It can be seen from this equation that the temperature T depends only on one space variable
‘r’ and it does not depend on time t. Also the heat generation term q’’’ appears in the
differential equation.Hence the problem is a one-dimensional steady state conduction
problem with heat generation. Since the thermal conductivity appears within the differential
symbol, it follows that the thermal conductivity of the medium is not a constant but varies
with temperature.

Example2.13. Consider a medium in which heat the heat conduction equation in its simplest
form is given as
(1/r2) ∂/∂r (r2 ∂T /∂r) = (1/α) (∂T/∂t)

## (a) Is heat transfer steady state or unsteady state?

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimension?
(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?
(d) Is the thermal conductivity constant or variable?

## (1/r) ∂/∂r (k r ∂T /∂r) + ∂/∂z (k ∂T /∂z) + q’’’ = 0

It can be seen from the above equation that the temperature T depends on two space variables
r and z and does not depend on time. There is the heat generation term appearing in the
equation and the thermal conductivity k appears within the differential symbol ∂/∂r and
∂/∂z. Hence the problem is two-dimensional steady state conduction with heat generation in
a medium of variable thermal conductivity.

Example2.14. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its
simplest form as
(1/r) ∂/∂r (k r ∂T /∂r) + ∂/∂z (k ∂T /∂z) + q’’’ = 0

## (a) Is heat transfer steady state or unsteady state?

48
(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimension?
(c)Is there heat generation in the medium?
(d)Is the thermal conductivity constant or variable?

## Solution: The given differential equation is

1 ∂ 2T
2 2
(1/r ) ∂/∂r (r ∂T /∂r) + ---------- [ -------] = (1/α) (∂T/∂t)
r2 sin 2 φ ∂θ2

It can be seen from the given equation that the temperature T depends two space variables r
and θ and it also depends on the time variable t. There is no heat generation term appearing in
the given equation . Also the thermal conductivity k do not appear within the differential
symbol. Hence the given equation represents two-dimensional, steady state conduction in a
medium of constant thermal conductivity and the medium is not generating any heat.

Example2.15. Consider the north wall of a house of thickness L. The outer surface of the
wall exchanges heat by both convection and radiation.The interior of the house is
maintained at a uniform temperature of Ti, while the exterior of the house is at a
uniform temperature T0. The sky, the ground, and the surfaces of the surrounding structures
at this location can be modeled as a surface at an effective temperature of T sky for radiation
heat exchange on the outer surface.The radiation heat exchange between the inner surface of
the wall and the surfaces of the other walls, floor and ceiling are negligible.The convective
heat transfer coefficient for the inner and outer surfaces of the wall under consideration are
hi and h0 respectively.The thermal conductivity of the wall material is K and the emissivity of
the outer surface of the wall is ‘ε 0’. Assuming the heat transfer through the wall is steady and
one dimensional, express the mathematical formulation (differential equation and boundary
conditions) of the heat conduction problem

## Sketch for example 2.15:

49
Surface in contact with fluid at Ti and surface heat transfer coefficient hi

x
L T (x)

surface in contac
at T0 and surface heat
qconduction transfer coefficient h0

qconvection
ε0

Solution: The problem is one-dimensional steady state conduction without any heat
generation and the wall is of constant thermal conductivity. Hence the governing differential
equation is
d2T / dx2 = 0.

50
CHAPTER 3

## ONE DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE CONDUCTION

3.1. Introduction:- In this chapter the problems of one-dimensional steady state conduction
without and with thermal energy generation in slabs, cylinders and spheres and subjected to
different types of boundary conditions are analyzed to determine the temperature distribution
and rate of heat flow. The concept of thermal resistance is introduced and the use of this
concept, for solving conduction in composite layers is illustrated. The problem of critical
thickness of insulation for cylinder and sphere are also analyzed. The effects of variable
thermal conductivity on temperature distribution and rate of heat transfer are also studied.
Finally the problems of one dimensional heat conduction in extended surfaces (fins)
subjected to different types of boundary conditions are examined.

## 3.2. Conduction Without Heat Generation

3.2.1. The Plane Wall (The Infinite Slab):- The statement of the problem is to determine the
temperature distribution and rate of heat transfer for one dimensional steady state conduction
in a plane wall without heat generation subjected to specified boundary conditions.

51
T = T(x)

T1 T2
Qx
R = L /(Ak)

L
Fig. 3.1: One dimensional steady state conduction in a slab

The governing equation for one − dimensional steady state conduction without heat
generation is given by

d2T
=0 ……………..(3.1)
d x2

## Integrating Eq.(3.1) twice with respect to x we get

T = C1x + C2 ………………………………(3.2)

where C1 and C2 are constants which can be evaluated by knowing the boundary conditions.

## Plane wall with specified boundary surface temperatures:- If the surface at x = 0 is

maintained at a uniform temperature T1 and the surface at x = L is maintained at another
uniform temperature T2, then the boundary conditions can be written as follows:
(i) at x = 0, T(x) = T1 ; (ii) at x = L, T(x) = T2.

## Condition (ii) in Eq. (3.2) gives T2 = C1L + T1

( T 2−T 1 )
Or C1 =
L

Substituting for C1 and C2 in Eq. (3.2), we get the temperature distribution in the plane wall
as

52
x
T(x) = (T2 – T1) + T1
L

Or T(x) – T1 x
------------ = -------- ……………………………..(3.3)
(T2 – T1) L

## Qx = − k A(x) (dT / dx)

For a plane wall A(x) = constant = A. From Eq. (3.3), dT/dx = (T2 – T1) / L.

## Hence kA(T1 – T2)

Qx = ---------------- ………………………………..(3.4)
L

## Concept of thermal resistance for heat flow:

It can be seen from the above equation that Qx is independent of x and is a constant.
Eq.(3.4) can be written as
(T1 – T2) (T1 – T2)
Qx = -------------- = ------------------ ………………..(3.5)
{L /(kA)} R
where R = L / (Ak).

Eq. (3.5) is analogous to Ohm’s law for flow of electric current. In this equation (T1 – T2) can
be thought of as “thermal potential”, R can be thought of as “thermal resistance”,so that the
plane wall can be represented by an equivalent “thermal circuit” as shown in
Fig.3.1.The units of thermal resistance R are 0 K / W.

## Plane wall whose boundary surfaces subjected to convective boundary conditions:

53
Surface in contact with a fluid at To with heat transfer coefficient ho

## Surface in contact with a fluid at Ti with heat transfer coefficient hi

x
L
T1 T2
Rci R Rco
Ti
To
Qx Qx Qx Qx

Fig.3.2: Thermal Circuit for a plane wall with convective boundary conditions

## Let T1 be the surface temperature at x = 0 and T2 be the surface temperature at x = L.

If we assume that Ti > To, then for steady state conduction heat will transfer by convection
from the fluid at Ti to the surface at x = 0, then it is conducted across the
plane wall and finally heat is transferred by convection from the surface at x = L to the fluid
at To.
The expression for rate of heat transfer Qx can be written as follows:

Qx = hi A [Ti – T1]

## (Ti – T1) (Ti – T1)

or Qx = --------------- = ---------------- ………………………(3.6a)
1 / (hi A) Rci

(T1 – T2)

## Similarly Qx = --------------- …………………………………………(3.6b)

R

where R = L /(Ak) is the thermal resistance offered by the wall for conduction and
(T2 – To)
Qx = --------------- ………………………………………..(3.6c)
Rco

Where Rco = 1 / (hoA) is the thermal resistance offered by the fluid at the surface at x = L for
convection. It follows from Equations (3.6a), (3.6b) and (3.6c) that

54
(Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – T0)
Qx = --------------- = ------------------ = --------------
Rci R Rco

(Ti – To)
Or Qx = ------------------- ……………………………………(3.7)
[Rci + R + Rco]

## 3.2.2. Radial Conduction in a Hollow Cylinder:

The governing differential equation for one-dimensional steady state radial conduction in a
hollow cylinder of constant thermal conductivity and without thermal energy generation is
given by Eq.(2.10b) with n = 1: i.e.,
d
--- [r (dT / dr)] = 0 ………………………….(3.8)
dr

r (dT / dr) = C1

## or (dT / dr) = C1/ r

3.5
Integrating once again with respect to ‘r’ we get

T(r) = C1 ln r + C2 ………………………..(3.9)

where C1 and C2 are constants of integration which can be determined by knowing the
boundary conditions of the problem.

Hollow cylinder with prescribed surface temperatures: Let the inner surface at r = r 1 be
maintained at a uniform temperature T1 and the outer surface at r = r 2 be maintained at
another uniform temperature T2 as shown in Fig. 3.3.

## Substituting the condition at r1 in Eq.(3.9) we get

T1 = C1 ln r1 + C2 ………………………….(3.10a)

## and the condition at r2 in Eq. (3.9) we get

T2 = C1 ln r2 + C2 ………………………….(3.10b)

## (T1 – T2) (T1 – T2)

55
C1 = ---------------- = -------------------
[ln r1 – ln r2] ln (r1 / r2)

(T1 – T2)
and C2 = T1 − ------------------ ln r1
ln (r1 / r2)

## (T1 – T2) (T1 – T2)

T(r) = -------------- ln r + T1 − ---------------- ln r1
ln (r1 / r2) ln (r1 / r2)

## or [T(r) – T1] ln (r / r1)

--------------- = ------------------- …………………………………………(3.11)
[ T2 – T1] ln (r2 / r1)

T2
T1

r2
r1

## Fig.3.3: Hollow cylinder with prescribed surface temperatures

Eq. (3.11) gives the temperature distribution with respect to the radial direction in a hollow
cylinder. The plot of Eq. (3.11) is shown in Fig. 3.4.
Expression for rate of heat transfer:- For radial steady state heat conduction in a hollow
cylinder without heat generation energy balance equation gives

Qr = Qr|r = r1 = Qr|r = r2

## (dT / dr) = {[ T2 – T1] / ln (r2 / r1) }(1/r)

56
Hence (dT / dr)|r = r1 = {[ T2 – T1] / ln (r2 / r1) }(1/ r1).

Substituting the expressions for A(r)|r = r1 and (dT / dr)|r = r1 in Eq. (3.12) we get the expression
for rate of heat transfer as

2 π L k (T1 – T2)
Qr = -------------------------- ……………………………….(3.13)
ln (r2 / r1)

## Qr = (T1 – T2) / R ……………………………………….(3.14a)

3.7

(T – T1)
(T2 – T1)

0 r / r1
1.0 r2 / r1

Fig. 3.4:Radial temperature distribution for a hollow cylinder with prescribed surface temperature

ln (r2 / r1) 1
where R = ----------------- = --------- ……………………………..(3.14b)
2πLk k Am

Where Am = (A2 – A1) / ln (A2 / A1), when A2 = 2π r2 L = Area of the outer surface of the

cylinder and A1 = 2π r1 L = Area of the inner surface of the cylinder, and Am is logarithmic
mean area.

Hollow cylinder with convective boundary conditions at the surfaces:- Let for the hollow
cylinder, the surface at r = r1 is in contact with a fluid at temperature Ti with a surface heat
transfer coefficient hi and the surface at r = r2 is in contact with another fluid at a temperature
To as shown in Fig.3.5.By drawing the thermal circuit for this problem and using the concept

57
of thermal resistance it is easy and straight forward to write down the expression for the rate
of heat transfer as shown.
(Ti – T1)
Now Qr = hiAi(Ti – T1) = 2π r1L hi (Ti – T1) = -------------- ……………..(3.15a)
Rci

## where Rci = 1 / (2π r1Lhi)………………………………………………..(3.15b)

(T1 – T2)
Also Qr = -------------- …………………………………………………..(3.15c)
R

## Surface in contact with fluid at To and heat transfer coefficient ho

Surface in contact
With fluid at Ti and
Surface heat transfer
Coefficient hi

r1
r2

Qr
Rco R Rci

(T2 – To)
And Qr = --------------- ………………………………………………….(3.15e)
Rco

1
Where Rco = --------------…………………………………..(3.15f)
(2πr2Lho)

## (Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – To)

Qr = ------------- = -------------- = ----------------
Rci R Rco

58
(Ti – To)
Or Qr = ---------------------- ……………………….(3.16)
Rci + R + Rco

where Rci, R and Rco are given by Eqs.(3.15b), (3.15d) and (3.15f) respectively.

## 3.2.3. Radial Conduction in a Hollow Sphere:

The governing differential equation for one-dimensional steady state radial conduction in a
hollow sphere without thermal energy generation is given by Eq.(2.10b) with n = 1: i.e.,

d
--- [r2 (dT / dr)] = 0 ………………………….(3.17)
dr

## Integrating the above equation once with respect to ‘r’ we get

r2 (dT / dr) = C1

## Integrating once again with respect to ‘r’ we get

T(r) = − C1 / r + C2 ………………………..(3.18)

where C1 and C2 are constants of integration which can be determined by knowing the
boundary conditions of the problem.

## (i) Expression for temperature distribution:-Let the inner surface at r = r1 be maintained at a

uniform temperature T1 and the outer surface at r = r2 be maintained at another uniform
temperature T2 as shown in Fig. 3.6.

## (T1 – T2) (T1 – T2)

59
C1 = ------------------- and C2 = T1 + --------------------------
[1 / r2 – 1 / r1] r1[1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

## (T1 – T2) / r (T1 – T2) / r1

T(r) = − ----------------------- + T1 + ----------------------
[1 / r2 – 1 / r1] [1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

Surface at temperature T2

Surface at temperature T1
r2

r1

Fig. 3.6: Radial conduction in a hollow sphere with prescribed surface temperatures

Or T(r) – T1 [1 / r2 – 1 / r]
----------------- = ---------------------- ……………………………(3.20)
[T1 – T2] [1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

(ii) Expression for Rate of Heat Transfer:- The rate of heat transfer for the hollow sphere is
given by

## Qr = −k A(r)(d T / dr) …………………………………………..(3.21)

Now at any radius for a sphere A(r) = 4π r2 and from Eq. (3.20)
1
dT / dr = [T1 – T2] ------------------ (1 / r2)
[1 / r2 – 1 / r1]
Substituting these expressions in Eq. (3.21) and simplifying we get

4 π k r1 r2 [T1 – T2]
Qr = -------------------------- ……………………………………...(3.22)

60
[r2 – r1]

## Eq.(3.22) can be written as Qr = [T1 – T2] / R ……………………………..(3.23a)

Where R is the thermal resistance for the hollow sphere and is given by

## R = (r2 – r1) / {4 π k r1 r2} …………………………………….(3.23b)

Hollow sphere with convective conditions at the surfaces:- Fig. 3.7 shows a hollow sphere
whose boundary surfaces at radii r1 and r2 are in contact with fluids at temperatures Ti and T0
with surface heat transfer coefficients hi and h0 respectively.

## Surface in contact with fluid at Ti and surface heat transfer coefficient hi

r2

r1

Fig. 3.7: Radial conduction in a hollow sphere with convective conditions at the two boun

The thermal resistance network for the above problem is shown in Fig.3.8

## Qci = Qr = Qco ………………(3.24)

Where Qci = heat transfer by convection from the fluid at Ti to the inner surface of the hollow
sphere and is given by
[Ti – T1]
Qci = hi Ai [Ti – T1] = --------------- ……………………..(3.25)
Rci

61
Qr Qco
Ti Qci To
Rci R Rco

.
Fig. 3.8: Thermal circuit for a hollow sphere with convective boundary conditions

## When T1 = the inside surface temperature of the sphere and

Rci = 1 / (hiAi) = the thermal resistance for convection for the inside surface

## = [T1 – T2] / R with R = (r2 – r1) / {4 π k r1 r2}

And Qco = Rate of heat transfer by convection from the outer surface of the sphere to the
outer fluid and is given by
[T2 – T0]
Qco = ho Ao [T2 – To] = --------------- ……………(3.26a)
Rco

## [Ti – T1] [T1 – T2] [T2 – To]

Qr = hi Ai [Ti – T1] = -------------- = ---------------- = ----------------
Rci R Rco

[Ti – To]

62
Qr = ---------------------- …………………………………………(3.27)
[Rci + R + Rco]

## 3.2.4. Steady State conduction in composite solids:

There are many engineering applications in which heat transfer takes place through a
medium composed of several different layers, each having different thermal conductivity.
These layers may be arranged in series or in parallel or they may be arranged with combined
series-parallel arrangements. Such problems can be conveniently solved using electrical
analogy as illustrated in the following sections.

Composite Plane wall:- (i) Layers in series: Consider a plane wall consisting of three
layers in series with perfect thermal contact as shown in Fig. 3.10.The equivalent thermal
resistance network is also shown. If Q is the rate of heat transfer through an area A of the
composite wall then we can write the expression for Q as follows:

L1 L2 L3

## Surface in contact with fluid at Ti and surface heat transfer coefficient hi

Surface in contact with a fluid at T0 and surfac

k1 k2 k3

T1 T2 T3 T4

Rci R1 R2 R3 Rco

Ti T1 T2 T3 T4 To

Fig. 3.10: A composite plane wall with three layers in series and the equivalent thermal
resistance network

(Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – T3) (T3 – T4) (T4 – Tco)
Q = -------------- = --------------- = ------------- = ------------ = ----------------
Rci R1 R2 R3 Rco

## (Ti – T0) (Ti – T0)

63
Or Q = --------------------------------- = ------------…………………………….(3.28)
Rci + R1 + R2 + R3 + Rco Rtotal

## Overall heat transfer coefficient for a composite wall:- It is sometimes convenient to

express the rate of heat transfer through a medium in a manner which is analogous to the
Newton’s law of cooling as follows:

If U is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the composite wall shown in Fig. (3.10) then
Q = U A (Ti – To) ………………………………...(3.29)

Comparing Eq. (3.28) with Eq. (3.29) we have the expression for U as
1
U = --------------- ……………………………………..(3.30)
A Rtotal
1 1
Or U = --------------------------------= ----------------------------------------------------------------
A [ Rci + R1 + R2 + R3 ] A[1/(hiA) + L1/(Ak1) + L2/(Ak2) + L3/(Ak3)+ 1/(hoA)]

1
Or U = --------------------------------------------……………………………………(3.31)
[ 1/hi + L1 / k1 + L2 / k2 + L3 / k3 + 1/ho]

(ii) Layers in Parallel:- Fig.3.11 shows a composite plane wall in which three layers are
arranged in parallel. Let ‘b’ be the dimension of these layers measured normal to the plane of
the paper. Let one surface of the composite wall be in contact with a fluid at temperature T i
and surface heat transfer coefficient hi and the other surface of the wall be in contact with
another fluid at temperature To with surface heat transfer coefficient ho. The equivalent
thermal circuit for the composite wall is also shown in Fig. 3.11. The rate of heat transfer
through the composite wall is given by

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 ………………………….(3.32)

## Q3 = Rate of heat transfer through layer 3.

F
(T1 – T2)
Now Q1 = -------------- ……………………………………………………...(3.33a)
R1

Where R1 = {L / (H1bk1)}
F

64
L H1

## Surface in contact with fluid at Ti with heat transfer coefficient hi

k1 H2

k2
H3

k3
b

Q1
R1
Ti
T1 Q2 T2 To
Rci R2 Rco

Q3
R3

FFig. 3.11: Schematic and equivalent thermal circuit for a composite wall with
layers in parallel

(T1 – T2)
Similarly Q2 = -------------- …………………………………………………(3.33b)
R2

Where R2 = {L / (H2bk2)}

and
(T1 – T2)
and Q3 = -------------- = ……………………….. ………………………….(3.33c)
R3

Where R3 = {L / (H3bk3)}

## (T1 – T2) (T1 – T2) (T1 – T2) (T1 – T2)

Q = ------------- + ---------------- + ----------------- = -------------------- ……….(3.34)
R1 R2 R3 Re

65
Where 1 / Re = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

## (Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – To) (Ti – To)

Hence Q = ----------- = ------------ = ------------- = -------------------- …………(3.35)
Rci Re Rco [Rci + Re + Rco]

Composite Coaxial Cylinders :- Fig. 3.12. shows a composite cylinder having two layers in
series. The equivalent thermal circuit is also shown in the figure.The rate of heat

k2

k1
r2 r3
r1

## Surface in contact with fluid at Ti and surface heat transfer coefficient h

Surface in contact with fluid at To and surface heat transfer coefficient h0

Ti T1 T2 T3 To

Q Rci R1 R2 Rco

Fig. 3.12: Schematic and thermal circuit diagrams for a composite cylinder

(Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – T3) (T3 – To) (Ti – T0)
Now Q = ------------- = ------------ = ----------- = ------------- = -----------------------------
Rci R1 R2 Rco [Rci + R1 + R2 + Rco]

……………..(3.36)

66
1 1
Where Rci = 1 / [hiAi] = -------------- ; R1 = ---------- ln (r2 / r1)
2 π r1L hi 2 π L k1

1 1
Rco = 1 / [hoAo] = -------------- ; R2 = ---------- ln (r3 / r2)
2 π r3L ho 2 π L k2

## The above expression for Q can be extended to any number of layers.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for a Composite Cylinder:- For a cylinder the area of
heat flow in radial direction depends on the radius r we can define the overall heat transfer
coefficient either based on inside surface area or based on outside surface area of the
composite cylinder. Thus if Ui is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on inside surface
area Ai and Uo is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on outside surface area Ao then

## From equations (3.36) and (3.37) we have

(Ti – T0)
Now UiAi (Ti – To) = -----------------------------
[Rci + R1 + R2 + Rco]

Substituting the expressions for Ai, Rci,R1,R2 and Rco in the above equation we have

1
2 π r1L Ui = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[1 /(2πr1Lhi) + {1/(2πLk1)}ln (r2 / r1) + {1/(2πLk2)}ln (r3 / r2) + 1/(2πr3Lho)]

1
Or Ui = ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ……..(3.38)
[ 1/hi + (r1 / k1) ln (r2/r1) + (r1/k2) ln (r3/r2) + (r1/r3) (1/ho) ]

## Similarly it can be shown that

1
Uo = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ …..(3.39)
[(r3/ r2) (1/hi ) + (r3 / k1) ln (r2/r1) + (r3/k2) ln (r3/r2) + (1/ho) ]

67
Composite Concentric Spheres:- Fig.3.13 shows a composite sphere having two layers with
the inner surface of the composite sphere in contact with fluid at a uniform temperature Ti
and surface heat transfer coefficient hi and the outer surface in contact with another fluid at a
uniform temperature To and surface heat transfer coefficient ho. The corresponding thermal
circuit diagram is also shown in the figure.

k2

k1

r1 r1
r2

r3

## Surface in contact with fluid at Ti and surface he

Surface in contact with fluid at To and surface heat transfer coefficient h0

Ti T1 T2 T3

Q Rci R1 R2 Rco

## Fig. 3.13: Schematic and thermal circuit diagrams for a composite

sphere

Eq. (3.36) is also applicable for the composite sphere of Fig. 3.13 except that the expression
for individual resistance will be different. Thus

( T i−T 0 )
Q= …………………………….(3.40)
( R ci + R1 + R2 + Rco )

1 1 ( r 2−r 1 ) 1 1
where Rci = = ; R1 = ; Rco = =
( hi A i ) 4 π r 21 h i 4 π k1 r1 r2 ( h0 A 0 ) 4 π r 23 h 0
;

68
( r 3−r 2 )
R1 =
4 π k2 r2 r3

Example 3.1: Consider a plane wall 100 mm thick and of thermal conductivity 100
W/(m-K). Steady state conditions are known to exist with T1 = 400 K and T2 = 600 K.
Determine the heat flux (magnitude and direction) and the temperature gradient dT/dx
for the coordinate system shown in Fig. P3.1.

T(x) T(x)
T(x)

T2 T2
T2
T1 T1
T1
L L L
x
x x
(a) (b) (c)

## Fig. P3.1 : Schematic for problem 3.1

Sketch for example 3.1(a):
T(x),

T2
T1

69
(b) Sketch for example 3.1(b):
Solution:It can be seen fromT(x)
the figure shown that temperature is decreasing with increase in x or in othe
Therefore dT/dx = (T1 – T2)/L
= (400 – 600) / 0.1 = ─ 2000 0 C / m.
qx = ─ k dT/dx = ─ 100 * (─ 2000)
= + 200,000 W / m2.
+ ve sign for qx indicates that heat transfer is taking place in the + ve direction of x.

T2
T1
L

## (c) Sketch for example 3.1(c):

Solution: It can be seen from the figure shown that the temperature increasing with increase in x: i.e., dT
T(x)
Therefore dT/dx = (600 – 400) / 0.1

= 2000 0C / m.

## = ─100 * 2000 = ─ 200,000 W/m2.

T2
T1 heat transfer takes place in a direction opposite to the + ve direction of
x

Example 3.2.Fig. P3.2 shows a frustum of a cone (k = 3.46 W/m-K). It is of circular cross
section with the diameter at any x is given by D = ax, where a = 0.25. The smaller cross
section is at x1 = 50 mm and the larger cross section is at x 2 = 250 mm. The corresponding
surface temperatures are T1 = 400 K and T2 = 600 K. The lateral surface of the cone is
completely insulated so that conduction can be assumed to take place in x-direction only.
(i) Derive an expression for steady state temperature distribution, T(x) in the solid and
(ii) calculate the rate of heat transfer through the solid.

70
Sketch for example 3.2:

T2 T1
.Known: X1 = 50 mm;X2 = 250 mm; D= ax with a = 0.25;T1 = 400 K; T2 = 600 K;
k = 3.46 W/m-K

## Find: (i) T(x) ; (ii) Q

Assumptions:
D2 (i) Steady state conduction
D1 (ii) One dimensional conduction through the cone; (iii) therm
D

X1

x
X2

Solution: By Fourier’s law, the rate of heat transfer in x-direction across any plane at a
distance x from the origin ‘o’ is given by

Qx = ─ k Ax (dT/dx).

For steady state conduction without heat generation Qx will be a constant. Also at any x,
D = ax. Therefore

## Separating the variables we get,

dT = ─ (4/πa2k) Qx (dx/x2)

## Integrating the above equation we have

T x
∫dT = ─( 4Qx / π a k) ∫ (dx /x2)
2
T X
1 1

## Or T – T1 = ─ (4Qx / π a2 k) [(1 / x)– (1 / X1)]

( 4 Qx)
Or T = T1 ─ --------------- [(1 / x ) – (1 / X1)] …………(1)

71
(π a2 k)

At x = X2, T = T2. Substituting this condition in Eq.(1) and solving for Qx we get

(π a2 k) (T2 – T1)
Qx = ----------------------------- …………………….(2)
4 (1/X2 – 1/X1)

Substituting this expression for Qx in Eq. (1) we get the temperature distribution in the cone
as follows:

## (T2 – T1) (1/x – 1/X1)

T(x) = T1 + --------------------------------- ………………..(3)
(1/X2 – 1/X1)

Substituting the given numerical values for X1, X2, T1 and T2 in Eq.(3) we get the temperature
distribution as follows:
(600 – 400) [ 1/ x – 1/0.05]
T(x) = 400 + ------------------------------------
[ 1/0.25 – 1/0.05}

## π * (0.25)2 * 3.46 * [ 600 – 400 ]

And Qx = -------------------------------------------- = ─ 2.123 W
4 * [ 1/0.25 – 1/0.05 ]

Example 3.3.A plane composite wall consists of three different layers in perfect thermal
contact. The first layer is 5 cm thick with k = 20 W/(m-K),the second layer is10 cm thick
with k = 50 W/(m-K) and the third layer is 15 cm thick with k = 100 W/(m-K).The outer
surface of the first layer is in contact with a fluid at 400 0C with a surface heat transfer
coefficient of 25 W/(m2–K),while the outer surface of the third layer is exposed to an
ambient at 30 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/(m2-K).Draw the
equivalent thermal circuit indicating the numerical values of the thermal resistances and
calculate the heat flux through the composite wall. Also calculate the overall heat transfer
coefficient for the composite wall.

72
Sketch for example 3.3:

L1 L2 L3

hi h0

k1 k2 k3

Ti
To
Q

Rci R1 R2 R3 Rc0

## k2 = 50 W /(m-K) ; k3 = 100 W/(m-K) ; hi = 25 W /(m2 – K) ; h0 = 15 W/(m2 – K) ;

Ti = 400 0 C ; T0 = 30 0 C.

## Find: (i) heat flux q; (ii) U

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the
composite wall; (iii) thermal conducvity of each layer is constant.

Solution:

1
Rci = 1 / (hiA1) = ---------------- = 0.04 m2 – K / W (A1 = A2 = A3 = A4 = 1 m2)
25 * 1

0.05
R1 = L1 /(k1A1) = --------------- = 0.0025 m2 – K / W.
20 * 1

0.10
R2 = L2 / (k2A2) = ---------------- = 0.002 m2 – K / W.
50 * 1

73
0.15
R3 = L3/ (k3A3) = ------------------ = 0.0015 m2 – K / W.
100 * 1

1
Rco = 1 / (h0A4) = ---------------- = 0.067 m2 – K / W.
15 * 1

## ∑R = Rci + R1 + R2 + R3 + Rco = 0.04 + 0.0025 + 0.002 + 0.0015 + 0.067

Or ∑R = 0.113 m2-K/W.

## (Ti – T0) (400 – 30)

Heat Flux through the composite slab = q = --------------- = ------------------
∑R 0.113

= 3274.34 W / m2.

If ‘U’ is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the given system then

Q 1 1
U = ---------------- = ------------- = -------------- = 8.85 W / (m2 – K).
(Ti – T0) ∑R 0.113

Example 3.4. A composite wall consisting of four different materials is shown in Fig
P3.10. Using the thermal resistance concept determine the heat transfer rate per m2 of
the exposed surface for a temperature difference of 300 0 C between the two outer
surfaces. Also draw the thermal circuit for the composite wall.

74
T1

k1 k2 k2 k4

2m

k3
k31 m

4cm 10 cm 5 cm

## Find: (i) q; (ii) Thermal circuit

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the
composite wall; (iii) thermal conducvity of each layer is constant.

Solution:
0.04
0
R1 = L1 / (A1k1) = ---------------- = 0.0002 C / W.
2 * 100

0.10
0
R2 = L2 / (A2k2) = ---------------- = 2.50 C / W.
1 * 0.04

0.10
0
R3 = L3 / (A3k3) = --------------- = 0.005 C / W.
1 * 20

0.05
0
R4 = L4 / (A4k4) = ------------------ = 0.00036 C / W.
2 * 70

75
Q R2
R1 R4
R3

Thermal potential = T1 – T4

## Fig. Thermal Circuit for the given Example

R2 and R3 are resistances in parallel and they can be replaced by a single equivalent resistance
Re, where
R2 R3 2.5 * 0.005
1 / Re = 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 or Re = --------------- = ----------------------- = 0.00499 0C/W
(R2 + R3) (2.5 + 0.005)

## (T1 – T4) 300

Q = --------------------- = ------------------------------------ = 40.82 x 103 W
(R1 + Re + R4) [0.002 + 0.00499 + 0.00036]

## Example 3.5. A composite cylindrical wall is composed of two materials of thermal

conductivity kA and kB. A thin electric resistance heater for which the interfacial contact
resistances are negligible separates the two materials. Liquid pumped through the inner
tube is at temperature Ti with the inside surface heat transfer coefficient hi. The outer
surface of the Composite wall is exposed to an ambient at a uniform temperature of To
with the outside surface heat transfer coefficient ho. Under steady state conditions a
uniform heat flux of qh is dissipated by the heater.
(a) Sketch the equivalent thermal circuit for the composite wall and express all thermal
resistances in terms of the relevant variables
(b)Obtain an expression that may be used to determine the temperature of the heater,Th.
(c)Obtain an expression for the ratio of heat flows to the outer and inner fluid, qo/qi.

## Sketch for example 3.5:

76
ro heater
r1
ri
hi,Ti
Qi kA

Q0 ho,To

kB
Ri Rci Qi
Qtotal
Ro Rco Qo
Find: (b) Expression to determine Temperature of heater Th; (ii) q0 / qi

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional radial conduction through the
composite wall; (iii) thermal conductivity of each layer is constant; (iii)No contact resistance
between the surfaces of the two layers

## Solution: Refer the thermal circuit for the given example

1 1 1
Ri = ------------- ln (r1/ri) ; Rci = ------------------ = ---------------------
(2π LkA) hi A i (2π ri L hi)

1 1 1
Ro = ------------- ln (ro/r1) ; Rco = ------------------ = ---------------------
(2π LkB) ho A o (2π ro L ho)

## (Th – Ti) (Th – To)

2π r1L q h = -------------------------- + -----------------------
ln (r1/ri) 1 ln (ro/r1) 1
---------- + ------------- ---------- + -------------
2π L kA 2π L ri hi 2π L kB 2π L ro ho

77
(Th – Ti) (Th – To)
Therefore q h = ------------------------------- + --------------------------------
[ (r1/kA) ln (r1/ri) + r1/(rihi)] [(r1/kB) ln (ro/r1) + r1/(roho)

The temperature Th of the heater can be obtained from the above equation.

## Qo (Th – To) / (Ro + Rco) (Th – To) x (Ri + Rci)

Now ------- = --------------------------- = --------------------------
Qi (Th – Ti) / (Ri + Rci) (Th – Ti) x (Ro + Rco)

## (Th – To) [ 1 / (rihi) + (1 / kA) ln (r1/ri) ]

= ----------- x -------------------------------------
(Th – Ti) [ 1 / (roho) + (1 / kB) ln (ro/r1) ]

Example 3.6. A hollow aluminum sphere with an electrical heater in the centre is used to
determine the thermal conductivity of insulating materials. The inner and outer radii of the
sphere are 15 cm and 18 cm respectively and testing is done under steady state conditions
with the inner surface of the aluminum maintained at 250 0 C. In a particular test, a spherical
shell of insulation is cast on the outer surface of the aluminum sphere to a thikness of 12 cm.
The system is in a room where the air temperature is 20 0 C and the convection coefficient is
30 W/(m2 – K). If 80 W are dissipated by the heater under steady state conditions, what is the
thermal conductivity of the insulating material?

## Sketch for example 3.6:

ho,To
r3 Known: r1 = 0.15 m ; r2 =
0.18
r2 m ; r3 = 0.18 + 0.12 =
0.3 mr1
; k1 = 204 W/(m-K) from tables; k2 = 0.30 W/(m-K); ho = 30 W/(m2-K);Q = 60 W; T1 =
Find: k2

T1

k1

k2

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional radial conduction through
the composite wall; (iii) thermal conductivity of each layer is constant; (iii)No contact
resistance between the surfaces of the two layers

Solution:
(r2 – r1) (0.18 – 0.15)
R1 = ---------------- = ------------------------------ = 4.335 x 10 ─ 4 0
C / W.
4π k1 r1 r2 4 π * 204 * 0.18 * 0.15

78
(r3 – r2) (0.30 – 0.18)
0
R2 = ---------------- = ------------------------------ = 0.177 / k2 C / W.
4π k2 r2 r3 4 π * 0.30 * 0.30 * 0.18

1 1
0
Rco = 1 / (hoAo) = ------------------- = --------------------- = 0.0295 C / W.
4π r32 ho 4π * (0.3)2 * 30

(T1 – To)
Q = -------------------- or R2 = (T1 – To) / Q – (R1 + Rco)
R1 + R2 + Rco

## Or k2 = 0.177 / 2.412 = 0.0734 W / (m-K)

Example 3.7. In a hollow sphere of inner radius 10 cm and outer radius 20, the inner surface
is subjected to a uniform heat flux of 1.6 x 10 5 W/m2 and the outer surface is maintained at a
uniform temperature of 0 0C.The thermal conductivity of the material of the sphere is 40 W /
(m – K).Assuming one-dimensional radial steady state conduction determine the temperature
of the inner surface of the hollow sphere.

## Sketch for example 3.7:

T0

R2
q0
R1

Find: T/r= R1

Assumption: (i)Steady state one dimensional radial conduction without heat generation; (ii)
thermal conductivity of the sphere is constant.

79
Solution: The governing equation for one-dimensional steady-state radial conduction in a
sphere without heat generation is given by

d/dr ( r2 dT / dr ) = 0 …………………………………..(1)

## The boundary conditions are : (i) at r = R1, ─ k (dT/dr)|r=R1 = q0

(ii) at r = R2 T(r) = 0.

## Integrating Eq. (1) w.r.t. r once, we get

r2 (dT/dr) = C1

or dT / dr = C1 / r2 …………………………(2)

## Hence condition (i) gives

─ kC1 / R12 = q0

Or C1 = ─ q0 R12 / k

## Condition (ii) in Eq.(3) gives 0 = ─ C1 / R2 + C2

Or C2 = C1 / R2 = ─ (q0R12) / (kR2)

## Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq. (3) we have

q0 R12 q0 R12
T(r) = -------------- ─ -------------------
kr k R2

## 1.6 * 105 * 0.12 1.6 * 105 * 0.12

T(r) = -------------------- / r ─ --------------------
40 40 * 0.2

80
Or T(r) = (40 / r) ─ 200

## Therefore T(r) |r = R1 = (40 / 0.1) ─ 200 = 200 0 C.

3.2.5. Thermal Contact Resistance: In the analysis of heat transfer problems for composite
medium it was assumed that there is “perfect thermal contact” at the interface of two layers.
This assumption is valid only the two surfaces are smooth and they produce a perfect contact
at each point.But in reality, even flat surfaces that appear smooth to the naked eye would be
rather rough when examined under a microscope as shown in Fig. 3.14 with numerous peaks
and valleys.

T2
T1
Rcont

LA LB

## T1 Enlarged view of the contact surface

Tc1

Tc2 T2
Fig.3.14: Temperature drop across a contact resistance

The physical significance of thermal contact resistance is that the peaks will form good
thermal contact, but the valleys will form voids filled with air.As a result the air gaps act as
insulation because of poor thermal conductivity of air.Thus the interface offers some
resistance to heat conduction and this resistance is called the “thermal contact
resistance,Rcont”. The value of Rcont is determined experimentally and is taken into account
while analyzing the heat conduction problems involving multi-layer medium.The procedure
is illustrated by means of a few examples below.

Example 3.8. A composite wall consists of two different materials A [k = 0.1 W/(m-k)] of
thickness 2 cm and B[ k = 0.05 W/(m-K)] of the thickness 4 cm. The outer surface of layer A
is in contact with a fluid at 200 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/(m 2-K) and
the outer surface of layer B is in contact with another fluid at 50 0 C with a surface heat
transfer coefficient of 25 W/(m2-K). The contact resistance between layer A and layer B is
0.33 (m2-K) /W. Determine the heat transfer rate through the composite wall per unit area of
the surface. Also calculate the interfacial temperatures and the inner and outer surface
temperature.

81
Sketch for example 3.8:
Known: Ti = 200 0 C ; T0 = 50 0 C ; h0,T0
hi,Ti
Rcont
hi = 15 W/(m2 – K) ; h0 = 25W/(m2– K)
kA kB
kA = 0.1 W/(m-K) ; kB = 0.05 W/(m-K)
LA LB
Rcont = 0.33 (m2 – K) /W.

## Find: (i) q; (ii) Tc1, Tc2, T1, T2

Assumptions: (i)T1
Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the composite wall; (i
Tc1

Tc2 T2

## Solution: The equivalent thermal circuit is also shown in the figure.

1
Rci = 1/(hiAA) = ------- = 0.067 m2-K/W
(15 * 1)

## ∑R = Rci + R1 + Rcont + R2 + Rco = 0.067 + 0.2 + 0.33 + 0.8 + 0.04 = 1.437 m2 – K / W.

(200 – 50)
Heat flux = q = (Ti – To) / ∑R = ------------------ = 104.4 W/m2
1.437

## T2 = Tc2 – q R2 = 137.67 – (104.4 * 0.8) = 54.15 0 C.

82
Check : To = T2 – q Rco = 54.15 – (104.4 * 0.04) = 49.97 0 C

Example 3.9. A very thin electric heater is wrapped around the outer surface of a long
cylindrical tube whose inner surface is maintained at 5 0C. The tube wall has inner and
outer radii of 25 mm and 75 mm respectively and a thermal conductivity of 10 W/(m-K).
The thermal contact resistance between the heater and the outer surface of the tube
per unit length is 0.01 (m-K) / W. The outer surface of the heater is exposed to a fluid
with a temperature of – 10 0C and a convection coefficient of 100 W/(m2-K). Determine
the heater power required per metre length of the tube to maintain a heater
temperature of 25 0C.

## Sketch for example 3.9:

h,T∞
Heater
r2
r1
Qtube T1 T2

Qamb
Qamb
Rco
Qtotal
Rcont Rcond Qtube

## Find: Q per metre length

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the
composite wall; (ii) thermal conductivity of each layer is constant ; (iii)No contact resistance
between the surfaces of the two layers

83
Solution:
1
Rco = 1 / (h Ao) = ----------------------- = 0.0212 (m- K) / W.
100 * 2π * 0.075

1 1
Rcond = ------------- ln (r2 / r1) = ------------------ ln (0.075 / 0.025) = 0.0175 (m-K) / W.
2π L k (2* π * 1 * 10)

[25 – (─ 10)]
Qamb = (T2 - T∞) / Rco = ------------------- = 1651 W / m.
0.0212

## (T2 – T1) [25 – 5]

Qtube = ------------------ = --------------------- = 727.3 W / m
Rcont + Rcond (0.01 + 0.0175)

## Power required = Qtotal = Qamb + Qtube = 1650 + 727.3 = 2378.3 W/m

3.3. One Dimensional Steady State Conduction With Heat Generation: The governing
equation for one – dimensional steady state conduction in solids which are generating is
given as follows.

## (iii) Radial conduction in spheres: (1/r2 ) d / dr {r2 dT/dr} + q′′′ / k = 0…….(3.43)

The following examples illustrate the method of analysis of steady state heat conduction
In solids generating heat.

Example 3.10. A plane wall of thickness L and thermal conductivity k has one of its
surfaces insulated and the other surface is kept at a uniform temperature T1. Heat is
generated in the wall at a rate q’’’(x) where q’’’(x) = q0 cos{(πx) / (2L)} W / m3
where q0 is a constant.
(a) Develop an expression for one-dimensional steady state temperature distribution in the
solid and (b) develop an expression for the temperature of the insulated surface.

## Sketch for example 3.10:

84
L
Insulated T1

T = T(x)
q’’’= q0 cos (πx/2L)

Known: (i) Expression for heat generation q’’’ = q0 cos ( 2πxL ) W/m3;(ii) the surface at x
= 0 is insulated i.e. (dT/dx)/x=0 = 0; (iii) T = T1 at x = L

Find: (a) expression for temperature distribution in the solid T(x); (ii) T/x = 0

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction ; (ii) solid is of constant thermal
conductivity

## d2T / dx2 + q′′′ / k = 0

Substituting the given expression for q’’’ the above equation reduces to

## The boundary conditions are ; (i) at x = 0 (dT/dx) = 0 (Insulated)

(ii) at x = L, T = T1

## Condition (ii) in Eq. (3) gives T1 = 0 + 0 + C2 or C2 = T1.

Substituting the values of C1 and C2 in Eq. (3) we get the temperature distribution as

85
T(x) = -(π/2L)2 (q0/k) cos (πx/2L) + T1 …………………..(4).

## Example 3.11. A long cylindrical rod of radius 5 cm and k = 10 W/(m-K) contain

radioactive material which generates heat uniformly within the cylinder at a rate of
3x10 5 W/ m3. The rod is cooled by convection from its cylindrical surface by ambient air
at 50 0C with a heat transfer coefficient of 60 W/(m2-K). Assuming one-dimensional
radial conduction determine the temperature at the centre of the rod as well as at the
outer surface of the rod.(175 0 C)

T = T(r)
q’’’
h, T∞

## Known: Outer radius of cylinder = R = 5 cm; k = 10 W/m-K; q’’’ = 3*10 5 W/m3;

T∞ = 500C; h = 60 W/(m2 – K)

## Find: (i) T/r = 0 ; (ii) T/r = R

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional radial conduction; (ii) steady state conduction; (iii)
thermal conductivity of the rosd is constant

## Solution: The governing differential equation to determine one-dimensional steady state

radial conduction with heat generation is given by

## Eq. (1) can be written as

d / dr (r dT/dr) + q′′′ r / k = 0.

86
Integrating once w.r.t. r we get
r dT/dr + (q′′′ r2) / 2k = C1

## Integrating once again w.r.t. r we have q’’’ r2

T(r) = ─ -------------- + C1 ln r + C2 …………(3)
4k
Condition (i) in Eq. (2) gives 0 + 0 = C1 / 0 or C1 = 0.

## From Eq. (3) we have q′′′ R2

T(r)|r=R = ─ -------------- + C2 …………………..(3)
4k

## ─ k [─ (q′′′ /R) / 2k] = h [ ─ (q′′′ R2 /4k) + C2 ─ T∞]

q′′′ R q′′′ R2
Or C2 = ----------- + -------------- + T∞
2h 4k

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq.(3) we get the temperature distribution in the
cylinder as
q′′′ R2
T(r) = T∞ + ------------- [ 1 –(r/R)2 ] + (q’’’R) / 2h …………………(4)
4k

3 * 10 5 * (0.05)2
Now q′′′ R2 / (4 k) = ----------------------- = 18.75 0 C.
4 * 10
5
3 x 10 x 0.05
q′′′ R / (2h) = ------------------------ = 125 0 C
2 x 60

## At the surface T(r) |r=R = 5 0+ 18.75 [ 1 – 1] + 125 = 175 0 C.

87
Example 3.12. In a cylindrical fuel element for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor, the heat
generation rate within the fuel element due to fission can be approximated by the
equation
q’’’ = qo [1 – (r/R)2] W/m3,
where R is the outer radius of the fuel element and q o is a constant. The outer surface of the
cylinder is maintained at a uniform temperature T o. Assuming one-dimensional radial
conduction obtain an expression for the temperature distribution in the element. If R = 2 cm,
k = 10 W/(m-K) and qo = 1.16 x 10 5 W/m3, what would be the temperature difference
between centre temperature and the outer surface temperature.

## Sketch for example 3.12:

T0

q’’’ = q0 [ 1 – (r/R)2]

## Find: (T/r=0 – T/r=R)

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) Thermal conductivity of the
cylinder is constant

## Solution:The governing equation to determine the one-dimensional steady-state radial

temperature distribution in a cylinder with heat generation is given by

## Multiplying by r and substituting for q’’’ the given expression we have

q0 r [ 1 – (r/R)2 ]
d/dr(r dT/dr) + ---------------------- = 0 ……………………..(1)
k

88
Boundary conditions are: (i) at r = 0, dT / dr = 0 (axis of symmetry)

(ii) at r = R, T = T0

## Integrating Eq. (1) w.r.t. r once we get

q0 r2 r4
(r dT/dr) + ---- [----- ─ -----------] = C1
K 2 4R2

Or q0 r r3 C1
dT/dr + ---- [----- ─ -----------] = ----------- ………..(2)
K 2 4R2 r
Integrating once again w.r.t. r we have

q0 r2 r4
T(r) = ─ ---------- [---------- ─ --------- ] + C1 ln r + C2 .....................(3)
k 4 16R2
Condition(i) in Eq.(2) gives

0 + 0 = C1 / 0 or C1 = 0.

## Condition (ii) in Eq.(3) gives

q0 R2 R4
T0 = ─ ------ [ -------- ─ ---------- ] + C2
k 4 16 R2

3 q0 R2
Or C2 = T0 + ----------------
16 k
Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq. (3) we have

q0 r2 r4 3 q0 R2
T(r) = ─ ---------- [---------- ─ ---------] + T0 + ---------------
k 4 16R2 16 k

Or q0 r2 r4 3 q0 R2
T(r) ─ T0 = ─ ---------- [---------- ─ ---------] + ---------------
k 4 16R2 16 k

## 3 q0 R2 3 x 1.16 x 105 x (0.02)2

Therefore T(r) |r=0 ─ T0 = ------------------ = ------------------------------- = 0.87 0 C.
16 k 16 x 10

89
Example3.13. Develop an expression for one-dimensional radial steady state
temperature distribution in a solid sphere of radius R in which heat is generated at a
rate given by

## q’’’ = qo [ 1 – (r/R)] W/m3.

Assume that the outer surface is maintained at a uniform temperature To.

## Sketch for example 3.13:

Known:Outer surface temperature = T0;
Solid is generating heat according to the law
q’’’ = q0(1 – r/R)

## Find: One dimensional

T0 radial temperature distribution T(r)
q’’’ = q0(1 – r/R)
Assumptions: (i) steady state one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the cylinder

Solution: The governing differential equation to find the one-dimensional radial steady state
temperature distribution in a sphere with heat generation is given by

## (1/r2) d/dr(r2 dT/dr) + q′′′ k = 0.

Multiplying throughout by r2 and substituting the given expression for q′′′ we have

## Boundary conditions are : (i) at r = 0, dT/dr = 0 (axis of symmetry)

(ii) at r = R, T = T0.

## Integrating Eq. (1) w.r.t. r once we get

q0 r3 r4
2
(r dT/dr) + ----- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] = C1
k 3 4R

q0 r r2
Or dT/dr = ─ ----- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] + C1 / r2 ………………….(2)
k 3 4R
Integrating once again w.r.t. r we get

90
q0 r2 r3
Or T(r) = ─ ----- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] ─ C1 / r + C2 …………….(3)
k 6 12R

## Condition (ii) in Eq. (3) gives

q0 R2 R2
T0 = ─ ------ [ ------ ─ ---------- ] + C2
k 6 12

or C2 = T0 + q0 R2 / 12k

## Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq. (3) we have

q0 r2 r3 q0 R2
T(r) = ─ ---- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] + T0 + -----------
k 6 12R 12 k

q0 R2
or T(r) = T0 + ---------- [ 1 ─ 2 (r/R)2 + (r/R)3 ]
12k

Example 3.14. A plane wall of thickness 2L is generating heat according to the law

## q’’’ = q0 [1 – β(T – Tw)]

where qo, β, and Tw are constants and T is the temperature at any section x from the mid-
plane of the wall. The two outer surfaces of the wall are maintained at a uniform temperature
Tw. Determine the one-dimensional steady state temperature distribution, T(x) for the wall.

## Sketch for example 3.14:

q’’’ = q0 [1 – β(T – Tw)]

Tw
Tw

2L

91
Known: The two outer surfaces of the wall maintained at Tw; Solid is generating heat at a
rate given by q’’’ = q0 [1 – β(T – Tw)].

## Find: One dimensional steady state temperature T(x)

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) Solid is of constant thermal
conductivity

## Solution: Governing differential equation for one-dimensional steady state conduction in a

plane wall with constant thermal conductivity and which is generating heat is given by

## d2θ / dx2 + qo [ 1 – βθ] /k = 0

or d2θ / dx2 − qo βθ /k = − qo / k

## or d2θ / dx2 − m 2θ = − qo / k ……………………………..(1a)

where m2 = q0 β /k ……………………………...(1b)

given by

## Solution to Eq.(3) is given by

θh(x) = A1 e mx + A2 e − mx…………………………….(4)

## d2θp / dx2 − m 2θ p = − qo / k…………………………..(5)

The term qo/k makes the governing differential equation non-homogeneous. Since this is a
constant θp(x) is also assumed to be constant. Thus let θp(x) = C, where C is a constant.

92
Substituting this solution in Eq. (5) we get

m 2C = qo / k

Or C = qo /(km2)

## The complete solution θ(x) is therefore given by

θ(x) = A1 e mx + A2 e − mx + 1 / β …………………..(7)

The constants A1 and A2 in Eq.(7) can be determined by using the two boundary conditions,
which are:

## (i)at x = 0, dT / dx = 0 (axis of symmetry) i.e., dθ / dx = 0

(ii) at x = L, T = Tw ; i.e., θ = 0

Or A1 = A2.

## Substituting condition (ii) in Eq.(7) we get A1[e mL + e − mL] = 1 / β

(1 / β)
Or A1 = ----------------------------
[e mL + e − mL]

Substituting the expressions for A1 and A2 in Eq. (7) we get the temperature distribution in
the plane wall as
(1 / β )
θ(x) = T(x) – Tw = -------------------- [ e mx + e − mx ] − 1 / β
[e mL + e − mL]

1 e mx + e − mx
Or T(x) – Tw = ---- [ ----------------- − 1]
β e mL + e − mL

## [e m(L – x) + e − m(L – x)] cosh m(L – x)

or T(x) – Tw = (1 / β)---------------------------- = (1 / β)----------------------------
[e mL + e − mL] cosh mL

93
3.4. Critical Radius of Insulation:- For a plane wall adding more insulation will result in a
decrease in heat transfer as the area of heat flow remains constant .But adding insulation to a
cylindrical pipe or a conducting wire or a spherical shell will result in an increase in thermal
resistance for conduction at the same will result in a decrease in the convection resistance of
the outer surface because of increase in surface area for convection. Therefore the heat
transfer may either increase or decrease depending on the relative magnitude of these two
resistances.

3.4.1.Critical Radius of Insulation for Cylinder:- Let us consider a cylindrical pipe of outer
radius rs maintained at a constant temperature of T s. Let the pipe now be insulated with a
material of thermal conductivity k and outer radius r. Let the outer surface of the insulation
be in contact with a fluid at a uniform temperature T ∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient
h. Then the thermal circuit for this arrangement will be as shown in Fig.3.15.

Surface
r in contact with a fluid at T∞ and surface hea

Ts
rs

Ts
Rins Rco

Fig.3.15: Schematic of a cylindrical pipe covered with an insulation and exposed to an ambient and

The rate of heat transfer from the pipe to the ambient is given by

## (Ts - T∞) (Ts – To)

Q = ------------------ = ----------------------------------- …………………………...(3.44)
[Rins + Rco] ln (r / rs) 1
---------- + --------------
2πLk 2πrLh

It can be seen from Eq. (3.44) that if Ts and h are assumed not to vary with ‘r’ then Q
depends only on r and the nature of variation of Q with r will be as shown in Fig.3.16.
The value of r at which Q reaches a maximum can be determined as follows.

94
(Ts – To)
Eq. (3.44) can be written as Q = -----------
F(r)

ln (r / rs) 1
where F(r) = ---------- + --------------
2πLk 2πrLh

Qmax

Qbare

r
rs rcr = k / h

Or r = k / h.

## Therefore rcr = k /h ………………………………………...(3.45)

The above expression for critical radius of insulation has been arrived with the assumption
that the change in outer radius of insulation r will have no effect on the inside surface
temperature of insulation or on the outer surface heat transfer coefficient h. Sparrow
considered a heat transfer coefficient that varies as

95
h – r –m │Ts − T∞│n …………………………(3.46a)

For this case, it is found that the heat transfer is maximized when

(1−m ) k
r = rcr = ……………………….(3.46b)
(1+ n ) h

(1−m )
The quantity is a correction factor (≤ 1) accounting for the r and ΔT
(1+ n )
dependencies of
h. As an example, consider forced convection flow across a cylinder. For Reynolds number
based on diameter between 4000 and 40,000, m = 0.382 and n=0. Correspondingly
Eq.(3.46b) gives the correction factor
(1−m )
= 0.618
(1+ n )
As a second example for free convection about a horizontal cylinder for which m = n = 0.25,
the correction factor will be 0.6.
It can be seen from Fig.(3.16) that if the outer radius of the bare tube or bare wire is
greater than the critical radius then, any addition of insulation on the tube surface
decreases the heat loss to the ambient. But if the outer radius of the tube is less than the
critical radius , the heat loss will increase continuously with the addition of insulation
until the outer radius of insulation equals the critical radius. The heat loss becomes
maximum at the critical radius and begins to decrease with addition of insulation beyond
The value of critical radius rcr will be the largest when k is large and h is
small. The lowest value of h encountered in practice is about 5 W/(m2 – K) for free
convection in a gaseous medium and the thermal conductivity of common insulating
materials is about 0.05 W/(m – K). Hence the largest value of rcr that we may likely to
encounter is given by
0.05
rcr = --------- = 0.01 m = 1 cm
5

The critical radius would be much less in forced convection (it may be as low as 1mm)
because of large values of h associated with forced convection. Hence we can insulate hot
water or steam pipes freely without worrying about the possibility of increasing the heat
loss to the surroundings by insulating the pipes.
The radius of electric wires may be smaller than the critical radius. Therefore, the
plastic electrical insulation may enhance the heat transfer from electric wires, there by
keeping their steady operating temperatures at lower and safer levels.

3.4.2.Critical Radius Insulation for a Sphere:- The analysis described above for cylindrical
pipes can be repeated for a sphere and it can be shown that for a sphere the critical radius
of insulation is given by
2k

96
rcr = ------- …………………………………..(3.47)
h

## Example 3.15. A conductor with 8 mm diameter carrying an electric current passes

through an ambient at 30 0 C with a convection coefficient of 120 W/(m2 – K). The
temperature of the conductor is to be maintained at 130 0 C. Calculate the rate of heat
loss per metre length of the conductor when (a) the conductor is bare and (b) conductor
is covered with bakelite insulation [k = 1.2 W/(m-K)] with radius corresponding to the
critical radius of insulation.

## Sketch for example 3.15:

Ts
Dc ,k
D
Ts

h,T∞ h, T∞
(a) Conductor without Insulation. (b) Conductor with critical thickness of
Insulation
Known: D = 0.008 m; Ts = 130 0C ; for insulation k = 1.2 W/(m-K); h = 120 W/(m2-K);
T∞ = 30 0C

## Find: (a) Qbare ;(b) Qwith insulation

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady radial conduction (ii) the thermal conductivity of
insulation is constant (iii) by adding the insulation the outer surface temperature of the wire
will not change; (iv) the surface heat transfer coefficient for wire with and without insulation
remain same

Solution:(a) When the conductor is bare the rate of heat loss to the ambient is given by

## Dc = 2 rc = 2 (k/h) = 2 x ( 1.2 / 120) = 0.02 m.

1 1
R insulation = -------------- ln (Dc / D) = ----------------------- ln (0.02 / 0.008)
2π L k 2 π * 1.0 * 1.2

= 0.1215 (m – 0 C) / W.
1 1

97
Rco = 1 / (h Ac) = ---------------- = ------------------------ = 0.133 (m – 0 C)/W.
π Dc L h π * 0.02 * 1 8 120

## (Ts - T∞) (130 – 30)

Qwith insulation = ------------------- = --------------- = 392.93 W / m.
∑R 0.145

Example 3.16. An electrical current of 700 A flows through a stainless steel cable
having a diameter of 5 mm and an electrical resistance of 6x10 ─ 4 ohms per metre
length of the cable. The cable is in an environment at a uniform temperature of 30 0 C
and the surface heat transfer coefficient of 25 W/(m2 – 0C).
(a) What is the surface temperature of the cable when it is bare?
(b)What thickness of insulation of k = 0.5 W/(m – K) will yield the lowest value of the
maximum insulation temperature? What is this temperature when this thickness is used?

## Sketch for example 3.16: See sketch for example 3.15

Known: Current flow through the cable = I = 700 A; diameter of cable = D = 5 mm;
Electrical resistance of cable / metre length = ρ = 6* 10−4 Ω/m; h= 25 W/(m2-K);
T∞ = 300C; for insulation k =0.5 W/(m-K)

Find: (a) Ts when the wire is bare; (ii) thickness of insulation for lowest value of maximum
insulation temperature; (iii) lowest value of maximum insulation temperature

Assumptions: i) one dimensional steady radial conduction (ii) the thermal conductivity of
insulation is constant (iii) by adding the insulation the outer surface temperature of the wire
will not change; (iv) the surface heat transfer coefficient for wire with and without insulation
remain same

## Or Ts = 30 + 294 / [(π * 0.005 * 1) * 25] = 779 0 C.

(b) When the cable is covered with insulation: Lowest value of maximum insulatiuon
temperature occurs when the outer radius of insulation is equal to critical radius.

## Thickness of insulation = rc – D/2 = 0.02 – 0.005 / 2 = 0.0175 m

98
1 1
Rinsulation = --------------- ln (rc / ro) = ------------------- ln (0.02 / 0.0025) = 0.662 (m-K)/W
(2π L k) (2π * 1 * 0.5)

1 1
Rco = 1 / (hAo) = ------------------- = ------------------------------ = 0.318 (m-K) / W.
(2π rcL h) (2 * π * 0.02 * 1 * 25)

(Ts - T∞)
Q = --------------------- or Ts = T∞ + Q (Rinsulation + Rco) = 30 + 294 x (0.662 +0.318)
Rinsulation + Rco

Or Ts = 318.12 0 C.

## Example 3.17. A 2 mm-diameter and 10 m-long electric wire is tightly wrapped

With a 1 mm-thick plastic cover whose thermal conductivity is 0.15 W / (m-K).
Electrical measurements indicate that a current of 10 A passes through the wire and
there is a voltage drop of 8 V along the wire. If the insulated wire is exposed to a
medium at 30 0C with a heat transfer coefficient of 24 W / (m2 – K), determine the
temperature at the interface of the wire and the plastic cover in steady operation.
Also determine if doubling the thickness of the plastic cover will increase or decrease
this interface temperature.

## Sketch for example 3.17:

Surface
r in contact with a fluid at T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h

Ts
rs
T∞
Ts
Rins Rco Q

Known: Outer radius of the bare wire = r s = 1 mm = 0.001 m ; Length of the wire = L = 10
m ; outer radius of plastic insulation = r = 1 + 1 = 2 mm = 0.002 m ;
Current through the wire = I = 10 A ; Voltage drop in the wire = V = 8 V ; Ambient
temperature = T∞ = 30 0C ; Thermal conductivity of the plastic cover = k = 0.15 W /(m– K) ;
Surface heat transfer coefficient = h = 24 W /(m2 – K).

99
Find: (i) Interface temperature = Ts ; (ii) Whether Ts increases or decreases when the
thickness of insulation is doubled.

Assumptions: i) one dimensional steady radial conduction (ii) the thermal conductivity of
insulation is constant (iii) by adding the insulation the outer surface temperature of the wire
will not change; (iv) the surface heat transfer coefficient for wire with and without insulation
remain same

Solution: (i) Q = VI = 8 x 10 = 80 W.

## ln (r / rs) ln ( 0.002 / 0.001)

Rins = ------------ = ----------------------------- = 0.0735 K / W
2πLk 2 * π * 10 * 0.15
1 1 1
Rco = -------------- = -------------- = ------------------------------ = 0.3316 K / W
h Ao 2πLrh 2 * π * 10 * 0.002 * 24

## (ii) Critical radius of insulation = rcr = k / h = 0.15 / 24 = 0.00625.

Since rcr > r, increasing the thickness of plastic insulation will increase the heat transfer rate if
Ts is held constant or for a given heat transfer rate the interface temperature Ts will decrease
till the critical radius is reached. Now when the thickness is doubled then
r = 3 mm = 0.003 m . Therefore

ln ( 0.003 / 0.001)
Rins = ----------------------------- = 0.1166 K / W
2 * π * 10 * 0.15

1
Rco = ------------------------------ = 0.221 K / W
2 x π x 10 x 0.003 x 24

## Therefore Rtotal = 0.1166 + 0.221 = 0.3376 K / W.

and Ts = 30 + 80 * 0.3376 = 57 0C

## 3.5. Extended Surfaces (Fins):

100
3.5.1 .Introduction: Convection: Heat transfer between a solid surface and a moving fluid is
governed by the Newton’s cooling law: Q = hA(Ts-T∞), where Ts is the surface temperature
and T∞ is the fluid temperature. Therefore, to increase the convective heat transfer, one can
• Increase the temperature difference (Ts-T∞) between the surface and the fluid.
• Increase the convection coefficient h. This can be accomplished by increasing the fluid flow
over the surface since h is a function of the flow velocity and the higher the velocity, the
higher the h. Example: a cooling fan.
• Increase the contact surface area A. Example: a heat sink with fins.
Many times, when the first option is not in our control and the second option (i.e. increasing
h) is already stretched to its limit, we are left with the only alternative of increasing the
effective surface area by using fins or extended surfaces. Fins are protrusions from the base
surface into the cooling fluid, so that the extra surface of the protrusions is also in contact
with the fluid. Most of you have encountered cooling fins on air-cooled engines
(motorcycles, portable generators, etc.), electronic equipment (CPUs), automobile radiators,
air conditioning equipment (condensers) and elsewhere.

## 3.5.2. Extended surface analysis:

In this section consideration will be limited to steady state analysis of rectangular or pin fins
of constant cross sectional area. Annular fins or fins involving a tapered cross section may be
analyzed by similar methods, but will involve solution of more complicated equations.
Numerical methods of integration or computer programs can be used to advantage in such
cases.
3.5.2.1.Fin equation:
The steady state Conduction Equation in three dimensions for solids of constant thermal
conducvity is given by Eq.(2.16) :

## (∂2T/ ∂x2) + (∂2T/ ∂y2) + (∂2T/∂z2) + q’’’ / k = 0 …………….(2.16)

After making the assumption of One-Dimensional Conduction, this equation reduces to the
form:

## d2T/dx2 + q’’’/k = 0 ………………………. (2.4)

This is a second order, ordinary differential equation and will require 2 boundary conditions
to evaluate the two constants of integration that will arise.
Consider the cooling fin shown in Fig. 4.1 :
Heat and Mass Transfer Prof. P
The fin is situated on the surface of a hot surface at T s and surrounded by a coolant at
temperature T , which cools with convective coefficient, h. The fin has a uniform cross

sectional area, Ac, (This is the area through with heat is conducted.) and an overall length, L.
Note that as energy is conducted down the length of the fin, some portion is lost, by
convection, from the sides. Thus the heat flow varies along the length of the fin.We further
note that the arrows indicating the direction of heat flow point in both the x and y directions.
This is an indication that this is truly a two- or three-dimensional heat flow, depending on the
geometry of the fin. However, quite often, it is convenient to analyse a fin by examining an
equivalent one–dimensional system. The equivalent system

101
y

Fin attached
x to the primary surface and exposed to surroundings at T∞ with a heat transfer coe

Qfin

Primary surface at T0

Qc = hPΔx (T - T∞)

Δx

## Fig.3.1. Heat dissipation from the fin to surroundings

will involve the introduction of heat sinks (negative heat sources), which remove an amount
of energy equivalent to what would be lost through the sides by convection.

Consider a differential length of the fin. Across this segment the heat loss will be h(PΔx)(T-
T ), where P is the perimeter around the fin. The equivalent heat sink would be ─ q’’’Ac Δx

## Or q’’’ = ─hP (T - T∞)/Ac ………………(3.48a)

Heat and Mass Transfer Pro
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
Substituting this expression for q’’’ into Eq.(2.4.) we get

## d2T/dx2 ─hP (T - T∞)/kAc = 0 ……………………….(3.48b)

which is the equation for a fin with a constant cross sectional area. This is the Second Order
Differential Equation that we will solve for each fin analysis. Prior to solving, a couple of
simplifications should be noted. First, we see that h, P, k and A c are all independent of x in

102
the defined system (They may not be constant if a more general analysis is desired.). We
replace this ratio with a constant.

## Then Eq. (3.48) reduces to

d2T/dx2 ─ m2 (T - T∞) = 0 ……………………….(3.50)

## 3.5.2.2.Alternative method of obtaining equation Eq.(3.50): Eq. (3.50) can also be

obtained from basic principles by writing the energy balance equation for an elemental length
of the fin as follows:
Q conv

Under steady state conditions, the energy balance equation for the fin element shown above
can be written as

Qx = Qx+dx + Qconv

## d/dx[ − kAx dT/dx] + hP (T - T∞) = 0

For a fin of uniform cross sectional area Ax = Ac = constant. Also if the thermal conductivity
of the fin material is constant then the above equation reduces to
2
d T
– m2 (T - T∞) = 0 ……………………
d x2
(3.50)

## 3.5.2.3.Justification for treating the conduction in fins as one dimensional

conduction (Quasi One-dimensional Heat Transfer):

The quasi one dimensional heat transfer problems are those where heat is transferred in two
directions, but temperature changes are important only in one direction. We can examine
when temperature variation across the fin can be neglected in comparison to the temperature
variation along the length of the fin.Consider the heat transfer in y direction for the fin of

103
length L, width W and uniform thickness t. At any x ,if the rate of heat transfer in x direction
is of the same order of magnitude as the rate in y direction we have

−k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) ≈ −k Ay ( ∂T∂y )
Using first order linear approximation, the above equation can be written as

( ΔT ) y
( ΔT )x
−k t W ≈ −k L W t
L
2

( ΔT ) y t 2
Or
( ΔT ) x
≈ ()
L

For fins t is very much smaller than L; therefore, for the heat transfers to be of the same order
of magnitude ,it follows that the temperature variation in y direction must be much smaller
∂T ∂T
than the temperature variation in x direction: i.e.
∂y
≪ ( ) ( )
∂x
.

Solution to the fin equation: We notice that equation (3.50) is non-homogeneous (due to
the T∞ term). Recall that non-homogeneous differential equations require both a
homogeneous and a particular solution. We can make this equation homogeneous by
introducing the fin temperature relative to the surroundings:

Let θ ≡ T - T∞ …………………………………….(3.51)

## Eq. (3.53) is called the fin equation

Solution for Equation (3.53): Eq. (3.53) is a second order linear homogeneous differential
equation the general solution for which is given by

## θ = C cosh mx + D sinh mx …………………….(3.55)

104
Generally the exponential solution is used for very long fins, the hyperbolic solutions for
other cases.
Boundary Conditions:
Since the solution results in 2 constants of integration we require 2 boundary conditions. The
first one is obvious, as one end of the fin will be attached to a hot surface and will come into
thermal equilibrium with that surface.
Hence, at the fin base (x = 0),

θ =T0 - T∞ = θ0 ……………………………..(3.56a) e
of Science
The second boundary condition depends on the condition imposed at the other end of the
fin. There are various possibilities, as described below.
Very long fins:
For very long fins, the end located a long distance from the heat source will approach the
temperature of the surroundings. Hence,

θ(∞) = 0 …………………………………(3.56b)
Substitute the second condition into the exponential solution of the fin equation:

θ(∞)= 0 = Ae m∞ + Be ─m∞

The first exponential term is infinite and the second is equal to zero. The only way that this
equation can be valid is if A = 0. Now apply the second boundary condition.

θ (0) = θ 0 =B

## The general temperature profile for a very long fin is then:

θ(x) = θ 0 e ─mx
…………………………. (3.57)

If we wish to find the heat flow through the fin, we may apply Fourier Law:
At any x, the rate of heat conduction is given by

Q = ─ kAc(dT/dx) = ─ kAc(dθ/dx)

All the heat dissipated by the fin to the surroundings is coming from the fin base. Hence the
rate of heat transfer from the fin to the surroundings is given by

Qfin = Q|x=0

= ─ kAc(dθ/dx)x=0 ………………(3.58)

## Substituting this expression in Eq. (3.58) we get

_____
Qfin = kmAcθ0= √hpkAc θ0 ………………(3.59)

105
The fin with insulated tip:

Assume that the tip is insulated and hence there is no heat transfer at the fin tip.
Hence the boundary condition at the tip is given by

At x = L, dθ/dx = 0.

Substituting this condition and the boundary condition at x = 0 and simplifying we get the
temperature profile for this case as

cosh m(L−x )
θ(x) = θ0 ….
cosh mL
……………(3.60)

We may find the heat flow at any value of x by differentiating the temperature profile and
substituting it into the Fourier Law:

## Therefore Qfin =kmActanh mL …………………………(3.61)

If we compare this result with that for the very long fin, we see that the primary difference in
form is in the hyperbolic tangent term. That term, which always results in a number equal to
or less than one, represents the reduced heat loss due to the shortening of the fin
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
Other tip conditions:
We have already seen two tip conditions, one being the long fin and the other being the
insulated tip. Two other possibilities are usually considered for fin analysis: (i) a tip
subjected to convective heat transfer, and (ii) a tip with a prescribed temperature. The
expressions for temperature distribution and fin heat transfer for all the four cases are
summarized in the table below.

## Other tip conditions:

We have already seen two tip conditions, one being the long fin and the other being the
insulated tip. Two other possibilities are usually considered for fin analysis: (i) a tip
subjected to convective heat transfer, and (ii) a tip with a prescribed temperature. The
expressions for temperature distribution and fin heat transfer for all the four cases are
summarized in the table below.

106
Table 3.1: Expressions for Temperature distribution and rate of heat dissipation from a
fin for different tip conditions

## Tip Expression for

Condition Expression for Temperature Profile Rate of Heat Transfer

## Long Fin θ(x) = θ0 e − mx Qfin = kmAcθ0

cosh m(L−x )
Tip Insulated θ(x) = θ0 Qfin = kmAcθ0tanh
cosh mL
mL

## Tip with prescribed

θL
sinh mx+sinh m(L−x )
Temp,TL θ(x) = θ0 Qfin = kmAcθ0
sinh mL
θL
cosh mL−
θ0
sinh mL

## Tip dissipating heat [cosh m(L – x) [sinh mL +

by convection with + (he/km)sinh m(L-x)] (he/km) cosh mL]
surface heat transfer θ(x) = ----------------------------------- Qfin = kmAcθ0 ---------------------
Coefficient,he [cosh mL +(he/km)sinh mL] [cosh mL +
(he/km) cosh mL]

3.5.2.4.Performance of a fin:

## Fin Efficiency: The performance of a fin is assessed by using a parameter called

“efficiency of a fin, η” given by

## Actual rate of heat transfer from the fin Qfin

η = ------------------------------------------------------ = ------------ …………(3.62)
Maximum Possible heat transfer rate from fin (Qfin)max

The rate of heat transfer from the fin will be maximum when the entire fin surface is at the
fin base temperature (This means that the fin is having an infinite thermal conductivity): i.e.,

107
(Qfin)max = hPL(To - T∞) = hPLθ0 …………………....(3.63)

Fin Effectiveness: Fins are used to enhance the heat transfer, and the use of fins on a surface
cannot be recommended unless the enhancement in heat transfer justifies the added cost and
complexity associated with the fins. In fact, there is no assurance that by adding fins on a
surface, the heat transfer rate will enhance.The performance of the fin is judged on the basis
of enhancement in heat transfer relative to the no-fin case.To know how effective an
extended surface as compared to a bare primary surface is, another parameter called
effectiveness is used. It is given by

## Heat Transfer with fin Qfin Qfin

ε = --------------------------------- = -------------- = -------------- …………….(3.64)
Heat Transfer without fin Qbare hAbθ0

## Here Ab is the cross sectional area of the fin at the base.

It should be noted that both the fin efficiency and the fin effectiveness are related
to the performance of the fin, but they are different quantities.However they are related to
each other as shown below.

Q fin η h A f θ0 Af
From Eq. (3.64) ε= = = θ
h A b θ 0 h A b θ0 Ab 0
………………(3.65)

Hence, the fin effectiveness can be determined easily when the efficiency of the fin is known,
or vice-versa.

Considerations in the design and selection of fins: The rate of heat transfer from a very
long fin of uniform cross section under steady state conditions is given by Eq.
(3.59).Substituting this expression in Eq.(3.65) we get

## [Qfin]long kmAθ0 k √[(hp) / (kA)]

εlong = -------------- = ----------------- = ---------------------
hAbθ0 hAbθ0 hAb

## Noting that Ab = A, the above expression for εlong reduces to

(3.66)
ε long =
√ kP
hA
…………………

Several important conclusions can be drawn from Eq.(3.66) which helps in design and
selection of fins for various applications.

108
(i) The therml conductivity k of the fin material should be as high as possible.Hence
fins are made of materials like copper.aluminium are iron. The most widely used
material is aluminium because of its low cost and weight and its resistance to
corrosion.
(ii) The ratio of the perimeter to the cross-sectional area of the fin P/A should be as
high as possible. This criterion is satisfied by employing thin plate fins and
slender pin fins.
(iii) The use of fins is most efficient in applications involving low convection heat
transfer coefficients. Thus the use of fins is easily justified when the medium is
gas instead of a liquid and the heat transfer mechanism is by free convection
(iv) rather than by forced convection.Therfore in a liquid to gas heat exchangers like
automobile radiators, fins are placed on the gas side of the heat exchangers.

## Example 3.18. A steel rod of diameter 2 cm and thermal conductivity 50 W/(m – K) is

exposed to ambient air at 20 0C with a heat transfer coefficient 64 W/(m2 – K). One end of
the rod is maintained at a uniform temperature of 120 0C. Determine the rate of heat from the
rod to the ambient and the temperature of the tip of the rod exposed to ambient if (i) the rod
is very long, (ii) rod is of length 10 cm with negligible heat loss from its tip, (ii) rod is of
length 25 cm with heat loss from its tip.

x

## Known: D = 2 cm.; k = 50 W/(m-K);T∞ = 200C; h = 64 W/(m2-K);T0 = 1200C

Find: (i) Qfin if the rod is long; (ii) Qfin if L = 10 cm and negligible heat loss from the tip;
(iii)Qfin if L = 25 cm and with heat loss from the tip

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the fin; (ii)
thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

## m = √ [(hP) / (kA) = √ [(hπD / (πD2/4)] = √[(4h) / (kD)]

or m = (√ 50∗0.02
4∗64
) = 16 m−1

## Qfin = kmA(T0 - T∞) = 50 * 16 * (π / 4) * 0.022 * [ 120 – 20] = 25.13 W

109
(ii) Rod of finite length with negligible heat loss from the tip:

## L = 0.10 m. Hence mL = 16 * 0.1 = 1.6

For rod of finite length with negligible heat loss from the tip we have

## Q fin = kmA(T0 - T∞) tanh mL = 50 * 16 * (π / 4) * 0.022 * (120 – 20) * tanh 1.6

= 23.16 W

(iii) Rod of finite length with heat loss from the tip:

When the heat loss from the rod tip is not negligible with he = h , then we can use the same
formula as in case (ii) with modified length Le given by

## Le = L + A /P = L + (πD2/4) /(πD) = L + D / 4 = 0.1 + 0.02/4 = 0.105

Hence mLe = 16 * 0.105 = 1.68 and tanh mLe = tanh 1.68 = 0.9329

## Hence Q fin = 25.13 x 0.933 = 23.44 W

Example 3.19. A thin rod of uniform cross section A, length L and thermal conductivity
k is thermally attached from its ends to two walls which are maintained at temperatures
T1 and T2. The rod is dissipating heat from its lateral surface to an ambient at
temperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.
(a) Obtain an expression for the temperature distribution along the length of the rod
(b) Also obtain an expression for the heat dissipation from the rod to the ambient

## Sketch for example 3.19:

T1 k h,T∞
x T2

Known: Temperatures at the two ends of the rod, rod cross sectional area A,thermal
conductivity of the rod k, ambient temperature T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h.

110
Find: (a) Temperature distribution T(x) along the length of the rod; (b)Rate of heat
dissipation from the rod to ambient

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the fin; (ii)
thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

Solution: The general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state temperature distribution
along the length of a rod dissipating heat by convection from its lateral surface is given by

## θ(x) = C1 cosh mx + C2 sinh mx ………………………..(1)

___________
where θ(x) = T(x) - T∞ ; m = √ (hP) / (kA) :

## The boundary conditions are: (i) at x = 0, T = T1 or θ = T1 - T∞ = θo (say).

(ii) at x = L, T = T2 or θ = T2 - T∞ = θL (say).

## (θL ─ θo cosh mL)

C2 = ------------------------ .
sinh mL

## (θL ─ θo cosh mL)

θ(x) = θo cosh mx + ------------------------ sinh mx
sinh mL

## θo cosh mx sinh mL + θL sinh mx ─ θo cosh mL sinh mx

0r θ(x) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------
sinh mL

## θL sinh mx + θo sinh m(L – x)

0r θ(x) = -------------------------------------- ……………………………………..(2)
sinh mL
Expression for the rate of heat dissipation from the rod:

111
Qamb
x

Q|x=0
Q |x=L

## Q amb = Q |x = 0 ─ Q |x = L = ─ kA (dθ / dx)|x = 0 + kA (dθ / dx)|x = L……………………(3)

L−x
From Eq. (2) we have (dθ / dx) = −m [ L
θ cosh mx+ θL cosh m ( ¿ ) ]
sinh mL

−m [ θL +θ 0 cosh mL ]
Therefore (dθ / dx)|x = 0 =
sinh mL

−m [ θL cosh mL+ θ0 ]
and (dθ / dx)|x = L =
sinh mL

Hence Qamb =
sinh mL

## kmA [ ( θ L ─ θ 0 ) (1−cosh mL) ]

=
sinh mL

Example 3.20. Heat is generated at a constant rate of q’’’ W/m3 in a thin circular rod of
length L and diameter D by the passage of electric current. The two ends of the rod are
maintained at uniform temperatures with one end at temperature T0 and the other end
at 0 0 C, while heat is being dissipated from the lateral surface of the rod to an ambient
at 0 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.
(a) Derive the one-dimensional steady state energy equation to determine the
temperature distribution along the length of the rod
(b) Solve the above equation and obtain the temperature distribution.

## Sketch for example 3.20:

112
00 C h,T∞
q’’’ W/m3

T = T0

x
L
Qamb

Qx Qx+dx

dx Qg
x

Known: Thin rod of diameter D and length L is generating heat at a constant rate of q’’’
W/m3;One end of the rod is maintained at 0 0C and the other end at T0; Lateral surface of the
rod is exposed to ambient at T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.

## Find: (a) One dimensional steady state energy equation

(b) Temperature distribution T(x) along the length of the rod

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the rod; (ii)
thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

Solution: Since the rod is generating heat and dissipating heat to the ambient, the governing
differential equation to determine the one-dimensional steady state temperature distribution
has to be obtained from first principles as illustrated below.

Consider an elemental length ‘dx’of the rod as shown in the figure above. The various
energies crossing the boundaries of the rod as well as the energy generated are also shown in
the figure. For steady state condition the energy balance equation for the rod element can be
written as

Qx + Qg = Qx+dx + Qamb

Or Qx + Qg = Qx + (dQx/dx) dx + Qamb

Or (dQx/dx) dx + Qamb = Qg

## d/dx(─ kA dT/dx) dx + hPdx (T - T∞) = Adx q’’’

113
Or (d2T / dx2) – (hP / kA) (T - T∞) = ─ (q’’’ / k)

Let T - T∞ = θ and (hP / kA) = m2. then the above equation reduces to

## Eq.(1) is a non-homogeneous linear second order ordinary differential equation whose

solution can be written as

## θ(x) = θh(x) + θp(x) ------------------------------------(2)

where θh(x) satisfies the homogeneous part of the differential equation namely

## (d2 θh /d x2) ─ m2 θh = 0 -------------------------------------(3)

and θp(x) is the particular integral which satisfies Eq. (1). Solution to Eq.(3) is given by

θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e ─ mx -----------------------------(4)

To find θp(x) : Since the RHS of Eq.(1) is a constant let us assume θp(x) = B, where B is a
constant. Substituting this solution in Eq.(1) we have

0 – m2 B = ─ (q’’’ / k)

Or B = (q’’’ / km2)

## Boundary conditions are: (i) at x = 0, T = 0

(ii) at x = L, T = T0

## Condition (i) in Eq. (5) gives

0 = T∞ + C1 + C2 + (q’’’/ km2)

## Condition(ii) in Eq.(5) gives T0 = T∞ + C1 e mL + C2 e ─ mL + (q’’’/km2)

114
Or C1 e mL + C2 e ─ mL = T0 ─ T∞ ─ (q’’’/km2) ----------------------------- (b)

## C1 e mL ─ [C1 + T∞ + (q’’’/km2)] e ─ mL = T0 ─ T∞ ─ (q’’’/km2)

T0 ─ {T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{1 ─ e ─ mL }
Solving for C1 we get C1 = --------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

T0 ─ {T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{1 ─ e ─ mL }
’’’ 2
C2 = ─{ T∞ + (q /km ) }─ --------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

## ─{ T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }{ e mL ─ e ─ mL } ─ T0 + {T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{1 ─ e ─ mL }

C2 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

{ T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }[ ─ e mL + e ─ mL + 1 ─ e ─ mL] ─ T0
C2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

{ T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }[ 1 ─ e mL] ─ T0
C2 = ----------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }
Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq. (5) and simplifying we get

## [T0 ─ {T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{1 ─ e ─ mL }] e mx

T(x) = T∞ + (q’’’/km2) + -------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

## [ { T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }[ 1 ─ e mL] ─ T0] e ─ mx

+ ----------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

T0(e mx - e ─ mx)
’’’ 2
T(x) = T∞ + (q /km ) + --------------------- +
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

## [ ─{T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{ 1 ─ e ─ mL }] e mx + { T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }[ 1 ─ e mL] e ─ mx]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

Example 3.21. Two very long slender rods of the same diameter are given. One rod is

115
of aluminum (k = 200 W/(m-K)). The thermal conductivity of the other
rod is not known. To determine this, one end of each rod is thermally attached to a metal
surface maintained at a uniform temperature T0. Both rods are losing heat to the ambient air
at T∞ by convection with a surface heat transfer coefficient h. The surface temperature of
each rod is measured at various distances from hot base surface. The temperature of the
aluminum rod at 40 cm from the base is same as that of the rod of unknown thermal
conductivity at 20 cm from the base. Determine the unknown thermal conductivity.

## Sketch for example 3.21:

Ta
xa
ka

Tb = Ta
xb
kb = ?

Known: Two slender rods A and B are of same diameter;Base temperature T0 is same for
both the rods;Conductivity of rod A = ka = 200 W/(m-K);Ambient temperature T∞ same for
both the rods. Surface heat transfer coefficient h same for both the rods; Ta = Tb with xa = 0.4
m and xb = 0.2m

## Find: Thermal conductivity of rod B , kb

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the rods; (ii)
thermal conductivity of the two rods is constant (iii)rods are assumed to be of infinite length

## Solution:For very long slender rods the steady-state one-dimensional temperature

distribution along the length of the rod is given by

θ (x) = θ0 e ─ mx ……………………………..(1)

## Therefore we have θ0 e ─ 0.4 ma = θ0 e ─ 0.2 mb

Or mb = 2 ma

116
Or √ [(hPb) / (kbAb)] = 2√[ (hPa) / (kaAa)]

## Therefore kb = 200/4 = 50 W/(m-K).

Example 3.22. Show that for a finned surface the total heat transfer rate is given by

Qtotal = [η β + (1 – β)] a h θ0 = ή a h θ0

Where η = fin efficiency ; β= af / a : af = surface area of the fin, a = total heat transfer area
(i.e. finned surface + unfinned surface) ; θ0 = T0 - T∞, with T0 = fin base temperature and T ∞
= ambient temperature, and ή = area – weighted fin efficiency.

Solution:
Qtotal = Qfin + Qbare

Where Qtotal = Total heat transfer rate, Qfin = Heat transfer rate from the finned surface

## = h a θ0 [(η af) / a + (1 – af/a)]

here, β= af/a
= ha θ0 [ηβ + (1 – β)]

## = ή ha θ0 , where ή = [ηβ + (1 – β)]

Example 3.23. The handle of a ladle used for pouring molten lead at 327 0 C is 30 cm long
and is made of 2.5 cm x 1.5 cm mild steel bar stock (k = 43 W/(m-K)). In order to reduce the
grip temperature, it is proposed to make a hollow handle of mild steel plate 1.5 mm thick to
the same rectangular shape. If the surface heat transfer coefficient is 14.5 W/(m 2-K) and the
ambient temperature is 27 0C, estimate the reduction in the temperature of the grip. Neglect
the heat transfer from the inner surface of the hollow shape.

Sketch for example 3.23 (a) : (a) When the handle is made of solid steel bar:

117
2.5 cm
Known: h = 14.5 W/(m2-K) ;

1.5 cm k = 43 W/(m-K)

θ0 = 327 – 27 = 300 0 C
Cross section of the handle

## Perimeter of the bar = P = 2 [ 2.5 + 1.5] x 10 ─ 2 m = 8 x 10 ─ 2 m

( hP)(1/2) √ [14.5 * 8 * 10 ─ 2]
Therefore m = ------ = -------------------------- = 8.48 (1/m)
(kA)(1/2) √[43 * 3.75 * 10 ─ 4]

## Therefore mL = 8.48 * 0.3 = 2.54.

When the heat loss from the tip of the handle is neglected the temperature at any point along
the length of the handle is given by

cosh m(L – x)
θ(x) = θ0 ----------------------
cosh mL

## Therefore θ(x)|x=L = θ0 / cosh mL = 300 / cosh 2.54 = 47 0 C.

Or T(x)|x=L = 47 + 27 = 74 0 C.

## (b) When the handle is hollow made out of a sheet:

Area of the cross section of the fin is
2.5 cm
A = [(2.5 * 1.5) – (2.5 – 0.3) * (1.5 – 0.3)]

= 1.11 cm 2 = 1.11 * 10 − 4 m2
1.5 cm
P = 2 * [ 2.5 + 1.5 ] = 8 cm = 8 * 10 − 2 m

_________ √(14.5 * 8 * 10 − 2)
1.5 mm thick
m = √(hP) / (kA) = ----------------------------
√( 43 * 1.11 * 10 − 4)

118
Or m = 15.59 1/m. Therefore mL = 15.59 * 0.3 = 4.68

θ0 (327 – 27)
θ(x)|x=L = -------------------- = ----------------- = 5.57 0 C.
cosh mL cosh 4.68

## Reduction in grip temperature = 74 – 32.57 = 41.43 0 C.

Example 3.24. Derive an expression for the overall heat transfer coefficient across a plane
wall of thickness ‘b’ and thermal conductivity ‘k’ having rectangular fins on both sides.
Given that over an overall area A of the wall, the bare area on both sides, not covered by the
fins are Au1 and Au2, the fin efficiencies are η1 and η2, and the heat transfer coefficients h1 and
h2.

Solution:

Let Ti be the temperature of the fluid in contact with the surface 1, T0 be the temperature of
the fluid in contact with surface 2, T1 be the temperature of surface 1 and T2 be the
temperature of surface 2.Let Ti >T0. Then the rate of heat transfer from Ti to T0 is given by

Q = Qbare + Q fin
= hiAu1 (Ti – T1) + hi η1Af1(Ti – T1)

## (Ti – T1) (Ti – T1)

Or Q = --------------- − -------------------
(1 /h1Au1) (1/h1η1Af1)

(Ti – T1)
Q = ------------------ ---------------- …………………………(1)
[(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) ]

(T2 – T0)
Q = ------------------ ---------------- …………………………(2)
[(1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) ]

## Rate of heat transfer is also given by

(T1 – T2)
Q = ---------------- …………………………………………(3)
(b/Ak)

## Therefore as A/B = C/D = E/F = (A+C+E)/(B+D+F) 

119
(Ti – T1) + (T1 – T2) + (T2 – T0)
Q = --------------------------------------------------------------------------
[(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) + (1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) +(b/Ak)]

(Ti – T0)
Q = -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ……(4)
[(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) + (1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) +(b/Ak)]

## If U = overall heat transfer coefficient for the plane wall then

Q = UA(Ti – T0)

(Ti – T0)
= ----------------- ………………………………….(5)
(1/UA)
From Eqs. (4) and (5) we have

1
U = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A [(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) + (1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) +(b/Ak)]

Example 3.24. Calculate the effectiveness of the composite pin fin shown in Fig.P3.22.
Assume k1 = 15 W/(m-K), k2 = 50 W/(m-K) and h = 12 W/(m2 – K).

Solution:

k1 3 mm = d1
d2 = 10 mm

x k2

Qc
K1=15 W/m-k , K2=50W/m-k,
h=12 W/(m2 –K)

Qx Qx+dx
(b) Energy transfer across the surfaces of the fin element

dx

120
Energy balance equation for the fin element is given by

Qx = Qx+dx + Qc = Qx + (dQx/dx) dx + Qc

Or dQx / dx + Qc = 0 ………………………………………..(1)

Qx consists of two components namely the heat transfer Qx1 through the material of thermal
conductivity k1 and the rate of heat transfer Qx2 through the material of conductivity k2.

## Substituting these expressions for Qx and Qc in equation (1) we get

hP2
2 2
(d T / dx ) − ------------------- (T – T∞) = 0
(k1A1 + k2A2)

## Where θ = T – T∞ and m = √ [ hP2 / (k1A1 + k2A2) ].

When the heat loss from the fin tip is negligible , the solution to equation (2) is given by

## cosh [m(L – x)]

θ(x) = θ0 ---------------------- ………..(3)
cosh mL
The rate of heat transfer from the fin base is given by

## − (k1A1 + k2A2) sinh [m(L – x)]x=0 (- m) θ0

= ----------------------------------------------------
cosh mL

## mθ0 (k1A1 + k2A2) tanh mL

= ----------------------------------------
hP2L θ0

121
Noting that hP2 / (k1A1 + k2A2) = m2, the above expression for η simplifiers to

tanh mL
η = ------------------------ ……………………(4)
mL

## A2 = (π / 4) * [ (0.01)2 – (0.003)2] = 7.15 * 10 − 5

P2 = π x 0.01 0.0314 m.

√ [ 12 x 0.0314]
m = ----------------------------------------------------- = 10.12
√[(15 x 7.1 x 10 − 6 ) + (50 x 7.15 x 10 − 5)]

## Therefore mL = 10.12 * 0.1 = 1.012

tanh (1.012)
η = ------------------ = 0.757
1.012

## Examples on Conduction in Solids with Variable Thermal Conductivity:

Example 3.25. A plane wall 4 cm thick has one of its surfaces in contact with a
fluid at 130 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 250 W/(m2 – K) and the
other surface is in contact with another fluid at 30 0C with a surface heat transfer
coefficient of 500 W/(m2-K). The thermal conductivity of the wall varies with
temperature according to the law
k = 20 [ 1 + 0.001 T]
where T is the temperature. Determine the rate of heat transfer through the wall and
the surface temperatures of the wall.

## To find:- (i) Qx (ii) T1 and T2

Solution:
Rci = Thermal resistance for convection at the surface at Ti = 1/(hiA) = 1 / (250 x 1)
= 0.004 m2 – K /W

## Rco = Thermal resistance for convection at the surface at To = 1/(hoA) = 1/(500 x 1)

122
Or Rco = 0.002 m2-K/W

Now Q = (Ti – T1) / Rci, where T1 = Surface temperature in contact with fluid at Ti.

## Hence thermal resistance offered by the wall = R = L/(Akm)

0.04
Or R = ---------------------------
[21.6 – 2 * 10 − 5Q]

## [T1 – T2] [100 – 0.006Q] [21.6 – 2 x 10 − 5Q]

Q = --------------------- = ---------------------------* --------------------------
R 0.04

## Or Q2 – 1.41 * 10 6 Q + 1.8 * 10 10 = 0.Hence Q = (1.41 * 10 6 ±1.39 * 10 6) / 2

For physically meaningful solution T1 should lie between Ti and To. This is possible only
If
Q = (1.41 * 10 6 − 1.39 * 10 6) / 2 = 10000 W.

## and T2 = T0 + Q Rco = 30 + 10000 * 0.002 = 50 0C.

Example 3.26. The thermal conductivity of a plane wall varies with temperature
according to the equation
k(T) = k0 [ 1 + β T2 ]
where k0 and β are constants.

123
(a) Develop an expression for the heat transfer through the wall per unit area of the wall
if the two surfaces are maintained at temperatures T1 and T2 and the thickness of the
wall is L.
(b) Develop a relation for the thermal resistance of the wall if the heat transfer area is A.

Solution:

K = k0 [ 1 + βT2]

T1
T2

L
L

## Qx = − kA(dT / dx) = constant.

Or Qx = − k0[1 +βT2]A(dT/dx)

## Integrating the above equation between x = 0 and x = L we have

L T2
∫Qxdx = − k0A ∫[1 +βT2]dT
T1
1
Or QxL = − k0A [(T2 – T1) + (β/3)(T23 – T13)]

## Or Qx = (k0A / L)(T1 – T2) [1 + (β/3)(T12 +T1T2 + T22)]

(T1 – T2)
Qx = -------------------------------------------------------
1
---------------------------------------------------
(k0A/L) [1 + (β/3)(T12 +T1T2 + T22)]

124
Therefore thermal resistance of the wall is given by
1
R = ---------------------------------------------------
(k0A/L) [1 + (β/3)(T12 +T1T2 + T22)]

Example 3.27. Find the steady-state heat flux through the composite slab made up of two
materials as shown in Fig. P 3.26. Also find the interfacial temperature. The thermal
conductivities of the two materials vary linearly with the temperature in the following
manner:
k1 = 0.05 [1 + 0.008 T] W/m-K and k2 = 0.04 [1 + 0.0075 T] W/m-K

600 0 C 30 0 C
k1 k2

5 cm 10 cm

## Fig. P 3.26: Schematic for problem 3.26

T3
Data:- T1 = 600 0 C ; T2 = 30 0 C ;
T2
L1 = 0.05 m ; L2 = 0.10 m ;
T1
k1 k2
k1 = 0.05 [ 1 + 0.008T ] ;

k2 = 0.04 [ 1 + 0.0075T ]

To find T3 and q

L1 L2

125
Mean thermal conductivity for the first layer is given by

## km1 = 0.05 [ 1 + 0.008(T1 + T3) /2] = 0.05[1 + 0.004(600 +T3)]

= 0.17 + 2 * 10 − 4 T3 W/(m-K)

## km1A(T1 – T3) [0.17 + 2 * 10 − 4 T3] (600 – T3)

Q = ----------------------- = ---------------------------------------------
L1 0.05

## km2A(T3 – T2) [0.0445 + 1.5 * 10 − 4 T3] (T3 – 30)

Q = -------------------- = ----------------------------------------------
L2 0.10

## [0.17+ 2 * 10 − 4 T3] (600 – T3) [0.0445 + 1.5 * 10 − 4 T3] (T3 – 30)

--------------------------------------------- = ---------------------------------------------------
0.05 0.10

## T32 + 254.55 T3 – 373337 = 0

______________________
− 254.55 ± √ [ (254.55)2 – 4 * 373337]
Therefore T3 = --------------------------------------------------
2

## Since T3 has to lie between T1 and T2 it follows that

________________________
− 254.55 + √ [ (254.55)2 – 4 * 373337]
T3 = ----------------------------------------------------
2

= 496.9 0 C.

126
Therefore km1 = 0.17 + 2 * 10 − 4 * 496.9 = 0.269 W / (m-K)

## 0.269 * [600 – 496.8]

= ----------------------------- = 555.22 W / m2.
0.05

Example 3.28. Consider a slab of thickness L in which heat is generated at a uniform rate of
q’’’ W/m3. The two boundary surfaces are maintained at temperatures T1 and T2. The thermal
conductivity of the slab varies with temperature according to the equation

k(T) = k0 [ 1 + βT ]

where k0 and β are constants. Develop an expression for the heat flux q(x) in the slab.
Measurements show that steady-state conduction through a plane wall without heat
generation produced a convex temperature distribution such that the mid-point temperature
was ΔT0 higher than expected for a linear temperature distribution. Assuming that the
thermal conductivity has a linear dependence on temperature [k = k 0(1 + βT)], where k0 and
β are constants,develop a relationship to evaluate β in terms of ΔT0, T1 and T2.

Solution:
L

k = k0 [ 1 + βT ]

ΔT0 k = k0

T1
T2

For constant thermal conductivity k0, the temperature distribution in the wall is linear and is
given by

127
T(x) = T1 – (T1 – T2) x / L

## Therefore T(x)|x=L/2 = (T1 + T2) / 2 ……………………………………….(1)

When the thermal conductivity varies with temperature the temperature distribution in the
wall is determined as follows.

## Therefore Qx dx = − k0A(1 + βT) dT ……………………………………..(2)

Integrating the above equation between x = 0 and any x at which the temperature is given by
T*(x) we have
x T*
∫Qxdx = ∫− k0A(1 + βT) dT
T1
1
Or Qx x = − k0A [(T* - T1) + (β/2)(T*2 – T12)] ……………(3)

## T*2 + (2/β)T* + [ (2/β){(km/k0)(T1 – T2)(x/L) – T1} – T12 ] = 0.

Therefore
___________________________________________
T* = − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – (2km / βk0)(x / L)(T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1
_____________________________________
T*|x=L/2 = − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – (km / βk0)(T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1
__________________________________________________
= − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – [k0{1 + β(T1 + T2)/2}/ βk0](T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

128
_______________________________________________
= − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – [{1 + β(T1 + T2)/2}/β ](T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

## But T*|x=L/2 = T(x)|x=L/2 + ΔT0 = (T1 + T2) / 2 + ΔT0.

Hence we have
______________________________________________
(T1 + T2)/2 +ΔT0 = − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – [{1 + β(T1 + T2)/2}/β ](T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

Example 3.29. A slab of thickness ‘L’ has its two surfaces at x=0 and x = L maintained at
uniform temperatures of T0 and TL respectively. The thermal conductivity of the slab has
spatial variation according to the law k = k 0 [1 + α x], where ko and α are constants. Obtain
expressions for (i) temperature distribution in the slab, and (ii) rate of heat transfer through
the slab assuming one dimensional steady state conduction.

Solution:

k = k0 [1 + α x]

T1 T2

## Fig. E3.30 : Figure for Example 3.30

The governing differential equation for one dimensional steady state conduction without
heat generation is given by

d dT
k ( )
dx dx
=0

## substituting for k we have

129
d dT
(k [ 1+αx ]
dx 0 dx ) =0 …………………………..(1)

## Let 1 + α x = y ; Then α dx = dy or dy/dx = α. Then Eq.(1) can be written in

terms of the variable ‘y’ as follows.

{ [
d
dy
k0 y
dT
dy ( )
α α ]} =0

Or { [
d
dy
k0 y
dT
dy ( )
α ]} =0

[ ( )]
k0 y
dT
dy
α = C1

C1 dy
Or dT = ( )
α k0 y

C1
T= ( )
α k0
ln y + C2

## Substituting for ‘y’ in terms of ‘x’ we have

C1
T= ( )
α k0
ln (1 + α x) + C2 ………………..(2)

Eq.(2) is the general solution of Eq.(1). The values of C1 and C2 can be obtained from the two
boundary conditions at x = 0 and at x = L as follows.

## Condition (i) in Eq. (2) gives T1 = C2;

C1
Condition (ii) in Eq. (2) gives T2 = ( )
α k0
ln (1 + α L) + T1

130
α k0
Or C1 = (T2 – T1) .
ln (1+ αL )

Substituing the values of C1and C2 in Eq.(2) we get the temperature distribution as:

ln ( 1+αx )
T(x) = (T2 – T1) + T1
ln (1+ αL )

## = − [k0 (1 + α x)] A d/dx{(T2 – T1) [ ln (1 + α x) / ln (1 + α L)] + T1 }

A (T2 – T1) α 1
= − [k0 (1 + α x)] ------------------- x -----------------
ln(1 + α L) (1 + α x)

k0 α A (T1 – T2)
Or Qx = -----------------------------
ln(1 + α L)

Example 3.30. If in the above problem the thermal conductivity varies with distance
according to the law
K = k0 [1 + α x2]

Obtain expressions for (i) the temperature distribution T(x) and (ii) the rate of heat transfer.

Solution:

131
L

k = k0 [1 + α x 2]

T1 T2

## Fig. E3.31 : Figure for Example 3.31

The governing differential equation for one dimensional steady state conduction without heat
generation is given by

## Let √α x = tan y. Differnatiating both sides w.r.t.’x’ we have

√α = sec 2 y (dy/dx)
√α
2
or (dy/dx) = √α / sec y = ------------------- .
[ 1 + α x2 ]

## d/ dy [k0 √α (dT/dy)] [√α / sec 2 y] = 0.

Or d/ dy [k0 √α (dT/dy)] = 0.

## Integrating w.r.t.’y’ we have, k0 √α (dT / dy) = C1

132
Or dT = [C1 /( k0 √α)] dy.

## Condition (ii) in Eq. (3) gives T2 = [C1/(k0 √α)] tan −1(√α L) + T1

[T2 – T1]k0 √α
Or C1 = ------------------
tan −1(√α L)

## Substituting the values of C1 and C2 we have

tan −1 (√α x)
T(x) = [T2 – T1] -----------------
tan −1 (√α L)

## Expression for Rate of Heat Transfer:

Qx = − k0 [1 + α x2] A (dT/dx)

√α
2
= − k0 [1 + α x ] A [T2 – T1] ---------------------------
[1 + α x2] tan −1 (√α L)

k0 A √α [T1 – T2]
Or Qx = -------------------------------
tan −1 (√α L)

Example 3.31. A hollow cylinder has its internal surface at radius r 1 maintained at a
uniform temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform
temperature T2. The thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius
according to the law k = k0 [1 + α r], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for (i)
radial temperature distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the
cylinder. Assume one-dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Example 3.32. A hollow cylinder has its internal surface at radius r 1 maintained at a
uniform temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform
temperature T2. The thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius
according to the law k = k0 [1 + α r2], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for

133
(i) radial temperature distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the
cylinder. Assume one-dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Example 3.33. A hollow sphere has its internal surface at radius r1 maintained at a uniform
temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform temperature T2. The
thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius according to the law k
= k0 [1 + α r], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for (i) radial temperature
distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the cylinder. Assume one-
dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Example 3.34. A hollow sphere has its internal surface at radius r1 maintained at a uniform
temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform temperature T2. The
thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius according to the law k
= k0 [1 + α r2], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for (i) radial temperature
distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the cylinder. Assume one-
dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Chapter 4

Transient Conduction
4.1.Introduction:- In general, the temperature of a body varies with time as well as
position.In chapter 3 we have discussed conduction in solids under steady state conditions for
which the temperature at any location in the body do not vary with time. But there are many
practical situations where in the surface temperature of the body is suddenly altered or the
surface may be subjected to a prescribed heat flux all of a sudden. Under such circumstances
the temperature at any location within the body varies with time until steady state conditions
are reached. In this chapter, we take into account the variation of temperature with time as
well as with position.However there are many practical applications where in the temperature
variation with respect to the location in the body at any instant of time is negligible. The

134
analysis of such heat transfer problems is called the “lumped system analysis”. Therefore in
lumped system analysis we assume that the temperature of the body is a function of time
only.

4.2. Lumped system analysis:- Consider a solid of volume V, surface area A, density ρ,
Specific heat Cp and thermal conductivity k be initially at a uniform temperature Ti.Suddenly
let the body be immersed in a fluid which is maintained at a uniform temperature T∞, which
is different from Ti.The problem is illustrated in Fig.4.1.Now if

## Surface in contact with fluid at

T∞ with surface heat transfer
Coefficient h

V = volume
A=surface area
ρ = density
Cp = specific heat
k = conductivity

## Fig.4.1: Nomenclature for lumped system analysis of transient

Conduction heat transfer

T(t) is the temperature of the solid at any time t, then the energy balance equation for the
solid at time t can be written as

Rate of increase of energy of the solid = Rate of heat transfer from the fluid to the solid

## i.e., ρVCp ( dTdt ) = hA[T∞ - T(t)]

hA
Or ( dTdt ) =
ρV C p
[T∞ − T(t)]

135
hA
For convenience, a new temperature θ(t) = T(t) - T∞ is defined and denoting m =
ρV C p
the above equation can be written as

## ( dθdt ) =−mθ …………………………………..

(4.1)

Eq.(4.1) is a first order linear differential equation and can be solved by separating the
variables. Thus

= − m dt
θ

## Integrating we get ln θ = − mt + ln C, where ln C is a constant.

Or θ = C e – mt …………………………………...(4.2)

## At time t = 0 , T(t) = Ti or θ = Ti − T∞ = θi (say). Substituting this condition in Eq. (4.2) we

get
C = θi.
Substituting this value of C in eq. (4.2) we get the temperature θ(t) as follows.

θ(t) = θi e − mt

θ (t)
or = e – mt ………………………………
θi
(4.3)

Since LHS of Eq.(4.3) is dimensionless, it follows that 1/m has the dimension of time and is
called the time constant.Fig. 4.2 shows the plot of Eq.(4.3) for different values of m. Two
observations can be made from this figure and Eq. (4.3).

1.Eq. (4.3) can be used to determine the temperature T(t) of the solid at any time t or to
determine the time required by the solid to reach a specified temperature.

2.The plot shows that as the value of m increases the solid approaches the surroundings
temperature in a shorter time.That is any increase in m will cause the solid to
respond more quickly to approach the surroundings temperature.

136
1.0

θi

t
Fig.4.2: Dimensionless temperature as a function of time for a
solid with negligible internal temperature gradients

The definition of m reveals that increasing the surface area for a given volume and the heat
transfer coefficient will increase m. Increasing the density, specific heat or volume decreases
m.

## 4.2.2.Criteria for Lumped System Analysis:- To establish a criterion to neglect internal

temperature gradient of the solid so that lumped system analysis becomes applicable, a
Characteristic length Ls is defined as

Ls = V /A ………………………………(4.4)

## and the Biot. number Bi as

h Ls
Bi = ……………………………..
k
(4.5)

For solids like slabs, infinite cylinder, and sphere, it has been found that the error by
neglecting internal temperature gradients is less than 5 %, if

## Bi < 0.1 ………………………………(4.6)

The physical significance of Biot number can be understood better by writing the expression
for Biot number as follows

## h Ls (Ls / Ak) Thermal resistance for conduction

Bi = ------ = -------------- = -------------------------------------------
k ( 1 / hA) Thermal resistance for convection

137
Hence a very low value of Biot number indicates that resistance for heat transfer by
conduction within the solid is much less than that for heat transfer by convection and
therefore a small temperature gradient within the body could be neglected.

## Illustrative examples on lumped system analysis

Example 4.1. A copper cylinder 10 cm diameter and 15 cm long is removed from a liquid
nitrogen bath at ─ 196 0 C and exposed to room temperature at 30 0 C. Neglecting internal
temperature gradients find the time taken by the cylinder to attain a temperature of 0 0C,
with the following assumptions: Surface heat transfer coefficient = 30 W / m2 – K.
Density of the copper cylinder = 8800 kg / m3.Specific heat of the cylinder = 0.38 kJ/(kg-K)
Thermal conductivity of the cylinder = 350 W / (m-K).

## Ti Known: Ti = − 196 0C; T∞ = 30 0C

D = 10 cm or R = 0.05 m; L = 0.15 m
T∞ D h = 30 W/(m2 – K); k = 350 W / (m-K) ;

h T(t) = 0

## Find: Time taken t for the solid to reach 00C.

Assumptions: (i)Internal temperature gradients are negligible; (ii) solid properties are
constant

Solution: Biot Number = hR / k = 30 x 0.05 / 350 = 0.0043 which is << 0.1. Hence internal

## temperature gradients can be neglected. Let θ(t) = T(t) – T∞

In that case we have
θ(t) = T(t) – Ti = θ0 e −(hA/ρVcp) t, where θ0 = Ti − T∞

## 2{πR2 + πRL)h 2{R+L}h 2 x {0.05 +0.15} x30

(hA/ρVcp) = ------------------- = ----------- = ------------------------------------------
πR2L ρcp ρcpRL 8800 x 0.38 x 1000 x 0.05x 0.15

= 4.785 x 10 − 4 1/s

T(t) − T∞
Now ------------------ = e − (hA/ρVcp) t

138
Ti – T∞

0 − 30
Hence ------------------- = exp (− 4.785 x 10 − 4 x t)
− 196 – 30

## Solving for t we get t = 4226 s = 1 hr 10.43 mins.

Example 4.2: A thin copper wire having a diameter D and length L (insulated at
the ends) is initially at a uniform temperature of T0. Suddenly it is exposed to a gas
stream, the temperature of which changes with time according to the equation

T∞ = Tf (1 ─ e─ ct) + T0

where Tf, T0 and c are constants. The surface heat transfer coefficient is h. Obtain an
expression for the temperature of the wire as a function of time t.

## Sketch for example 4.2:

h,T∞

T(0) = T0

L
Known: Rod of diameter D and length L, initially at T0, is suddenly exposed to en
environment whose temperature varies with time according to the law T∞ = Tf (1 ─ e─ ct) + T0,
where Tf, T0 and c are constant

## Find: Temperature of rod as a function of time

Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible; (ii) Thermal
properties of the rod are constant

Solution: Let T(t) be the temperature of the cylinder at any time t. Energy balance for the
cylinder for a time interval dt is given by

## hA [T∞ - T(t)] dt = ρVCp dT

where dT is the increase in temperature of the cylinder in time dt.

dT
Or = (hA/ρVCp) [T∞ - T(t)]
dt

139
Putting m = (hA/ρVCp), the above equation reduces to

dT
+ m T(t) = m T∞
dt

## Substituting the given expression for T∞ we have

dT
+ m T(t) = m [T0 + Tf (1 – e - ct)]
dt

dT
or + m [T(t) – T0] = mTf (1 – e – ct )
dt

## Let θ (t) = T(t) – T0. Then the above equation reduces to

+ m θ (t) = mTf (1 – e – ct ) ………………………
dt
(1).

dy
This equation is of the form + Py = Q, which is solved by multiplying throughout by
dx
an integrating factor and then integrating. For equation (1) the integrating factor is

## [ e mt ( dθdt ) + m e mt θ (t)] = mTf [ e mt – e (m – c)t]

d
or (emtθ) = mTf [ e mt – e (m – c)t]
dt

## emtθ(t) = mTf [ (emt / m ) − e(m – c)t / (m – c) ] + C1

m
or θ(t) = Tf − Tf e − ct + C1e − mt …………………(2)
( m−c )

When t = 0 , T(0) = T0 i.e., θ(0) = 0. Substituting this condition in equation (2) we get

m
or 0 = Tf − Tf + C1
( m−c )

140
c
Or C1 = ( ( m−c ))
Tf.

Substituting this expression for C1 in equation (2) we get the temperature of the cylinder as

m c
θ(t) = Tf − Tf e − ct + Tf e − mt
( m−c ) ( m−c )

m c
Or T(t) – T0 = Tf [ 1 − e − ct + e − mt]
( m−c ) ( m−c )

## Example 4.3: A solid sphere of radius R is initially at a uniform temperature T 0. At a certain

instant of time (t >0), the sphere is suddenly exposed to the surroundings at a temperature T f
and the surface heat transfer coefficient, ‘h’. In addition from the same instant of time, heat is
generated within the sphere at a uniform rate of q ’’’ units per unit volume. Neglecting internal
temperature gradients, derive an expression for the temperature of sphere as a function of
time

T(0) = T0

## q′′′ for t > 0

R

h,Tf

Known: Solid sphere of radius R is initiallt at temperature T0; Suddenly at time t = o the
sphere is generating heat at q’’’ W/m3 and simultaneously the sphere is losing heat to the
ambient at Tf with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.

## Find: Temperature of sphere as a function of time T(t)

141
Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible; (ii) Thermal
properties of the rod are constant

Solution:Energy balance equation for the sphere at any time t can be written as

## (4/3)πR3 q′′′ + 4πR2h [Tf – T(t)] = (4/3)πR3 ρCp ( dTdt )

Or ( dTdt ) + (3h/ ρRCp)[T(t) – Tf] = (q′′′ /ρCp)

## Let θ(t) = T(t) – Tf. Then the above equation reduces to

( dθdt ) + mθ = q0 ………………………………..(1)

## emt ( dθdt ) + emt mθ = q0 emt

d
or (θemt) = q0emt
dt

## At t = 0 , T = T0 or θ = T0 – Tf = θ0 (say). Substituting this condition in equation (2) we

get C1 = (T0 – Tf) – (q0 / m). Therefore the temperature in the sphere as a function of time is
given by

## q' ' ' ρRCp

where (q0 / m) =
ρC p
* = (q′′′ R / 3h)
3h

142
Example 4.4: A solid steel ball (ρ =8000 kg/m3 ; cp = 0.42 kJ/kg-K) 5 cm in diameter is at a
uniform temperature of 450 0 C. It is quenched in a controlled environment which is initially
at 90 0C and whose temperature increases linearly with time at the rate of 10 0C per minute.
If the surface heat transfer coefficient is 58 W/(m2-K), determine the variation of the
temperature of the ball with time neglecting internal temperature gradients. Find the value of
the minimum temperature to which the ball cools and the time taken to reach this minimum
temperature.

T(0) = Ti

h,Tf

## Known: T(0) = Ti = 4500C ;h = 58 W / (m2 – K) ; Cp = 0.42 kJ / (kg – K) ; ρ = 8000 kg / m3;

dTf
at t = 0, Tf = 90 0C; ( )
dt
= 10 0C / min = (1/6) 0 C / s

## Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible,i.e.Temperture of

the solid is a function of time only; (ii) Thermal properties of the ball are constant

## Solution: Tf = a + bt, where a and b are constants; at t = 0, Tf = 90 0C;(dTf / dt) = (1/6) 0 C / s

dTf
Therefore a = 90 0 C and b = ( )
dt
= (1/6) 0 C / s.

Or Tf = 90 + t / 6 , t in seconds ……………….(1)

Energy balance equation for the sphere at any time t can be written as

## ρVCp ( dTdt ) = hA [Tf(t) – T(t)]

hA
Or
dT
( )
dt
= ( ρV C p ) [Tf(t) – T(t)]

143
Letting m = ( ρVhAC )
p
the above equation can be written as

## e mt ( dTdt ) + mT(t) emt = m [90 + t / 6 ] e mt

d
or (T e mt) = m [90 + t / 6 ] e mt
dt

## Integrating throughout w.r.t t we have

(T e mt) = m ∫[90 + t / 6 ] e mt dt + C1

Or T(t) = m e − mt ∫[90 + t / 6 ] e mt dt + C1 e − mt

## Or T(t) = [ 90 + (t / 6 ) − (1/6m)] + C1 e − mt………………..(2)

When t = 0 , T(t) = Ti. Substituting this condition in the above equation and solving for C1 we
get
C1 = [Ti – 90 + 1 / 6m]

## Substituting Ti = 450 0 C and simplifying we get

144
(360 m + 1/6) e − mt = 1/6
Or e mt = (2160 m + 1) -----------(4)

4 π R2 h
Now m = ( hA
ρV C p

2.07 x 10 − 3. …(5)
) =
( ρG p()4
3
π R3 ) =
3h
ρC pR
=
3∗58
8000∗0.025∗0.42∗10
3 =

## T(t)= 90+ (t/6) − (1/(6*2.07*10-3)) + [ 240-90+(1/(6*2.07*10-3))] * exp{-2.07*10− 3 t}

T(t)=9.4857 + (230.5152)*(0.9979)t

d2T
Now from the above expression for T(t), > 0.
d t2

## Therefore e mt = [ 2160 x 2.07 x 10 − 3 + 1 ] = 5.47

mt = 1.7
Or t = 1.7 / m = 1.7 / (2.07 x 10 − 3) = 821 s = 13.7 min

## + [ 450 − 90 + {1 / (6x 2.07 x 10 − 3) } ] e − 1.7 = 226.7 0C.

Example 4.5: A house hold electric iron has a steel base [ρ =7840 kg/m3 ; cp = 450 J/(kg-
K) ;k = 70 W/(m-K)] which weighs 1 kg. The base has an ironing surface area of 0.025 m2
and is heated from the other surface with a 250 W heating element. Initially the iron is at a
uniform temperature of 20 0 C with a heat transfer coefficient of 50 W/(m2-K). (a) Determine
the temperature of the plate 300 seconds after the heater switch is on .(b) What would be the
equilibrium temperature of the iron if the control of the iron box did not switch of the
current?

145
Q

Qc h ,T∞
A

## Find: (a)T/t = 300 s. (b)T after steady state is reached

Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible; (ii) Thermal
properties of the iron are constant

## Solution: (a) V = m / ρ = 1 / 7840 = 0.0001275 m3 = 1.275 x 10 − 4 m3.

1.275 x 10 − 4
L = V / A = ------------------ = 0.005 m
0.025

50 x 0.005
Bi = (hL / k) = -------------------- = 0.00364
70

Since Bi < 0.1, it can be assumed that temperature gradients within the plate are negligible.
Hence the temperature of the plate depends only on time till steady state condition is reached.
Energy balance at any time t for the plate can be written as

Q − Qc = ρVCp ( dTdt )
Or Q – hA(T - T∞) = ρVCp ( dTdt )
Or ( dTdt ) + m(T - T∞) = (Q / ρVCp) ……………………………..(1)

## Where m = (hA / ρVCp). Letting θ = T - T∞, equation (1) can be written as

146
( dθdt ) + m θ = (Q / ρVCp)

Multiplying the above equation by the integrating factor e mt,( e∫mdt=emt) we get

## ( dθdt ) e mt + m θe mt = (Q / ρVCp) emt

d
Or (θe mt) = (Q / ρVCp) emt
dt

## Or θ = (Q / ρVCpm) + C1e − mt ……………………………….(2)

When t = 0, T = Ti or θ = Ti - T∞ = 20 – 20 = 0 0 C.

## Substituting this condition in equation (2) we get

0 = (Q / ρVCpm) + C1 or C1 = − (Q / ρVCpm)

## Therefore the temperature in the plate as a function of time is given by

θ = (Q / ρVCpm) [ 1 − e − mt ]

## But ρVCpm = hA. Therefore

θ = (Q / hA) [ 1 − e − mt ] …………………………………..(3)

Q 250 50∗0.025
hA
=
50∗0.025
= 200 ; m = 1∗450
= 2.8 * 10 − 3

## When t = 300 s, θ = T - T∞ = 200 x [ 1 − e − 0.028 x 300] = 113.7

Or T = 113.7 + 20 = 133.7 0 C.

(b) When the control switch is not switched off and the iron is left in the ambient, steady state
condition will be attained as t tends to ∞ so that the heat transferred to the base plate will be
convected to the ambient. i.e., Q = Qconvection

## Therefore 250 = 50 x 0.025 x [T – 20 ]

Or T = 220 0 C.

147
This answer can also be obtained by putting t = ∞ in equation (3) and solving for T.

4.3 One-dimensional Transient Conduction ( Use of Heissler’s Charts): There are many
situations where we cannot neglect internal temperature gradients in a solid while analyzing
transient conduction problems. Then we have to determine the temperature distribution
within the solid as a function of position and time and the analysis becomes more complex.
However the problem of one-dimensional transient conduction in solids without heat
generation can be solved readily using the method of separation of variables.The analysis is
illustrated for solids subjected to convective boundary conditions and the solutions were
presented in the form of transient – temperature charts by Heissler. These charts are now
familiarly known as “Heissler’s charts”.

## 4.3.1.One-dimensional transient conduction in a slab:- Let us consider a slab of thickness

2L, which is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. Suudenly let the solid be exposed to an
environment which is maintained at a uniform temperature of T ∞ with a surface heat transfer
coefficient of h for time t > 0.Fig.4.3 shows the geometry , the coordinates and the boundary
conditions for the problem. Because of symmetry in the problem with respect to the centre
of the slab the ‘x’ coordinate is measured from the centre line of the slab as shown in the
figure.

2L
Surfaces exposed to a fluid at T∞ with heat transfer coefficient h for time t ≥ 0
T = Ti at t =

T = T(x,t)

x
Fig.4.3: Geometry, coordinates and boundary conditions for one dimensional tr
conduction in a slab

## The mathematical formulation of this transient conduction problem is given as follows:

148
2
∂T ∂T
Governing differential equation: = (1/α)
∂x
2
∂t
………………………..(4.7a)

## (ii) at x = L, − k ( ∂T∂x ) |x = L = h(T|x = L − T∞) for all t > 0 ……………………….

(4.7d)

It is more convenient to analyze the problem by using the variable θ(x,t), where

θ(x,t) = T(x,t) - T∞. Then equations (4.7a) to (4.7d) reduce to the following forms:

∂2 θ ∂θ
= (1/α)
∂ x2 ∂t
………………………..(4.8a)

## Boundary conditions reduce to :

∂θ
(i) at x = 0, = 0 for all t > 0 (axis of symmetry) …………………………..
∂x
(4.8c)

(4.8d)

## Substituting this in Eq. (4.8a) we get

d2 X
Y ( )
d x2
= (X/α) ( dYdt )
Or

149
2

( )
1 d X
X d x2
=
1
Yα ( dYdt )
…………………….(4.10)

LHS of Eq. (4.10) is a function of x only and the RHS of Eq. (4.10) is a function of t
only.They can be equal only to a constant say − λ2.(The reason to choose the negative sign is
to get a physically meaningful solution as explained later in this section).Hence we have two
equations namely

## and solution to Eq. (4.12) is Y(t) = D exp (− αλ2t) ………………………..(4.14)

with C1, C2 and D are constants of integration. Substituting these solutions in Eq.(4.9) we
have
θ(x,t) = D exp (− αλ2t) [C1 cos (λx) + C2 sin (λx)]

## or θ(x,t) = exp (− αλ2t) [A1 cos (λx) + A2 sin (λx)] ………..(4.15)

Eq.(4.15) is the general solution involving the constants A1, A2 and λ which can be
determined using the two boundary conditions and the initial condition as illustrated below.

∂θ
Now from Eq. (4.15), = λ exp (− αλ2t) [ −A1 sin (λx) + A2 cos (λx)]
∂x

Substituting boundary condition (i) we have 0 = λ exp (− αλ2t) [0 + A2] for all t.

## Now θ(L,t) = A1 exp (− αλ2t) cos (λL)

∂θ
and = λ exp (− αλ2t) [ −A1 sin (λx) ]
∂x

## Therefore boundary condition (ii) can be written as

150
k λ A1 exp (− αλ2t) sin (λL) = h A1 exp (− αλ2t) cos (λL)

## or λL tan (λL) = Bi ……………………………(4.17)

where Bi = hL / k.
Equation (4.17) is called the “characteristic equation” and has infinite number of roots
namely λ1, λ2, λ3, ..............Corresponding to each value of λ we have one solution and hence
there are infinite number of solutions. Sum of all these solutions will also be a solution as the
differential equation is linear. Therefore the solution θ(x,t) can be written as follows.

## θ(x,t) = ∑ An exp (− αλn 2t) cos (λnx) …………………….(4.18)

To find An:- The constants An in Eq. (4.18) can be found using the orthogonal property of
trigonometric functions as shown below.Substituting the initial condition we have

θi = ∑ An cos (λnx)

Multiplying both sides of Eq.(4.18) by cos λmx and integrating w.r.t ‘x’ between the limits 0
and L we have L L
∫ θi cos (λmx) dx = ∫ ∑ An cos (λmx) cos (λnx) dx
1 1

## Using the orthogonal; property

∫ An cos (λmx) cos (λnx) dx = 0 for λn ≠ λm
The above equation reduce to
L L
∫ θi cos (λnx) dx = ∫ An cos 2(λnx) dx
0
1
L
θi 0 ∫cos (λnx) dx
Or An = ---- L-------------------
∫ cos 2 (λnx)dx
0

## It is very convenient to express Eq. (4.18) in dimension less form as follows:

θ(x,t)
----- = ∑ (An* exp (− λn* 2 Fo) cos (λn* x / L) ………………………………(4.19)
θi

## where An* = An / θi ; λn* = λnL ; Fo = Fourier Number = α t / L2 ;

4.3.2.Heissler’s Charts for transient conduction:- For values of Fo > 0.2 the above series
solution converges rapidly and the solution will be accurate within 5 % if only the first term
in the series is used to determine the temperature. In that case the solution reduces to

151
θ(x,t)
----- = A1* exp (− λ1* 2 Fo) cos (λ1* x /L) ………………………………(4.20)
θi

From the above equation the dimensionless temperature at the centre of the slab (x =0) can be
written as

θ(0,t)
----- = A1* exp (− λ1* 2 Fo) ………………………………….(4.21)
θi

The values of A1* and λ1* for different values of Bi are presented in the form of a table (See
Table 4.1). These values are evaluated using one term approximation of the series solution.

Table 4.1: Coefficients used in one term approximate solution of transient one dimensional heat
conduction in plane walls, cylinders, and spheres (Bi = hL/k for a plane wall of thickness 2L, and Bi =
hro/k for a cylinder or sphere of outer radius r0)

## Bi Plane Wall Infinite Sphere

Cylinder
λ1* A1* λ1* A 1* λ1* A 1*
0.01 0.099 1.001 0.1412 1.0025 0.173 1.003
8 7 0 0
0.02 0.141 1.003 0.1995 1.0050 0.244 1.006
0 3 5 0
0.04 0.198 1.006 0.2814 1.0099 0.345 1.012
7 6 0 0
0.06 0.242 1.009 0.3438 1.0148 0.421 1.017
5 8 7 9
0.08 0.279 1.013 0.3960 1.0197 0.486 1.023
1 0 0 9
0.10 0.3111 1.016 0.4417 1.0246 0.542 1.029
1 3 8
0.20 0.432 1.0311 0.6170 1.0483 0.759 1.059
8 3 2
0.30 0.521 1.045 0.7465 1.0712 0.920 1.088
8 0 8 0
0.40 0.593 1.058 0.8516 1.0931 1.052 1.1164
2 0 8
0.50 0.653 1.070 0.9408 1.1143 1.165 1.144
3 1 6 1
0.60 0.705 1.081 1.0184 1.1345 1.264 1.171
1 4 4 3
0.70 0.750 1.091 1.0873 1.1539 1.352 1.197
6 8 5 8
0.80 0.701 1.101 1.1490 1.1724 1.432 1.223
0 6 0 6
0.90 0.827 1.1107 1.2048 1.1902 1.504 1.248
4 4 8
1.00 0.860 1.1191 1.2558 1.2071 1.570 1.273
3 8 2

152
2.00 1.076 1.178 1.5995 1.3384 2.028 1.479
9 5 8 3
3.00 1.192 1.210 1.7887 1.4191 2.288 1.622
5 2 9 7
4.00 1.264 1.228 1.9081 1.4698 2.455 1.720
6 7 6 2
5.00 1.313 1.240 1.9898 1.5029 2.570 1.787
8 3 4 0
6.00 1.349 1.247 2.0490 1.5253 2.653 1.833
6 9 7 8
7.00 1.376 1.253 2.0937 1.5411 2.716 1.867
6 2 5 3
8.00 1.397 1.257 2.1286 1.5526 2.765 1.892
8 0 4 0
9.00 1.414 1.259 2.1566 1.5611 2.804 1.910
9 8 4 6
10.0 1.428 1.262 2.1795 1.5677 2.836 1.924
9 0 3 9
20.0 1.496 1.269 2.2880 1.5919 2.985 1.978
1 9 7 1
30.0 1.520 1.271 2.3261 1.5973 3.037 1.989
2 7 2 8
40.0 1.532 1.272 2.3455 1.5993 3.063 1.994
5 3 2 2
50.0 1.540 1.272 2.3572 1.6002 3.078 1.996
0 7 8 2
100. 1.555 1.273 2.3809 1.6015 3.1102 1.999
0 2 1 0
∞ 1.570 1.273 2.4048 1.6021 3.141 2.000
8 2 6 0

It can also be concluded from Eq.(4.20) at any time ‘t’ the ratio θ(x,t) / θ(0,t) will be
independent of temperature and is given by

θ(x,t)
------ = cos (λ1* x /L) ……………………………………(4.22)
θ(0,t)

Heissler has represented Eq. (4.21) and (4.22) in the form of charts and these charts are
normally referred to as Heissler’s charts. Eq. (4.21) is plotted as Fourier number Fo versus
dimensionless centre temperature θ(0,t) / θi using [Fig.4.4(b)].
reciprocal of Biot number1 / Bi as the parameter [Fig.4.4(a)], where as Eq. (4.22) is plotted
as θ(x,t) / θ(0,t) versus reciprocal of Biot number using the dimensionless distance x / L as
the parameter.In Fig.[4.4(a)], the curve for 1/Bi = 0 corresponds to the case
h → ∞, or the outer surfaces of the slab are maintained at the ambient temperature T∞. For
large values of 1 / Bi, the Biot number is small, or the internal conductance is large in
comparison with the surface heat transfer coefficient. This in turn, implies that the
temperature distribution within the solid is sufficiently uniform and hence lumped system
analysis becomes applicable.
Fig. (4.5) shows the dimensionless heat transferred Q / Q 0 as a function of
dimensionless time for different values of the Biot number for a slab of thickness 2L. Here Q

153
represents the total amount of thermal energy which is lost by the slab up to any time t during
the transient conduction heat transfer. The quantity Q0, defined as

## Q0 = ρ V Cp[Ti - T∞] …………………………..(4.23)

represents the initial thermal energy of the slab relative to the ambient temperature.

## 4.3.3.Transient-Temperature charts for Long cylinder and sphere: The dimensionless

transient-temperature distribution and the heat transfer results for infinite cylinder and
sphere can also be represented in the form of charts as in the case of slab. For infinite
cylinder and sphere the radius of the outer surface R is used as the characteristic length so
that the Biot number is defined as Bi = hR / k and the dimensionless distance from the centre
is r/R where r is any radius (0 ≤ r ≤ R).These charts are illustrated in Figs. (4.6) to (4.9).

## 4.3.4.Illustrative examples on the use of Transient Temperature Charts:-Use of the

transient temperature charts for slabs, infinite cylinders and spheres is illustrated in the
following examples.

Example 4.6: A brick wall ( α = 0.5 x 10 ─ 6 m2/s, k = 0.69 W/(m-K) and ρ = 2300 kg/m 3 ) of
10 cm thick is initially at a uniform temperature of 230 0 C. The wall is suddenly exposd to a
convective environment at 30 0 C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 60 W/(m 2-K).
Using the transient-temperature charts, determine
(a) the centre temperature at ½ hour and 2 hours after the exposure to the cooler
ambient,
(c) energy removed from the wall per m2 during ½ hour and during 2 hours.
(d) What would be the time taken for the surface of the wall to reach a
temperature of 40 0C.

## (c) t for T/x=L = 40 0C

2L

154
Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is
constant

## Solution: (a) (i) t = 0.5 h = 0.5 x 3600 = 1800 s.

60 x 0.05
Bi = hL / k = --------------- = 4.35.
0.69
Since Bi > 0.1, internal temperature gradients cannot be neglected. i.e. T = T(x,t)

## Hence Heissler’s transient temperature charts are to be used.

( 0.5 x 10 − 6 x 1800)
1/ Bi = 1 / 4.35 = 0.23 ; Fo = (αt / L2) = -------------------------- = 0.36
0.052

## From the Heissler’s chart for a slab of thickness 2L,

(T0 - T∞)
θ0 = --------------- = 0.8 (T0 = Centre temperature of the slab)
(Ti - T∞)

## Therefore T0 = T∞ + 0.8 (Ti - T∞) = 30 + 0.8 x (230 – 30)

=190 0 C.
(0.5 x 10 − 6 x 7200)
(ii) when t = 2 h = 7200 s we have Fo = ---------------------------- = 1.44.
(0.052)
(T0 – T∞)
From chart, -------------- = 0.125.
(Ti – T∞)

## (b) (i) t = 1800 s. At the surface x / L = 1.0 ; k / hL = 0.23 ;

(T|x=L – T∞)
Hence from the chart ---------------- = 0.275
(T0 – T∞)

## Or T|x=L = T∞ + 0.275 (T0 – T∞) = 30 + 0.275 x (190 – 30)

= 74 0 C.

155
(ii) t = 7200 s. Hence T|x=L = T∞ + 0.275 (T0 – T∞) = 30 + 0.275 x (55 – 30)

= 36.9 0 C.

(c) (i) Bi2 Fo = 4.35 2 x 0.36 = 6.81; From chart Qremoved / Qmax = 0.50 .

0.69 x 1 x 0.1
Qmax = ρCpV(Ti – T∞) = (k / α)V(Ti – T∞) = ------------------- x (230 – 30)
0.5 x 10 − 6

= 27.6 x 10 6 = 27.6 MJ / m

## Hence θ (L,t) ( 40 – 30)

------- = ---------------- = 0.05
θi (230 – 30)

Now for x / L = 1.0 and 1 / Bi = 0.23 from the chart the ratio of surface temperature
difference to the centre temperature difference can be read as

## Hence θ (0,t) / θi = 0.05 / 0.225 = 0.2222

From the chart corresponding to this value of θ (0,t) / θi and 1 / Bi = 0.23, the Fourier
number can be read as

## Example 4.7:- A long solid cylinder [α = 0.05 m2/h, k = 50 W/(m-K)] of 5 cm diameter is

initially at 200 0 C. Suddenly it is immersed in water at a temperature of 20 0 C. Assuming
the heat transfer coefficient to be 200 W/(m2-K), determine (a) the centre and the surface
temperatures after 10 minutes have elapsed, and (b) the energy removed from the cylinder
during this 10 minute period.

156
T∞,h

R Ti

## Ti = 200 0 C ; T∞ = 20 0 C ; R = 0.025 m ; h = 200 W/(m2 – K) ;t = 10 x 60 = 600 s

Find: (a) T/r=0 and T/r = R after t = 10 min; (b) Qremoved during 10 minute period
Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thrmal conductivity of the solid is
constant

## Since Bi = 0.1, internal temperature gradients cannot be neglected.

(1.39 x 10 − 5 x 600)
2
1/Bi = 1 / 0.1 = 10 ; Fo = (αt / R ) = ------------------------
0.0252

## From chart for transient conduction in an infinite cylinder we have

(T0 – T∞)
-------------------- = 0.08 ; Hence T0 = T∞ + 0.08 (Ti - T∞)
(Ti – T∞)

= 34.4 0 C.

## (ii) To find the surface temperature, T|r=R:

(T|r=R – T∞)
r / R = 1.0 ; 1 / Bi = 0.1 ; From chart -------------- = 0.13
(T0 – T∞)

## (b) Bi2 Fo = (0.12) x 13.34 = 1.33 x 10 − 1.

157
From energy chart for the infinite cylinder, Q / Qmax = 0.875

## Example 4.8:-An orange of 10 cm diameter is initially at a uniform temperature of 30 0C.

Suddenly it is placed in a refrigerator in which the air temperature is 2 0 C. If the surface
heat transfer coefficient is 50 W/(m2-K), determine the time required for the centre of the
orange to reach 10 0 C. Assume for the orange α = 1.4 x 10 ─ 7 m2/s and k = 0.59 W/(m-K).

## Sketch for example 4.8:

Known: R = 0.05 m ; Ti = 30 0 C ; T∞ = 2 0 C ; T0 = 10 0 C ;

## h = 50 W/(m2 –K);k = 0.59 W/(m – K);

α =1.4 x10−7 m2/s

## Assumpttions: (i) Orange is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere.(ii) one dimensional

radial conduction; (iii) Orange properties are constant.

Solution:

## (T0 - T∞) (10 – 2)

Now ----------- = θ0 = ---------- = 0.286
(Ti – T∞) (30 – 2 )

## Sphere we have Fo = (αt / R2) = 0.3.

(0.3 x 0.05 2)
Therefore t = ------------------ = 5357 s = 1.5 h
(1.4 x 10 − 7)

158
Solution using Tables: For the given problem we have

## Bi = 4.24. Therefore from Table 4 – 1 , by interpolation λ1 = 2.4831 and A1 = 1.7362.

(T0 – T∞)
Therefore -------------- = 0.286 = 1.7362 exp[− λ12Fo]
(Ti – T∞)

## Therefore αt / (R2) = 0.2925

0.2925∗R2 0.2925∗0.052
Or t= = = 5223 s = 1 h 27 min.
α 1.45∗10−7

## 4.3.5. Transient conduction in semi-infinite solids:- A semi-infinite solid is an idealized

body that has a single plane surface and extends to infinity in all directions.The transient
conduction problems in semi-infinite solids have numerous practical applications in
engineering. Consider, for example, temperature transients in a slab of finite but large
thickness, initiated by a sudden change in the thermal condition at the boundary surface. In
the initial stages, the temperature transients near the boundary surface behave similar to those
of semi-infinite medium, because some time is required for the heat to penetrate the slab
before the other boundary condition begins to influence the transients.The earth for example,
can be considered as a semi-infinite solid in determining the variation of its temperature near
its surface
Consider a semi-infinite solid with constant thermo physical properties, without any
internal heat generation and uniform thermal conditions on its exposed surface.Let the solid
initially be at a uniform temperature T i. Heat transfer in this case occurs only in the direction
normal to the surface (x-direction) and thus it is one dimensional. The depth of the solid is
very large (x → ∞) compared to the depth upto which heat can penetrate and these
phenomena can be expressed mathematically as a boundary condition as T(x→∞,t) = T i. Heat
conduction in a semi-infinite solid is governed by the thermal condition imposed on the
exposed surface , and thus the solution depends strongly on the boundary condition at x = 0
We come across basically three types of boundary conditions while
analyzing the problem of one-dimensional transient conduction in semi-infinite solids.These
three problems are as follows:

Problem 1:- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature Ti and suddenly at time t>0
the boundary-surface temperature of the solid is changed to and maintained at a uniform
temperature T0 which may be greater or less than the initial temperature Ti.

159
Problem 2:- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature Ti and suddenly at time t>0 the
boundary surface of the solid is subjected to a uniform heat flux of q0 W/m2.

Problem 3:- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly at time t>0 the
boundary surface is exposed to an ambience at a uniform temperature T ∞ with the surface
heat transfer coefficient h. T∞ may be higher or lower than Ti.

Solution to Problem 1:- The schematic for problem 1 is shown in Fig. 4.10. The
mathematical formulation of the problem to determine the unsteady temperature distribution
in an infinite solid T(x,t) is as follows:
The governing differential equation [Eq. 4.7(a)] is
2
∂T ∂T
= (1/α) ……………………
∂x
2
∂t
4.7(a)

## and the boundary condition is at x = 0, T(0,t) = T0. ....................................... 4.24

It is convenient to solve the above problem in terms of the variable θ(x,t), where θ(x,t) is
defined as
T ( x , t )−T ∞
θ(x,t) =
T i −T ∞
……………………..4.25
The governing differential equation in terms of θ(x,t) will be

## Initially (t=0) solid at Ti

0
x

Fig. 4.10: Semi-infinite solid with specified surface temperature T0 for t > 0

160
The initial condition will be at time t = 0, θ(x,0) = Ti − T∞ …………………….4.26(b)

## And the boundary condition will be at x = 0, θ(0,t) = T0 − T∞ …………………4.26(c)

This problem has been solved analytically and the solution θ(x,t) is represented graphically
as θ(x,t) as a function of the dimensionless variable x / [2√(αt)] as shown in Fig. 4.11.
In engineering applications, the heat flux at the boundary surface x = 0 is also
of interest. The analytical expression for heat flux at the surface is given by

k(T0 – Ti)
qs(t) = -------------- ……………………..4.27
√(παt)

Solution to problem 2:- The schematic for this problem is shown in Fig. 4.11.

T(x,t) = Ti at t = 0

q0 W/m2

for t > 0 x

Fig. 4.11: An infinite solid subjected to a constant heat flux at x = 0 for t > 0

Governing differential equation in terms of T(x,t) and the initial condition are same that for
problem 1[i.e. equations 4.26(a) and 4.26(b)].

## The temperature distribution within the solid T(x,t) is given by

2q0
T(x, t) = Ti + ------ (αt) ½ [ (1 / √π) exp (− ξ2) + ξ erf (ξ) − ξ ] …………………..(4.28 a)
k
___ 2 ξ

161
where ξ = x / (2√ αt ) and erf (ξ) = ------- ∫ exp (− y2) dy ……………………...(4.28b)
√π 0

Here erf (ξ) is called the “error function” of argument ξ and its values for different values of
ξ are tabulated.

Solution to Problem 3 :- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature T i and suddenly for t
>0 the surface at x = 0 is brought in contact with a fluid at a uniform temperature T ∞ with a
surface heat transfer coefficient h [see Fig. 4.12]. For this problem the solution is represented
in the form of a plot where the dimensionless temperature [1 − θ(x,t)] is plottedagainst
dimensionless distance x / √(αt), using h√(αt) / k as the parameter. It can be noted that the
case h → ∞ is equivalent to the boundary surface ay x = 0 maintained at a constant
temperature T∞.

## Initially (t=0), solid at Ti

0
x

Fig. 4.12: Semi-infinite solid with surface at x = 0 is subjected to convective heat transfer coefficien

## Illustrative examples on Transient Conduction in Semi – Infinite solids

Example 4.9:-A thick stainless steel slab [α = 1.6 x 10 ─ 5 m2/s and k = 61 W/(m-K)] is
initially at a uniform temperature of 150 0 C. Its surface temperature is suddenly lowered to
20 0 C. By treating this as a one-dimensional transient conduction problem in a semi-infinite
medium, determine the temperature at a depth 2 cm from the surface and the heat flux 1
minute after the surface temperature is lowered

162
Sketch for example 4.9:

0
x

## Known: Ti = 150 0 C ; T0 = T|x=0 = 20 0 C ; α = 1.6 x 10 −5

m2 / s ; k = 61 W/(m – K) ; x =
0.02 m ;t = 1 min

## Find: (i) T/x= 0.02 m ; (ii) qs

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal properties of the solid is constant

Solution: (i)

x 0.02
ξ = -------------- = --------------------------------- = 0.323
2 √ (αt) 2 x √ ( 1.6 x 10 − 5 x 60)

T(x,t) – T0
From chart, --------------------- = 0.35
Ti – T0

(ii)

## k(T0 – Ti) 61 x (20 - 150

qs(t) = --------------------- = ------------------------------ = − 435.5 W / m2
√ (παt) √ (π x 1.6 x 10 − 5 x 60)

163
Example 4.10:- A semi-infinite slab of copper (α = 1.1 x 10 ─ 4 m2/s and k = 380 W/(m-K) is
initially at a uniform temperature of 10 0 C. Suddenly the surface at x = 0 is raised to 100 0C.
Calculate the heat flux at the surface 5 minutes after rising of the surface temperature . How
long will it take for the temperature at a depth of 5 cm from the surface to reach 90 0 C?

## Sketch for example 4.10:

For t > 0, the surface at T0

0
x

## Find: Time t required for T/x = 5 cm = 90 0C

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is
constant.

Solution:

## k(T0 – Ti) 380 x (100 – 10)

qs(t) = ------------------- = -------------------------------- = 11012 W / m2 = 11.012 kW/m2
√ (παt) √ (π x 1.1 x 10 − 4 x 300)

T(x,t) – T0 90 – 100
θ(x,t) = ------------------ = --------------------- = 0.11 . From chart ξ = 0.1
Ti – T0 10 – 100

x x2 0.05 2
ξ = -------------- or t = ------------------- = --------------------------------- = 586 s = 9.46 min
2√ (αt) 4 α ξ2 4 x 1.1 x 10 − 4 x (0.1) 2

164
Example 4.11:-A thick bronze [α = 0.86* 10 ─ 5 m2/s and k = 26 W/m-K] is initially at 2500C
Suddenly the surface is exposed to a coolant at 25 0 C. If the surface heat transfer coefficient
is 150 W/(m2-K), determine the temperature 5 cm from the surface 10 minutes after the
exposure.

0
x

## Find: T/x = 5 cm when t = 10 min

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is
constant.

Solution:
x 0.05
ξ = ---------------- = ------------------------------------ = 0.35
2 √(α t) 2 x √ ( 0.86 x 10 − 5 x 600)
____ __________________
h √(α t) 150 x √ [ 0.86 x 10 − 5 x 600]
-------------- = -------------------------------------- = 0.414
K 26

[T(x,t) – T∞]

165
Therefore from chart 1 − ------------------------ = 0.15
(Ti – T∞)

## = 25 + 0.85 x (250 – 25 ) = 216.25 0 C.

Example 4.12:- A thick wood [α = 0.82 x 10 ─ 7 m2/s and k = 0.15 W/(m-K)] is initially at 20
0
C. The wood may ignite at 400 0 C. Suddenly the surface of the wood is exposed to gases at
500 0 C. If the surface heat transfer coefficient is 45 W/(m2-K), how long will it take for the
surface of the wood to reach 400 0 C ?

0
x

## Known: Ti = 20 0 C ;T∞ = 500 0C ;h = 45 W /(m 2 – K) ;k = 0.15 W /(m – K) ;

α = 0.82 x 10 − 7 m2 / s.
Find: Time t for T/x = 400 C
Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is
constant.

Solution:
____ _______________
h √ (α t) 45 x √ (0.82 x 10 − 7 x t)
---------- = ------------------------------- = 0.086 √t
k 0.15
____ T(x,t) – T∞ (400 – 500)
x / 2√( α t) = 0. Also 1 − -------------------- = 1 − ------------------- = 0.9799
Ti – T∞ (20 – 5000)
___
Hence from chart h √(α t) / k = 2.75.

166
_
Therefore 0.086 √ t = 2.75 or t = 1023 s = 17 min.

## 4.3.6. Use of Heissler’s charts for Solving Multi-dimensional Transient Conduction

Problems (Product Solution):
The solution to the problem of multi-dimensional transient conduction in solids without heat
generation subjected to convective boundary conditions can be obtained using the Heissler’s
charts developed for one dimensional transient conduction. The approach adopted is called
the “Product Solution”.

## Product Solution for Transient Conduction in a Rectangular Bar:

Consider a rectangular bar of sides 2L1 and 2L2 confined to the region – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and – L2
≤ y ≤ L2 as shown in Fig.4.13.Initaially the bar is at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly at

y
h1, T∞
L2

h2, T∞
−L1 o L1
x

h2,T∞
−L2

−L2

h1,T∞

## t = 0 all boundary surfaces are subjected to convection to an ambient at a constant

temperature T∞.The mathematical formulation of this conduction problem is given by
2 2
∂T ∂T 1 ∂T
2 + 2 = α ∂t in – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2
∂x ∂y
……………4.29a
∂T
The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry)
∂x
…………….4.29b
∂T
at x= L1, − k = h1 [T −T∞]
∂x
……………..4.29c

167
∂T
at y = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry)
∂y
…………….4.29d
∂T
at y= L2, − k = h2 [T −T∞]
∂y
………………..4.29e
The initial condition is : at t = 0, T = Ti …………………4.29f

## In terms of the dimensionless temperature

T ( x , y ,t )−T ∞
θ(x,y,t) = ……………
T i−T ∞
4.30

## Eq.4.29a to 4.29f can be written as follows:

∂2 θ ∂2 θ 1 ∂θ
+ = α ∂t in – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2
∂ x2 ∂ y2
……………4.31a
∂θ
The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry) ...
∂x
………….4.31b
∂θ
at x= L1, − k = h1 θ
∂x
……………..4.31c
∂θ
at y = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry)
∂y
………….4.31d
∂θ
at y= L2, − k = h2 θ
∂y
…………..4.31e
The initial condition is : at t = 0, θ = 1 ……………4.31f

It can be shown that the solution for the problem given by Eq. 4.31a to 4.31f can be
expressed as a product of solutions of two one − dimensional problems θ 1(x,t) and θ2(y,t) as
illustrated below.

## Let θ(x,y,t) = θ1 (x,t) * θ2(y,t) ……………….4.32

Substituting this in Eq. 4.31a to 4.31f and rearranging we have θ 1 (x,t) to be the solution of
the following one-dimensional problem:

∂2 θ 1 1 ∂ θ1
= in – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1
∂ x2 α ∂t
…………4.33a

168
∂θ 1
The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry) ...
∂x
………….4.33b
∂θ 1
at x= L 1, − k = h1 θ1
∂x
…………..4.33c
The initial condition is : at t = 0, θ1 = 1 …………4.33d

## and θ2 (y,t) to be the solution of the following one-dimensional problem:

∂2 θ 2 1 ∂ θ2
= in – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2
∂ y2 α ∂t
…………4.34a
∂θ 2
The boundary conditions are: at y = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry) ...
∂x
………….4.34b
∂θ 2
at x= L 2, − k = h1 θ1
∂x
…………..4.34c
The initial condition is : at t = 0, θ2 = 1 …………4.34d

The above one − dimensional problems for θ1(x,t) and θ2(y,t) are exactly the same as that
whose solution is given by the transient temperature chart for infinite slabs. Thus the solution
for two− dimensional transient conduction problem for a rectangular region – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1
and – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2 can be constructed as the product of two one-dimensional transient
conduction problems for infinite slabs.This concept of product solution is also illustrated in
Fig.4.14(a)

2L2 x

2L1

## Fig.4.14(a): Product Solution for Transient conduction in a Rectangular Bar

169
The basic idea developed here can be extended to other configurations. For example the
product solution ,θ(r,x,t)for two dimensional transient conduction in a finite cylinder of
radius R and height 2L will be the product of one dimensional conduction solution for an
infinite slab, θ1 (x,t) and one dimensional solution for an infinite cylinder, θ2(r,t).This is
illustrated in Fig.4.14(b).
x

r
2L

## Example 4.13: A rectangular iron bar (α = 1.6 * 10 −5 m2/s, k= 60 W/(m-K)), 5 cm X 4 cm is

initially at a uniform temperature of 225 0C. Suddenly the bar is immersed in a fluid which is
maintained at a uniform temperature of 250C. The surface heat transfer coefficient for all the
outside surfaces of the bar is 500 W/(m2-K). Determine (i) the temperature at the centre of
the bar 2 minutes after the immersion of the bar into the fluid, (ii) the temperature at any one
corner of the bar 2 minutes after immersion

h2,T∞
h1,T∞

170
2L2 x

2L1

## Fig. Product Solution for Transient conduction in a Rectangular Bar

Known: 2L1 = 5 cm; 2L2 = 4 cm; α = 1.6 * 10−5m2/s; h1= h2= 500 W/(m2-K); T∞ =250C;
Ti = 2250C; t=2 min; k = 60 W/(m-K)

## Find: (i)T(0,0,2min);(ii) T(L1,L2,2 min)

Assumptions:(i) Surface heat transfer coefficient is constant and is same for all surfaces,i.e.
h1= h2; (ii)Thermal properties of the solid are constant

Solution:
(i) θ(0,0,t) = θ1 (0,t) * θ2(0,t)

T ( x , y ,t )−T ∞ T 1 ( x , t ) −T ∞ T 2 ( y , t )−T ∞
i.e. = *
T i−T ∞ T i−T ∞ T i −T ∞

h1 L1 500∗0.025 αt 1.6∗10−5∗(2∗60)
To find θ1 (0,t): Bi = = = 0.21 ; Fo = =
k 60 L21 0.0252
= 3.072

## From Heisller chart we have θ1 (0,t) = 0.58

h2 L2 500∗0.02 αt 1.6∗10−5∗(2∗60)
To find θ2 (0,t): Bi = = = 0.167 ; Fo = =
k 60 L22 0.022
= 4.8

## T ( 0,0,2 min )−T ∞

Hence θ(0,0,2 min) = = 0.58 * 0.50 = 0.29
T i −T ∞

## Therefore T(0,0,2min) = 25 + 0.29* (225 – 25) = 83 0 C

T ( L1 , L2 ,2 min ) −T ∞
(ii) = θ1 (L1,t) * θ2(L2,t)
T i−T ∞

θ1 (L1,t)
θ1 (L1,t) = ------------ * θ1 (0,t)

171
θ1 (0,t)

x
For the corner
L1
= 1 and Bi = 0,21 as calculated before.
Hence from Heisller’s chart

θ1 (L1,t)
--------------- = 0.9 . Hence θ1 (L1,t) = 0.9 * 0.58 = 0.522
θ1 (0,t)

## Similarly θ2 (L1,t) = 0.92 * 0.5 = 0.46

T ( L1 , L2 ,2 min ) −T ∞
Therefore = 0.522 * 0.46 = 0.24
T i−T ∞

## Example 4.14: A short cylinder made of Iron (k = 60 W/m-K; α = 1.6 * 10−5m2/s) is 5 cm in

diameterand 4 cm in height. It is initially at a uniform temperature of 2250C and is suddenly
exposed to an environment at 250C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 300 W/(m2-K).
Determine (i) the centre temperature and (ii)the temperature at a location 1 cm from the
outer surface of the cylinder and at a height of 2 cm from one of its ends 2 minutes after
exposure to the environment.

## Infinite slab of thickness 2L

r
2L

172
R

Known: Short cylinder with R = 2.5 cm and 2L = 4 cm; α = 1.6 * 10−5m2/s; k = 60 W/m-K;

## Find: (i) T(0,0,2 min) ; (ii) T(1.5cm,2cm,2min)

Assumption: (i) Two-demensional conduction; (ii) Thermal properties of the cylinder are
constant; (iii) the surface heat transfer coefficient is constant and is same for all boundary
surfaces; (iv) The solid is not generating any heat

## θ(0,0,2 min) = θ1 (0,2 min) * θ2(0,2 min)

hR 500∗0.025
To find θ1 (0,2 min) : Bi = = = 0.208 or 1/Bi = 4.8
k 60

αt −5
1.6∗10 ∗2∗60
Fo = 2 = 2 = 3.1
R 0.025

From Heisller’s chart for infinite cylinder we have θ1 (0,2 min) = 0.31.

hL 500∗0.02
Similarly for infinite slab, Bi = = = 0.167 or 1 / Bi = 6.0
k 60

αt −5
1.6∗10 ∗2∗60
Fo = 2 = 2 = 4.8
L 0.02

## T ( 0,0,2 min )−T ∞

and θ(0,0,2 min) = = 0.31 * 0.45 = 0.14
T i −T ∞

## Therefore T(0,0,2 min) = 0.14 * (225 – 25) + 25 = 53 0C

(ii) θ(1.5 cm,2 cm,2 min) = θ1 (1.5 cm,2 min) * θ2(2 cm,2 min)

173
1.5
To find θ1 (1.5 cm,2 min): for r = 1.5 cm, r/R = = 0.6 and 1/Bi = 4.8.
2.5

θ 1 ( 1.5 cm ,2 min )
Hence from chart = 0.95 .
θ 1 ( 0,2 min )

## Or θ1(1.5 cm, 2 min) = 0.95 * 0.31 = 0.2945.

2
To find θ2 (2 cm,2 min): For infinite slab we have x/ L = = 0.5 and 1 / Bi = 6.0
4

θ 2 ( 2 cm ,2 min )
Therefore from chart we have = 0.94
θ 2 ( 0,2 min )

## Or θ2(2 cm, 2 min) = 0.94 * 0.45 = 0.423

Therefore . θ(1.5 cm,2 cm,2 min) = θ1 (1.5 cm,2 min) * θ2(2 cm,2 min)

## 1.5 cm, 2 cm ,2 min−T ∞

Therefore ¿ = 0.1246
T¿
¿

## Or T(1.5cm,2cm,2min) = 0.124 * (225 – 25) + 25 = 48.8 0C

Example 4.15:An aluminium ingot (k = 200 W/m-K;ρ= 2700 kg/m 3; Cp = 890 J/kg-K) of
dimensions 6 cm X 5 cm X 3 cm is initially at a uniform temperature of 175 0C. Suddenly the
ingot is immersed in a fluid which is maintained at a uniform temperature of 25 0C with the
surface heat transfer coefficient of 250 W/(m 2-K). Determine (i) The temperature at the
centre of the ingot 2 minutes after immersion and (ii)temperature at one of the corners after
the same time interval.

z

174
2L2
2L3

2L1

## Find: (i) T(0,0,0,2 min) ; (ii) T (L1,L2,L3,2 min)

Assumptions: (i)Properties of the ingot are constant; (ii) the surface heat transfer
coefficient is constant and is same for all boundary surfaces; (iii) The solid is not generating
any heat

Solution:

## T ( 0,0,0,2 min )−T ∞

(i) θ(0,0,0,2 min) = = θ1 (0,2 min) * θ2(0,2 min) * θ2(0,2
T i −T ∞
min)

k 200
To find θ1 (0,2 min): α =
ρC p
= = 8.323 * 10 −5 m2/s
2700∗890

h L1 250∗0.03 αt −5
8.323∗10 ∗2∗60
Bi = = = 0.0375 ; Fo = = = 11.1
k 200 L21 0.03
2

## and θ3 (0,2 min) = 0.35

T ( 0,0,0,2 min )−T ∞
Therefore = 0.6 * 0.4 * 0.35 = 0.084
T i −T ∞

## T ( L1, L2, L3,2 min ) −T ∞

= θ1 (L1,2 min) * θ2(L2,2 min) * θ2(L3,2 min)
T i−T ∞

175
To find θ1 (L1,2 min): x/L1 = 1and 1/Bi = 1/0.0375 = 27

## From chart θ1 (L1,2 min)

---------------- = 0.975
θ1 (0,2 min)

## T ( L1, L2, L3,2 min ) −T ∞

Therefore = .585 * 0.39 * .34475 = 0.07865
T i−T ∞

## Or T ( L 1, L 2, L 3,2 min ) = 0.07865 * (175 – 25) + 25 = 36.8 0C

CHAPTER 5
NUMERICAL METHODS IN CONDUCTION

176
5.1. Introduction: Analytical solutions that allow for the determination of the exact
temperature distribution in a solid are only available for limited ideal cases.Graphical
solutions have been used to gain an insight into complex conduction heat transfer problems,
where analytical solutions are not available, but they have limited accuracy and are primarily
used for two-dimensional problems. For solids having complicated geometries, boundary
conditions, and temperature − dependent thermal properties, numerical method of solution
has to be used.Advances in numerical computing now allow for complex heat transfer
problems to be solved rapidly on computers using numerical techniques..The current
numerical techniques include: finite-difference analysis; finite element analysis (FEA); and
finite-volume analysis. In general, these techniques are routinely used to solve problems in
heat transfer, fluid dynamics, stress analysis, electrostatics and magnetics, etc.In this chapter
the use of finite-difference analysis to solve conduction heat transfer problems is illustrated.
In the finite difference method the governing partial differential equation of heat conduction
is approximated by a set of algebraic equations for temperature at a number of nodal points
over the region. Hence the first step in the analysis is the finite difference representation of
the governing partial differential equation into a set of algebraic equations, either by using
Taylor’s series expansion and neglecting higher order terms or by writing the energy balance
equation for each node in the region. Then the set of algebraic equations thus obtained are
solved for unknown temperatures.

## 5.2. Finite Difference Formulation for One-dimensional Steady state Conduction in a

Plane wall:

5.2.1. Finite difference formulation from differential equation using Taylor’s Series
Expansion:

The governing differential equation for one dimensional steady-state conduction in a plane
wall of thickness L with heat generation is given by

## d2T q'i ''

+ =0 in 0 < x ≤ L 5.1
d x2 k

L
Δx =
M
5.2

## There are M + 1 nodes for i = 0 to i = m as illustrated in Fig.5.1. Node i corresponds to a

location whose coordinate is iΔx. Let Ti be the temperature at node i;Then the region contains
M + 1 nodal temperatures for i = 0, 1,2,3,………………..,M nodes.

Δx Δx
L

177
0 1 2 i−1 i i+1 M−1 M

x
iΔx

i−½ i+½

## Fig. 5.1 Nomenclature for finite difference representation of derivatives

d 2 T (x)
The second derivative of temperature at a node i can be represented in
d x2
dT ( x )
finite differences as shown below.The first derivative of temperature at locations i
dx
+ ½ and
i − ½ can be approximated using Taylor’s series expansion as

dT ( x ) T i+1 −T i
│ i + ½) ≈
dx Δx
5.3(a)

dT ( x ) T i−T i−1
│ (i − ½) ≈
dx Δx
5.3(b)

d 2 T ( x)
Now the second derivative of temperature at node i can be approximated as
d x2

dT ( x) dT ( x )
d 2 T (x) │ ( i+½ )− │(i−½)
│i ≈ dx dx
d x2 Δx

T i−1−2 T i +T i+1
= 2 5.4
Δx

## When Eq. 5.4 is introduced into Eq. 5.1 we get

178
T i−1−2 T i +T i+1 ( q'g' ' ) i
+ =0
Δx 2 k

Δx 2
Or Ti-1 − 2Ti + Ti+1 = −( q'g' ' ) i 5.5
k

Where ( q 'g' ' )i represents the heat generation per unit volume at node i.Eq. 5.5 is known as
the finite difference form of the heat conduction equation 5.1 and is valid for all interior
nodes, i.e. i= 1, 2, 3,…………………….M – 1, of the region.In this equation the heat
generation q'i ' ' , thermal conductivity k and mesh size Δx are known quantities. Then Eq.
5.5 gives
M – 1 algebraic equations for the M + 1 unknown node temperatures Ti, i= 0,1,2,3……M+1.
Two additional relations are needed to make the number of equations equal to the number of
unknown node temperatures Ti. These two relations are obtained from the finite difference
representation of the two boundary conditions at nodes i=0 and i=M.

## 5.2.2. Finite difference formulation using Energy Balance Approach:

Eq. 5.5 can also be obtained by writing the energy balance equation for the control volume
surrounding the node i (shown by hatched portion in Fig.5.1) as follows. For steady state
conduction the energy balance equation can be written as

Rate of conduction into the control volume from the left + Rate of heat generation within the
control volume – Rate of heat conduction out of the control volume to the right = 0.

## i.e. Q(i – 1), i + Qg – Qi,(i + 1) = 0 5.6

Assuming linear variation of temperature between the adjacent nodes and using Fourier’s of
conduction, Eq.5.6 can be written as

## T i+1 −T i T i−T i+1

(kA)│(i-1),i + Ai Δx ( q 'g'' )i − (kA)│i,(i + 1) =0
Δx Δx
5.7

## T i+1 −T i T i−T i+1

Or + + ΔV ( q 'g'' )i = 0
R(i−1 ), i R (i+1 ) ,i
5.8

## Where R(i−1 ), i = ( kAΔx )

( i−1 ) ,i
= Thermal Resistance between nodes i-1 and i
5.9a

179
R(i +1) ,i = ( kAΔx )( i+1) , i
= Thermal Resistance between nodes i+1 and i
5.9b

## ΔV = AiΔx = Volume of the element surrounding the node i 5.9c

Eq.5.8 is the finite difference formulation of the one-dimensional steady state conduction
problem with heat generation. This equation is more general than Eq.5.5, as it allows for the
variation of thermal conductivity and cross sectional area with position along the x-axis.If k
and A are constants, Eq. 5.7 reduces to Eq.5.5

## (i)Boundaries with prescribed temperatures: Let the temperatures at the boundaries be

specified as
(i) at x = 0, T(x) = T0 5.10a

## and (ii) at x = L, T(x) = TM. 5.10b

where T0 and TM are known temperatures. Then the temperatures at the nodes i = 0 and
i = M in Fig.5.1 are taken as
T│i=0 = T0 5.11a

## And T│i = M = TM 5.11b

Eq.5.11a and 5.11b provide the two additional relations needed to make the number of
equations equal the number of unknown node temperatures.

(ii)Boundaries with prescribed heat flux: Let the boundary surface at x = 0 is subjected to
a prescribed heat flux of q0 and the boundary surface at x = L is subjected to a prescribed
heat flux of qM as shown in Fig. 5.2.

q0
0 1 2 M–2 M−1 M
qM

Δx
Δx Δx
2
Δx
2

180
Fig. 5.2 Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for prescribed surface heat flux
boundary conditions

The energy balance equation for a differential volume element surrounding the grid point ‘o’
can be written as follows:
q0 A0 + Qg – Q 0,1 = 0 5.12

( T 0 −T 1 )
q0 A0 + A0(Δx/2)q0’’’ – kA0 =0
( Δx )

## Or 2T1 – 2T0 + (q0’’’ Δx2/k) + ( 2q0Δx / k) = 0 for i = 0 5.13

Similarly for the volume element surrounding the grid point M, the energy balance equation
after simplification reduces to

## 2TM – 1 – 2TM + (qM’’’ Δx2/k) + ( 2qMΔx / k) = 0 for i = M 5.14

For the insulated boundary at x = 0 we have q0 = 0 and for the insulated boundary at x = L we
have qM = 0.Substituting these conditions in Eq. 5.13 and 5.14 we get the finite difference
equations for the boundary nodes as

## (iii)Boundary surfaces subjects to convection:

Let the two boundary surfaces are exposed to ambient at a uniform temperature T∞ with
surface heat transfer coefficient h as shown in Fig.5.3.

T∞,h
0 1 2 M–2 M−1 M
T∞, h

Δx Δx
Δx Δx
2 2

Fig. 5.3 Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for convection boundary
conditions

The energy balance equation for the element surrounding node 0 can be written as

181
( T 0 −T 1 )
hA0[T∞ − T0] + A0(Δx/2)q0’’’ – kA0 =0
( Δx )
2 ' ''
2 Δx h Δx q0 2 Δx h
Or 2T1 – ( 2+
k )
T0 +
k
+
k
T∞ = 0 for i = 0
5.17

2 Δx h Δx 2 q'M''
and 2TM −1 – ( 2+
k
TM +) k

2 Δx h
+ k
T∞ = 0 for i = M
5.18

## Example 5.1: A slab of thickness 1 cm is generating heat at a uniform rate of 7.2 * 10

7
W/m3.The boundary surface at x = 0 is maintained at a uniform temperature of 500C and the
boundary surface at x = L is in contact with a fluid at a temperature of 100 0C with a surface
heat transfer coefficient of 200 W/(m2- K). The thermal conductivity of the slab is 18 W/(m –
K).Dividing the region into five equal sub regions write the finite difference formulation of
this heat conduction problem and express the equations fro determination of unknown
temperatures in matrix form.

L
0 1 2 3 4 5
T∞, h

Δx
Δx Δx
Δx
2 2

## Known: L = 0.01m; k = 18 W/(m-K);T0=500C; T∞ = 1000C; h = 200 W/(m2-K);Δx = 0.01/5

= 2* 10−3m; q'i ' ' = 7.2*107 W/m3

Find: Finite difference equations to determine the unknown temperatures; (ii) Express these
equations in matrix form.

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction: (ii) Thermal conductivity of the
slab is constant

182
Solution: For intermediate nodes 1 to 5 the finite difference equations are given by Eq.5.5:

−q 'i' ' Δx 2
Ti-1 − 2Ti + Ti+1 = i = 1,2,…….,5
k

## For 1 = 1 we therefore have

−q '1' ' Δx 2
T0 – 2T1 + T2 =
k

−7.2∗10 7∗0.0022
Or 50 – 2T1 + T2 =
18

## For i = 2 Eq.5.5 gives

−7.2∗10 7∗0.0022
T1 – 2T2 + T3 =
18

Or T1 – 2T2 + T3 = − 16 (2)

## Similarly for i = 3 and I = 4 we have

T2 – 2T3 + T4 = − 16 (3)

## and T3 – 2T4 + T5 = − 16 (4)

For the boundary nod 5 the finite difference equation is given by Eq.5.18:
2 ' ''
2 Δx h Δx q5 2 Δx h
2T4 – ( 2+
k )T5 +
k
+
k
T∞ = 0

2 7
2∗0.002∗200 2∗0.002∗200
2T4 − ( 2+
18 )
T5 + 0.002 ∗7.2∗10
18
+
18
* 100 = 0

## Eqs.(1) to (5) can be written in matrix form as:

183
[ ] {} { }
−2 1 0 0 0 T1 −66
1 −2 1 0 0 T2 −16
0 1 −2 1 0 T3 = −16 (6)
0 0 1 −2 1 T4 −16
0 0 0 −2 −2.044 T5 −20.44
The above system of equations are solved using ONLINE solutions using MATLAB and the
unknown temperatures are found to be as shown in the Table 5.1 below. In the same table the
exact solution is also given for comparison. The exact solution for this example is given by

x
T(x) = 50 + 5*
L
+ 200 * (19− Lx ) * ( xL )
(7)

Table 5.1: Comparison betweenfinite difference solution and exact solution for one
dimensional steady state conduction in a slab
x/L 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
Temperature in C T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Finite Difference Solution 119.05 172.09 209.13 230.18 235.22
Exact Solution 119.00 172.00 209.00 230.00 235.00

## 5.3. Finite Difference Formulation for One-dimensional Steady state Conduction in a

Fin of Uniform Cross Section:
Consider a fin of uniform cross section whose base is maintained at a uniform temperature T0
and is exposed to an ambient at a uniform temperature T∞..Let L be the length of the fin and A
be the area of cross section of the fin.Let h be the surface heat transfer coefficient for the
lateral surface of the fin and he be the surface heat transfer coefficient for the fin tip. The fin
is subdivided into M sub regions as shown in Fig.5.4(a).

T∞, h

L he

## 0 1 2 i-1 i i+1 M-1 M

Δx
Δx Δx
Δx
2 2

184
Fig. 5.4(a) Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for a fin of uniform cross
section

Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes 1 to M -1: For the sub region surrounding
an intermediate node i the difference equation is obtained by writing the energy balance
equation for the sub region shown in Fig.5.4(b)

Qconvection

## Node i-1 Node i+1

iii

Node i

Q i-1,i Qi,i+1
Fig5.4(b) Thermal Energy crossing the boundaries of the volume element surrounding
the node i
Rate of conduction into the sub region from the node i-1 to node i

– Rate of conduction out of the region from node i to node i+1 – Rate of convective heat

transfer from the boundary surface of the region into the ambient = 0

## i.e. Q i-1,i − Qi,i+1 − Qconvection = 0

or kA [ T i−1−T i
Δx ] – kA [ T i−T i+1
Δx ] – hPΔx [Ti − T∞] = 0

## Where N2 = hP/(kA) (5.19a)

Finite difference equations for the outer boundary node M: The sub region surrounding the
outer boundary node M is shown Fig.5.4(c).

Qc1

Node M - 1 Node M
Qc2

h e, T ∞

185
QM-1,M

Fig5.4(c) Thermal Energy crossing the boundaries of the volume element surrounding
the boundary node M

Energy balance equation for the sub region surrounding the node 5 can be written as

Q4-5 – Qconvection = 0

i.e.
kA [ T M −1−T M
Δx ] − hP 2
Δx
[TM − T∞] − heA [ T M −T ∞ ] =0

## 2 θM-1 – [2 + (NΔx)2 + 2 ( h kΔx ) ] θ

e
M =0
(5.20)

If the heat loss from the tip is negligible or if the tip is insulated then he = 0. In that case Eq.
(5.20) reduces to

## 2 θM-1 – [2 + (NΔx)2 ] θM = 0 (5.21)

Example 5.2:An iron rod (k = 50 W/m-K) of length 5 cm and diameter 2 cm protrudes from a
wall and is exposed to an ambient at 200C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 100 W/
(m2-K).The base of the rod is at 320 0C and the heat transfer from the tip of the rod is
negligible. Determine the temperature distribution along the length of the rod using finite
difference method and compare the solution with the exact solution.

k h,T∞
x Insulated

## Known: D = 2 cm.; k = 50 W/(m-K);T∞ = 200C; h = 100 W/(m2-K);T0 = 3200C

Find: Temperature distribution along the length using finite difference method and compare
this with the exact solution

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the rod

186
(ii)Thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

Solution: The rod is divided into 5 equal subdivisions as shown below. Then Δx = L/5 = 5/5
= 1 cm = 0.01 m

T∞, h

L
Insulated
0 1 2 3 4 5

Δx
Δx Δx
Δx
2 2

For 5 sub regions, the difference equation for intermediate nodes are given by Eq.5.20

## θi-1 – [2 + (NΔx)2] θi + θi+1 = 0 i = 1 ,2,…4 (1)

Finite difference equations for the boundary node 5: Since the heat loss from the tip is
negligible the difference equation for node 5 is giv en by Eq.(5.21). i.e.

2 θ4 – [2 + (NΔx)2] θ5 = 0 (2)
2
4∗100∗0.01
Now (NΔx) = 2
( 50∗0.02 ) = 0.04

Substituting this numerical value in Eq. (1) and (2) we get the finite difference equations for
temperatures of the nodes as

## and 2 θ4 – 2.04 θ5 = 0 (4)

Therefore we have

## for i = 3, θ2 – 2.04 θ3 + θ4 = 0 (5c)

187
for i = 4, θ3 – 2.04 θ4 + θ5 = 0 (5d)

## Eqs. (5a) to (5e) can be arranged in matrix form as

The above system of equations is solved using ONLINE Linear Algebra Tool Kit and the
results are compared with exact solution in the table 5.2 given below

Table 5.2: Comparison between finite difference solution and exact solution for one
dimensional steady state conduction in a fin of uniform cross section

## x/L 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0
Temperature in C θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 θ5
Finite Difference Solution 260.10 230.6 210.4 198.6 194.7
Exact Solution 260.00 230.5 210.2 198.3 194.4

5.4. Finite Difference Formulation for One-dimensional Steady state Radial Conduction
in cylinders and spheres:

5.4.1. Cylindrical Geometry: The finite difference formulation for the problem of one
dimensional radial steady state conduction in a solid cylinder is illustrated in this section.Let
the solid cylinder is of radius R and is generating thermal energy at rate of q’’’(r) W/m3.The
R
region 0 ≤ r ≤ R is divided into M cylindrical subregions, each of thickness Δr = as
M
shown in Fig.5.5.

TM
TM-1

Ti+1
Ti
Ti-1

T1

T0
0 1 i−1 i i+1 M-1 M
Δr
2

188
Δr
iᴧr

Fig.5.5 Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for one dimensional radial
conduction in a solid cylinder

5.4.1.1Finite difference equation for an intermediate node i: Energy balance equation for
the sub region surrounding the grid point i can be written per unit length of the cylinder as

k [ (
2 π iΔr−
Δr
2 )
∗1
] [ ] T i−1−T i
Δr
+ ( 2 πiΔr∗Δr∗1 ) q'i ' '

− k[ ( ) ] [2 π iΔr +
Δr
2
∗1
T i−T i+1
Δr ] =0 i = 1,2,3……

M-1

## Δr 2 q'i ' '

[ 1−
1
2i ] Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]
1+
1
2i
Ti+1 = −
k
i= 1, 2,3,…. M – 1
(5.22a)

5.4.1.2.Finite difference equation for the innermost node 0: The energy balance equation
for the sub region surrounding the node 0 can be written as

)[ ]
2
Δr Δr T 0 −T 1
q'0' ' π ( )
2
*1 – k ( 2π
2
∗1
Δr
=0

q'0' ' Δr 2
Or − T0 + T1 = −
4k
(5.22b)

## (i)Boundary surface is subjected to convection boundary condition: Let the boundary

surface is exposed to an environment at a uniform temperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer
coefficient h.The various energies crossing the boundary surface of the volume element
surrounding node M is shown in Fig.5.6

189
Qconv

QM-1.M

o M–1 M
Δr
2

## Fig. 5.6 Energy balance for outer most node M

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node M can be written as

## QM-1, M + Qgen − Qconv = 0

T M−1 – T m
Or k * 2π [ ( M −1 ) Δr+
Δr
2
∗1] ¿
Δr
'''
+ q M ∗2
πMΔr∗Δr
2
∗1

## After simplifying we get

[ 1−
1
2M ] TM-1 – [( 1−
1
2M
+
hΔr
)k ] TM = −
q'M'' Δr 2
2k

hΔr
K
T∞

(5.22c)

Eqs.(5.22a) to (5.22c) form a set of M+1 simultaneous equations which can be solved for
unknown temperatures T0 to TM+1.

(ii)Boundary surface is maintained at a specified temperature,TM: For this case , since the
temperature at node M is specified, the number of unknown temperatures will be M and Eqs.
(5.22a) and (5.22b) will form a set of M equations which can be solved for unknown
temperatures T0,T1, …………………,TM-1.

5.4.2. Spherical Geometry: Following the procedure illustrated in section 5.4.1for radial
steady state conduction in a solid cylinder, the finite difference formulation for radial
conduction in a solid sphere can be written as follows:

## 1 2 1 2 Δr 2 q'i ' '

( 1−
2i )
( T i−1−T i) + ( 1+
2i )( T i +1−T i ) +
k
=0 i= 1,2,………M-1

(5.23)

190
2 2
Making the approximation that ( 1−
1
2i ) ≈ [ 1−
1
2i ] and ( 1+
1
2i ) ≈ [ ]
1+
1
2i

## Δr 2 q'i ' '

[ ]
1−
1
i
Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]
1+
1
i
Ti+1 = −
k
i= 1, 2,3,…. M – 1
(5.24a)

Eq. (5.24a) is similar to Eq.(5.23a) for a solid cylinder except that 1/2i is replaced by 1/i.

Δr 2 q'0' '
6T1 – 6T0 = −
k
(5.24b)

## The difference equation for the outermost node M is given by

[( ) ]
' '' 2
1 2 hΔr
2
1 hΔr q M Δr
( 1−
2M ) TM-1 − 1−
2i
+
K
TM = −
K ∞
T −
2k

2 2
Making the approximation that ( 1−
1
2i ) ≈ [ 1−
1
2i ] and ( 1+
1
2i ) ≈ [ ]
1+
1
2i

We get

[1−
M
1
] TM-1 − [( ) ] T
1−
1
M
+
hΔr
k M =−
hΔr
K ∞
T −
q'M'' Δr 2
2k
(5.24c)

Eqs. (5.24a) to (5.24c) form a set of M+1 simultaneous equations which can be solved for
unknown temperaturatures T0 to TM.

Example 5.3: A long cylindrical fuel element of radius 1 cm and thermal conductivity of 25
W/(m-K) generates energy at a constant rate of 5* 10 8 W/m3. The boundary surface is
maintained at a uniform temperature of 1000C.Assuming one-dimensional radial conduction,
determine the radial temperature distribution in the fuel element using finite difference
method and compare the values with exact solution for the problem.

## Sketch for Example 5.3:Refer Fig.5.5 and Fig. 5.6

Known: R = 0.01m; k = 25 W/(m-K); q'i ' ' = 5* 10 8 W/m3 for all the nodes;TM = 1000C

191
Find: Radial steady state temperature distribution in the cylinder by finite difference method
and compare with exact solution

constant

## Solution: Divide the region 0 ≤ r ≤ R into 5 cylindrical sub regions so that

0.01
Δr = = 0.002 m
5

The finite difference equation for the innermost node ‘0’ is obtained from Eq.(5.22b) as

q'0'' Δr 2 8 2
T0 – T1 = − = − 5∗10 ∗0.002
4k 4∗25

## Δr 2 q'i ' '

[ 1−
1
2i ] Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]
1+
1
2i
Ti+1 = −
k
i= 1, 2,3,…. M – 1

2 '''
Hence for i = 1 we have [ 1−
1
2i ] Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ] 1+
1
2i
Ti+1 = −
Δr qi
k
=−¿ 80

(2)

## Or 0.88T3 – 2T4 = − 193 (5)

Eqs. (1) to (5) are solved using Online Linear Algebra Tool Kit and tabulated as shown in the
Table below. This table also gives the exact solution at the 5 nodes for comparison. The exact
solution is given by

## T(r) = 100 + 500* 1−

r 2
R [ ( )] (6)

192
Table 5.3:: Comparison between finite difference solution and exact solution for one
dimensional steady state radial conduction in a cylinder

## r/R 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0
Temperature in C T0 T1 T2 T3 T4
Finite Difference Solution 600.3 580.3 520.3 420.3 280.4
with 5 sub regions
Finite Difference Solution 600.27 580.0 520.0 420.0 280.0
with 10 sub regions
Exact Solution 600.0 580.0 520.0 420.0 280.0

The numerical solution agrees very well with the exact solution (the maximum deviation
being 0.143 %) and hence there is no need to divide the region 0 ≤ r ≤ R into more number of
sub regions to improve the accuracy. It can also be seen from the above table that by dividing
the given region into 10 sub regions the numerical predictions exactly matches with the exact
solution

Example 5.4. A spherical fuel element of radius 1 cm and thermal conductivity of 25 W/(m-
K) generates energy at a constant rate of 7.5* 10 8 W/m3. The boundary surface is
maintained at a uniform temperature of 1000C.Assuming one-dimensional radial conduction,
determine the radial temperature distribution in the fuel element using finite difference
method and compare the values with exact solution for the problem.

## Sketch for example 5.4: Refer Fig.5.5 and 5.6

Known: R = 0.01m; k = 25 W/(m-K); q'i ' ' = 7.5* 10 8 W/m3 for all the nodes; TM = 1000C

Find: Radial steady state temperature distribution in the sphere by finite difference method
and compare with exact solution

constant

## Solution: Divide the region 0 ≤ r ≤ R into 5 cylindrical sub regions so that

0.01
Δr = = 0.002 m
5
Finite difference equation for the inner most node ‘0’ is obtained from Eq.(24b) as

6T1 – 6T0 = − =−
k 25

## Or − 6T0 + 6T1 = −120 (1)

193
For intermediate nodes form i = 1 to 4 Eq.(5.24a) is applicable:

[ ]
1−
1
i
Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]
1+
1
i
Ti+1 = −
k
i= 1, 2,3,4

(2)

## Or 0.75T3 – 2T4 = − 245 (5)

Eqs. (1) to (5) are solved using online Linear Algebra Tool Kit and the solution is shown in
Table below.The table also gives the exact solution for comparison. The exact solution is
given by

[ ( )]
2
r
T(r) = 100 + 500 1+
R

Table 5.3:: Comparison between finite difference solution and exact solution for one
dimensional steady state radial conduction in a sphere

## r/R 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0
Temperature in C T0 T1 T2 T3 T4
Finite Difference Solution 600 580 520 420 280
with 5 sub regions
Exact Solution 600 580 520 420 280

Example 5.5: A long triangular fin attached to a surface is made of Aluminium (k = 180 W/
(m2-K).The fin is 5 cm long having a base thickness of 1 cm.The base is maintained at a
uniform temperature of 200 0C. The fin is exposed to an ambient at 25 0C and the convective
heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/(m2-K). Using finite difference method with six equally
spaced nodes determine(a) the temperature at the nodes, (b) the rate of heat dissipation from
the fin to the ambient and (c) the fin efficiency

## Sketch for example 5.5 h,T∞

θ 1 2 3 4

T0 θ

194
0 5
b

Known: L = 0.05 cm; b = 0.01 cm; k = 180 W/(m-K); T0= 200 0C; T∞ = 250C; h = 15
W/(m2-K) ; Δx = L/5 = 0.05/5 = 0.01m ;
Find: (a) Temperatures at nodes 1 to 5; (b) Qfin; (c) fin efficiency η

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the fin
is constant; (iii) heat dissipation to the ambient is by convection only

Solution: Volume element surround ing an intermediate node i is shown below with adjacent
nodes.

Δx
A i- 1/2 Length =
cos θ
Fin Base Node i
Ai+1/2

Node (i – 1) Node (i + 1)
Δx

iΔx

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node i can be written as

## Q(i-1) - i – Qi – (i+1) − Qconvection = 0

k A i- ½ ( T Δx−T )
i−1 i
− k A i+ ½ ( T Δx−T )
i−1 i
−h
2 wΔx
( T −T ∞ ) = 0
cos θ i , j

## T i−1−T i T i−T i−1

2kw [ 1
L – (i− ) Δx
2 ] tan θ
Δx
− 2kw [ 1
L – (i+ )Δx
2 ] tan θ
Δx

195
2 wΔx
−h ( T −T ∞ ) = 0
cos θ i , j

Or [ 1 Δx
1 – (i− )
2 L ] Ti – 1 − [2 – 2i
Δx
L

h Δx 2
kLsin θ
] Ti + [ 1 Δx
1 – (i+ )
2 L ] Ti + 1

2
h Δx
= − T∞ i = 1,2,3,and 4
kLsin θ
(2)

0.01
Now tan θ = b/2L = = 0.1 Hence sin θ = 0.0995
2∗0.05

## For i = 4; 0.3T3 – 0.402 T4 + 0.1T5 = − 0.042 (d)

The finite difference equation for node i = 5 is obtained by writing the energy balance
equation for the volume element having a length of Δx / 2 surrounding node 5 as shown in
Fig. below

Δx/(2cos θ)
4 5

Δx/2 Δx/2

## Energy balance equation for node 5 can be written as

k *2w
Δx
2
tan θ ( T Δx−T )
4 5
– h *2w *
Δx/2
cos θ
(T5 - T∞) = 0
hΔx hΔx
or T4 – [1 + ]T5 = − T∞
k sinθ k sinθ
Hence for node 5 we have T4 – 1.008 T5 = − 0.2 (e)
Solving Eqs. (a) to (e) using ONLINE Linear Algebra Tool Kit we get the unknown
temperatures as follows:

196
Node 1 2 3 4 5
Temp (0 C) 199.76 198.99 197.31 195.70 194.30

(b) Qfin = Sum of heat dissipated from all the volume elements to the surroundings

Δx/2 Δx
= h* 2w (T0 - T∞) + h*2W [(T1 − T∞) + (T2 − T∞) + (T3 − T∞)
cos θ cos θ
Δx/ 2
+ (T4 − T∞)] + h* 2w (T5 − T∞)
cos θ

wΔx
=h [T0 + 2(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4) + T5 −10 T∞]
cos θ

15∗1∗0.01
= * [200 + 2* (199.76 + 198.99 + 197.31 + 195.7) + 194.3 – 10 *25]
cos 5.71

= 260.46 W

2 wL 15∗2∗1∗0.05
(c) Qmax = h Afin,total (T0 − T∞) = h (T0 − T∞) = * (200 – 25) = 263.8
cos θ cos 5.71
W

260.46
Fin efficiency = η = = 0.987 = 98.7%
263.8

Example 5.6: A pin fin of variable circular cross section has a diameter of 2 cm at its base
and 1 cm at its tip and is 12 cm long. It is made of a material of thermal conductivity of 1 W/
(m-K). The fin base temperature is 125 0C and the fin is exposed to an ambient at 25 0C with a
surface heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/(m 2-K).Determine the steady state temperature
distribution along the length of the fin using finite difference method

Δx/2

Δx/2
θ D2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

D1

197
Δx
L

## Known: D1 = 0.02 m; D2 = 0.01 m; L = 0.12 m; k = 1 W/(m-K); h = 10 W/(m2-K);

T0 = 1250C; T∞ = 250C

Find: (a) Steady state temperature distribution along the length using finite difference
method; (b)Qfin
Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the fin
is constant; (iii) heat dissipation to the ambient is by convection only

Solution: The fin is divided equally into 6 subregions each of length Δx so that

( D1−D2 ) ( 0.02−0.01 )
Δx = L/6 = 0.12/6 = 0.02 m. Also tan θ = = = 0.0417 or θ =
2L 2∗0.12
2.388 0
Difference equations for intermediate nodes from 1 to 5: The volume element surrounding
an intermediate node ‘i’ along with corresponding nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.6(a).

Δx / cos θ
X

i–1 i i +1

i Δx

Δx

Ai–½ Ai +1/2
Fig. E5.6(a): Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding an intermediate
node ‘i’

Energy balance equation for the volume element shown can be written as

kAi – ½ ( T Δx−T )
i−1 i
− kAi +½ ( T −TΔx )
i i+ 1
– h Asi [Ti −T∞] = 0 i = 1 to 5
(1)

hΔx
Let φ = T − T∞. and Hi = Asi
k

## Then Eq.(1) can be written as

198
Ai – ½ φi-1 – [Ai – ½ + Ai +½ + H i ] φi + Ai +½ φi+1 = 0 i = 1 to 5 (2)

Δx Δx
where Ai – ½ = π [D2/2 + (L – iΔx + ) tan θ]2 ; Ai +½ = π [D2/2 + (L – iΔx − ) tan
2 2
θ]2

## Ai +½ = π [0.005 + (0.12 – 0.02i − 0.01) 0.0417]2 = π (9.587 * 10−3 – 8.34*10−4 i)2

Asi =
0.02
cos 2.388
∗2∗π∗
0.01
2 [
+ ( 0.12−0.02 i )∗0.0417
]
= 1.258* 10 – 3 – 1.049 * 10 – 6 i

Numerical values of Ai – ½ , Ai +½ and Hi are found for different values of i from 1 to 5 are
tabulated as shown below.

## Node Ai – ½ = π (0.0104 – 8.34*10−4 i) 2 Ai +½ = π (9.587 * 10−3 – 8.34*10−4 i)2 hΔx

Hi = [1.258* 10 – 3 – 1.049 * 10
k
–6
i]

## 1 2.875 * 10 −4 2.407* 10 −4 3.771 * 10 − 4

2 2.395* 10 −4 1.970* 10 −4 3.768* 10 − 4
3 1.960*10 −4 1.577* 10 −4 3.765* 10 − 4
4 1.568*10 −4 1.228* 10 −4 3.761* 10 − 4
5 1.219*10 −4 0.922* 10 −4 3.758* 10 − 4

Substituting the calculated values of A i – ½ , Ai +½ and Hi for different nodes the final form of
Eqs.(3) for nodes 1 to 5 c an be written as

(a)

## Similarly for i =2: 2.395 φ1 – 8.133 φ2 + 1.970 φ3 = 0

(b)

199
i = 3: 1.960 φ2 – 7.302 φ3 + 1.577 φ 4 = 0
(c)

(d)

## i = 5; 1.219 φ 4 – 5.899 φ5 + 0.922 φ6 = 0

(e)

Difference equations for node 6: The volume element surrounding node 6 is shown in Fig.
E5.6(b).

A5+1/2
Δx
2 cos θ

5 6
D2

Δx/2 Δx/2

## Fig. E5.6(b): Nomenclature for volume element surrounding node 6

Energy balance equation for the volume element shown can be written as follows:

Q5-6 – Qconvection = 0

## i.e. k A5+1/2 ( T Δx−T )

5 6
– h As6 [T6 − T∞] = 0

[ π D 22
)]
2
D2 Δx D Δx
Where A5+1/2 = π ( 2
+
2
tan θ ) and As6 =
4 (
+
Δx
2 cos θ )
∗2 π∗ 2 +
2 (2
tanθ

## Sustituting φ = T - T∞ and simplifying we get

hΔx
A5+1/2 φ5 – [A5+1/2 + A s6 ¿ φ6 = 0
k
2
0.01 0.02
Now A5+1/2 = π ( 2
+
2
∗0.0417 ) = 9.219 * 10 – 5

200
2
π∗0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02
and As6 =
4
+ (
2cos 2.388
∗2 π∗ ) 2
+
2 (
∗0.0417 ) = 4.192 * 10 −4

15∗0.02
Or 9.219 * 10 – 5 φ5 – [9.219 * 10 – 5 + * 4.192 * 10 −4] φ6 = 0
1

Or φ5 – 2.364 φ6 = 0 (f)

Eqs. (a) to (f) can be solved using any standard technique of solving a system of linear
equations.

5.5. Finite Difference Formulation for Two-dimensional Steady State conduction with
Energy Generation

## 5.5.1. Difference Equation in terms of Cartesian Coordinates: The two dimensional

steady-state heat conduction equation with heat generation in a solid with constant thermal
conductivity is given by

∂2 T ∂2 T ' ''
+ + q (x , y) = 0 in region R
∂ x2 ∂ x2 k
(5.25)

## The region R is replaced by a number of small rectangular meshes each of Δx by Δ.y as

shown in Fig.5.7.Symbols i,j are used to denote the location of a nodal point whose
coordinates are x = iΔx, y = jΔy. Then the temperature at a node (i,j) is denoted by Ti,j.

y
(i – 1, j) (i, j+1) (i, j) (i+1, j)
Δx
(i, j-1)
(j +1)Δy

jΔy

Δy
(j – 1)Δy

201
x
(i −1)Δx iΔx (i +1)Δx

Fig.5.7: Rectangular mesh of size Δx, Δy and intermediate node (i,j) surrounded by 4
neighboring nodes

Difference equation for all intermediate nodes: Control volume surrounding the nodal point
i,j is shown in Fig.5.7.The energy balance equation for this control volume under steady state
conditions can be written as follows:

## T i−1, j−T i , j T i , j+1−T i , j T i+1, j−T i , j

k (Δy *1) + k (Δx *1) + k (Δy *1) +
Δx Δy Δx

T i , j−1−T i , j
k (Δx *1) + (Δx *Δy*1) q'i ', 'j = 0
Δy

## Choosing Δx = Δy, the above equation reduces to

q'i 'j'
Ti – 1,j + Ti ,j+1 + Ti + 1,j + Ti ,j – 1 − 4 Ti ,j + Δx 2
( )
k
=0
(5.27)
Eq.(5.27) is the finite difference form of the heat conduction equation for any interior nodal
point (i,j).

(i , j+1)

(i +1, j)
q0 ( i , j)

## Δy Fig.5.9 Nomenclature for a boundary node

subjected to prescribed heat flux
(i, j – 1)
Δx

202
Energy ba;ance equation for the control volume surrounding the nodal point (i,j) can be
written as:

q0*(Δy*1) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Qg =0 (5.28)

Using Fourier’s law for heat conduction the above equation reduces to

## ( T i , j+1 −T i , j ) ( T i +1, j−T i , j )

q0*(Δy*1) + k (Δx/2 *1) + + k (Δy *1)
Δy Δx

( T i , j−1−T i , j )
+ k (Δx/2 *1)
Δy
+ ( Δy∗Δx
2
∗1 ) q ' ''
i, j =0

## 2 q 0∗Δy q'i '', j∗Δy 2

Ti , j+1 + 2Ti+1 , j + Ti, j−1 −4Ti , j = − −
k k
(5.29)

If the boundary containing the node (i,j) then q0 = 0. In that case Eq. (5.29) reduces to

## q'i ', 'j∗Δy 2

Ti , j+1 + 2Ti+1 , j + Ti, j−1 −4Ti , j = −
k
(5.29a)

(i , j+1)

(i +1, j)
( i , j)

## h,T∞ Δy Fig.5.9 Nomenclature for a boundary node

subjected to convection
(i, j – 1)
Δx

Energy balance equation for the control volume surrounding the nodal point (i,j) can be
written as:

Qconvection + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Qg =0

203
( T i , j+1 −T i , j ) ( T i +1, j−T i , j )
h(Δy*1)[T∞ − Ti j] + k (Δx/2 *1) + + k (Δy *1)
Δy Δx

( T i , j−1−T i , j )
+ k (Δx/2 *1)
Δy
+ ( Δy∗Δx
2
∗1 ) q ' ''
i, j =0
Substituting Δx = Δy and simplifying, the above equation reduces to

## q'i '', j∗Δy 2

Ti , j+1 + 2Ti+1 , j + Ti, j−1 – [ 4+
2 h Δy
k ] Ti , j = −
2 hΔy
k
T∞ −
k
(5.30)

If the boundary containing the node (i,j) is insulated then h = 0 and there fore Eq.(5.30)
reduces to Eq. (29a).

## Difference equations for corner nodal point:

(i) Difference equation for exterior corner nodal point subjected to convection with ambient
temperature at T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h.

## The nomenclature for an external nodal point is shown in Fig.5.10

Q2-convection

(i , j) (i +1, j)

Q1-convection
Δy Fig.5.10 Nomenclature for an exterior nodal point

(i, j – 1) Δx

## Q1-convection + Q2-convection + Q(i +1, j)- (i,j) + Q(i , j −1)- (i,j) + Qg = 0

T i+1, j−T i , j )
h ( Δy2 ∗1) [T −T ∞ i, j ] +h ( Δx2 ∗1)[ T −T ∞ i, j ] +k ( Δy2 ∗1) ( Δx

[ ]
Δx
Δx ( T i , j −1 −T i , j ) ∗Δy
+k ( 2
∗1 ) Δy
+ 2
2
∗1 q'i ', 'j
=0

## Substituting Δx = Δy and simplifying we get

204
2 ' ''
2Ti+1, j + 2Ti, j−1 – [ 4+
4 hΔx
k ]
T i, j = −
4 hΔx
k
T∞ −
Δx qi , j
k
(5.31)

(ii) Difference equation for nodal point at the intersection of two convection boundaries
with ambient temperature at T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h.

The nomenclature for the nodal point (i,j) at the intersection of two convection boundaries is
shown in Fig. 5.11.

(i, j+1)

## h, T∞ Fig.5.11 Nomenclature for a node at the

intersection of two convection boundaries
(i,j-1)

Energy balance equation for the control volume surrounding the node (i,j) can be written as
follows:

Q(i-1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i,j+1) – (i,j) + Q(i+1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i ,j-1) – (i,j) + Qconvection + Qg = 0

## T i−1, j−T i , j T i , j+1 −T i , j T i +1, j−T i , j

k (Δy *1) ( Δx ) + k (Δx *1) ( Δy ) + k (Δy/2*1) ( Δx )

[ ]
Δx
T i , j−1−T i , j
+ k (Δx/2 *1) ( Δx ) + h [ Δx Δy
2
+
2 ] [T∞ − T,j] + 3 2
∗Δy
2
∗1 q'i ', 'j =

## Substituting Δx = Δy and simplifying we get

2
2 hΔx 2 hΔx
Ti,j-1 + 2Ti-1,j + 2Ti,j+1 + Ti+1,j – ( 6+
k ) Ti,j = −
k
T∞ −
3 Δx ' ' '
q
2 k i,j
=0
(5.32)

## Difference equation for a node next to an irregular boundary

205
Consider a node (i,j) located next to a curved surface as shown in Fig.5.12.Let the two stirngs
from the node (i,j) intersect the curved boundary at say points A and B as shown in Fig.5.12.

Node (i-1,J)
A
Node (i,j)
ξΔy
B
Δy Fig. 5.12 Nomenclature for a node adjacent to a
Δx ηΔx curved boundary

Node (i,j-1)

Assuming that the temperatures at A and Bi.e. TA and TB are known the energy balance
equation for the control volume surrounding the node (i,j) can be written as follows

## Q(i-1,j) – (i,j) + QA – (i,j) + QB – (i,j) + Q(i, j-1) – (i,j) + Qg = 0

( T i−1, j−T i , j ) ( T A −T i , j )
k [( Δy ξΔy
2
+
2
∗1 ) ]
Δx
+k [( Δx ηΔx
2
+
2
∗1 ) ]
ξΔy
+k

( T B−T i , j )
[( Δy ξΔy
2
+
2
∗1) ]
ηΔx

T i , j−1−T i , j )
+k ([ Δx2 + ηΔx2 )∗1] ( Δy
+ ( Δx2 + ηΔx2 ) ( Δy2 + ξΔy2 ) q ' ''
i, j =0

## T i−1, j T i , j−1 1 1 TB TA 2 ' ''

Δx qi , j
(1+ η )
+
(1+ ξ )
− ( )+
η ξ
Ti,j = −
η ( 1+η )

ξ ( 1+ξ )

2k
(5.33)

Example 5.7: A solid body of square cross section of side 2 cm. is generating heat at a
uniform rate of 2*10 6W/m3.The thermal conductivity of the body is 15 W/(m-K).The left
surface of the body is insulated and the bottom surface is maintained at a uniform
temperature of 1000C.The right surface is subjected to a uniform heat flux of 5000 W/m 2 and
the top surface is in contact with a fluid at a temperature of 25 0C with a surface heat
transfer coefficient of 75 W/(m2-K).Assuming Δx = Δy = 1 cm obtain the finite difference
equations for the unknown temperatures assuming steady state conduction at the six nodes
and solve for these temperatures.

206
Sketch for example 5.7

Node 2
Δx h = 75 W/(m2-K), T∞ = 25 0C

1 2 3
ΔΔΔ

## Insulated 4 6 qs = 5000 W/m2

Node 5
Δy

7 8 9

T = 100 0C

Known: Δx = Δy = 0.01 m; k = 15 W/(m-K); q'i ' ' =2*10 6W/m3 for all ‘i’;qs = 5000 W/m2;

## h = 75 W/(m2-K); T7 = T8 = T9 = 1000C; T∞ = 250C

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to find unknown temperatures T1 to T6 (ii) Numerical
values of T1 to T6 by solving the finite difference equations

Assumptions: (i) steady state two dimensional conduction heat transfer; (ii) thermal
conductivity and heat generation in the solid are constant

h, T∞
1 2

Insulated Δy/2

## Δx/2 Fig.E5.7(1) : Volume element surrounding

Δy/2 node 1
4

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 1 per unit width measured
normal to the paper can be written as:

207
T 4 −T 1
k
Δx
2
∗1 ( Δy ) +k
Δy
2 ( T Δx−T )
2 1
+h
Δx
2
*1 ( T ∞−T 1 ) +
Δx

( 2
∗Δy
2 )
' ''
∗1 q1
=0

[ ]
2
hΔx hΔx
T4 + T2 – 2+
k
T1 = −
k
− ( )
Δx ' ' '
2k
q1

[ ]
2
75∗0.01 75∗0.01
T4 + T2 – 2+
15
T1 = −
15
– ( )
0.01
2∗15
∗2∗10 6

## Or – 2.05T1 + T2 + T4 = −6.717 (a)

Finite difference equation for node 2: Volume element surrounding node 2 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(2).

Δx h, T∞

1 2 3
Δy/2

Δx/2 Δy/2
5

## Fig.E5.7(2): Volume element surrounding node 2

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 2 per unit width measured
normal to the paper can be written as:

## Q1-2 + Q3-2 + Q5-2 + Qconvection + Qg = 0

T 1−T 2 T 3 −T 2
k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) + k ( Δx∗1 ) ( T Δy−T )
5 2
+ h (Δx *1) (T∞ -
T2)

208
+ ( Δx∗Δy
2
∗1 ) q ' ''
2 =0
Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

## 2 hΔx 2 hΔx Δx 2 '''

T1 – [4 + ¿ T2 + T3 +2T5 = − T∞ − q2 =0
k k k

## Substituting the given data in the above equation we have

2
2∗75∗0.01 2∗75∗0.01 0.01 6
T1 – [4 + ¿ T2 + T3 +2T5 = − *25 − ¿ 2∗10 =0
15 15 15

## Or T1 – 4.1 T2 + T3 +2T5 = − 15.83 (b)

Finite difference equation for node 3: Volume element surrounding node 3 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(3).

h, T∞
2 3

Δy/2 qs

Δy Δx/2

Δx 6

## Fig. E5.6(3) Volume element surrounding node 3

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 3 per unit width measured
normal to the paper can be written as:

## Q2-3 + Q6-3 + Qconvection + Qs + Qg = 0

T 2−T 3 T 6 −T 3
Or k ( Δy
2
∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δx
2
∗1)( Δy ) +h ( Δx2 ∗1) (T∞ − T3)

Δx
+ ( Δy
2
∗1 ) qs +
( 2
∗Δy
2 )
∗1 q'3' ' =0

## hΔx hΔx Δx Δx 2 '''

T2 – [2 + ] T3 + T6 = − T∞ − qs − q3 =0
k k k 2k

209
Substituting the given data in the above equation we have

## 75∗0.01 75∗0.01 0.01 0.012

T2 – [ 2 + ] T3 + T6 = − *25 – * 5000 –
15 15 15 2∗15
* 2 * 10 6

## Or T2 – 2.05T3 + T6 = − 11.25 (c)

Finite difference equation for node 4: Volume element surrounding node 4 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(4).

h, T∞

1
Insulated

4 5

## Δy Fig.E5.6(4) Volume element surrounding node 4

7
Δx

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 4 per unit width measured
normal to the paper can be written as:

## Q1-4 + Q5-4 + Q7-4 + Qg = 0

T 1−T 4
Or k ( Δx
2
∗1)( Δy ) + k (Δy*1) ( T Δx−T )
5 4
+k ( Δx
2
∗1
T 7 −T 4
)( Δy )
+ ( Δy∗Δx
2
∗1 ) q ' ''
4 =0

## Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

2
Δx '''
T1 – 4T4 + 2T5 = − T7 − q3
k

## Substituting the given data in the above equation we have

210
2
0.01
T1 – 4T4 + 2T5 = − 100 − * 2 * 10 6
15

## Or T1 – 4T4 + 2T5 = −113.33 (d)

Finite difference equation for node 5: Volume element surrounding node 5 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(5).

2
5

4 5 6

Δx Δy
8

## Fig. E5.6(5) Volume element surrounding node 5

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 3 per unit width measured
normal to the paper can be written as:

## Q4-5 + Q2-5 + Q6-5 + Q8-5 + Qg = 0

Or k Δy ( T Δx−T )
4 5
+ k Δx ( T Δy−T )
2 5
+ k Δy ( T Δx−T )
6 5
+ k Δx ( T Δy−T )
8 5
+ (Δx*

## Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

Δx2 '''
T2 + T4 + T6 – 4 T5 = − T8 − q3
k
Substituting the given data in the above equation we have
0.012
T2 + T4 + T6 – 4 T5 = − 100 − * 2 * 10 6
15

Or T2 + T4 + T6 – 4 T5 = − 113.33 (e)

Finite difference equation for node 6: Volume element surrounding node 6 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(6).

211
3

Δx
Δy

5 6
qs

## Fig. E5.6(6) Volume element surrounding node 6

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 6 per unit width measured
normal to the paper can be written as:

## Q5-6 + Q3-6 + Q9-6 + Qs + Qg = 0

Or k Δy ( T Δx−T )
5 6
+k ( Δx
2
∗1
T 3−T 6
)( Δy ) +k ( Δx
2
∗1
T 9 −T 6
Δy )( ) + (Δy*1)qs

+ ( Δy∗Δx
2
∗1 ) q ' ''
6 =0
Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get
2
2 Δx Δx '''
T3 + 2T5 – 4T6 = − T9 – q – q6
k s k

## Substituting the given data in the above equation we have

2∗0.01∗5000 0.012
T3 + 2T5 – 4T6 = − – * 2* 10 6
15 15

## Or T3 + 2T5 – 4T6 = − 120 (f)

Eqs. (a) to (f) are solved using Online Linear Algebra Tool Kit and the nodal temperatures
are found to be as follows:

## T1 = 118.47 0C ; T2 = 119.630C; T3 = 121.930C; T4 = 116.510C; T5 = 117.130C ;

T6 = 119.030C

212
Example 5.8:Hot combustion gases of a furnace are flowing through a concrete chimney
[(k = 1.4 W/(m-K)] of rectangular cross section as shown in Fig. E5.8.The flow section of
the chimney is 20 cm X 40 cm, and the thickness of the wall of the chimney is 10 cm. The
average temperature of the hot gases in the chimney is Ti = 280 0C, and the average
convective heat transfer coefficient inside the chimney is h i = 75 W/(m2-K). The chimney is
losing heat from its outer surface to the ambient air at 15 0C by convection with a surface
heat transfer coefficient of ho = 18 W/(m2-K). Using the finite difference method with Δx = Δy
= 10 cm and taking full advantage of the symmetry, determine (a) the finite difference
formulation of the problem to find steady two-dimensional temperatures at the nodal points,
(b) the temperatures at these nodal points, and (c) the rate of heat loss for a 1-m-long section
of the chimney.

h0, T0
k

10 cm

20 cm

10 cm
H

10 cm 40 cm 10 cm

h i , Ti

## Fig.E5.8: Figure for example 5.

213
Sketch for example 5.8 with nodes:Because of symmetry only one fourth of the cross section
of the chimney is considered for analysis as shown below.

Axis of symmetry
(Insulated boundary)
1 2

hi,Ti

Δx
3 4 5 6
4
Δy/2

Δy/2

7 8 9 10
Δx/2 h0,T0
Known: k = 1.4 W/(m-K); Δx = Δy = 0.1 m ; hi =75 W/(m2-K); Ti = 280 0C;

h0 = 18 W/(m2-K); T0 = 15 0C

Find: (i) finite difference equations to determine steady two dimensional temperatures at
different nodes in the chimney T1 to T10 (ii) temperatures at the nodes and (iii) rate of heat
transfer for 1 m height of the chimney

Assumptions: (i) Two dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) Thermal conductivity of the
chimney is constant; (iii) No radiation losses from the outer surface of the chimney to the
surroundings

Solution: Finite difference equation for node 1: The volume element surrounding node 1 is
shown in Fig. E5.8(1). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as

1 2

Δy/2
hi,Ti

Δy
Δx/2

## Fig. E5.8(1): Volume element surrounding node 1

214
Q5-1 + Q2-1 + Qconvection = 0

## Or k ( Δx2 ∗1) ( T Δy−T )

5 1
+k ( Δy2 ∗1) ( T Δx−T )
2 1
+ hi ( Δy2 ∗1) (Ti – T1) =
0

## Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

hi Δx hi Δx
−[2 + ¿ T1 + T2 + T5 = − [ ¿ Ti
k k

75∗0.1 75∗0.1
−[2+ ]* T1 + T2 + T5 = − [ ]*280
1.4 1.4

## Or −7.357T1 + T2 + T5 = − 1500 (a)

Finite difference equation for node 1: The volume element surrounding node 2 is shown in
Fig. E5.8(2). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as

1 2

Δy/2
ho,To

Δy
Δx/2

## Or k ( Δy2 ∗1) ( T Δx−T )

1 2
+k ( Δx2 ∗1) ( T Δy−T )
6 2
+ ho ( Δy2 ∗1) (To – T2) =
0

## Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

+ ho Δx ho Δx
T1 – [2 ¿ T2 + T6 = − To
k k

215
Substituting for the given quantities we have

75∗0.1 75∗0.1
T1 − [ 2 + 1.4
]* T2 + T6 = − [
1.4
]*15

## Or T1 – 7.357T2 + T6 = − 110.355 (b)

Finite difference equation for node 3: The volume element surrounding node 3 is shown in
Fig. E5.8(3). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows.

hi,Ti
3 4

Δy/2

Δy
Δx/2

7
Axis of Symmetry (Insulated)

## Q7-3 + Q4-3 + Qconvection = 0

T 7−T 3 T 4 −T 3
Or k ( Δx
2
∗1 )(Δy ) +k ( Δy
2
∗1 )( Δx ) + hi ( Δx2 ∗1) ( T Δ−Ty )
i 3
=0

## Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

+ hi Δx hi Δx
T7 – [2 ¿ T3 + T4 = − Ti
k k

75∗0.1 75∗0.1
T7 − [ 2 + 1.4
]* T3 + T4 = − [
1.4
]*15

## Or – 7.357T3 + T4 + T7 = − 110.355 (c)

Finite difference equation for node 4: The volume element surrounding node 4 is shown in
Fig. E5.8(4). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows.

Δx h i , Ti

216
4
3 5
Δy/2

Δx/2 Δy/2
8

## Q3-4 + Q8-4 + Q5-4 + Qconvection = 0

T 3−T 4
Or k ( Δ2y ∗1)( Δx ) + k (Δx *1) ( T Δ−Ty )
8 4
+k ( Δ2y ∗1)(
T 5−T 4
Δx )
+ hi(Δx*1)(Ti – T4) = 0

## Substituting for the given quantities we have

2∗75∗0.1 2∗75∗0.1
T3 − [ 4 + ]* T4 + 2T8 = − * 280
1.4 1.4

## Or T3 – 14.714T4 + 2T8 = − 3000 (d)

Finite difference equation for node 5: The volume element surrounding node 5 is shown in
Fig. E5.8(5). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows.

hi,Ti

Δy/2
4 5 6

Δy/2

Δx/2 Δx/2

## Fig.5.8(5): Volume element surrounding node 5

217
Q4-5 + Q1-5 + Q6-5 + Q9-5 + Qconvection = 0

T 4−T 5 T 1−T 5 T 6 −T 5
Or k ( Δy
2
∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δx
2
∗1 )( Δy ) + k ( Δy∗1 ) ( Δx )
T 9 −T 5
+ k ( Δx∗1 )
Δy ( ) + hi ([ Δx2 + Δy2 )∗1]( T −T )
i 5 =0

## Or T1 + T4 – 10.714T5 + 2T6 + 2T9 = − 3000 (e)

Finite difference equation for node 6: Volume element surrounding node 6 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(6). Energy balance equation for the volume element can
be written as follows:

Δx
Δy ho, To

5 6

10

## Fig. E5.8(6) Volume element surrounding node 6

218
Q5-6 + Q3-6 + Q10-6 + Qconvection = 0

Δx Δx
∗1 ∗1
2 2
Or k (Δy*1) ( T Δx−T )
5 6
+k T 3−T 6 +k T 10−T 6
(¿ )
( Δy ) (¿ )
(
Δy )
+ ho(Δy *1) (To – T6) = 0

## Or T3 + 2T5 – 6.571T6 + T10 = − 38.571 (f)

Finite difference equation for node 7: Volume element surrounding node 7 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(7). Energy balance equation for the volume element can
be written as follows:

## Q3-7 + Q8-7 + Qconvection = 0

T 3−T 7 T 8 −T 7
Or k ( Δx2 ∗1)( Δy ) +k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) + ho ( Δx2 ∗1) (To – T7) = 0

Axis of symmetry
3
Δx
Δy

7 8

ho, To

219
Fig. E5.8(7) Volume element surrounding node 7

## Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

T3 – [2 + hoΔx / k] T7 + T8 = − ho( Δx / k) To

## Or T3 – 3.286T7 + T8 = − 19.286 (g)

Finite difference equation for node 8: Volume element surrounding node 8 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(8). Energy balance equation for the volume element can
be written as follows:

4
Δx

Δy

7 8 9
ho,To

## Q7-8 + Q4-8 + Q9-8 + Qconvection = 0

T 7 −T 8 T 4 −T 8
Or k ( Δy
2
∗1 )( Δx )+ k (Δx *1) ( Δy ) + k ( Δy2 ∗1)( T Δx−T )
9 8

## Or T7 – 6.571T8 + 2T4 = − 38.571 (h)

220
Finite difference equation for node 9: Volume element surrounding node 9 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(9). Energy balance equation for the volume element can
be written as follows:

5
Δx

Δy

8 9 10

ho, To

## Q8-9 + Q5-9 + Q10- 9 + Qconvection = 0

T 8 −T 9
Or k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) + k (Δx *1) ( T Δ−Ty )
5 9
+k ( Δy2 ∗1)(
T 10−T 9
Δx )
+ ho (Δx *1)(To – T9) = 0

## Or 2T5 + T8 – 6.571T9 + T10 = − 38.571 (i)

Finite difference equation for node 10: Volume element surrounding node 10 with the
nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(10). Energy balance equation for the volume element can
be written as follows:

221
Δx

Δy

9 10

ho, To

## Q9-10 + Q6-10 + Qconvection = 0

T 9 −T 10 T 6 −T 10
Or k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δx2 ∗1)( Δy ) + ho ( Δx2 + Δy2 )∗1 [To –T10] =
0

## Or T6 – 4.571T10 + T9 = − 38.571 (j)

Equations (a) to (j) form a system of 10 linear equations and are listed below:

## −7.357T1 + T2 + T5 = − 1500 (a)

T1 – 7.357T2 + T6 = − 110.355 (b)
– 7.357T3 + T4 + T7 = − 110.355 (c)
T3 – 14.714T4 + 2T8 = − 3000 (d)
T1 + T4 – 10.714T5 + 2T6 + 2T9 = − 3000 (e)
T3 + 2T5 – 6.571T6 + T10 = − 38.571 (f)
T3 – 3.286T7 + T8 = − 19.286 (g)
T7 – 6.571T8 + 2T4 = − 38.571 (h)
2T5 + T8 – 6.571T9 + T10 = − 38.571 (i)
T6 – 4.571T10 + T9 = − 38.571 (j)

## The above system of equations are written in matrix form as follows:

222
[ai,j]{Ti} = {ci}

## 5.6. Finite Difference Formulation For Two-dimensional Steady State Conduction in r

and z directions in Cylinders with Energy Generation

5.6.1.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes: The cylinder is divided into small
sub regions as shown in Fig. 5.13 (a).The volume element surrounding the node i,j is shown

Δz iΔr

Δr

jΔz

223
z

i,j+1
i+1,j
i,j
i-1,j

i, j-1

## Fig.5.13(a): Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for a cylinder

separately in Fig.5.13(b). The volume element is in the form of a circular ring of thickness Δz
in the z-direction and of radial thickness Δr in the radial direction as shown in the
figure.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as follows:

## Q(i,j-1)-(i,j) + Q(i+1,j)-(i,j) + Q(i,j+1)-(i,j) + Q(i-1,j)-(i,j) + Qg = 0

Or k*2π iΔr*Δr (T −T i , j
i , j−1
Δz ) + k*2π (iΔr + Δr/2)Δz (T −T i , j
i +1, j
Δr )
+ k*2π iΔr*Δr
'''
(T −T i , j
i , j+1
Δz ) + k*2π (iΔr − Δr/2)Δz (T −T i , j
i−1, j
Δr ) + 2πiΔr*Δr*Δz

qi , j =0

## Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

1 1 Δr 2
Ti,j-1 + Ti,j+1 + ( 1−
2i ) Ti-1,j + ( 1+
2i ) Ti+1,j − 4Ti,j = −
k
'''
qi , j
(5.34)

## for i = 1,2,3 ……….M-1 and j = 1,2,3……N-1

(j+1)Δz

224
jΔz
(j-1)Δz (i,j)
(i+1,j)

(i,j-1) (i,j+1) Δr

(i+1)Δr Δz

(i-1,j)
iΔr

(i-1)Δr

## 5.6.2.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the axis of the

cylinder:Fig.5.13(c) shows a volume element surrounding the node (0,j) on the axis of the
cylinder .

(1,j)

Δz
Δr
Axis of cylinder

Δz

## Fig.5.13(c): Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding an

intermediate node (0,j) on the axis of the cylinder
Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows:

## Q(0,j-1) – (0,j) + Q(1,j) – (0,j) + Q(0,j+1) – (0,j)+ Qg = 0 for j = 1,2,3,………,N-1

T 0, j−1 – T 0, j T 1, j – T 0, j
k π (Δr/2)2 ( Δz ) + k* 2π (Δr/2) Δz ( Δr ) + k π (Δr/2)2

(T – T 0, j
0, j+1
Δz )
225
+ π (Δr/2)2Δz q'0,' 'j = 0

## Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

2
T 0, j−1 + T 0, j +1 + 4 T 1, j − 6 T 0, j = − ( )
Δr '' '
k
q 0, j j = 1,2,3……N-1
(5.35)

5.6.3.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the outer curved surface of the
cylinder subjected to convection boundary condition: Fig.5.13(d) shows a volume element
surrounding the node (M,j) on the outer surface of the cylinder subjected to the convection
boundary condition.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as
follows:

hM, T∞
jΔz

Δr/2

Δz Δr

M-1,j

## Q(M,j-1) – (M,j) + Q(M,j+ 1) – (M,j) + Q(M-1,j) – (M,j) + Qg + Qconvection = 0 for j = 1,2,3,…N-1

[ ) ](
T M , j−1−T M , j
[ ) ](
T M , j +1−T M , j
2 2

2
(
( MΔr ) – MΔr−
Δr
2 Δz ) + kπ
2
(
( MΔr ) – MΔr−
Δr
2 Δz )
226
[ )]
2
T M−1, j −T M , j
+ k*2π ( MΔr−
Δr
2 ) Δz ( Δr ) +
2
(
( MΔr ) – MΔr−
Δr
2
Δz q'M' ' , j

+ 2π M Δr Δz hM (T∞ − TM,j) = 0

## Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

3 M −1 2 h M Δr Δr 2 2 h M Δr T ∞
TM,j-1 + TM,j+1 – [4 ( 4 M −1
+
k) ¿ TM,j = −
k
q'M' ' , j −
k

j = 1,2,3,…N-1 (5.36)

5.6.4.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the outer curved surface of the
cylinder subjected to prescribed heat flux condition: Fig.5.13(e) shows a volume element
surrounding the node (M,j) on the outer surface of the cylinder subjected to the convection
boundary condition.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as
follows:
(qs)M,j

jΔz

Δr/2

Δz Δr

M-1,j

## Fig.5.13(e): Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding node (M,j)

Q(M,j-1) – (M,j) + Q(M,j+ 1) – (M,j) + Q(M-1,j) – (M,j) + Qg + Qs = 0 for j = 1,2,3,…N-1

227
[ ) ](
T M , j−1−T M , j
[ ) ](
T M , j +1−T M , j
2 2

2
(
( MΔr ) – MΔr−
Δr
2 Δz ) + kπ
2
(
( MΔr ) – MΔr−
Δr
2 Δz )
) [ )]
2
T M−1, j −T M , j
+ k*2π ( MΔr−
Δr
2 ) Δz ( Δr
+
2
(
( MΔr ) – MΔr−
Δr
2
Δz q'M' ' , j

+ 2π M Δr Δz (qs)M,j = 0

## Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

3 M −1 2
2 ( q s ) M , j Δr
TM,j-1 + TM,j+1 – 4 ( 4 M −1 ) TM,j = −
Δr
k
'''
qM , j −
k

j = 1,2,3,…N-1 (5.37)

5.6.5.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the outer flat surface of the
cylinder subjected to convection boundary condition: Fig.5.13(f) shows a volume element
surrounding the node (i,0) on the flat surface at z = 0 of the cylinder subjected to the
convection boundary condition. Energy balance equation for this volume element can be
written as follows

i+1,0

h0,T∞ Δr

i,0 i,1

i-1,0 iΔr

Δz

## Q(i+1, 0) – (i,0) + Q(i,1) – (i,0) + Q(i-1,0) - (i,0) + Qconvection + Qg = 0 for i = 1,2,3,……,M-1

228
i, 0
[( Δr 2
)]
2
Δr Δz Δr
k*2π (iΔr +
2
) ( )
2
T i +1,0−T ¿ + k π
( ¿¿ Δr )
iΔr +
2 ) (− iΔr−
2

(T i,1 −T i , 0
Δz )
i,0
[( Δr 2
)]
2
Δr Δz Δr
+ k*2π (iΔr −
2
) ( ) 2
T i−1,0 −T ¿
( ¿ ¿ Δr )
+ h0 π iΔr +
2) ( − iΔr−
2
(T∞ − Ti,0)

[( Δr 2
) ] ( Δz2 )
2
Δr
+π iΔr +
2 ) (− iΔr−
2
'''
qi , 0 = 0

## Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

1 1 2 h0 Δr 2 h0 Δr
( 1+
2i ) Ti+1,0 + ( 1−
2i ) Ti−1,0 + 2 Ti,1 – [2 +
k
¿ Ti,0 = −
k
T∞ −

Δr 2 '''
qi , 0
2k

i = 1,2,3,……………M-1 (5.38)

Similarly the energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node i,N [See
Fig.5.13(g)] can be written as follows:

1 1 2 h0 Δr 2 h N Δr
( 1+
2i ) Ti+1,N + ( 1−
2i ) Ti−1,N + 2 Ti,N-1 – [2 +
k
¿ Ti,N = −
k
T∞ −

Δr 2 '''
qi , N
2k

i = 1,2,3,……………M-1 (5.39)

i+1,N

Δr

hN,T∞
i,N-1 i,N

229
i-1,N iΔr

Δz

## Fig. 5.13(g): Volume element surrounding the node i-1,N

5.6.6.Finite difference equations for volume elements surrounding the nodes (0,0) and
(0,N): The nomenclature for the volume elements surrounding the nodes (0,0) and (0,N) are
shown in Fig. 5.13(h). The energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the
node (0,0) can be written as:

Δz h0,T∞ hN,T∞ Δz
(1,0) (1,N)

Δr Δr

## (0,0) (0,1) (0,N-1) (0,N)

Axis of symmetry

Fig.5.13(k): Nomenclature for volume elements surrounding nodes (0,0) and (0,N)

## T 1,0 −T 0,0 T 0,1 −T 0,0

k*2π (Δr/2)(Δz/2) ( Δr ) + k* π(Δr/2)2 ( Δz ) + h0 π(Δr/2)2[T∞ − T0,0]

+ π(Δr/2)2(Δz/2) q'0,0
''
=0

## 2T1,0 + T0,1 – [4 + (h0Δr/k)] T0,0 = − (h0Δr/k)] T∞ − (Δr2/2k) q'0,0

''

(5.40)

230
Similarly it can be shown that the energy balance equation for the volume element
surrounding the node (0,N) is given by

## 2T1,N + T0,N-1 – [4 + (hNΔr/k)]T0,N = − (hNΔr/k)] T∞ − (Δr2/2k) q'0,N

''

(5.41)

5.6.7.Finite difference equations for volume elements surrounding the nodes (M,0) and
(M,N):
The nomenclature for the volume elements surrounding the nodes (M,0) and (M,N) are
shown in Fig. 5.13(k). The energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the
node (M,0) can be written as:

hM,T∞

Δr Δr

Δz Δz

## (M-1,0) MΔr (M-1,N)

Fig.5.13(k): Nomenclature for volume elements surrounding nodes (M,0) and (M,N)

## kπ [(MΔr)2 – (MΔr – Δr/2)2] (T −T M ,0

M ,1
Δz ) + k 2π (MΔr – Δr/2)(Δz/2) (T −T M , 0
M−1,0
Δr )
+ hM {π[(MΔr)2 – (MΔr – Δr/2)2] + 2πMΔr(Δz/2)}(T∞− TM,0)

## + π[(MΔr)2 – (MΔr – Δr/2)2] (Δz/2) q'M' ' ,0 =0

231
Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

(2− 21M ) M(Δr/2) [TM,1 – TM,0] + (1− 21M ) MΔr [TM-1,0 – TM,0]

2
1 1
+ hMMΔr (Δr/k) [2 −
4M
] [T∞ − TM,0] + ( 2−
2M ) MΔr ( )
Δr
4k
q'M' ' ,0 =0

Or ( 1−
1
4M ) TM,1 + ( 1−
1
2M ) TM-1,0 – {( 1−
1
2M
h Δr
+ M
k
2−) 1
4M ( )} TM,0

= {( 1−
1
2M
h Δr
)
+ M
k
2−
1
4M( )} T∞ − ( 2−
1 Δr 2
2M 4k ) '''
q M ,0 (5.42)

Similarly for the volume element surrounding the node (M,N) the energy balance equation
reduces to

1
2M
h Δr
+ M
k )2−
1
4M ( )} TM,N

= {( 1−
1
2M
+)
h M Δr
k
2−( 1
4M )} T∞ − ( 2−
1 Δr 2
2M 4k ) '''
q M ,0 (5.43)

## 5.7. Finite Difference Formulation For Two-dimensional Steady State Conduction in r

and θ directions in Cylinders with Energy Generation

5.7.1.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes: The cylinder is divided into small
sub regions and the volume element surrounding the node i,j will be as shown in Fig.5.14.

(i,j+1)

(i+1,j)

(i,j)
(i-1,j)

232
(i, j-1)
Δθ
Δθ

iΔr Δr

Fig.5.14: Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding an intermediate node (i,j)

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node (i,j) can be written as
follows:

Q(i-1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i+1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i,j+1) – (i,j) + Q(i,j-1) – (i,j) + (Q'g' ' )(i , j) =0

## T i−1, j−T i , j T i +1, j−T i , j

Or k [(iΔr −
Δr
2
)Δθ*1] ( Δr ) + k (iΔr +
Δr
2
)Δθ ( Δr ) +k

T i , j−1−T i , j
[Δr*1] ( iΔr Δθ )
T i , j+1 −T i , j
+ k [Δr*1] ( iΔr Δθ ) ' ''
+ (iΔrΔθ*Δr*1) ( q g )(i, j ) = 0

1 1 1 1
Or [1 − ] Ti−1,j + [1 + ] Ti+1,j + Ti,j-1 + Ti,j+1
2i 2i (iΔθ )2 (iΔθ )2

2 Δr 2
− [2 +
(iΔθ )2
] Ti,j = −
k
( q 'g' ' )(i, j )

## for i = 1,2,3…. M and j = 1,2,3,…….N (5.44)

5.7.2 Finite difference equations for innermost node (0,0): The volume element
surrounding the innermost node (0,0) will be as shown in Fig.5.15.Energy balance equation

233
Δθ
(1,j)

(0,0)

Δr

## Fig.5.15: Nomenclature for volume element surrounding the node (0,0)

for the volume element surrounding the node (0,0) can be written as follows:

## Q(1,j) -(1,j) + (Q'g' ' )(0,0) =0 for j = 1,2,3, …..N-1

Δr
Δθ∗1
2
Or k T 1, j −T 0,0 + ( Δr2 Δθ∗Δr ∗1 ) ( q '' '
)
g (0,0) = 0 for j = 1,2,3, …..N-1
(¿ )
( Δr ) 2

2
Δr
Or T1,j – T0,0 = −
2k
(q 'g'' )(0,0) for j = 1,2,3, …..N-1
(5.45)
5.7.3.Finite difference equations for nodes on the outer surface with convective boundary
condition: The volume element surrounding a node (M,j) on the outer surface of the cylinder
will be as shown in Fig.5.16.Energy balance equation for this element can be written as
follows:

(M,j+1)
h,T∞

(M,j)
(M-1,j)

234
Δθ
Δθ

(M,j-1)
MΔr

## Fig.5.16: Nomenclature for volume element surrounding the node (M,j)

Q(M-1,j) – (M,j) + Q(M,j+1) – (M,j) + Q(M,j−1) – (M,j) + Qconvection + (Qg)M,j = 0 for j = 1,2,3,….N

T M−1, j −T M , j T M , j−1−T M , j
Or k { (MΔr −
Δr
2
)Δθ*1} ( Δr ) + k(
Δr
2
* 1) ( MΔrΔθ ) + k(

Δr
2
* 1) ( T MΔrΔθ
−T
M , j+1
) M, j

Δr Δr
+ h (MΔrΔθ*1)(T∞ − TM,j) + (MΔr −
4
)Δθ*
2
*1 (q 'g'' )(M , j) = 0 for j
=1,2,3,….N

Simplifying we get

## (1− 21M ) TM-1,j + ( T M , j−1

2 ( MΔθ )
2
) ( +
T M , j+1
2 ( MΔθ )
2
) − ([ 1− 2 1M )+ ( MΔθ1 ) +( hΔrk )]
2 TM,j

2
hΔr
=− ( )
k
T∞ − ( 1−
1
4M )( ) (q
Δr
2
' ''
)
g (M , j) for j=1,2,3,..N
(5.46)

Example 5.9.A a heating element in the form of a short solid cylinder of radius 2 cm and
length 6 cm is generating heat at a uniform rate of 2*106 W/m3. The thermal conductivity of
the heating element may be taken as 50 W/(m-K). The element is exposed to the surroundings
at a uniform temperature of 300C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 200 W/(m2-
k).Assuming two dimensional steady state conduction in r and z direction (i) obtain the finite
difference equations to determine the steady state temperature in the cylinder assuming Δr =
Δz = 1 cm (ii) solve the system of equations thus obtained for temperature distribution in the
cylinder.Assume that the circular faces of the cylinder are insulated.

## Sketch for example5.9.

r
Symmetry lines
8 9 10 11
h,T∞

4 5 6 7 R Insulated

235
Δr
0 1 2 3 z

Δz

## Known: L = 6 cm; R = 2 cm; k = 50 W/(m-K) ; h = 200 W/(m2-K); Δr = ΔL = 1 cm

q'i ', 'j = 2*106 W/m3; T∞ = 30 0C.

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to determine the temperatures at discrete points in the
cylinder;(ii Temperatures from the finite difference equations thus formed

Assumptions: (i) two dimensional steady state conduction in r and z directions only
(ii)Thermal conductivity and the heat generation are constants.(iii) Heat transfer coefficients
from all the outer surfaces (the curved surface and the flat surface)are same.

Solution: Since there are two symmetry lines as shown in the figure only one fourth of the
cylinder need be considered for finite difference formulation .Since Δr = Δz = 1 cm there will
be 12 nodes as shown in the figure above.

## Lines of symmetry (Insulated surfaces)

4

Δr

0 1
Δz

The nomenclature for the volume element surrounding node 0 is shown in the figure
above.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as

Q4-0 + Q1-0 + Qg = 0

Or k 2π (Δr/2)(Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )
4 0
+ k π (Δr/2)2 ( T Δr−T )
1 0 '''
+ π (Δr/2)2)(Δz/2) ( q g )0
= 0

## Putting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

Δr 2 '''
4(T4 – T0) + 2(T1 – T0) = − ( q g )0
k

236
'''
Substituting for Δr,k and ( q g )0 we get

0.012
− 6T0 + 2T1 + 4T4 = − *2*10 6
50

## Or − 3T0 + T1 + 2T4 = − 2 (1)

Finite difference Equations for node ‘3’: The volume element surrounding the node 3 is
shown in figure below.Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 3
can be written as

7 Insulated
Axis of symmetry
Δr

2 3

Δz

Q7-3 + Q2-3 + Qg = 0

T 7 −T 3 T 2−T 3
Or k 2π (Δr/2)(Δz/2) ( Δr ) + k π (Δr/2)2 ( Δr ) '''
+ π (Δr/2)2)(Δz/2) ( q g )3 =
0

## T2 – 3T3 + 2T7 = − 2 (2)

Finite Difference Equations for nodes 1 and 2: The volume elements surrounding nodes 1
and 3 are shown below.

5 6
Δz
Δr

0 2 1 1 2 3
Axis of symmetry
Energy balance equation surrounding the node 1 can be written as

## Q0-1 + Q5-1 + Q2-1 + Qg = 0

237
k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )
'''
0 1
+ k 2π (Δr/2)Δz ( T Δr−T )
5 1
+ k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )
2 1

(Δr/2)2Δz ( q g )1 =0

## Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we have

2
Δr '''
T0 – 6T1 + T2 + 4T5 = − ( q g )1
k
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k and ( q g )0 we get

0.012
T0 – 6T1 + T2 + 4T5 = − * 2* 106
50

## Q1-2 + Q6-2 + Q3-2 + Qg = 0

k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )
1 2
+ + k 2π (Δr/2)Δz ( T Δr−T )
6 2
+ k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )
3 2

'''
+ π (Δr/2)2Δz ( q g )2 =0

## Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we have

2
Δr '''
T1 + 4T6 + T3 – 6 T2 = − ( q g )2
k
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k, and ( q g )0 we get

0.012
T1 + 4T6 + T3 – 6T2 = − * 2* 106
50

## Or T1 – 6T2 + T3 + 4T6 = −4 (4)

Finite Difference Equations for node 4: The volume element surrounding the node 4 is
shown in the figure below.Energy balance equation for the element is

## Q0-4 + Q8-4 + Q5-4 + Qg = 0

238
Or k 2π (Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )
0 4
+ k 2π (Δr +Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )
8 4
+

[( )] (
2 2
T 5−T 4
kπ Δr +
Δr
2 ) (
− Δr−
Δr
2 Δz )
[( Δr 2
)]
2
Δr
+π Δr +
2 ) (
− Δr−
2
(Δz/2) ( q g ) 4
'''
=0

## Symmetry line (Insulated boundary)

4 5

Δr

Δz
0

2 Δr 2 '''
T0 – 8T4 + 3T8 = − (qg )4
k
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k, and ( q g )0 we get

## T0 – 8T4 + 3T8 = − 8 (5)

Finite Difference Equations for nodes 5 and 6: Both these nodes are internal nodes and
hence the heat transfer across the boundary surfaces of these nodes are only by
conduction.The volume elements surrounding node 5 is shown below.

9
5

4 6

Δr
Δz

239
1
Fig.: Volume element surrounding node 5

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 5 can be written as

## Q4-5 + Q9-5 + Q6-5 + Q1-5 = 0

[( ) ( ) ] ( T Δz−T )
Δr 2 Δr 2
Or k π Δr +
2

2
4 5
+ k 2π ( Δr + Δr2 ) Δz ( T Δr−T )
9 5

[( ) ( ) ] ( T Δz−T )
2 2
+kπ Δr +
Δr
2

Δr
2
6 5
+ k 2π ( Δr2 ) Δz ( T Δr−T )
1 5

[( ) ( ) ] Δz (q )
Δr 2 Δr 2
' ''
+π Δr + − g 5 =0
2 2

## Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

2 Δr 2 '''
T1 + 2T4 − 8T5 + 2T6 + 3T9 = − ( q g )5
k
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k, and ( q g )0 and simplifying we get

## T2 + 2T5 − 8T6 + 2T7 + 3T10 = − 8 (7)

Finite Difference Equations for node 7: The volume element surrounding node 7 is shown
below.The energy balance equation is

11

Δr Insulated

6 7

240
Δz
3

## Q6-7 + Q11-7 + Q3-7 + (Qg)7 = 0

[( ) ( ) ] ( T Δz−T )
Δr 2 Δr 2
Or kπ Δr +
2

2
6 7
+ k 2π (Δr +Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )
11 7
+

## k 2π (Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )

3 7
+

[( ) ( )]
Δr 2 Δr 2
'''
+π Δr + − (Δz/2) ( q g )7 =0
2 2

## Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

2 Δr 2 '''
T3 + 4T6 – [ 8 ] T7 + 3T11 = − ( q g )7
k
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )7 and simplifying we get

## T3 + 4T6 – 8T7 + 3T11 = − 8 (8)

Finite Difference Equations for node 8: The volume element surrounding the node 8 is
shown in the figure below. Energy balance equation for the element is given by

8 h,T∞ 9

Δr

Δz
Symmetry line

Δr

## Q4-8 + Q9-8 + Qconvection + (Qg)8 = 0

241
Or
2
T 4 −T 8
k 2π (Δr+ Δr/2)Δz/2) ( Δr ) +kπ ( 2
( 2 Δr ) −
2{ } ) ( T Δz−T )
3 Δr 9 8
+

2
h{2π 2Δr (Δz/2)}(T∞ −T8) + π ( ( 2 Δr ) −
2
{ } )( Δz/2)
3 Δr
2
'''
( q g )8 =0

## Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

7 Δr 2 '''
6 T4 – [13 + 8 (hΔr/k)]T8 + 7T9 = − 8 (hΔr/k)T∞ − ( q g )8
k
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )8 and simplifying we get

## 6T4 – 13.32 T8 + 7 T9 = − 37.6 (9)

Finite Difference Equations for nodes 9 and 10 : The volume element surrounding node 9
is shown in figure below.Energy balance equation for the volume element shown is

h,T∞

8 9 10

Δr
Δz
5
Axis of cylinder

Δr

## Q8-9 + Q5-9 + Q10-9 + Qconvection + (Qg)9 = 0

Or
k π{(2Δr)2 – (Δr + Δr/2)2} ( T Δz−T )
8 9
+ k 2π(Δr + Δr/2)Δz ( T Δr−T )
5 9
+

T 10−T 9
k π{(2Δr)2 – (Δr + Δr/2)2} ( Δz ) + h2π(Δr + Δr/2)Δz (T∞ − T9)

'''
+ π{(2Δr)2 – (Δr + Δr/2)2}Δz ( q g )9 =0

242
Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get
'''
12 T5 + 7T8 – [26 + (12hΔr/k)]T9 + 7T10 = − (12hΔr/k)T∞ − 7 (Δr2/k) ( q g )9
'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )8 and simplifying we get

## The volume element surrounding node 10 is shown in the figure below.

h,T∞

9 10 11

Δr
Δz
6
Axis of cylinder

Δr

It can be shown that the energy balance equation for this volume element will be

## 12 T6 + 7T9 – 26.48 T10 + 7T11 = − 42.4 (11)

Finite Difference Equations for node 11: The volume element surrounding node 11 is
shown in the figure below. The energy balance equation for this element is as follows
h,T∞
10 11 Insulated

Δr

Δz

7
Fig. Volume element surrounding node 11

Δr

243
Q10-11 + Q7-11 + Qconvection + (Qg)11 = 0

Or

T 10−T 11 T 7 −T 11
k π[(Δr + Δr/2)2 – (Δr/2)2] ( Δz ) + k 2π (Δr + Δr/2)Δz ( Δr )
+ h 2π(2Δr)(Δz/2)(T∞ − T11)
'''
+ π[(Δr + Δr/2)2 – (Δr/2)2](Δz/2) ( q g )11 =0

## Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

'''
3T7 + 2T10 – [5 + 2hΔr/k]T11 = − 2(hΔr/k)T∞ − (Δr2/k) ( q g )11

'''
Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )8 and simplifying we get

## 3T7 + 2T10 – 5.24T11 = − 6.4 (12)

Equations (1) to (12) form a system of linear equations which can be solved by using any of
the standard techniques.

## 5.8. Finite Difference Formulation for One Dimensional Transient Conduction

In steady state conduction problems the solution obtained is valid for any time since under
steady state conditions, the temperatures in the solid do not change with time. But in transient
conduction problems the temperatures change with time as well as with position. Therefore
the finite difference solution of transient problems requires discretization in time in addition
to discretization in space as shown in Fig.5.17 for one dimensional transient conduction
problem.The discretization in time domain is done by selecting a suitable time step Δt and
solving for unknown nodal temperatures for each time step Δt until the solution at the desired
time is obtained.In a transient conduction problem a superscript (say ‘k’) is used to indicate
the index or counter of time steps with k = 0 corresponding to the specified initial condition.
Thus Tik represents the temperature at the node ‘i’ after time steps kΔt have elapsed.The
energy balance equation for transient conduction involves one additional term representing
the change in the energy content of the solid with time, Hence this equation for a volume
element for time duration of Δt can be written as follows:

{Net amount of heat transfer into the volume element across all its surfaces during time
interval Δt} + {Heat generated within the element during time interval Δt}

244
= {The amount of increase of the energy content of the element during the time
interval Δt}.

k +1 k+1 k+1
T Ti-1 Ti Ti+1

k +1
Δt
k

k–1 k
Ti+1
k
Ti k
Ti-1

Δt Δx Δx
x
0 1 2 i–1 i i +1

problem

## Or Δt * ∑Q + Δt *[Qg]element = ΔEelement (5.44)

All sides

Where the rate of heat transfer Q normally consists of conduction terms for interior nodes,
but may involve convection, surface heat flux and radiation for boundary nodes.
Noting that ΔEelement = ρ ΔVCp ΔT, where ρ is the density,ΔV is the volume and Cp is the
specific heat of the element and dividing Eq. (5.44) by Δt we have

ΔT
∑Q + [Qg]element = ρΔV Cp
Δt
(5.45)
All sides

245
Eq.(5.45) is applicable to volume element surrounding any node ‘i’ in the domain.ΔT
represents the change in the temperature of the volume element surrounding the node i for a
time step of Δt and this can be written as [Tik+1 – Tik]. Hence Eq. (5.45) reduces to

∑Q + [Qg]element = ρΔV Cp
( T ik+1−T ki )
Δt
(5.45)
All sides

The term ∑Q involves temperatures at adjacent nodes i – 1 and i +1 and question arises as
All sides

whether to use these temperatures at previous time step ‘k’ or the new time step ‘k+1’. Both
these approaches are used in practice. The approach using the previous time step is called the
explicit method where as the method using the new time step is called the implicit method
Therefore Eq.(5.45) takes the following forms for the two methods:

( T ik+1−T ki )
Δt
(5.46)
All sides

## Implicit Method: ∑Q i+1

+ [Qg] i+1
element = ρΔV Cp
( T ik+1−T ki )
Δt
(5.47)
All sides

The explicit and implicit formulations given in Eqs.(5.46) and (5.47) are quite general and
can be used in any coordinate system and is applicable to multi dimensional transient
conduction problems also except that the volume element in multi dimensional problems will
have more surfaces and thus involve more terms in the summation.
The explicit method is easy to implement but imposes a limit on the allowable time step
in order to avoid instabilities in the solution and the implicit method requires the nodal
temperatures to be solved simultaneously for each time step but imposes no limit on the
magnitude of the .time step

## (a) Explicit Method for One-dimensional Transient conduction in a Plane Wall:

Consider unsteady one dimensional conduction in a plane wall of thickness L with heat
generation per unit volume equal to q'g' ' (x,t). In generalthe heat generation may wary with
time and position. Let the conductivity of the wall be a constant equal to k. The wall is
subdivided into M small regions so that the thickness of each such small region is Δx =
L/M.For any internal small regions shown in Fig.5 18 the energy balance equation per unit
time can be written as follows:

246
(Q'g' ' )i

Qi-1,I Qi+1,i

x
0 1 2 3 i-1 i i+1 M-1 M

## Fig. 5.18: Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding an internal

node i

ΔE
Qi-1,i+ Qi+1,i + (Qg) i =
Δt

T ki−1−T ki T ki +1−T ik
Or k AΔx ( Δx ) + k AΔx ( Δx ) + AΔx q'g' ' = ρAΔxCp

T ki +1−T ki
( Δt )
T ki−1 +T ki+1−2 T ik
( )
k +1 k

( T i −T i
Δt ) =α
( Δx )2

## The above equation simplifies to

' '' 2
q g Δx
T ik+1 = τ (T ki−1+ T ki+ 1) + ( 1−2 τ ) T ki + τ ; i = 1,2,3,…..M-1
k
(5.48)

αΔt
Where τ=
Δx 2
(5.49)

τ is the Fourier number for the element under consideration with characteristic length Δx.

247
Eq. (5.48) is called the explicit scheme because the temperature at any node i at the present
time step (k+1) is explicitly expressed in terms of the temperatures at the previous time step
k.

Restriction on τ (Stability Criterion): The explicit method, though easy to use has an
undesirable feature which restricts its utility. The method is not unconditionally stable and
there is a restriction on the value of the parameter τ if the scheme has to be stable.The
restriction is that in Eq.(5.48) ( 1−2 τ ) ≥ 0 i.e.

0<τ≤ ½ (5.50)

This restriction implies that for given values of α and Δx, the time step Δt cannot exceed the
limit imposed on it by Eq. (5.50). This is called the stability criterion. It can be shown
mathematically or by invoking second law of thermodynamics that the stability criterion is
satisfied if the coefficients of all T ik in the expressions for T ik+1 are greater than or
equal to zero for all nodes.If this stability criterion is violated then the solution becomes
unstable as shown in Fig.5.19.It is instructive to determine this stability criterion by the
following physical argument.
k
Let at any time step k the temperatures T i−1 and T ik+1 at nodes i-1 and i+1 are
equal but less than T ik at node i between them. Then if the value of τ exceeds ½, the
coefficient ( 1−2 τ ) becomes negative. Then, according to Eq.(5.48),for negative value of
( 1−2 τ ) , the temperature T ik+1 at node i at the next time step will be less than that at the
neighbouring two nodes. This is not possible according to the second law of
thermodynamics, since we had assumed that T ik higher than that at neighboring nodes.
Hence to obtain meaningful solution it is necessary that ( 1−2 τ ) should not be negative.

Exact solution

## Fig. 5.19: Effects of the parameter τ on stability of

finite difference solution

Finite Difference Equations for Nodes on Boundaries: Eq. (5.48) can be used for all
internal nodes (i = 1,2,3,……………M-1).If the boundary temperatures are specified then we
have M-1 equations to solve for the temperatures at M-1 nodes.If the boundaries are
subjected to convection or prescribed surface heat flux then we have to develop the finite
difference equations for the boundary nodes also to determine the boundary temperatures.The

248
time dependent energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node 0 (see
Fig.5.20) subjected to convection can be written as follows:

k
(Q'g' ' ) 0

h 0 , T∞
0 1
Δx/2

Δx

## Fig.5.20: Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding boundary node 0

k ΔE
Q1-0 + Qconvection + (Q'g' ' )0 =
Δt

T k1 −T 0K
Or kA ( Δx ) + h0 A (T ∞−T k0 ) + A(Δx/2)
k
(q 'g'' )0 = ρ A(Δx/2) Cp

T k0 +1−T k0
( Δt )
Solving for T k+1
0 we get

## h 0 Δx k h0 Δx Δx 2 ' ' ' k

T k+1
0 = ( 1−2 τ −2 τ
k )
T 0 + 2τ T 1k + 2τ
k
T∞ + τ
k
( qg )0
(5.51)

Similarly for the other boundary node M subjected to convection boundary condition the
finite difference equation can be written as

h M Δx k hM Δx 2
T k+1
M = ( 1−2 τ −2 τ
k )TM + 2τ T kM−1 + 2τ
k
T∞ + τ
Δx ' ' ' k
k
( qg )0
(5.52)
k k
For stability of the scheme the coefficients of T 0 and T M should be ≥ 0. i.e.

249
(1−2 τ −2 τ h kΔx ) ≥ 0
0
and (1−2 τ −2 τ MΔx
k )
≥0

1
Or τ≤
2( 1+ h0 Δx /k )
(5.53a)

1
and τ≤
2(1+ hM Δx /k)
(5.53b)

Example 5.10.A marble slab[k = 2W/(m – 0C) and α = 1*10 −6 m2/s],2 cm thick is initially at
a uniform temperature of 200 0C. Suddenly one of its surfaces is lowered to 00C and is
maintained at that temperature, while the other surface is kept insulated. Develop an explicit
finite difference scheme to determine the temperature distribution in the slab as a function of
position after 80 seconds have elapsed by dividing the slab into 5 sub-regions and also find
the heat flux at the boundary surface which is maintained at 00C after 80 seconds.

Insulated T5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 x

## Known: L = 2=0.02 m; k = 2 W/(m-K); α = 1* 10 −6 m 2/s; T5 = 00C; M = 5;T5 = 00C

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to determine temperatures at nodes 0 to 4at different
time steps; (ii) q5k

## Assumptions: (i)solid is having constant thermal properties;(ii) one dimensional conduction

across the thickness of the slab

Solution: The finite difference equations for internal nodes from 1 to 4 are given by Eq.
(5.48) and (5.49) with q'g' ' = 0 and M = 5. With these conditions we have

Ti
k+1
=τ (T ki−1+ T ki+ 1) + ( 1−2 τ ) T ki i = 1,2,3,and 4.

## Therefore for node 1 we have T 1k+1 = τ (T k0 +T k2 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k1 (a)

250
For i = 2 T 2k+1 = τ (T k1 +T k3 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k2 (b)

For i = 3 T3
k+1
=τ (T k2 +T k4 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k3 (c)

For i = 4 T k+1
4 =τ (T k3 +T k5 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k4 (d)

## Since the surface at x = 0 is insulated then

k k

( T 0 −T 1
Δx ) = 0 for all k.

k+1 k+1
Therfore we have T 0 =T 1 (e)

## For stability it follows that 1 − 2τ ≥ 0.

αΔt
Choosing 1 − 2τ = 0 we have τ = ½ =
Δx 2

Δx 2 0.004 2
Or Δt = = = 8 s.
2α 2∗1∗10−6

## T 1k+1 = 0.5* (T k0 +T k2 ) (i)

k+1
T2 = 0.5* (T k1 +T k3 ) (ii)

## T 3k+1 = 0.5* (T k2 +T k4 ) (iii)

T4
k+1
= 0.5* (T k3 +T k5 ) (iv)

T k+1
0 = T 1k+1 (v)

Eqs. (i) to (v) are used to calculate the temperatures at different nodes for each time step as
shown in the table below :

## Table E5.10 Finite difference calculations of temperatures for example 5.10

k t (s) i=0 1 2 3 4 5
x(m) = 0 00.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020

251
0 0 200 200 200 200 200 200
1 8 200 200 200 200 200 0.00
2 16 200 200 200 200 100 0.00
3 24 200 200 200 150 100 0.00
4 32 200 200 175 150 75 0.00
5 40 187.5 187.5 175 125 75 0.00
6 48 181.2 181.2 156.25 125 62.5 0.00
7 56 168.7 168.7 153.1 109.4 62.5 0.00
8 64 160.9 160.9 139.1 107.8 54.7 0.00
9 72 150 150 134.4 96.9 53.9 0.00
10 80 142.2 142.2 123.5 94.2 48.5 0.00

Heat flux at the boundary surface at x = L after t = 80 s i.e after 10 time steps is given by

10 10
q10
M =k ( T 4 −T 5
Δx ) =2* ( 48.5−0.0
0.004 )
= 24,250W/m 2

Example 5.11. A large uranium plate of thickness 4 cm, thermal conductivity 28 W/(m-K)
and thermal diffusivity of 12.5* 10 −6 m2/s is initially at a uniform temperature of 200
0
C.Heat is generated at a constant rate of 5*10 6 W/m3.Suddenly at time t = 0, one side of the
plate is brought into contact with iced water and is maintained at 0 0C at all times, while the
other side is subjected to convection to an environment at 30 0C with a heat transfer
coefficient of 45 W/(m2-K). Considering a total of three equally spaced nodes, two at the
boundaries and one at the middle of the plate, estimate the temperature distribution in the
plate 150 s after the start of the cooling process using explicit method.

## Sketch for example 5.11

Node 1
L

T0 h,T∞

0 2 x

Δx/2
Δx
Known: L = 4 cm =0.04 m; k = 28 W/(m-K); α = 12.5 * 10 −6 m 2/s; T0 = 00C; M = 3;
T∞ = 300C;h2 = 45 W/(m 2-K); q'g' ' = 5 * 10 6 W/m3;

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to determine temperatures at nodes 1 and 2 after time
150 s

252
Assumptions: (i)the plate is having constant thermal properties and constant rate of heat
generation (ii) one dimensional conduction across the thickness of the plate

Solution: The finite difference equations for internal node 1 is given by Eq. (5.48) and
(5.49) with i = 1 and M = 2. With these conditions we have
' '' 2
q g Δx
T1
k+1
=τ (T k0 +T k2 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k1 + τ
k
(a)

αΔt
Where τ=
Δx 2

The finite difference equation for boundary node 2 is given by Eq.(5.52) with M = 2.

## h 2 Δx k h2 Δx Δx 2 ' ' ' k

i.e. k+1
T2 = ( 1−2 τ −2 τ
k )
T 2 + 2τ T 1k + 2τ
k
T∞ + τ
k
( qg )0
(b)

h2 Δx 45∗0.02
Δx = L / M = 0.04/2 = 0.02 m ; = = 0.032
k 28

From Eq.(a) for stability of the difference scheme 1−2 τ ≥ 0 or τ ≤ 0.5 (c)

## And from Eq.(b) for stability (1−2 τ −2 τ h kΔx ) 2

≥0

1
Or (1 - 2τ – 2*0.032τ ) ≥ 0 i.e. τ ≤ i.e. ≤ 0.484
2.064
(d)

Therefore we have to choose a value of τ which satisfies both Eqs. (c) and (d)

0.484∗( 0.02 )2
Let τ = 0.484. Then Δt = = 15.5 s.
12.5∗10−6

Any time step ≤ 15.5 s can be used. Since we want the temperature after 150 s it will be
convenient to choose Δt = 15 s so that we get the required temperatures at nodes 1 and 2 after
10 time steps.Therefore
−6
12.5∗10 ∗15
τ= = 0.46875
( 0.02 )2

## Substituting this value of τ in Eqs. (a) and (b) we get

253
1−2∗0.46875 5∗106 (0.02)2
k+1
T1 = 0.46875* (T k0 +T k2 ) +( ¿) T
k + 0.46875*
1 28
k+1 k k
Or T1 = 0.0625 T 1 + 0.46875 T 2 + 33,482
(i)

## and T 2k+1 = 0.9375 T 1k + 0.032366 T 2k + 34,386

(ii)

The temperatures at nodes 1 and 2 at each time step are calculated using the above two
equations and substituting the temperatures at the previous time step. The results are shown
in Table E5.11

## Table E5.11 Finite difference calculations of temperatures in 0C for example 5.11

k t (s) i=0 1 2
x(m) = 0 0.02 0.04
0 0 0 200 200
1 15 0 139.7 228.4
2 30 0 149.3 172.8
3 45 0 123.8 179.9
4 60 0 125.6 156.3
5 75 0 114.6 157.1
6 90 0 114.3 146.9
7 105 0 109.5 146.3
8 120 0 108.9 141.8
9 135 0 106.7 141.1
10 150 0 106.3 139.0

254
5.8.1(b). Explicit Method for One-dimensional Transient Radial conduction in a cylinder

## (i) Finite difference Equations for internal nodes i (i = 1,2,3, M-1):

The energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node i (see Fig. 5.5) for a
time step Δt can be written as follows.

ΔE
Qi-1,i+ Qi+1,i + (Qg) i =
Δt

Or

k [ ( ) ] [ ]
2 π iΔr−
Δr
2
∗1
T ki−1−T ik
Δr
+ ( 2 πiΔr∗Δr∗1 ) q'i ' '

[ ( ) ] [ ]
k k k +1 k
+ k 2 π iΔr +
Δr
2
∗1
T i+1−T i
Δr
= ρ *2πiΔr2*1*Cp ( T i −T i
Δt )
i = 1,2,3……M-1

## After simplification the above equation reduces to

T ik+1 = τ [( ) ( )
1−
1 k
2i
T i−1+ 1+
1 k
2i
T i+1 +q'i ' '
Δr2
k ] + [ 1−2 τ ] T ki

i = 1,2,3……M-1
αΔt
where τ = and α = k/(ρCp )
Δr 2
(5.54)

## (ii) Finite difference Equations for innermost node 0:

Referring to Fig. 5.5, the energy balance equation for node 0 can be written as follows:

Δr 2
k ( Δr
2 π ∗1
2 )[
T 0 −T 1
Δr ] + q'0' ' π
2

( Δr2 ) *1 = ρCpπ ( )
2
∗1∗( T 0k+1−T k0 )

Δt

255
After simplification the above equation reduces to

T k+1
0 = 4τ
[ k
T +
1
q'0' ' ( Δr )2
k ] + [ 1−4 τ ] T k0
(5.56)

## For stability of numerical solution (1 - 4τ) ≥ 0 or τ ≤ ¼ (5.57)

(iii) Finite difference Equation for outermost node M when outer surface is subjected to
prescribed heat flux: The nomenclature for the volume element surrounding the outer most node M
is shown in Fig. 5.21.Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows:

M qs
M-1

MΔr

## Fig.5.21: Nomenclature for volume element surrounding the node M with

prescribed heat flux

## k *2π [ MΔr – Δr/2] *1

( T kM−1−T kM ) + 2π MΔr*1 qs + π [(MΔr)2 − (MΔr – Δr/2)2]*1*
Δr
'''
q M

M − T kM ¿ / Δt

256
[ ]
1 1
T k+1
=4 τ
( 1−
2M)
T
k
+ 1−4 τ
( 1−
2M )
T
k
+
4 τ q s Δr
1 +
M

(2− 21M )
M −1

(2− 21M )
M
(
k 2−
2M )
τ q'M' ' ( Δr )2
(5.58)
k

[ ]
1

## For stability, 1−4 τ

( 1−
2M )
≥0
(2− 21M )
(5.59)

(iii) Finite difference Equation for outermost node M when outer surface is in contact with a
fluid at a uniform temperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h (convective
boundary condition):

The nomenclature for the volume element surrounding the outer most node M is shown in Fig.
5.22.Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows:

## k *2π [ MΔr – Δr/2] *1

( T kM −1−T kM ) + 2π MΔr*1*h [ T ∞−T kM ]
Δr

M − T kM ¿ / Δt

## After simplification the above equation reduces to

M h,T∞
M-1

MΔr

257
Fig.5.21: Nomenclature for volume element surrounding the node M subjected to
convective condition

[ ]
1 1
TM
k+1
=4 τ
( 1−
2M) k
T M −1 + 1−4 τ
( 1−
2M )

4 τ hΔr k
TM +
(2− 21M ) (2− 21M ) k ( 2− 21M )
4 τ hΔr T ∞
τ q'M' ' ( Δr )2
1 +
(
k 2−
2M ) k
(5.60)

[ ]
1

## For stability, 1−4 τ

( 1−
2M )

4 τ hΔr
≥0
(2− 21M ) k ( 2− 21M )
(5.61)

## Example 5.12.A long chrome steel cylinder[k = 40 W/(m-K);α = 1.1 * 10 −5m2/s] 4 cm in

diameter is initially at a uniform temperature of 1000C. It is suddenly subjected to a
convection environment at 500C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 400 W/(m 2- K).
Assuming one dimensional radial unsteady state conduction determine the radial
temperature distribution in the cylinder 9 seconds after the exposure to the environment
using explicit finite difference scheme.

Schematic : The cylinder is divided equally as shown in the figure with Δr = R/2, where

Δr 2 h,T∞

Δr/2 1

0 R
.
R is the radius of the cylinder.

## Known: k = 40 W/(m-K); α = 1.1 * 10 – 5 m2/s;

R = 0.02 m; Δr = 0.02/2 = 0.01 m; M = 2; Initial temperatures at the three nodes,
T 00=T 01=T 02 = 100 0C; T∞ = 50 0C; h = 400 W/(m2-K) ; Length of cylinder = 1 m

258
Find: Temperatures at the nodes after 9 seconds.

Assumptions: (i) Constant physical properties for aluminium; (ii) Radial unsteady state
conduction

## Solution: Finite difference equation for the internal node 1:

The finite difference equation for the internal node 1 is given by Eq.(5.54) with i = 1.

αΔt
where τ = 2 .
Δr

## Finite difference equation for the innermost node 0:

The finite difference equation for the internal node 0 is given by Eq.(5.54) with q'0' ' = 0.

k+1
i.e. T0 = 4τ T 1k + [ 1−4 τ ] T k0
…………………………………(3)

## Finite difference equation for the outermost node 2:

The finite difference equation for the outermost node 2 is given by Eq.(5.60) with q'2' ' = 0.

[ ]
1 1

i.e., T
k+1
=4 τ
( 1− )
4
T
k
+ 1−4 τ
( 1− )
4

4 τ hΔr
T
k
+
4 τ hΔr T ∞
2

(2− 14 )
1

(2− 14 ) k (2− 14 )
M
( 14 )
k 2−

## Or T 2k+1=¿ 1.714τ T 1k + [ 1−1.714 τ −

4 τ∗400∗0.01 k
40∗1.75
T2 + ] 4 τ∗400∗0.01∗50
40∗1.75

k+1 k k
Or T 2 =¿ 1.714τ T 1 + [ 1 – 1.943τ] T 2 + …………………….
(5)

259
1
For stability 1 – 1.943τ ≥ 0 Or τ ≤
1.943
………………………….(6)
The numerical value of τ has to be selected such that all the three stability conditions viz.,
Eqs.(2),(4) and (6) are satisfied. The condition τ ≤ ¼ will satisfy all the three stability
condtions.Hence choose τ ≤ ¼ : i.e. τ ≤ 0.25.

## αΔt 0.25∗( 0.01 )2

Then ≤ 0.25 or Δt ≤
Δr 2 1.1∗10−5

Or Δt ≤ 2.27 s

t 9
Selecting Δt = 2.25 s, τ = 0.247 no of time steps required = = =4
Δt 2.25

With the value of τ = 0.247 the nodal equations (1), (3) and (5) reduce to

T k+1
0 = 0.012 T k0 + 0.988 T 1k (a)

k+1
T1 = 0.123 T k0 + 0.506 T 1k + ¿ 0.37 T 2k
(b)
k+1
And T 2 =¿ 0.423 T 1k + 0.52 T 2k + 2.82 (c)

The temperatures at the three nodes at different time steps are calculated using Eqs. (a), (b)
and (c) and are shown in the table below.

Time step (k) Δt (s) t = kΔt (s) Temperature at different nodes (0C)
T0 T1 T2
0 2.25 0 100 100 100
1 2.25 2.25 100 99.9 97.10
2 2.25 4.50 99.9 98.78 95.57
3 2.25 6.75 98.79 97.63 94.30
4 2.25 9.00 97.64 96.44 93.15

260
5.8.2.Implicit Method for Transient conduction

In the explicit finite difference scheme, the temperature at any node at time (t + Δt)
is calculated from knowledge of temperatures at the same and neighboring nodes for the
preceding time t. Hence determination of temperature at a node at some time is independent
of temperatures at other nodes for the same time. This method, though offers computational
convenience, it suffers from the limitations on the time step Δt. For a given Δx, the time step
is limited by the stability requirements as illustrated in examples 5.10 and 5.11. This dictates
the use of smaller Δt resulting in large number of time steps to determine the transient
tenmpeartures of the nodes after certain time.By employing an implicit scheme the restriction
on Δt can be completely eliminated.In the implicit scheme the space derivatives in finite
difference form are expressed using temperatures of the all the nodes at time t+∆t, while the
backward finite difference form of the derivative of temeperature iwthrespect to time is
used.

Refering to Fig 5.18, for a plane wall the energy balance equation in implicit form for any
internal node can be written as

T ki−1−T k+ 1
T ki +1−T ik+1 T ki +1−T ki
k AΔx ( Δx
i
) + k AΔx ( Δx ) + AΔx q'''
g = ρAΔxCp ( Δt )
i = 1,2,3….. M – 1

## k +1 k+1 k +1 q'i ' ' τ ∆ x 2 k

( 1+2 τ ) T 1 – τ [T 1−1 −T i+1 ]= k +T i i = 1,2,3….. M – 1

Similar equations for the boundary nodes 0 and M can be obtained depending on the
boundary conditions specified.

261
Chapter 6

## Basic Concepts of Convective Heat Transfer

6.1. Definition of Convective Heat Transfer:- When a fluid flows over a body or inside a
channel and if the temperatures of the fluid and the solid surface are different, heat transfer
will take place between the solid surface and the fluid due to the macroscopic motion of the
fluid relative to the surface. This mechanism of heat transfer is called as “convective heat
transfer”.If the fluid motion is due to an external force (by using a pump or a compressor)
the heat transfer is referred to as “forced convection”. If the fluid motion is due to a force
generated in the fluid due to buoyancy effects resulting from density difference (density
difference may be caused due to temperature difference in the fluid) then the mechanism of
heat transfer is called as “natural or free convection”.For example, a hot plate suspended
vertically in quiescent air causes a motion of air layer adjacent to the plate surface because
the temperature gradient in the air gives rise to a density gradient which in turn sets up the air
motion.

6.2. Heat Transfer Coefficient:- In engineering application, to simplify the heat transfer
calculations between a hot surface say at temperature Tw and a cold fluid flowing over it at a
bulk temperature T∞ as shown in Fig. 6.1 a term called “heat transfer coefficient,h” is defined
by the equation

q = h(Tw – T∞)………………………………………………..6.1(a)

where q is the heat flux (expressed in W / m2) from the surface to the flowing fluid.
Alternatively if the surface temperature is lower than the flowing fluid then the heat transfer
takes place from the hot fluid to the cold surface and the heat flux is given by

q = h(T∞ – Tw)………………………………………………..6.1(b)

The heat flux in this case takes place from the fluid to the cold surface.If in equations 6.1(a)
and 6.1(b) the heat flux is expressed in W / m2, then the units of heat transfer coefficient will
be W /(m 2 – K) or W / (m 2 – 0 C).

The heat transfer coefficient is found to vary with (i) the geometry of
the body, (ii) the type of flow (laminar or turbulent), (iii) the transport properties of the fluid

262
(density, viscosity,specific heat and thermal conductivity),(iv) the difference in temperature
between the average temperature of the fluid and the surface with which the fluid is in
contact , (v) the position along the surface of the body, and (vi) whether the heat transfer is
by forced convection or free convection. For convection problems involving simple
geometries like flow over a flat plate or flow inside a circular tube, the heat transfer
coefficient can be

u∞, T∞ T∞

y

x Tw

## Fig. 6.1: Temperature distribution of the fluid at any x for Tw > T∞

determined analytically. But for flow over complex configurations, experimental / numerical
approach is used to determine h.There is a wide difference in the range of values of h for
various applications.Typical values of heat transfer coefficients encountered in some
applications are given in Table 6.1.

## Boiling water 3000 – 55000

263
Condensing steam 5500 – 120000

6.3. Basic concepts for flow over a body:- When a fluid flows over a body, the velocity and
temperature distribution at the vicinity of the surface of the body strongly influence the heat
transfer by convection.By introducing the concept of boundary layers (velocity boundary
layer and thermal boundary layer) the analysis of convective heat transfer can be simplified.

6.3.1.Velocity Boundary Layer:- Consider the flow of a fluid over a flat plate as shown in
Fig. 6.2 The fluid just before it approaches the leading edge of the plate has a velocity u ∞
which is parallel to the plate surface.As the fluid moves in x-direction along the plate,

u∞
y

u(x, y)
δ(x)
u(x, y)

x
xcr Turbulent Region
Laminar Region Transition

Fig. 6.2: Velocity boundary layer for flow over a flat plate

those fluid particles that makes contact with the plate surface will have the same velocity as
that of the plate. Therefore if the plate is stationary, then the fluid layer sticking to the plate
surface will have zero velocity (This is called no-slip condition).But far away from the plate
(y = ∞) the fluid will have the velocity u ∞.Therefore starting from the plate surface (y = 0)
there will be retardation of the fluid in x-direction component of velocity u(x,y).This
retardation effect is reduced as we move away from the plate surface.At distances sufficiently
long from the plate(y = ∞) the retardation effect is completely reduced: i.e. u → u ∞ as y → ∞.
This means that there is a region surrounding the plate surface where the fluid velocity
changes from zero at the surface to the velocity u∞ at the outer edge of the region. This region
is called the velocity boundary layer. The variation of the x-component of velocity u(x,y)
with respect to y at a particular location along the plate is shown in Fig. 6.2.The distance
measured normal to the surface from the plate surface to the point at which the fluid attains
99% of u∞ is called “velocity boundary layer thickness” and denoted by δ(x)
Thus for flow over a flat plate, the flow field can be divided into two distinct regions,
namely, (i) the boundary layer region in which the axial component of velocity u(x,y) varies

264
rapidly with y with the result the velocity gradient (∂u /∂y) and hence the shear stress are
very large and (ii) the potential flow region which is outside the boundary layer region,
where the velocity gradients and shear stresses are negligible.

The flow in the boundary layer, starting from the leading edge of the
plate will be initially laminar in which the fluid particles move along a stream line in an
orderly manner. In the laminar region the retardation effect is due to the viscosity of the fluid
and therefore the shear stress can be evaluated using Newton’s law of viscocity.The laminar
flow continues along the plate until a critical distance ‘x cr’ is reached. After this the small
disturbances in the flow begin to grow and fluid fluctuations begin to develop. This
characterizes the end of the laminar flow region and the beginning of transition from laminar
to turbulent boundary layer. A dimensionless parameter called Reynolds number is used to
characterize the flow as laminar or turbulent. For flow over a flat plate the Reynolds number
is defined as

u∞ x
Rex =
ν
……………………….6.2

where u∞ = free-stream velocity of the fluid, x = distance from the leading edge of the plate
and ν = kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

For flow over a flat plate it has been found that the transition from
laminar flow to turbulent flow takes place when the Reynolds number is ≈ 5 x 10 5.This
number is called as the critical Reynolds number Recr for flow over a flat plate.Therefore

u ∞ x cr 5
Re cr = = 5 x 10
ν
………….6.3

The critical Reynolds number is strongly dependent on the surface roughness and the
turbulence level of the free stream fluid. For example, with very large disturbances in the free
stream, the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow may begin at Re x as low as 1 x 10 5
and for flows which are free from disturbances and if the plate surface is smooth transition
may not take place until a Reynolds number of 1 x 10 6 is reached.But it has been found that
for flow over a flat plate the boundary layer is always turbulent for Re x ≥ 4 x 10 6.In the
turbulent boundary layer next to the wall there is a very thin layer called “the viscous sub-
layer”, where the flow retains its viscous flow character. Next to the viscous sub-layer is a
region called “buffer layer” in which the effect of fluid viscosity is of the same order of
magnitude as that of turbulence and the mean velocity rapidly increases with the distance
from the plate surface.Next to the buffer layer is “the turbulent layer” in which there is large
scale turbulence and the velocity changes relatively little with distance.

Boundary Layer Concept for flow over a Curved Body: Fig. 6.3 illustrates the boundary
layer growth for flow over a curved body.Here ‘x’ coordinate is measured along the curved
surface of the body. Starting from the stagnation point, and at each location along x, the y

265
coordinate is measured normal to the surface of the body.The free stream velocity U ∞, in this
case is not a constant as in the case of flow over a flat plate but is a function of x. The

Fig. 6.3: Boundary layer growth for flow over a curved body

boundary layer thickness δ(x) increases with the distance x along the surface. But, because of
the curvature of the body, after some distance, the velocity profile u(x,y) exhibits a point of
inflexion; that is at this location (ðu / ðy) becomes zero at the wall surface. Beyond the point
of inflexion, reversal of flow takes place, and the boundary layer is said to be detached from
the surface.Beyond the point of flow reversal the flow become very complicated and the boundary
layer analysis is no longer valid.

6.3.2. Drag coefficient and Drag force:- If the velocity distribution u(x,y) in the boundary
layer at any ‘x’ is known then the viscous shear stress at the wall can be determined using
Newton’s law of viscosity. Thus the wall-shear stress, τ w(x) at any location x can be written
as :

## τw(x) = μ ( ∂∂uy ) y=0

………………….6.4

where μ is the absolute viscosity of the fluid.The drag coefficient is dimensionless wall shear
stress. Therefore the local drag coefficient, Cx at any ‘x’ is defined as

τ w ( x)
Cx = 1 2
ρu
2 ∞
……………………….6.5

Substituting for τw(x) in the above equation from Eq. 6.4 and simplifying we get

2ν (∂u / ∂y)y = 0
Cx = ---------------------- ……………….6.6

266
u∞2

Therefore if the velocity profile u(x,y) at any x is known then the local drag coefficient C x at
that location can be determined from Eq. 6.6.The average value of C x for a total length L of
the plate can be determined from the equation
L
Cav = (1/L) ∫Cx dx ……………………6.7
0

## Substituting for Cx from Eq. 5.5 we have

L
∫ τw(x)dx
Cav = ------------------------
L (1/2) ρu∞2

_
τw
Or Cav = -------------------- ……………….6.8
(1/2) ρu∞2
_
Where τw is the average wall-shear stress for total length L of the plate.

The total drag force experienced by the fluid due to the presence of the plate can be written
as
_
FD = As τw …………………………….6.9

Where As is the total area of contact between the fluid and the plate. If ‘W’ is the width of the
plate then As = LW if the flow is taking place on one side of the plate and A s = 2LW if the
flow is on both sides of the plate.

6.3.3.Thermal boundary layer:- Similar to the velocity boundary layer one can visualize the
development of a thermal boundary layer when a fluid flows over a flat plate with the
temperature of the plate being different from that of the free stream fluid.Consider that a fluid
at a uniform temperature T∞ flows over a flat plate which is maintained at a uniform
temperature Tw.Let T(x,y) is the temperature of the fluid at any location in the flow field.Let
the dimensionless temperature of the fluid θ(x,y) be defined as
T(x,y) – Tw
θ(x,y) = ------------------- …………………………….6.10
T∞ − Tw

The fluid layer sticking to the plate surface will have the same temperature as the plate
surface [T(x,y)y = 0 = Tw] and therefore θ(x,y) = 0 at y = 0.Far away from the plate the fluid
temperature is T∞ and hence θ(x,y) → 1 as y → ∞. Therefore at each location x along the
plate one can visualize a location y = δ t(x) in the flow field at which θ(x,y) = 0.99. δ t(x) is
called “the thermal boundary layer thickness” as shown in Fig. 6.3. The locus of such

267
points at which θ(x,y) = 0.99 is called the edge of the thermal boundary layer. The relative
thickness of the thermal boundary layer δt(x) and the velocity

boundary layer δ(x) depends on a dimensionless number called “Prandtl number” of the
fluid.It is denoted by Pr and is defined as
μCp (μ/ρ) ν
Pr = --------- = ---------- = -------- ………..6.11
k (k/ρCp) α

Where μ is the absolute viscosity of the fluid, Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure

k is the thermal conductivity,υ is the kinematic viscosity and α is the thermal diffusivity of
the fluid.The Prandtl number for fluids range from 0.01 for liquid metals to more than
100,000 for heavy oils. For fluids with Pr = 1 such as gases δ t(x) = δ(x), for fluids with Pr
<< 1,such as liquid metals, δt(x) >> δ(x) and for fluids with Pr >> 1, like oils δt(x) << δ(x).

6.3.4. General expression for heat transfer coefficient:- Let us assume that Tw > T∞.Then
heat is transferred from the plate to the fluid flowing over the plate.Therefore at any ‘x’ the
heat flux is given by
q = − k (∂T /∂y)y=0 ………………………..6.12(a)

In terms of the local heat transfer coefficient hx, the heat flux can also be written as

## From equations 5.12(a) and 5.12(b) it follows that

− k (∂T /∂y)y=0
hx = ------------------ ………………………6.13
(Tw − T∞)

268
From equation 6.10 we have (∂T /∂y)y=0 = [T∞ − Tw] (∂θ /∂y)y=0. Substituting this expression
in Eq.6.13 and simplifying we get the general expression for hx as

## hx = k (∂θ /∂y)y=0 …………………………….6.14

The same expression for hx could be obtained even when Tw < T∞. Equation 6.14 can be used
to determine the local heat transfer coefficient for flow over a flat plate if the dimensionless
temperature profile θ(x,y) is known.

Average heat transfer coefficient:- For a total length L of the plate the average heat transfer
coefficient is given by
L
hav = (1 /L) ∫hxdx ……………………………..6.15a
0

## Substituting for hx from Eq. 6.14 we get

L
hav = (1 /L) ∫ k (∂θ /∂y)y=0 dx ………………….6.15b
0

Since (∂θ /∂y)y=0 at any x depends on whether the flow at that section is laminar or turbulent
the expression for hav can be written as

xcr L
hav = (1 /L) { ∫ k [(∂θ /∂y)y=0]laminar dx + ∫ k [(∂θ /∂y)y=0]turbulent dx }……5.16
0
xcr

Relation Between Fluid Friction and Heat Transfer (Reynolds – Colburn Analogy):
For laminar flow over a flat plate an analogy between momentum transfer and heat transfer
exists; that is, it is possible to establish a relation between the local drag coefficient, C x and
the local Nusselt number Nux as shown below.
The excat expression for the local drag coefficient is given by

## (Cx / 2 ) = 0.332 Rex─ ½ ……………………….6.17a

The exact expression for the local Nusselt number, Nux is given by

## Another dimensionless number called “STANTON NUMBER” is defined as

hx
Stx = -------------- .
ρ Cp u∞
The expression for Stx can be written as
hx x /k Nux

269
Stx = -------------------------- = ---------------
(ρ x u∞ /μ) (μ Cp/k) Rex Pr

## Or Stx Pr 2/3 = Cx / 2 ………………………………..6.18

Eq. 6.18 is also applicable to turbulent flow over a flat plate, but it does not apply to flow
through tubes.This analogy is referred to as “Reynolds – Colburn Analogy”.

## Illustrative examples on flow over a flat plate:

Example 6.1:- Assuming the transition from laminar to turbulent flow takes place at a
Reynolds number of 5 x 10 5, determine the distance from the leading edge of a flat plate at
which transition occurs for the flow of each of the following fluids with a velocity of 2 cm/s
at 40 0 C.(i) Air at atmospheric pressure;(ii)Hydrogen at atmospheric pressure;(iii) water;
(iv) Engine oil;(v) mercury.Comment on the type of flow for the 5 fluids if the total length of
the plate is 1 m.

## (i)Air at atmospheric pressure :- At 40 0 C, ν = 17 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

u∞ xcr Recr ν 5 x 10 5 x 17 x 10 − 6
Recr = ----------- or xcr = -------------------- = ---------------------------- = 4.25 m.
ν u∞ 2

## (ii) Hydrogen :- For hydrogen at 40 0 C, ν = 117.9 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

5 x 10 5 x 117.9 x 10 − 6
Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 29.5 m
2

## (iii) Water :- For water at 40 0 C, ν = 0.658 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

5 x 10 5 x 0.658 x 10 − 6
Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 0.1645 m
2

## (iv) Engine oil :- For engine oil at 40 0 C, ν = 0.24 x 10 − 3 m2/s.

5 x 10 5 x 0.24 x 10 − 3
Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 60 m

270
2

## (v) Mercury :- For mercury at 40 0 C, ν = 0.107 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

5 x 10 5 x 0.107 x 10 − 6
Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 0.027 m
2

## 2 Hydrogen 29.5 xcr>> L Flow is laminar for entire length

3 Water 0.1645 xcr < L Flow is partly Laminar & Partly Turbulent

## 4 Engine oil 60 xcr >> L Flow is laminar for entire length

5 Mercury 0.027 xcr << L Flow is turbulent for almost entire length

Example 6.2:- An approximate expression for the velocity profile u(x,y) for laminar
boundary layer flow along a flat plate is given by

## u(x, y)/ u∞ =2[y / δ(x)] − 2[y / δ(x)] 3+ [y / δ(x)] 4

where δ(x) is the velocity boundary layer thickness given by the expression

## (a) Develop an expression for the local drag coefficient.

(b) Develop an expression for the average drag coefficient for a length L of the plate.
(c) Determine the drag force acting on the plate 2 m x 2 m for flow of air with a free
stream velocity of 4 m /s and a temperature of 80 0C.

## Solution:- (a) The velocity profile u(x,y) is given as

u(x, y) = u∞ {2[y / δ(x)] − 2[y / δ(x)] 3+ [y / δ(x)] 4 }

271
Therefore (∂u / ∂y)y=0 = 2u∞ / δ(x)

## (2 μu∞) Rex (2 μu∞) [(u∞x) / ν]1/2

= ----------------- = ------------------------ = 0.343 (μu∞) [u∞ /(x ν)]1/2 ….(1 )
5.83 x 5.83 x

## τw(x) 0.343 (μu∞) [u∞ /(x ν)]1/2

Cx = ----------------- = -------------------------------------------
(1/2) ρu∞2 (1/2) ρu∞2

0.686 0.686
= ---------------------- = -----------------
{(u∞x) / ν}1/2 (Rex) ½

## (b) The average drag coefficient is given by

L L
Cav = (1/L) ∫ Cx dx = (1/L) ∫ 0.686 (Rex) − ½ dx
0
1

{ 0.686 (u∞/ν) − ½} L
= ----------------------- ∫ x − ½ dx
0
L

Or 2 x 0.686 1.372
Cav = --------------- = ------------------
(u∞L / ν) ½ (ReL) ½

## (c) At 80 0 C for air ν = 20.76 x 10 − 6 m2 / s ; ρ = 1.00 kg / m 3

u∞L 4x2
ReL = ----------------- = ------------------- = 3.793 x 10 5
ν 21.09 x 10 − 6

1.372 1.372
Average drag coefficient = Cav = ------------------- = ------------------------ = 2.228 x 10 − 3
ReL0.5 (3.793 x 10 5)0.5

Drag force assuming that the flow takes place on one side of the plate is given by
_
FD = τw LW = (1/2)ρ u∞2 Cav LW for flow over one side of the plate

272
= (1/2) x 1.00 x 42 x 2.2228 x 10 − 3 x 2 x 2

= 0.071 N

Example 6.3:- An approximate expression for temperature profile θ(x,y) in the thermal
boundary layer region for flow over a flat plate is given by

## where the thermal boundary layer thickness δt is given by

5.5
δt / x = ----------------- ; Rex is the Reynolds number based on ‘x’ and
Rex0.5Pr 1/3
Pr is the Prandtl number of the fluid. Develop an expression for (i) the local heat transfer
coefficient hx and (ii) the average heat transfer coefficient for total length L of the plate.

## Solution: (i) The local heat transfer coefficient hx is given by

hx = k (∂θ / ∂y)|y = 0.
Now θ(x,y) = 2(y / δt )− (y / δt)2

2 Rex0.5Pr 1/3
Hence (∂θ / ∂y)|y = 0. = 2 / δt = ---------------------
5.5.x
0.5 1/3
2 k Rex Pr
Or hx = ------------------------ = 0.364 (k / x) Rex0.5 Pr 1/3
5.5.x
hx x
----- = 0.364 Rex0.5 Pr 1/3
K
hx x /k is a dimensionless number involving local heat transfer coefficient and is called

## “local Nusselt number”.

(ii) The average heat transfer coefficient for a total length L of the plate is given by

L
hav = (1 / L) ∫hx dx = (1 / L) ∫ 0.364 (k / x) Rex0.5 Pr1/3 dx
0

= (1 / L) (L 0.5 /0.5) 0.364 Pr1/3 k (U∞ / ν)0.5 = 0.728 (k / L) (U∞L / ν) 0.5 Pr 1/3

## Or hav L / k = 0.728 ReL0.5 Pr1/3

273
hav L / k is a dimensionless number involving the average heat transfer coefficient and is
called the “average Nusselt number”.

Example 6.4:- The heat transfer rate per unit width from a longitudinal section x 2 ─ x1 of a
flat plate can be expressed as q12 = h12 (x2 – x1)(Ts - T∞), where h12 is the average heat
transfer coefficient for the section length of (x 2 – x1). Consider laminar flow over a flat plate
with a uniform temperature Ts. The spatial variation of the local heat transfer coefficient is of
the form hx = C x ─ 0.5, where C is a constant.
(a) Derive an expression for h12 in terms of C,x1 and x2.
(b) Derive an expression for h12 in terms of x1, x2, and the average coefficients h1 and h2
corresponding to lengths x1 and x2 respectively.

Solution:
u∞, T∞ q12
Ts

x1

x2

## Fig. P6.4: Schematic for problem 6.4

(a) hx = C x − 0.5
_ 1 x2
Therefore h12 = -------------- ∫hx dx
(x2 – x1) x1
1 x2
= ------------------- ∫ C x − 0.5 dx
0
(x2 – x1)

2C
= ------------------ [ x2 0.5 – x1 0.5]
(x2 – x1)

_ x1
(b) h1 = (1/x1) ∫C x − 0.5 dx
0

= 2C / √ x1
_ ___

274
Similarly h2 = 2C / √ x2

x1 __ _ 1 x2 x1
Since ∫ hxdx = x1h1, h12 = -------------- [ ∫ hxdx - ∫ hxdx ]
0 0 0
( x2 – x1)
_ _
_ h2x2 - h1x1 {2C / √ x2 } ─ {2C / √ x1 }
h12 = ----------------- = ----------------------------------- = 2C [√ x2 ─ √ x1]
x2 – x1 (x2 – x1)

6.4. Basic Concepts For Flow Through Ducts :- The basic concepts developed on the
development of velocity and thermal boundary layers for flow over surfaces are also
applicable to flows at the entrance region of the ducts.

6.4.1.Velocity Boundary Layer:- Consider the flow inside a circular tube as shown in
Fig.6.5. Lat uo be the uniform velocity with which the fluid approaches the tube. As the fluid
enters the tube, a “velocity boundary layer” starts to develop along the wall-surface. The
velocity of the fluid layer sticking to the tube-surface will have zero velocity and the fluid
layer slightly away from the wall is retarded. As a result the velocity in the central portion of
the tube increases to satisfy the continuity equation (law of conservation of mass).The
thickness of the velocity boundary layer δ(z) continuously grows along the tube-surface until
it fills the entire tube. The region from the tube inlet up to little beyond the hypothetical
location where the boundary layer reaches the tube centre is called “hydrodynamic entrance
region or hydrodynamically developing region” and the
corresponding length is called “hydrodynamic entrance length Lh”. In the hydrodynamically
developing region the shape of the velocity profile changes both in axial and radial direction,
i.e., u = u(r,z). The region beyond the hydrodynamic entry length is called
“Hydrodynamically developed region”, because in this region the velocity profile is invariant
with distance along the tube,i.e., u = u(r).
If the boundary layer remains laminar until it fills the tube, then laminar flow will prevail
in the developed region. However if the boundary layer changes to turbulent before its
thickness reaches the tube centre, fully developed turbulent flow will prevail in the
hydrodynamically developed region. The velocity profile in the turbulent region is flatter
than the parabolic profile of laminar flow. The Reynolds number, defined as

## Red = (um Dh) / ν …………………………………(6.19)

is used as a criterion for change from laminar flow to turbulent flow. In this definition, u m is
the average velocity of the fluid in the tube, D h is the hydraulic diameter of the tube and ν is
the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The hydraulic diameter is defined as

275
Hydrodynamic Entrance Hydrodynamically developed
uo Region Region
δ(z) r
R

Lh
z Fully developed profile
u = u(r)
Fig. 6.5: development of velocity boundary layer at entrance region of a tube

4 x Area of flow
Dh = ------------------------------ ……………………(5.20)
Wetted Perimeter

For flows through ducts it has been observed that turbulent flow prevails for

## Red ≥ 2300 ………………………………………..(6.21)

But this critical value is strongly dependent on the surface roughness, the inlet conditions and
the fluctuations in the flow. In general, transition may occur in the range 2000 < Re d < 4000.
It is a common practice to assume a value of 2300 fro transition from laminar flow to
turbulent flow.

6.4.2. Friction Factor and Pressure Drop Relations For Hydrodynamically Developed
Laminar Flow

In engineering applications, the pressure gradient (dp / dz) associated with the flow is a
quantity of interest, because this decides the pumping power required to overcome thr
frictional losses in the pipe of a given length.
Consider a differential length dz of the tube at a distance z from the entrance and
let this length be in the fully developed region. The various forces acting on the fluid
element in the direction of flow are shown in Fig.6.6.

276
(PA)z (pA)z + d/dz(pA) dz

τw Sdz

Fig. 6.6: Forces acting on a fluid element in fully developed floe region

## where S is the perimeter of the duct.

Using Taylor’s series expansion and neglecting higher order terms we can write

## Therefore Fz = d/dz(pA) dz − τw Sdz

Rate of change of momentum in the direction of flow = 0 because the velocity u does not
vary with respect to z in the fully developed region.

## Hence d/dz(pA) dz − τw Sdz = 0

For duct of uniform cross section A is constant. Therefore the above equation reduces to

dp/dz = − τw S /A ……………………………….(6.22)

## For laminar flow τw = − μ (du / dr)|wall. Hence Eq. (5.22) reduces to

dp μS
------ = -------- (du/dr)|wall ……………………….(6.23)
dz A

Eq.(6.23) is not practical for the determination of (dp/dz), because it requires the evaluation
of the velocity gradient at the wall. Hence for engineering applications a parameter called
“friction factor, f ” is defined as follows:

(dp/dz) Dh
f = − ------------------- ………………………….(6.24a)
½ (ρum2)

277
Substituting for (dp/dz) from Eq. (6.23) we have

(μS/A) (du/dr)|wall Dh
f = − ---------------------------- …………………..(6.24b)
½ (ρum2)

## For a circular tube S = πDi, and A = πDi2 / 4. Hence Dh = Di

Hence for a circular tube Eq. (6.24b) reduces to

f = − ------- (du/dr)|wall …………………………(6.24c)
(ρum2)

## Also from Eq. (5.24a) we have

(½ ) (ρum2) f
dp = − ----------------- dz
Dh

Integrating the above equation over a total length L of the tube we have

p2 (½ ) (ρum2) f L
∫dp = − ------------------- ∫dz
p1 Dh 0

## or pressure drop = Δp = (p1 – p2) = ( ½ ) (L/Dh) f ρum2 …………………………(6.25)

.
Pumping power is given by P = V Δp ………………………………………...(6.26)
.
where V = volume flow rate of the fluid.

6.4.3. Thermal Boundary Layer for Flow Through Tubes: In the case of temperature
distribution in flow inside a tube, it is more difficult to visualize the development of thermal
boundary layer and the existence of thermally developed region. However under certain
heating or cooling conditions such as constant wall-heat flux or constant wall-temperature it
is possible to have thermally developed region.
Consider a laminar flow inside a circular tube subjected to uniform heat flux
at the wall. Let ‘r’ and ‘z’ be the radial and axial coordinates respectively and T(r,z) be the
local fluid temperature. A dimensionless temperature θ(r,z) is defined as

T(r,z) – Tw(z)
θ(r,z) = ------------------- ………………………………..(6.27a)
Tm(z) – Tw(z)

where Tw(r,z) = Tube wall-temperature and Tm(z) = Bulk mean temperature of the fluid.
The bulk mean temperature at any cross section ‘z’ is defined as follows:

278
∫ ρ(2πrdr) u(r,z) Cp T(r,z) ∫ rdr u(r,z)T(r,z)
Tm(z) = --------------------------------- = ---------------------- ………………..(6.27b)
∫ ρ(2πrdr) u(r,z) Cp ∫ rdr) u(r,z)

At the tube wall it is clear that θ(r,z) = 0 and attains some finite value at the centre of the
tube. Thus we can visualize the development of thermal boundary layer along the tube
surface as shown in Fig. 6.7.The thickness of the thermal boundary layer δ t continuously
grows along the tube surface until it fills the entire tube. The region from the tube inlet to the
hypothetical location where the thermal boundary layer thickness reaches the tube centre is
called the “thermal entry section”. In this region the shape of the dimensionless temperature
profile θ(r,z) changes both in axial and in radial directions. The region beyond the thermal
entry section is called as the “thermally developed region”, because in this region the
dimensionless temperature profile θ remains invariant with respect to z. That is in this region
θ = θ(r).It is difficult to explain qualitatively why θ should be independent of z even though
the temperature of the fluid T depends both on r and z. However it can be shown
mathematically that ,for both constant wall-heat flux and constant wall-temperature
conditions, θ depends only on r for large values of z.For constant wall-heat flux condition
the wall-temperature Tw(z) increases with z.

Tfi

θ = θ(r)

## Fig. 6.7: Development of Thermal Boundary Layer In a Flow Through

A Tube Subjected to Constant Wall-Heat Flux Condition

The variation of wall-temperature and the bulk fluid temperature as we proceed along the
length of the tube for constant wall-heat flux conditions is shown in Fig. 6.8. It can be shown
that for constant wall-heat flux condition the temperature difference ΔT between the tube
wall and the bulk fluid remains constant along the length of the tube in the thermally
developed region
The growth of the thermal boundary layer for constant wall-temperature conditions
is similar to that for constant wall-heat flux condition except that the wall temperature does

279
not vary with respect to z. Therefore the temperature profile T(r,z) becomes flatter and flatter
as shown in Fig. 6.9 as we proceed along the length of the tube and eventually the fluid
temperature becomes equal to the wall temperature. Since the wall-temperature remains
constant and the bulk fluid temperature varies along the length the temperature difference
between the tube wall and the bulk fluid varies along the length of the tube as shown in Fig.
5.10.

Tw(z)|z=L

Tm(z)|z=L = Tfo

0 L

## Lth Thermally developed region

z θ = θ(r)

Fig. 6.8: Variation of tube wall-temperature and bulk fluid temperature along the length of the tube

280
Tw Tw Tw
Tw
Tfi

z
Thermally developing region Thermally developed
Thermal entrance length Lth region
Fig.6.9: Growth of thermal boundary layer for flow through a tube with
constant wall-temperature

Tw
ΔTo
Tfo

ΔTi

Tfi

L
0
z
Fig. 6.10: Variation of bulk fluid temperature along the length of the tube
for tube with constant wall-temperature

6.4.4. Mean Temperature Difference, ΔTm: If Q is the total heat transfer rate between the
fluid and the tube surface , As is the area of contact between the fluid and the surface, h m is
the average heat transfer coefficient for the total length of the tube then we can write

Q = hm As ΔTm …………………………….(6.28)

281
Where ΔTm = mean temperature difference between the tube wall and the bulk fluid.An
expression for ΔTm can be obtained in terms of ΔT i and ΔTo where ΔTi is the temperature
difference between the tube-wall and the bulk fluid at inlet and ΔT o is the temperature
difference between the tube-wall and the bulk fluid at exit as shown below.

dQ

mm

dz

Consider a control volume consisting an elemental length dz of the tube at a distance z from
the inlet as shown in Fig.5.11. Let T m be the bulk temperature of the fluid entering the control
volume and Tm + dTm be the bulk temperature of the fluid leaving the control volume. Let dQ
be the heat transfer rate from the tube wall to the fluid over the length dz.

Energy balance for the control volume neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential
energies in comparison with change in enthalpy gives

## and dQ = h S dz [Tw(z) – Tm(z)] (6.29b)

where S is the perimeter of the tube.From the above two equations wer have

dTm hSdz
-------------------- = -------------- (6.29c)
[Tw(z) – Tm(z)] m Cp

For a tube with constant wall-heat flux condition, since the temperature difference between
the fluid and the tube surface remains constant along the length of the tube it follows that
ΔTm = [Tw(z)|z=0 − Tfi] = [Tw(z)|z=L − Tfo] …………………(6.29d)

For a tube with constant wall-temperature condition the mean temperature difference is given
by

## ΔTm = (ΔTi – ΔTo) / ln (ΔTi / ΔTo) ……………………… (6.29e)

282
6.4.5. General expression for heat transfer coefficient : Let the fluid be heated as it flows
through the tube. Then at any z the heat flux from the tube surface to the fluid is given by
Fourier’s law as
qw(z) = k (∂T / ∂r)|wall ……………………(6.30)

[Note that when the fluid is heated Tw> Tm so that (∂T / ∂r)|wall will be positive).
If hz is the heat transfer coefficient then

## Therefore from Eq. (6.30) and (6.31) we have

k (∂T / ∂r)|wall
hz = ------------------- ……………………(6.32)
[Tw(z) – Tm(z)]

[T(r,z) – Tw(z)]
Now θ(r,z) = --------------------
[Tm(z) – Tw(z)]

## hz = − k (dθ / dr)|wall …………………………(6.34)

Since (dθ / dr)|wall is independent of z it follows that the heat transfer coefficient h z is
independent of z. This is true both for constant wall-temperature and constant wall-heat flux
conditions.

## Illustrative Examples on Flow Through Ducts:

Example 6.5:- The velocity profile for hydrodynamically developed laminar flow inside a
circular tube of radius R is given by

## u(r) = 2um[ 1 – (r/R)2]

283
where um is the average velocity of the fluid in the tube.Develop an expression for the friction
factor f and express it in terms of the Reynolds number Re d where Red is defined as Red =
(umD) / ν.

Solution:
u(r) = 2um[ 1 – (r/R)2]

## = (4μ/D)( −8um / D ) = − 32 μum /D2

− (dp/dz) D 32 μum /D 64
Friction factor = f = ----------------- = --------------- = --------------
½ (ρum2) ½ (ρum2) (ρumD / μ)

Or f = 64 / Red

Example 6.6:- The velocity profile u(y) for hydro dynamically developed laminar
flow between two parallel plates a distance 2L apart is given by u(y) / um = (3 / 2)
[1– (y /L) 2]where um is the mean flow velocity and the coordinate axis y is as shown
in Fig. P6.6.

2L
o x

H
Fig. P 6.6 : Schematic for problem 5.6

## (a)Develop an expression for the friction factor f.

(b) Write the expression for calculating the pressure drop Δp over a length H of the channel.

284
y
dz

z τw1

p
z p+ (dp/dz)dz
2L
τw2
H

## Fig. P6.6a : Schematic for problem 6.6

Solution:

Consider a fluid element of length dz at a distance z from the origin as shown in the
figure. Resultant force acting on the fluid element is given by

## = − 2L (dp/dz)dz − (τw1 + τw2) dz

For fully developed flow there is no change in the momentum of the fluid in z-direction.
Hence by Newton’s second law F = 0.

## Or (dp/dz) = − (τw1 + τw2) / 2L ………………………….(1).

It is given that,
u = (3/2) um [ 1 – (y/L)2 ]

= (3μum)/L

## (dp/dz) = − [(3μum)/L + (3μum)/L ] / 2L

= − [(3μum)/ L2]

285
(a) The friction factor f is given by
− (dp/dz) dh [(3μum)/ L2] dh
f = --------------------- = ------------------------
(1/2) ρum2 (1/2) ρum2

4 x 2L
as ( dp/dz) = (1/2) ρ um2 f (1/dh), dh = hyd. Diameter = -------------- = 4L
2
12 x 2 24
= ------------------- = ----------------
(ρumL)/μ ReL

## b) The total pressure drop for length H of the plate is given by

p2 H
Δp = p1 − p2 = − ∫dp = − ∫ −[(3μum) / L2]dz = 3 (H/L)(μum / L)
p1 0

3 (H/L) (ρum2)
= --------------------- = 3 (H/L) (ρum2) / ReL
(ρumL/μ)

Example 6.7:-The friction factor for hydro dynamically developed laminar flow
through a circular tube is given by

## f = 64 / Red ; Red = (umd) / ν.

Water at a mean temperature of 60 0 C and a mean velocity of 10 cm/s flows inside a tube of
1 cm ID. Calculate the pressure drop for a length of 10 m of the tube and also the
corresponding pumping power required.

Solution:
Properties of water at 60 0 C are : ρ = 985 kg/m3 ; μ = 0.78 x 10 − 3 kg / (m – s);
Mean velocity of water = um = 0.1 m/s ; Di = 0.01 m ; L = 10 m.

## 985 x 0.1 x 0.01

Red = (ρumDi ) / μ = ------------------------- = 2060.7 or 2061
0.78 x 10 − 3

## 0.031 x 10 x 985x (0.1)2

Pressure drop = Δp = f (L/Di) (1/2)ρum2 = ----------------------------------
2 x 0.01

286
= 152.68 N / m2.

. π x (0.01)2 x 0.1
Volume flow rate = V = (πDi2/4) um = ------------------------ = 7.85 x 10 − 6 m3/s
4
.
Pumping power = Δp V = 152.68 x 7.85 x 10 − 6 = 1198.5 x 10 − 6 J / s.

## Example 6.8:- Engine oil [ν = 0.8 x 10 ─ 4 m2/s and k = 0.14 W /(m-K)] is in

laminar flow between two parallel plates a distance 3 cm apart and subjected to a
constant heat flux of 2500 W/m2. The average heat transfer coefficient for the hydro
dynamically and thermally developed flow is given by

## (hm 4L)/k = 8.235,

where 2L is the distance between the plates. Calculate the temperature difference between
the plate surface and the mean fluid temperature.

Solution:

## 2L = 0.03 m ; ν = 0.8 x 10 − 4 m2 / s ; k = 0.14 W /(m-K) ; q = 2500 W / m2;

(hm4L) / k = 8.235

## 6.5.1.Introduction: Osborne Reynolds conducted experiments on flow through a transperent

circular tube and showed that at low flow rates the flow was streamlined; but as the flow rate
was increased, the streamlines become unstable and the laminar motion changed to turbulent
flow: i.e. the fluid motion become chaotic in nature and involves crosswise mixing or
eddying superimposed on the motion of the main stream.
The crosswise mixing in turbulent flow is advantageous in the sense that it assists
greatly in improvig the heat transfer, but it has the disadvantage of increasing the resistance
to flow. The flow pattern in turbulent flow is quite complex as they consist of a spectrum of
coexisting vortices which are varying in size from the larger ones to those of microscopic
dimensions. For example, in the case of turbulent flow through a tube , the size of the

287
vortices varies from a significant fraction of the tube radius at the central region of the tube
to microscopic sizes near the wall where the velocity approaches zero.
In turbulent flow, the fluid properties such as velocity, pressure, and temperature are
subject to fluctuations both with the location in the flow field and with time. Hence the
instantaneous values of these properties can be represented as a sum of a time averaged
mean part and a fluctuating part as follows:
_ _ _ _
u = u + u’; v = v + v’ ; T = T + T’ ; p = p + p’ …………………………………..6.35
_ _ _ _
where u,v,T and p are the instantaneous values ; u,v,T and p are the time-averaged values and
u’,v’,T’ and p’ are the fluctuations. If the temperature of a flowing fluid is recorded at a
location in the flow field and if the flow is turbulent at that location, then the plot of
temperature versus time will be as illustrated in Fig.6.11. In turbulent flow, the fluctuations
are considered superimposed on local average flow.The time averaged value of temperature,
for example, can be defined as

__ 1 t + Δt
T = ------ ∫ T dt …………………………6.36
Δt t

T
T’ = Temperature Fluctuation

__
T = Time –Averaged Temperature

Time,t
Fig: 6.11. Temperature fluctuations with time in turbulent flow

where Δt is a very small time interval which is large enough to record the turbulent
fluctuations but small for the temperature to be unaffected by the external disturbances on the
system.Similar averaging process can be defined for velocity and pressure (according to
Eq.5.36, the time average of fluctuating quantities are all equal to zero).The effects of these
fluctuations occurring in velocity and temperature in turbulent flow are to increase heat
transfer and resistance to fluid flow.

288
Consider turbulent flow along a flat plate as shown in Fig. 6.12.The y coordinate
is measured normal to the plate surface. Let u, and v be the instantaneous

u∞
y

u(x, y)
u(x, y)

x
xcr Turbulent Region
Turbulent Layer
Laminar Region Transition
Buffer Layer

Viscous sublayer
Fig. 6.12: Turbulent boundary layer for flow over a flat plate

values of the components of of velocities along x and y directions and T be the instantaneous
value of the temperature. Let u’,v’ and T’ be the corresponding fluctuations respectively.Let τ
be the shear stress in x direction at a location y from the plate surface.This shear stress can be
considered as to be composed of two parts:
_
viscous shear stress resulting from the mean flow velocity u and turbulent shear stress
resulting from the velocity fluctuations u’ and v’. Then we can write

## τ = τviscous + τturbulent …………………………..6.37a

_
where τviscous = μ(ðu / ðy) …………………………….6.37b
___
τturbulent = ─ ρ u’v’ …………………………….6.37c

Here the viscous shear stress term given by Eq. 6.37b is the laminar flow contribution.
The physical significance of the turbulent shear stress term given by Eq. 6.37c is not quite
apparent,but it can be derived by introducing the instantaneous velocities u and v in the x
momentum equation (See Ref.1) and by applying the rules of averaging to terms involving
the cross products of fluctuations.
Now if q is the heat flux in the y direction, then q can be considered as composed of
two parts: the diffusive or conductive heat flux due to gradient of mean temperature and the
turbulent heat flux resulting from the temperature fluctuations T’ and the velocity
fluctuations v’ in the y direction. With this consideration, we can write

289
q = qdiffusive + qturbulent ………………………….6.38a
_
Where qdiffusive = ─ k (ðT / ðy)………………………...6.38b
____
qturbulent = ρcp v’T’ ……………………………...6.38c.

Here the diffusive heat flux given by Eq. 6.38b is similar to that encountered in conduction
heat transfer, but the significance of turbulent heat flux given by Eq. 6.38c is not quite
apparent.It is derived by introducing the instantaneous velovities u and v and the
instantaneous temperature T in the energy equation (See Ref.1) for forced convection and
time averaging these equations.The relations for turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux
given by equations 6.37c and 6.38c are not useful for computational purposes unless they are
related to the mean quantities ū and T. A number of models heve been proposed to develop
such relations by semi-empirical hypothesis. For example the ‘mixing length model”
proposed by Prandtl and von Karman have been used extensively and successively in relating
turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux to the gradients of average velocity and average
temperature.

6.5.2. Prandtl’s Mixing Length Model: The basic idea behind this model is analogus to the
concept of “mean free path” for the motion of molecules in kinetic theory of gases. The
main difference is that in turbulent flow macroscopic lumps are envisioned.That is, in
turbulent flow in the x-direction along the surface, Prandtl postulated that fluid particles at a
distance y from the wall surface coalesce into macroscopic lumps and then travel, on the
average a distance l in the direction normal to the main flow while retaining their x-direction
momentum before they are dispersed.Thus , if the slow moving lumps enter the fast-moving
layer, they act as drag on the fast moving layer, and the momentum is transferred between
layers as a result of transeverse mixing. It is to be noted that l is an unknown quantity, and in
reality there is no such clear defined distance. Though the concept lacks generality, it has
been found useful in most engineering applications.According to Prandtl’s theory, the
velocity fluctuations can be related to
(ðū / ðy) by the following equations.

## u’ ≈ l1(ðū / ðy) ; v’ ≈ l2(ðū / ðy) ……………………………6.39a,b

where u’ and v’ are of opposite sign and l 1 and l2 are the “mixing lengths for momentum
transport”.Similarly the temperature fluctuation is related to the gradient of mean
tempaerature as _
T’ = l3 (ðT / ðy) ……………………………..6.39c

Where l3 is the “mixing length for energy transport”. Now the turbulent shear stress can be
written as:

___
τturbulent = ─ ρ u’v’ = ρl1l2 (ðū / ðy)2 = ρlm2 (ðū / ðy)2

290
or τturbulent = ρεm (ðū / ðy) ……………………………………..6.40a

## Similarly the turbulent heat flux can be written as:

___ __
qturbulent = ─ ρ T’v’ = ρl3l2 (ðū / ðy) (ðT / ðy) = ρlh2 (ðū / ðy)(ðT / ðy)
__
qturbulent = ρεh(ðT / ðy) …………………………………….5.41a

## where l2l3 = lh2 and εh = lm2 (ðū / ðy) …………………………..5.41b,c

εm and εh are called as “eddy diffusivity for momentum transfer” and “eddy difussivity for
heat transfer” respectively. Therefore for turbulent flow the total shear stress and the total
heat heat flux can be written as follows:

## (τ / ρ) = (υ + εm) (ðū / ðy) ……………………………….6.42a

__
(q / ρcp) = ─ (α + εh) (ðT / ðy) …………………………..6.42b

Where υ is the kinematic viscosity and α is the thermal diffusivity of the fluid. Equations
6.42a and 6.42b clearly demonstrates the effects of turbulent flow in enhancing the drag as
well as the heat transfer. Depending on the level of turbulence in the flow field, the turbulent
transport properties εm and εh may be an order of magnitude larger than the diffusive
properties υ and α. In general ε m and εh are not the same. Their ratio is defined as “turbulent
Prandtl number, Prt”. Thus

Prt = εm / εh ………………………….6.43.

## This definition is analogus to the definition of Prandtl number Pr:

Pr = υ / α ……………………………..6.44.

The physical significance of Pr and Prt should be distinguished. The Prandtl number is a
physical property of the fluid. It varies from a value much less than 1 for liquid metals to
values much greater than 1 for liquds and ois. It is about 1 for gases. The turbulent Prandtl
number is a property of the flow field and various models have been proposed for its
determination. The simplest model is due to Reynolds who assumed Pr t = 1, which implies
that heat and momentum transfer in turbulent flow takes place exactly by the same process.
The numerical value of Prt may vary between 1 and 2.

## 6.5.3.Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow: Velocity distribution in turbulent flow has

been investigated extensively due to its importance in practice.But no fundamental theory is
yet available to determine this distribution by purely theoretical approaches. Therefore,
empirical and semi-empirical relations are used to correlate the velocity in turbulent flow.

291
One of the velocity distribution which has been used widely is based on the concept
of dividing the turbulent flow field into three distinct layers as illustrated in Fig.5.10.A very
thin layer adjacent ot the wall where laminar or viscous shear stress dominate is called the
“viscous sublayer”. Adjacent to this layer is the “buffer layer”, where the viscous and
turbulent shear stresses are of the same order of magnitude and the third layer next to the
buffer layer is called “turbulent layer”, where the turbulent shear stress dominates.For the
steady, turbulent flow of an incompressible, constant property fluid over a smooth surface the
velocity distribution is expressed using the following dimensionless parameters:

ū
+
u = ------------ = Dimensionless velocity
√(τw / ρ)

y
+
y = ------ √(τw / ρ) = Dimensionless distance
υ

where ρ is the density, τw is the shear stress at the wall, υ is the kinematic viscosity and ū
component of mean velocity parallelto the wall surface.
Experiments have shown that for region where y + < 5, turbulent shear stress
contribution is negligible and the region is viscous sublayer.Therefore the shear stress takes
the form τw = μ(ðū / ðy). Integration of this expression for constant τ w with ū = 0 at y = 0
gives the following distribution for viscous sublayer:

## u + = y + for 0 < y + < 5 ……………………6.45.

The buffer layer is considered to be in the region between y + = 5 and y + = 30. In this region
the velocity distribution is assumed to follow the logarithmic law of the form
u + = A ln y + + B. The constants A and B are determined from requirement that at
y + = 5 ,velocity u + be equal to that of viscous sublayer and be equal to that of turbulent layer
at y + = 30.Hence for the buffer region the velocity distribution will be of the form

## u + = 5.0 ln y + ─ 3.05 for 5 ≤ y + ≤ 30 ………. 6.46

The region y + > 30 is considered to be the “turbulent layer” where the laminar
shear stress is negligible in comparison to the turbulent shear stress. By using the mixing
length concept and assuming that the mixing length varies linearly with the distance from the
wall in the form l = κy, it can be shown that the velocity distribution in the turbulent layer has
a logarithmic profile in the form

u + = (1/κ ) ln y + + C …………………………….6.47

where κ is called the universal constant. Experiments have shown that κ = 0.4 and the
constant C has been determined by the correlation of Eq. 6.47 with the measured velocity
profile. For turbulent flow inside a smooth pipe, C = 5.5. Then the velocity distribution in the
turbulent layer is given as

292
u + = 2.5 ln y + + 5.5 for turbulent layer y + > 30 ……..6.48

Though the above velocity distribution [Eq.6.45, Eq. 6.46 and Eq. 6.48] by dividing the
turbulent flow field into three distinct regions appears to be in reasonably good agreement
with the experimental data, the transition from a viscous to turbulent flow regime takes place
gradually.Therefore , he representation of of velocity distribution by three different curves
having discontinuous slopes at locations where they join is not realistis.A more serious
inconsistency of the logarithmic velocity distribution given by Eq.5.48 is that it does not give
zero velocity gradient at the tube centre. For this reason the average velocity for flow inside a
pipe as determined using the above equations overestimates the velocity.But these equations
have been used extensively in literature to study the relation between momentum and heat
transfer in turbulent flow.

## 6.5.4.Effects of Surface Roughness on Velocity Distribution: The velocity distribution

discussed above is applicable to turbulent flow over “hydrodynamically smooth surfaces”. A
surface is considered as hydrodynamically smooth if the heights ‘λ’ of the protrusions are
much smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. Surfaces encountered in engineering
applications generally are not smooth and since viscous sublayer is very thin, the protrusions
may penetrate it.Nikuradse made extensive experiments with turbulent flow inside artificially
roughned pipe over a wide range of “relative roughness, λ /Di” from about 1 / 1000 to 1 / 30.
The sand – grain roughness used in these experiments has been adopted as standard for the
effects of roughness. The experiments showed that to study the effects of roughness, it is
desirable to introduce a “roughness Reynolds number λ+” defined as

λ
λ + = ---- √(τw / ρ) …………………………….6.49
υ
+
If λ < 5, the roughness has no effect on the friction factor.With this consideration three
distinct situations are envisioned for the effects of roughness:

## (iii) Fully rough: λ + > 70 ………………………6.50c

For the hydrodynamically smooth case, the heights of roughness are so small that all
protrusions are covered by the viscous sublayer and hence roughness has no effect on friction
factor. For the transitional case, the protrusions are partly outside the viscous sublayer and
cause some additional rsistance to flow. For the fully rough case, the heights of protrusions
are so large that all protrusions penetrate the viscous sublayer; hence the viscous sublayer no
longer exists and protrusions influence the turbulent mixing.
For the fully turbulent region (y + > 30),the logarithmic velocity profile guven by Eq.
6.47 is applicable if y + is replaced by y / λ. In that acse the velocity distribution is given by

293
u + = (1/κ ) ln (y / λ )+ C ……………………….6.51

where κ = 0.4 as in the case of smooth wall but the constant C is different. A correlation of
this relation with Nikuradse’s experiments has shown that C = 8.5. Then Eq. 5.51 takes the
form

## u + = (1/κ ) ln (y / λ )+ 8.5 ………………………6.52

Eq. 6.52. is called logarithmic velocity distribution for turbulent flow in rough pipes in the
fully rough region.
A significant difference between laminar and turbulent flow lies in the fact that, in
turbulent flow the velocity profile is affected by the surface roughness, where as in laminar
flow, the velocity profile is not affected by the surface roughness. Since the velocity
distribution affects the shear stress at the wall and hence the friction factor, it is expected that
in turbulent flow the friction factor will depend not only on the Reynplds number but also on
the relative roughness, where as in laminar flow the friction factor is a function of Reynolds
number only.

## Illustrative Examples on Concepts of Turbulence:

Example 6.11.Starting with the definition of the total shear stress in the turbulent flow given
by ___ ___
τ = μ(ðu / ðy) ─ ρ u’v’ , u’v’ = ─ lm2 (ðū / ðy)2 and lm = κy

derive the logarithmic velocity distribution, u + = (1/κ ) ln y + + C for the fully turbulent
region.
ū y
Where u + = ------------ and y + = ------ √(τw / ρ)
√(τw / ρ) ν

Example 6.12. Show that the velocity distribution in the viscous sublayer is given by

u+ = y +
with u+ and y+ are as defined in example 5.11.

294
Chapter 7

## Forced Convection Heat Transfer For Flow Through

Ducts
7.1. Introduction:

Heat transfer and pressure drop calculations in flow through ducts are required in many
industrial applications. Laminar flow through pipe is encountered generally in compact heat
exchangers, cryogenic systems, heating or cooling of heavy fluids like oils.For such flows
analytic expressions are available for the prediction of friction factor and heat transfer
coefficient.But most of the available correlations to determine heat transfer and friction factor
for turbulent flows are either empirical or semi-empirical in nature.

## 7.2. Analysis of Hydrodynamically and Thermally Developed Laminar Flow

7.2.1. Couette Flow: Consider a special case of parallel flow of an incompressible fluid
between two parallel plates where one plate is stationary and the other plate is
moving with an uniform velocity U.A distance L separates the two plates (refer Fig.
7.1). The stationary plate is maintained at temperature To and the moving plate at
temperature TL. This type of flow is referred to as COUETTE flow and occurs, for
example, in journal bearing. The continuity, momentum and energy equations for
such a flow are given as follows:
For parallel flow along the plate the continuity equation (6.54b) reduces to

du / dx = 0 (7.1)
The momentum equation (6.59a) reduces to

d2u / dy 2 = 0 (7.2)

## k (d 2T / dy 2) + μ (du / dy) 2 = 0 (7.3)

295
y
TL
y
u(y) = U

To, u(y) = 0
Fig. 7.1: Schematic for Couette Flow

## The boundary conditions for the momentum equation are :

at y = 0, u(y) = 0 (7.4)

## Condition (7.5) in equation (7.6) gives U = C1L or C1= U / L.

Substituting these values of C1 and C2 in equation (2) we get the velocity distribution as

## u(y) = (Uy) / L ………………………(7.7)

From equation (7.7) (∂u / ∂y) = U / L substituting this in the energy equation (7.3)

## The boundary conditions for the enrgy equation are :

296
at y = 0 T = T0 (7.9)

## Or C1 = (1/L)[(TL – T0) + (1/2)(μU2/k)]

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Equation (7.8 ) we get the temperature as

## T(y) = − (μ/k)(U/L)2 (y2/2) + (y /L) [(TL – T0) + (1/2)(μU2/k)] + T0

Or T(y) – T0 =
y
L [ ( T L −T 0 ) +
2k ( )]
μ U2
1−
y
L
(7.11)

T ( y )−T 0
T L −T 0
=
y
L[1+
1 μ U2
2 k ( T L−T 0 )
1−
y
L ( )]
(7.12)

μ U2
Now the term can be written as follows:
k ( T L −T 0 )

μ U2 μCp μU 2
= = Pr * E where Pr is the Prndtl
k ( T L −T 0 ) k C p ( T L −T 0 )
number and E is

## Eckert number. Hence Wq.(7.11) can be written as follows:

T ( y )−T 0
T L −T 0
=
y
L [1
1+ Pr E 1−
2
y
L ( )]
(7.13)

T ( y )−T 0 y
Fig. 7.2 shows the plot of as a function of for different values of the
T L −T 0 L
parameter
Pr*E.The case when Pr*E = 0 corresponds to no flow condition. Hence heat transfer from the
hot plate to cold plate is by conduction in y direction. Therefore the temperature distribution
is linear.The physical significance for other values of Pr*E can be understood better if heat
transfer at the wall (either at the upper wall or at the lower wall) is considered.The heat flux
at the upper wall is given by

297
q(y)| y = L = − k (dT /dy)| y = L

T L−T 0
From Eq.(7.12) we have (dT /dy)| y = L =
L (1− 12 Pr∗E )
T L−T 0
Therefore q(y)| y = L = − k
L (1− 12 Pr∗E )
(7.14)

The above result shows that the direction of heat flow at the upper wall for the case T L >
T0 depends on the value of the parameter Pr*E.

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

## 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

For Pr * E > 2, the right side of Eq.(7.14) is positive. Therfore the heat flows in the
positive y direction, i.e., from the fluid into the wall though the upper wall is at higher
temperature than the lower wall.

298
For Pr * E < 2, the right side of Eq. (7.14) is negative. Hence the heat flows in the
negative y direction,i.e., from the upper wall to the fluid.
For Pr * E = 2, the right hand side of Eq.(7.14) reduces to zero. Hence there is no heat
flow at the upper wall.

When TL = T0, both plates are at the same temperature, Therfore from Eq. (7.11) the
temperature distribution reduces to

(7.15)

It can be seen from the aboe equation that the maximum temperature occurs at y = L/2
and the maximum temperature will be

μ U2
T max – T0 =
8k
(7.16)

Combining Eq. (7.15) and Eq. (7.16) the the temperature distribution can be expressed in
terms Tmax as
T ( y )−T 0 y y
T L −T 0
= 4
L
1−( )
L
(7.17)

## Example7.1:Aheavy lubricating oil[μ = 0.25 kg/(m-s), k = 0.125 W/(m-K)] at room

temperature flows in the clearance between a journal andits bearing. Assuming that both the
journal and the bearing are at the same temperature, determine the maximum temperature
rise in the fluid for velocity U = 6 m/s.

## Known: For the oil, μ = 0.25 kg/(m-s), k = 0.125 W/(m-K); U = 6 m/s; T0 = TL

Find: Tmax – T0

Assumptions: (i)The oil properties are constant; (ii) the flow of oil in the space between the
journal and its bearing is considered as flow between two parallel plates; i.e. the flow is
coquette flow.

Solution: For Couette flow when T0 = TL, the maximum temperature rise is given by Eq.
(7.16): i.e.
2 2
μU 0.25∗6
ΔTmax = Tmax – T0 = = = 9 0C
8k 8∗0.125

299
Example 7.2.A lubricating oil of viscosity μ and thermal conductivity k fills the clearance L
between two rotating cylinders, which can be regarded as two parallel plates in motion for
the purpose of analysis. The velocity of the inner cylinder is U 1 and that of the outer cylinder
is U2.Find the relation for the velocity distribution in the oil layer for (a) the inner and outer
cylinders are rotating in the same direction but U 2 > U1 and (b) the inner and outer cylinders
are rotatibg in the opposite directions. Also find an expression for the shear stress in the fluid
resulting from the rotation.

## Schematic: Case (a) :- U2 > U1 :See Fig.E7.2a

Known: Viscosity of the oil = μ; Thermal conductivity of oil = k ; Clearnace between the two
rotating cylinders = L;velocity of lower plate=U1; Velocity of upper plate = U2

Find: (a) u(y) when both U1 and U2 are in same direction with U 2 > U1; (b) u(y) and shear
stress when U2 is in opposite direction with respect to U2.

Assumptions: (i) Fluid properties are constant; (ii) The flow between the two rotating
cylinders is considered as flow between two parallel plates (Couette flow)

## Solution: The momentum equation for Couette flow is

d2u / dy 2 = 0 (1)

y
y
u(y) = U2

L
u(y) = U1

## Fig. E7.2a: Schematic for Example 7.2,case(a)

Integrating Eq.(1) twice we have

C2 = U 1 (3)

## Substituting the condition that at y = L, u = U2 in Eq. (2) we get

300
U2 = C1L + U1

( U 2−U 1 )
Or C 1 =
L
(3)

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in eq. (2) we get the velocity distribution as

y
u(y) = ( U 2−U 1) + U1
L

u ( y ) −U 1 y
or =
U 2−U 1 L
(4)

( U 2−U 1 )
Shear stress is given by τ=μ ( dudy ) =μ
L
Schematic for Case (b) :- U2 = − U1 :See Fig.E7.2b

y
y
u(y) = U2

L
u(y) = U1

## Fig. E7.2b: Schematic for Example 7.2,case(b)

The general solution Eq.(7.2) holds good for this case also.

## At y = L, u(y) = − U2. Substituting this in Eq.(7.2) we have

− U2 = C1L + U1
( U 1+ U 2 )
Or C1 = −
L

301
Hence the velocity distribution is given by

y
u(y) = − ( U 1 +U 2 ) + U1
L

U 1−u( y ) y
=
U 1 +U 2 L
(5)

( U 1+ U 2 )
Shear stress is given by τ = μ ( dudy ) = − μ
L
(6)

Example 7.3.Consider Couette flow with heat transfer for which the lower plate moves with
a velocity of U = 15 m/s and is perfectly insulated (see Fig. E7.3). The upper plate is
stationary and is made of material with k up = 1.5 W/(m-K) and thickness L up = 3 mm. Its
outer surface is maintained at Tup = 40 0 C. The plates are separated by a distance of L 0 = 5
mm which is filled with an engine oil of viscosity μ = 0.8N-s/m 2 and thermal conductivity k0
=0.145W/(m- K).
(a) On T(y) ─ y coordinates, sketch the temperature distribution in the oil film and in the
moving plate.
(b) Obtain an expression for the temperature at the lower surface of the film T 0 in terms of
the plate speed U, the stationary plate parameters T up,kup,Lup and the oil parameters μ, k0, L0.
Calculate this temperature for the prescribed conditions.

## Schematic for the example:

302
y Tup
Stationary Plate

Lup

oil L0

Moving plate
Fig. E7.3: Schematic for example 7.3

Solution:

d2u /dy2 = 0.

## And (ii) at y = L0, u(y) = 0.

Condition (i) in equation (1) gives C2 = U and condition (ii) in equation (1) gives

C1 = − U / L0.

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in equation (1) we get the velocity distribution as

## From equation (2) we have (du/dy) = − (U / L0).

303
Therefore equation (3) reduces to
k0(d2T / dy2) = −μ (U / L0)2

## T = −(μ/k0) (U / L0)2 (y2/2) + C1y + C2 ………………………...(5)

At y = 0 the surface is insulated i.e. (dT/dy) = 0. Substituting this condition in equation (4)
we have
C1= 0.
At y = L0, the condition is

## T = -(μ/k0) ( U/ L0)2 (y2/2) + { μ U2 / k0 [ ( ½) + ( k0 Lup/ kup L0) ] } + Tup

At lower surface y = 0

## 7.2.2.Hydrodynamically and thermally developed laminar flow through a circular pipe:

304
7.1. Determine the friction factor, the pressure drop and pumping power for fully
developed laminar flow of water at 21 0 C [μ = 9.8 kg/(m-s) ; ρ = 997.4
kg/m3]through a 2.5 cm diameter, 100 m long tube for a mass flow rate of 0.015
kg/s. What are the mean and maximum velocities of flow?

7.2. Determine the friction factor, the pressure drop and pumping power required for
the flow of water at 0.5 kg/s and 40 0 C through a tube of square cross section of
2 cm x 2 cm and 12 m long. What would be the corresponding values if the pipe
is of equilateral-triangular cross section of side 2 cm and length 5 m ?

7.3. Water at 30 0 C with a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s enters a 2.5 cm-ID tube whose
wall is maintained at a uniform temperature of 90 0 C. Calculate the length of the
tube required to heat the water to 70 0 C.

7.4. Water at 20 0 C with a mass flow rate of 5 kg/s enters a circular tube of 5 cm-ID
and 10 m long. If the tube surface is maintained at 80 0 C, determine the exit
temperature of water.

7.5. Air at 27 0 C with a flow rate of 0.01 kg/s enters a rectangular tube 0.6 cm x 1.0
cm in cross section and 2 m long. The duct wall is subjected to a uniform heat
flux of 5 kW/m2. Determine the outlet temperature of air and the duct surface
temperature at the exit assuming that the flow is hydro dynamically and
thermally developed.

7.6. Three kg/min of liquid sodium is heated from a bulk mean temperature of 400 0 C
to 500 0 C, as it flows through a stainless steel tube of 5 cm-ID and 2 mm thick.
The sodium is heated by a constant wall-heat flux, which maintains the tube-wall
temperature at 30 0 C above the bulk mean temperature of sodium all along the
length of the tube. Calculate the length of the tube required. Assume the
following properties for liquid sodium.
ρ = 846.7 kg/m3 ; k = 68.34 W/(m-K) ; Cp = 1.274 kJ/(kg-K) ; Pr = 0.00468 ;
ν =0.2937 x 10 ─ 6 m2 /s.

7.7. Consider hydro dynamically and thermally developed turbulent flow of water with
a mass flow rate of M kg/s inside a circular tube of inside diameter ‘D’. The
Dittus-Boelter equation can be used to determine the heat transfer coefficient. If
the tube’s inside diameter is changed from D to D/2 while the mass flow remains
same, determine the resulting change in the heat transfer coefficient.

7.8. Mercury at a temperature of 100 0 C and with a velocity of 1 m/s enters a 1.25
cm ID tube, which is maintained at a uniform temperature of 250 0 C. Determine
the length of the tube required to heat mercury to a temperature of 200 0C.

305
B. Hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths:

7.9. Determine the hydro dynamic entry lengths for flow at 60 0 C and at a rate of
0.015 kg/s of water, ethylene glycol and engine oil through a circular tube of 2.5
cm ID.

7.10. Determine the hydro dynamic entry length, thermal entry length and the heat
transfer coefficient for fully developed flow for engine oil at 60 0 C flowing at a
rate of 0.01 kg/s through a square duct 1 cm x 1cm cross section and subjected
to a uniform wall-temperature. Assume the following physical properties for the
engine oil:
ρ = 864 kg/m3 ; Cp = 2047 J/(kg-K) ; k = 0.14 W/(m-K) ; μ = 0.0725 kg/(m-s) ;
Pr = 1050

## C. Flow over a flat plate:

7.11. Atmospheric air at 25 0 C flows over both the surfaces of a flat plate 1 m long
with a velocity of 5 m/s. The plate is maintained at a uniform temperature of
750C.
(a) Determine the velocity boundary layer thickness, the surface shear stress and
the heat flux at the trailing edge of the plate.
(b) Determine the drag force on the plate and the total heat transfer from the plate
to air.

7.12. Air at 30 0 C flows with a velocity of 10 m/s along a flat plate 4 m long. The plate
is maintained at a uniform temperature of 130 0 C. Assuming a critical Reynolds
number of 2 x 10 5 and width of plate to be 1 m determine (a) the heat flux at
the trailing edge of the plate, (b) the heat transfer from the laminar portion of
the plate, (c) the total heat transfer from the plate and (d) the heat transfer from
the turbulent portion of the plate.

7.13. A highly conducting thin wall 2 m long separates the hot and cold air streams
flowing on both sides parallel to the plate surface. The hot stream at 250 0 C is
flowing with a velocity of 50 m/s while the cold stream at 50 0 C is flowing with a
velocity of 15 m/s. Calculate (a) the average heat transfer coefficients for both
the air streams and the heat transfer between the two streams per metre width
of the plate and (b) the local heat flux at the mid point of the plate. Assume that
the wall is at the arithmetic mean of the temperature of the two streams for the
purposes of calculating the physical properties of the two streams and the critical
Reynolds number to be 2 x 10 5.

## 7.14. A flat plate of width 1 metre is maintained at a uniform temperature of 150 0 C by

using independently controlled heat generating rectangular modules of thickness
10 mm and length 50 mm. Each module is insulated from its neighbours, as well
as its back side.(see Fig. P 6.14). Atmospheric air at 25 0 C flows over the plate
at a velocity of 30 m/s. The thermo-physical properties of the module are : k =
5.2 W/(m-K) ; Cp = 320 kJ/(kg-K) ; ρ = 2300 kg / m3.

306
150 0 C
T∞ = 25 0 C
u∞ = 30 m/s

10 mm

700 mm

50 mm

## Fig. P 7.14 : Schematic for problem 7.14

(a) Find the required power generation in W/m 2 in a module positioned at a distance
of 700 mm from the leading edge of the plate.
(b) Find the maximum temperature in the heat generating module.

## 7.15. A circular pipe of 25 mm OD is placed in an air stream at 25 0 C and 1 atm

pressure. The air moves in cross flow over the pipe at 15 /s, while the outer
surface of the pipe is maintained at 115 0 C. What is the drag force exerted on
the pipe per unit length of the pipe? What is the rate of heat transfer per unit
length of the pipe?

7.16. A long cylindrical heating element [k = 240 W/(m-K), ρ = 2700 kg/m 3 and Cp =
900 kJ/(kg-K)] of diameter 10 mm is installed in a duct in which air moves in
cross flow over the heating element at a temperature of 27 0 C with a velocity of
10 m/s.
(a) Estimate the steady state surface temperature of the heater when electrical
energy is being generated at a rate of 1000 W per metre length of the cylinder.
(b) If the heater is activated from an initial temperature of 27 0 C, estimate the time
required for the surface temperature to come to within 10 0 C of its steady state
value.

## 7.17. Air at 40 0 C flows over a long 25 mm diameter cylinder with an embedded

electrical heater. Measurements of the effect of the free stream velocity V on the
power per unit length P, required to maintain the cylinder surface temperature at
300 0 C yielded the following results:

V (m/s) : 1 2 4 8 12

## P (W/m) : 450 658 983 1507 1963

307
(a) Determine the convection coefficient for each of the above test conditions.
Display your results graphically.
(b) For the corresponding Reynolds number range, determine the suitable constants
C and m for use with an empirical correlation of the form Num = C Redm Pr1/3.

7.18. A thermocouple is inserted into a hot air duct to measure the air temperature.
The thermocouple (T1) is soldered to the tip of a steel thermocouple well of
length 15 cm and inner and outer diameters of 5 mm and 10 mm respectively. A
second thermocouple (T2) is used to measure the duct wall temperature (see Fig.
P 6.18).

T2
Air
at T∞, u∞ L Steel well
Di

Do

## Fig. P 7.18 : Schematic for problem 7.18

Consider the conditions for which the air velocity in the duct u ∞ = 3 m/s and the
two thermocouples register temperatures of T 1 = 450 K and T2 = 375 K.
Neglecting radiation determine the air temperature T ∞. Assume that for steel k =
35 W/(m-K), and for air ρ = 0.774 kg / m3, μ = 251 x 10 ─ 7 N-s / m2, k = 0.0373
W/(m-K), and Pr = 0.686

## E. Flow across tube bundles:

7.19 Air at atmospheric pressure and 30 0 C flows over a bank of tubes consisting 1
cm OD tubes, 10 rows deep. The velocity of air before it enters the bundle is 1
m/s.
(a) Determine the friction factor and the pressure drop and (b) the average heat
transfer coefficient for the following cases:
(i) Tubes are in equilateral-triangular arrangement with ST / D = SD / D = 1.25
(ii) Tubes are in square arrangement with ST / D = SL / D = 1.25

7.20. Hot flue gases at 375 0 C flow across a tube bank consisting of 1.25 cm OD tubes,
which are maintained at a uniform surface temperature of 30 0 C by flowing water
through the tubes. The tube bundle is 10 rows deep in the direction of flow and
contains 40 tubes in each row. The tubes are 1 m long and have an in-line
arrangement with SL / D = ST / D = 2. he velocity of the flow gases entering the
tube matrix is 7 m/s. Determine the average heat transfer coefficient and the
total heat transfer rate. Assume that thermo-physical properties of the flow gases
to be same as that of air at any temperature.

308
A.Hydro-dynamically and Thermally developed flow through ducts

7.1. Solution:-

Water di
At 200C

## Properties of water at 20 0C are: ρ = 1000 kg / m3 ; ν = 1.006 x 10 − 6 m2 / s;

Reynolds Number = Red = uav dh / ν, where uav = average velocity of the fluid in the pipe
and dh = hydraulic diameter for the pipe.

Now m = ρ(πdi2/4)uav.

4 x 0.015
Or uav = (4m) / ρ(πdi2) = --------------------------- = 0.0305 m / s
1000 x π x 0.0252

## dh = di for a circular pipe.

0.0305 x 0.025
Therefore Red = ----------------------- = 757.95
1.006 x 10 − 6
Since Red < 2300, flow is laminar. For hydro-dynamically developed laminar flow we
have friction factor as

## Pumping power = Δp (m/ρ) = 156.28 x 0.015 / 1000 = 2.34 x 10− 3 W

309
The velocity of the fluid at any radius for fully developed laminar flow through a circular
tube is given by

7.2. Solution

## Properties of water at 40 0C are: ρ = 994.59 kg / m3 ; ν = 0.658 x 10 − 6 m2 / s;

0.5
uav = m / (ρab) = -------------------- = 1.26 m / s.
994.59 x 0.022

## Hydraulic diameter = dh = 4ab / 2(a + b) = 2ab / (a + b) = 2a2/2a = a = 0.02 m.

1.26 x 0.02
Reynolds number Red = uav dh / ν = ------------------- = 38299
0.658 x 10 − 6

## Since Red > 2300 flow is turbulent.

For fully developed turbulent flow through a pipe of square cross section the friction factor f
is given by (Moody chart, smooth pipe)

f = 0.02175.

Pressure drop = Δp = (1/2)f (L/dh) ρuav2 = 0.5 x 0.02175 x (12 / 0.02) x 994.59 x 1.262

= 10303 N / m2

## Pumping power = Δp x m / ρ = 10303 x 0.5 / 994.59 = 5.18 W

310
For a tube of equilateral triangular cross section, dh = 4 {√3 x a2/4} / 3a, where a is the side of
the triangle.

## Hence dh = a /√3 = 0.02 / √3 = 0.0115 m

0.5
Average velocity = uav = ----------------------------- = 2.9 m/s
994.59 x (√3/4) x 0.02 2

2.9 x 0.0115
Reynolds number = Red = --------------------- = 50684
0.658 x 10 − 6

Since Red > 2300, flow is turbulent. Hence from Moody chart we have

f = 0.02

## Pumping power = 36367.4 x 0.5 / 994.59 = 18.28 W.

7.3. Solution:

Tw

Tfi di Tfo

L
Data :- Tfi = 30 0C ; Tfo = 70 0C ; Tw = 90 0C ; m = 2 kg / s ; di = 2.5 cm = 0.025 m.

## k =0.644 W / (m-K) ; μ = 0.547 x 10 − 3 kg / (m-s) ; Pr = 3.55

311
Since nothing has been specified in the problem regarding the type of flow, it is assumed that
the flow is hydro dynamically and thermally developed.

4x2
2
Average velocity = uav = m / (ρx πdi /4) = ---------------------------- = 4.11 m/s.
990 x π x 0.025 2

## 990 x 4.11 x 0.025

Reynolds number = Red = ρ uav dh / μ = ----------------------------- = 1.86 x 10 5
0.547 x 10 − 3

Since Red >2300, flow is turbulent. For fully developed turbulent flow the Nusselt number is
given by

= 628

## = 628 x 0.644 / 0.025 = 16177 W/(m2-K)

To find the length of the tube L, we write the energy balance equation for the entire length of
the tube as

Heat supplied to fluid from the tube wall = Increase of energy of the fluid

## L = mcp(Tfo – Tfi) / hπdi ΔTm …………………..(1)

Where ΔTm = logarithmic mean temperature difference = [ΔTi – ΔTo] / ln (ΔTi / ΔTo)

## [2 x 4181x (70 – 30)]

Hence L = -------------------------------- = 7.23 m.
16171 x π x 0.025 x 36.41

7.4. Solution:

312
Tw

## Data :- Tfi = 20 0C ; m = 5 kg / s ; di = 0.05 m ; L = 10 m ; Tw = 80 0 C.

To find Tfo.

Since Tfois not known we cannot determine the bulk fluid mean temperature to know the
properties of the fluid. Hence this problem has to be solved by trial and error method as
shown below

Trial No. 1:- Assume suitable value for Tfo noting that Tfo < Tw.

## ν = 0.658 x 10 − 6 m2 / s ; k = 0.628 W /(m-K).

4x5
2
Average velocity of water = uav = 4m /( πd ρ) = --------------------------
i
π x (0.05)2 x 994.59

= 2.56 m/s.

## For a circular tube dh = di = 0.05 m.

2.56 x 0.05
Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = ------------------------ = 1.945 x 10 5
0.658 x 10 − 6

## = 0.023 x (1.945 x 10 5) 0.8 (4.34) 0.4

313
= 704.5
704.5 x 0.628
Heat transfer coefficient = h = Nud k / dh = ---------------------- = 8848.5 W /(m2 – K).
0.05

Heat balance equation for the total length of the tube can be written as

## or h πdiL [ΔTi – ΔTo]

---------------------------- = mcp [ΔTi – ΔTo]
ln[ΔTi / ΔTo]

## or ΔTo = ΔTi / exp {( h πdiL)/(mcp)}

[80 – 20]
= ----------------------------------------------------
exp{(8848.5 x π x 0.05 x 10) / (5 x 4178.4)}

= 30.85 0 C.

Therefore Tfo = 80 – 30.85 = 49.15 0 C. This temperature is quite away from the
assumed value and hence one more iteration is required.

## 4x5 2.556 x 0.05

uav = ------------------ ------ = 2.556 m/s; Red = -------------------- = 1.696 x 10 5
π x 0.05 2 x 996.22 0.7537 x 10 − 6

## Hence h = 672.2 x 0.6195 / 0.05 = 8328.6 W/(m2 – K)

[80 – 20]
Therefore Tfo = 80 − ---------------------------------------------------------
exp {(8328.6 x π x 0.05 x 10) / (5 x 4179.3)}

## = 48 0 C which is very close to the assumed value of Tfo. Hence the

iteration can be stopped.

314
7.5. Solution:
qw
a

Tfi Tfo b

L
Data :- Fluid is air ; Tfi = 27 0 C ; m = 0.01 kg/s; a = 0.01 m; b = 0.006 m; L = 2 m;

qw = 5000 W / m2.

## find (i) Tfo ; (ii) Tw|z = L

Energy balance equation for total length of the tube can be written as

## Therefore cp = 1005.7 J/kg-K.

2 x (0.01 + 0.006) x 2 x 5000
Therefore Tfo = 27 + --------------------------------------- = 58.8 0 C.
1.1 x 1005.7

## Therefore Tm = ½(Tfi + Tfo) = 0.5 x (27 + 58.8) = 42.9 0 C.

Properties of air at 42.9 0 C are : ρ = 1.12 kg / m3; 1006.8 J/kg-K; ν = 17.30 x 10 − 6 m2/s;

## Pr = 0.7045 ; k = 0.02745 W/(m-K).(It should be noted that the variation of cp with

temperature between Tfi and Tm is very negligible and hence this problem does not require
trial and error solution)

## 4ab 2ab 2 x 0.01 x 0.006

Hydraulic diameter = dh = ------------ = ------------- = ------------------------- = 0.0075 m.
2[a + b] [a + b] [0.01 + 0.006]

0.01
Average velocity = uav = m / [ρab] = ------------------------- = 149 m /s.
1.12 x 0.01 x 0.006
149 x 0.0075

315
Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = --------------------- = 64595
17.3 x 10 − 6

Since Red >2300 flow is turbulent. Assuming that the flow is hydrodynamically and
thermally developed we have
Nud = 0.023 Red 0.8Pr n, with n = 0.4 as air is being heated.

## Therefore Nud = 0.023 x [64595] 0.8 x [0.7045] 0.4 = 140.9

140.9 x 0.02745
Heat transfer coefficient = h = Nud k / dh = ---------------------- = 515.7 W/(m2 – K).
0.0075

## Therefore Tw|z=l = qw / h + Tfo = 5000 / 515.7 + 58.8 = 68.5 0 C

7.6.Solution:

Data: Fluid is liquid sodium; m = 3/60 =0.05 kg/s; Tfi = 400 0 C; Tfo = 500 0C;di = 0.05 m

## cp = 1274 J/kg-K; ν = 0.2937 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

4 x 0.05
Average velocity = uav = 4m / ( ρπdi2) = ------------------------ = 0.03 m/s.
846.7 x π x 0.05 2

0.03 x 0.05
Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = ----------------------- = 5107
0.2937 x 10 − 6

Since Red > 2300, flow is turbulent.Assuming the flow to be hydrodynamically and thermally
developed and since Pr << 1 (Liquid metal), the Nusselt number for constant wall heat flux
condition is given by

## = 4.82 + 0.0185 x [5107 x 0.00468] 0.827 = 5.075

5.075 x 68.34
Heat transfer coefficient = h = Nud k / dh = ------------------------ = 6936.5 W/(m2 – K).

316
0.05

Energy balance equation for the total length of the tube can be written as

## mcp(Tfo – Tfi) 0.05 x 1274 x (500 – 400)

or L = -------------------- = ----------------------------------- = 0.195 m
h (πdi)ΔTm 6936.5 x π x 0.05 x 30
7.7. Solution:

The Dittus-Boetler correlation for hydrodynamically and thermally developed flow is given
by
Nud = hdh/k = 0.023 Red0.8 Pr n ………………..(1)

4M
For a circular tube of diameter D, Red = uavD / ν = --------------
ρπDν

## Hence Eq.(1) can be written as h1D

----- = 0.023 [4M/( ρπDν)] 0.8 Pr n
k

## Or h1 = 0.023k [4M/( ρπν)] 0.8 Pr nD − 1.8………….(2)

Similarly when the diameter of the tube is reduced to D/2, for the same mass flow rate the
heat transfer coefficient is given by

6.8. Solution:

317
Tw

di
Tfi Tfo

## di = dh = 0.0125m;uav = 1 m/s;Tw = 2500C;

To find L

Bulk mean temperature of mercury = Tm = ½(Tfi + Tfo) = 0.5 x (100 + 200) = 150 0C.

## ν = 0.0865 x 10 − 6 m2 / s; k = 9.65 W/(m-K) ; Pr = 0.0162

1.0 x 0.0125
Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = ----------------------- = 1.445 x 10 5
0.0865 x 10 − 6

## Therefore Peclet number = Pe = Red Pr = 1.445 x 10 5 x 0.0162 = 2341

Since Red > 2300, flow is turbulent. Therefore for liquid metal flow subjected to uniform
wall-temperature Nusselt number is given by

## = 5.0 + 0.025 x 2341 0.8 = 17.4

17.4 x 11.425
Heat transfer coefficient, h = Nudk/dh = -------------------- = 15904.5 W/(m2-K)
0.0125

## Mean temperature difference = ΔTm = [ΔTi − ΔTo] / ln(ΔTi / ΔTo)

318
= [150 – 50] / ln(150 / 50) = 91 0 C

## Mass flow rate of mercury = m = ρ(πdi2/4)uav = 15904.5 x (π x 0.0125 2/4) x 1.0

= 1.952 kg/s

Energy balance equation for the total length of the pipe is given by

## mcp(Tfo – Tfi) 1.952 x 137.3 x (200 – 100)

Therefore L = ------------------ = ------------------------------------
h πdi ΔTm 15904.5 x π x 0.0125 x 91

= 0.4715 m

## B Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entry Lengths

6.9. Solution:
Data:- Tfi = 60 0C ; m = 0.015 kg / s; di = dh = 0.025 m.

## (i) Fluid is water. Hence at 60 0 C, ρ = 985.46 kg / m3 ; ν = 0.478 x 10 − 6 m2 / s.

4 x 0.015
Average velocity = uav = 4m / ρπdi2 = -------------------------- = 0.032 m/s.
985.46 x π x 0.025 2

0.032 x 0.025
Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = --------------------- = 1728
0.478 x 10 − 6

Since Red < 2300, flow is laminar. Hence the hydrodynamic entrance length Lh for a circular
pipe is given by

Lh / dh
-------- = 0.056
Red

## Therefore Lh = 0.056 Red dh = 0.056 x 1728 x 0.025

= 2.419 m
(ii)Fluid is ethylene glycol: ρ = 1087.66 kg/m3 ; ν = 4.75 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

4 x 0.015
Average velocity = uav = 4m / ρπdi2 = -------------------------- = 0.0281 m/s.
1087.66 x π x 0.025 2

319
0.0281 x 0.025
Reynolds number = Red = ---------------------------- = 147.9
4.75 x 10 − 6

## Therefore Lh = 0.056 Red dh = 0.056 x 147.9 x 0.025

= 0.21 m.
(iii) Fluid is engine oil; ρ = 864.04 kg/m3 ; ν = 0.839 x 10 − 4 m2/s.

4 x 0.015
Average velocity = uav = 4m / ρπdi2 = -------------------------- = 0.0354 m/s.
864.04 x π x 0.025 2

0.0354 x 0.025
Reynolds number = Red = ---------------------------- = 10.55
0.839 x 10 − 4

## 6.10.Solution: Data: Fluid is engine oil ; Tfi = 60 0C; m = 0.01 kg/s;

square duct with a = 0.01m ; ρ = 864 kg/m 3; cp = 2047 J/kg-K; k = 0.14 W/(m-K);
μ = 0.0725 kg/(m-s); Pr = 1050.

## (i) Hydraulic diameter = dh = 4a 2 /(4a) = a = 0.01 m.

0.01
2
Average velocity = uav = m / (ρa ) = --------------------- = 0.1157 m/s.
864 x (0.01) 2

## 864 x 0.1157 x 0.01

Reynolds number = Red = (ρuavdh) / μ = ------------------------- = 13.8
0.0725

## Since Red < 2300, flow is laminar. Hence (Lh / dh)

---------- = 0.09 for a tube of square section.
Red

## (ii) For constant wall temperature condition we have

320
(Lt / dh)
---------- = 0.041
Pe

## Hence Lt = 0.041 Pe dh = 0.041 x (13.8 x 1050) x 0.01 = 5.94 m

(iii)For fully developed laminar flow through a square tube Nusselt number is given by

Nu T = hdh / k = 2.976

## Hence h = 2.976 k / dh = 2.976 x 0.14 / 0.01 = 41.66 W/(m2-K)

Consider the flow of water at a rate of 0.01 kg/s through an equilateral triangular duct of
sides 2 cm and whose walls are kept at a uniform temperature of 100 0C. Assuming the flow
to be hydrodynamically and thermally developed, determine the length of the tube required to
heat the water from 200C to 70 0C.

Solution:
Tw = 100 0C

Water
Tfo=700C
Tfi = 20 0C
m = 0.01 kg/s

L= ?

a = 0.02 m

Bulk mean temperature of water = ½(Tw + T∞) = 0.5x (20 + 70) = 45 0C.

## Properties of water at bulk mean temperature are: ρ = 992.3075 kg/m3; Pr = 4.01

ν = 0.598 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.63375 W/(m-K); cp = 4179.9J/kg-K

For an equilateral triangular tube, area of flow = A = (√3 / 4)a 2 = (√3 / 4) x 0.02 2

= 1.732 x 10 − 4 m 2

321
4 [(√3 / 4)a 2] a 0.02
Hydraulic diameter = dh = --------------------- = ------------- = ------------ = 0.01155 m
3a √3 √3
m 0.01
Average velocity of water = uav = ----------------- = -------------------------------
ρA 992.3075 x 1.732 x 10 − 4

=0.0582 m/s

0.0582 x 0.01155
Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = -------------------------- = 1124
0.598 x 10 − 6

Since Red <2300 flow is laminar.For thermally developed laminar flow with constant wall-
temperature the Nusselt number is given by

## Nud = hav dh / k = 2.47

2.47 x 0.63375
Therefore hav = ------------------ = 135.53 W/(m2-K)
0.01155

Mean temperature difference between the surface and the bulk fluid is given by

## Hence ΔTm = [80 – 30] / ln{80/30} = 50.1 0C.

Rate of heat transfer to water = Q = mcp(Tfo – Tfi) = 0.01 x 4179.9 x (70 – 20)

= 2090 W

## Hence Q = hav 3aL ΔTm

Q 2090
Or L = -------------------- = -------------------------------- = 5.13 m
hav 3a ΔTm 135.53 x 3 x 0.02 x 50.1

6.11. Solution:

322
u∞, T∞
Tw

x
L

## Properties of air at 50 0 C are : ρ = 1.093 kg/m3; ν = 18.02 x 10 − 6 m 2 /s; Pr =0.703

k = 0.028 W/(m-K).

## a) 1) Reynolds number at the trailing edge = ReL = (u∞L) / ν = 5 x 1 / (18.02 x 10 − 6)

= 2.775 x 10 5

Assuming the critical Reynolds number to be 5 x 10 5, the flow is laminar at the trailing edge.
Therefore from heat transfer data hand book we have

= 0.0088 m.

= 1.26 x 10 − 3

## 3) Local Nusselt number at the trailing edge is given by

323
Nux|x=L = 0.332 ReL 0.5 Pr 0.333

= 155.5

= 4.354 W/(m2-K)

## Average heat flus = qw = [havg] (Tw – T∞)= 8.708 x 50 = 435.4 W/(m2 – K)

6.12. Solution:-

u∞ = 10 m/s (air)

T∞ = 30 0 C Tw = 130 0 C

x
W=1 m
L= 4 m

To find :- (a) qw(x)|x=L; (b) Qlaminar; (c) Qtotal assuming Recr = 2 x 10 5 (d) Qturbulent

## Properties of air at mean film temperature are: ν =21.48 x 10 − 6 m2/s; Pr = 0.692

k = 0.03047 W /(m-K).

324
10 x 4
ReL = u∞L / ν = -------------------------- = 1.86 x 10 6
21.48 x 10 − 6

## Since ReL > Recr flow is turbulent at the trailing edge.

For turbulent flow of air over a flat plate the local Nusselt number is given by

## Hence Nux|x=L = 0.0296 x [1.86 x 10 6] 0.8 (0.692) 1/3 = 2714

2714 x 0.03047
Therefore [hx|x=L] L / k = 2803 or hx|x=L = ---------------------- = 20.67 W /(m2-K)
4

## (b) Recr = u∞ xcr / ν.

Recr ν 2 x 10 5 x 21.48 x 10 − 6
Or xcr = --------- = ------------------------------- = 0.4296 m
u∞ 10

## Hence average heat transfer coefficient for the laminar region is

263.3 x 0.03003
[hav]laminar = [Nuav] laminar k / xcr = -----------------------
0.4296
2
= 18.40 W /(m –K)

Heat transfer rate from laminar portion = Qlaminar = [hav]laminar [x cr W] (Tw – T∞)

## = 18.4 x [ 0.4296 x 1] x (130 – 30)

= 790.5.0 W

325
(c)Average Nusselt number for the entire length of the plate is given by

## Therefore Nuav = (0.697) 1/3 [0.037 x {1.86 x 10 6} 0.8 – 356] = 3085

3085 x 0.03047
Hence hav = Nuav k / L = ----------------------- = 23.5 W/(m2 – K)
4

## Qturbulent = Qtotal – Qlaminar = 9400 – 790.5 = 8609.5 W

6.13. Solution:
Hot air at T∞1 =250 0 C, u∞1 = 50 m/s
Tw = ½( T∞1+ T∞2)
= 150 0 C

L= 2 m

## Additional data:- Recr = 2 x 10 5

To find (i) hav for the hot surface ; (ii) hav for the cold surface ; (iii) qw(x)|x=L/2

(i) Mean film temperature for the hot fluid = ½(Tw + T∞1) = 0.5 x (150 + 250) = 200 0C.

## Reynolds number at the trailing edge of the plate = ReL = u∞1L / ν

50 x 2
Or ReL = ------------------- = 2.869 x 10 6
34.85 x 10 − 6

Since ReL > Recr, flow is partly laminar and partly turbulent. Therefore the average Nusselt
number is given by

## Nuav = Pr 1/3[0.037 ReL0.8 – A]

326
Where A = 0.037 Recr0.8 – 0.664 Recr 0.5.

## Hence Nuav = (0.68) 1/3 [0.037 x (2.869 x 10 6) 0.8 – 347.25] = 4465

4465 x 0.0391
Hence for the hot surface [hav] hot = Nuav k / L = ---------------------- = 87.29 W/(m2-K)
2

(ii) Mean film temperature for the cold surface = ½(150 + 50) = 100 0C.

Properties of air at the mean film temperature are: ν = 23.33 x 10 − 6 m2/s; Pr = 0.693
k = 0.03184 W/(m-K)
15 x 2
ReL = u∞2L / ν = -------------------------- = 1.286 x 10 6
23.33 x 10 − 6

## Therefore Nuav = (0.693) 1/3[0.037 x (1.286 x 10 6) 0.8 – 347.25] = 2219

2219 x 0.03184
Hence for the cold surface [hav]cold = -------------------- = 35.33 W/(m2-K).
2

(iii) The rate of heat transfer from the hot air stream to cold air stream is given by

## and R = Thermal resistance offered by the plate for conduction.

1
Now Rc1 = 1 / [hav]hot A = ------------------- = 0.00573 m2 – K / W.
87.29 x (2 x 1)
1
Similarly Rc2 = 1 / [hav]cold A = -------------------- = 0.01415 m2 – K / W.
35.33 x (2 x 1)

## Therefore Q = [250 – 50] / [ 0.00573 + 0.01415] = 10,060 W.

327
(iv) At mid point of the plate x = L / 2.

## CT∞1 + T∞2 [hx|x=L/2]hot 107.7

Therefore Tw = ----------------------- ; C = ---------------- = ---------- = 2.33
1+C [hx|x=L/2]cold 46.2

(2.33 x 250) + 50
Hence Tw = -------------------------- = 189.94 0C
1 + 2.33

## Therefore qw(x)|x=L/2 = 107.7 x [250 –189.94] = 6468.5 W/m2

Also check for qw(x)|x=L/2 ; qw(x)|x=L/2 = 46.2 x (189.94 – 50) = 6465.2 W/m2

6.14. Solution:

328
Air with u∞ = 30 m/s,T∞ = 25 0C
Tw = 150 0 C

10 mm

X1 = 700 mm Insulated

X2 = 750 mm

## Properties of the module: km = 5.2 W/(m-K); cpm = 320 kJ/kg-K;

ρm = 2300 kg/m3.

Mean film temperature = ½(Tw + T∞) = 0.5 x(25 + 150) = 87.5 0C.
Properties of air at 87.5 0C are : ν = 21.79 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.03075 W/(m-K);
Pr = 0.695. Assume Recr = 5 x 10 5

## Similarly Rex2 = u∞x2 / ν = 30 x 0.75 / (21.79 x 10 − 6) = 10.325 x 10 5

Since Rex1 > Recr, the flow is turbulent at x1 and the flow will be turbulent over the module
under consideration. Therefore the average heat transfer coefficient for the module can be
written as x2
[hav]m = {1 / (x2 – x1)} ∫ hxdx
x1

## = {1 / (x2 – x1)} ∫(Nux k/x)dx

x2
= {1 / (x2 – x1)} ∫{k[ 0.037 (Rex)0.8 – 871]Pr 1/3 /x}dx
x1

k Pr 1/3 x2

## = ---------------- { ∫ [0.037 (u∞/ν)0.8 x − 0.2 – 871/x]dx }

(x2 – x1) x1

k Pr 1/3
= ---------------- {0.037 (u∞/ν)0.8 ∫ x − 0.2 dx - 871∫ (dx /x) }
(x2 – x1)
1/3
k Pr
= ---------------- { 0.04625[Rex20.8 – Rex10.8] – 871 ln (x2 / x1)}
(x2 – x1)

329
0.03075 x (0.695)1/3{0.04625[(10.325 x105)0.8 –(9.325 X 105)0.8] – 871 ln (0.75/0.7)}
= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(0.75 – 0.7)

= 95.16 W / (m2-K)

For the module, power generation = qw = [hav]m {Tw - T∞} = 95.16 x (150 – 25)

## = 11895 W/m2 = 11.895 kW/ m2

(b) Since the bottom surface of the module is insulated, all the heat generated in the module
is transferred to air from the top surface of the module. Hence if q’’’ is the heat generated per
unit volume then
q’’’ (x2 – x1)δW = qw(x2 – x1)W,

## d2T/dy2 + q’’’ / k = 0 ………………………….(a)

where y is the coordinate measured in the direction of the thickness of the module.

The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0, the surface is insulated i.e. dT/dy = 0

and at y = δ, T = Tw. The solution of Eq.(a) subject to the boundary conditions is given by

## T(y) + q’’’y2 / 2k = Tw + q’’’δ2 / 2k

Since the bottom surface is insulated, the maximum temperature of the module will be at the
bottom surface (y = 0) and is therefore given by

Tmax = Tw + q’’’δ2 / 2k

## 11.895 x 106 x (0.001)2

= 150 + ----------------------------- = 151.1 0C
2 x 5.2

## D) Flow across a cylinder

6.15. Solution:

330
u∞ = 15 m/s; T∞ = 25 0 C
Tw = 1150C

L d = 0.025 m

= 18703

## From the chart of drag coefficient versus Reynolds number we get

the drag coefficient ,CD = 1.2.

Therefore drag force = FD = ½(ρu∞2)LD CD = 0.5 x 1.0231 x 152 x 1 x 0.025 x 1.2 = 3.453 N

(ii) From Heat transfer data hand book for gases the average Nusselt number is given by
(μw = μ∞ can be considered for air )

## = (0.4 x 18703 0.5 + 0.06 x 18703 2/3) x (0.699) 0.4 = 84.04

84.04 x 0.0295
Therefore hav = Nuav k/d = -------------------- = 99.17 W/(m2-K)
0.025

## Heat transfer = Q = havπdL(Tw – T∞) = 99.17 x π x 0.025 x 1 x (115 – 25) = 701 W

6.16 Solution:

331
u∞ = 10 m/s; T∞ = 27 0C

Qw

D = 0.01 m

Given:- Qw = 1000 W/m; ks = 240 W/(m-K); ρs = 2700 kg/m3; Cps = 900 kJ/kg-K

## To find (i) Tw under steady state condition

(ii) time ‘t’ required for the surface to reach a temperature of (Tw – 10) 0C

Since Tw is not known it is not possible to read the properties at the mean film temperature.
Hence the problem has to be solved by trail and error procedure.

Trial 1:- Calculations are started using the properties of air at T∞.
Properties of air at 270C are:

## ρ = 1.1774 kg/m3; cp = 1.0057 kJ/kg-K; ν = 15.68 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.02624 W/(m-K);

Pr = 0.708
10 x 0.01
Red = u∞D / ν = ---------------------- = 6377.5
15.68 x 10 − 6

## = (0.4 x 6377.50.5 + 0.06 x 6377.5 2/3) x (0.708) 0.4 = 45.79

45.79 x 0.02624
Therefore hav = Nuav k/D = ------------------------- = 120.15 W/(m2- K)
0.01

## Or Tw = T∞ + Qw /hav πDL = 27 + 1000 / (120.15 x π x 0.01 x 1) = 291.930 C

332
Trial 2:- Assume Tw = 291.93 0C .Mean film temperature = ½(291.93 +27) = 159.5 0C.

## Properties of air at 159.50C are: ν = 30.09 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.03640 W/(m-K); Pr = 0.682.

10 x 0.01
Red = u∞D / ν = ---------------------- = 3323.4
30.09 x 10 − 6

Nuav = (0.4 x 3323.4 0.5 + 0.06 x 3323.4 2/3) x (0.682) 0.4 = 31.25

## Therefore Tw = 27 + 1000 / (113.75 x π x 0.01 x 1) = 306.8 0C. Since this value of Tw is

considerably different from the value got in the first trial, one more iteration is required.

Trial 3:- Assume Tw = 303 0 C. Mean film temperature = 0.5 (303 + 27) = 165 0 C.

## Properties of air at 165 0 C are: ν = 30.88 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.0369 W/(m-K);

Pr = 0.682
10 x 0.01
Red = u∞D / ν = ---------------------- = 3238.34
30.88x 10 − 6

Nuav = (0.4 x 3238.34 0.5 + 0.06 x 3238.34 2/3) x (0.682) 0.4 = 30.8

## Therefore Tw = 27 + 1000 / (113.65 x π x 0.01 x 1) = 307 0C which is very close to the

assumed value of 303 0 C and hence the iteration can be stopped.
Therefore Tw = 307 0C.

(ii) To determine the time ‘t’ required for the surface of the cylinder to reach a temperature of
(307 – 10 = 2970C).

If dT/dt represents the rate of change of temperature of the surface w.r.t. time during unsteady
state, then energy balance equation for the cylinder can be written as follows:

Rate of increase of energy of the cylinder = Heat transfer rate by convection from
the surroundings to the cylinder +

## 6.19.Solution: Case (i) Square Arrangement

333
Row 1 Row 2 Row 3
u∞,T∞∞

D
ST

SL

## To find (i) friction factor,f; (ii) pressure drop Δp ; (iii) hav

Since the surface temperature of the tubes is not known properties of air are evaluated at T∞.
Hence properties of air at 30 0C are:

Pr = 0.708

## (i) For square arrangement the maximum velocity is given by

ST / D 1.25
Umax = u∞ ------------------ = 1 x ---------------- = 5 m/s
[ST / D – 1] [ 1.25 – 1]

## Gmax = ρUmax = 1.1774 x 5 = 5.887 kg/(m2-s)

0.01 x 5.887
Reynolds number = Re = DGmax / μ = ------------------------ = 2969
1.983 x 10 − 5

From the graph friction factor f = 0.55 and Z = 1 for square arrangement as ST = SL.

N (Gmax) 2 10 x (5.887) 2
Now Δp = f ---------------- Z = 0.55 x ------------------------- x 1.0 = 161.9 N/ m2
ρ 1.1774

## Nuav = c2Rem Pr0.36 (Pr/Prw)n

334
Here c2 = 0.27 ; m = 0.63 ; n = 0.

## Therefore Nuav = 0.27 x (2969) 0.63 (0.708)0.36 = 36.74

Since N <20, the above value of Nuav has to be multiplied by a correction factor.

## Case (ii); Equilateral Triangular Arrangement:

u∞,T∞

ST
SD

Given: ST / D = SD / D = 1.25

ST / D
Maximum velocity Umax = u∞ ------------------ = 5 m/s as calculated above
[ST / D – 1]

ST / D 1.25
Or Umax = (½ )u∞ ------------------ = 0.5 x 1 x ------------- = 2.5 m/s
[SD / D – 1] (1.25 – 1)

We have to choose the higher of the two maximum velocities to calculate the Reynolds
number.Hence Umax and Reynolds number will be same as the above case.

335
From chart for staggered tube arrangement, f = 0.7and Z = 1

10 x 5.887 2
Therefore Δp = 0.7 x ----------------- x 1 = 206.1 N/m2
1.1774

## Now SL2 = SD2 − (ST/2)2 or SL / D = [(SD/D)2 – (ST/2D)2] ½

= (√3/2)(ST/D)

Or ST/SL = 2 / √3 = 1.155

= 38.54

## [ Nuav] N=10 = c3[Nuav]N≥ 20

From the graph c3 = 0.98. Hence [ Nuav] N=10 = 0.98 x 38.54 = 37.8

6.20. Solution:

D

SL

## Data:- T∞ = 375 0C; u∞ = 7 m/s; Tw = 30 0C; Number of rows = N = 10 ;

336
D = 0.0125 m; number of tubes in each row = m = 40; L = 1 m ;

## Mass velocity = Gmax = ρ Umax = 0.7424 x 14 = 10.394 kg/(m2-s)

0.0125 x 10.394
Reynolds number = Re = DGmax / μ = ---------------------- = 4985.6
2.606 x 10 − 5

## The average Nusselt number for N ≥ 20 is given by [Nuav]N≥20 = c2 RemPr0.36

For in-line arrangement from data hand book, c2 = 0.27 and m = 0.63

## Hence [ Nuav] N=10 = 0.96 x 50.19 = 48.18

48.18 x 0.03948
Average heat transfer coefficient = hav = [ Nuav] N=10 k / D = ----------------------
0.0125

= 152.175 W/(m2-K).

Energy balance between the tubes surfaces and hot gases can be written as

Heat transfer from hot gases to the tube surfaces = Q = (πDLNm)hav(T∞ - Tw)

## Or Q = π x 0.0125 x 1 x 10 x 40 x 152.175 x (375 – 30) = 82.779 x103 W = 82.779 kW

337
Chapter 7 : Free Convective Heat Transfer
A. Free convection from/to plane surfaces:

## 7.1. A vertical plate 30 cm high and 1 m wide and maintained at a uniform

temperature of 120 0 C is exposed to quiescent air at 30 0 C.Calculate the
average heat transfer coefficient and the total heat transfer rate from the plate to
air.
7.2. An electrically heated vertical plate of size 25 cm x 25 cm is insulated on one side
and dissipates heat from the other surface at a constant rate of 600 W/m 2 by free
convection into quiescent atmospheric air at 30 0 C. Determine the surface
temperature of the plate.
7.3. Determine the heat transfer by free convection from a plate 30 cm x 30 cm
whose surfaces are maintained at 100 0 C and exposed to quiescent air at 20 0 C
for the following conditions: (a) the plate is vertical. (b) Plate is horizontal
7.4. A circular plate of 25 cm diameter with both surfaces maintained at a uniform
temperature of 100 0 C is suspended in horizontal position in atmospheric air at
20 0 C. Determine the heat transfer from the plate.
7.5. Consider an electrically heated plate 25 cm x 25 cm in which one surface is
thermally insulated and the other surface is dissipating heat by free convection
into atmospheric air at 30 0 C. The heat flux over the surface is uniform and
results in a mean surface temperature of 50 0 C. The plate is inclined making an
angle of 50 0 from the vertical. Determine the heat loss from the plate for (i)
heated surface facing up and (ii) heated surface facing down.
7.6. A thin electric strip heater of width 20 cm is placed with its width oriented
vertically. It dissipates heat by free convection from both the surfaces into
atmospheric air at 20 0 C. If the surface temperature of the heater is not to
exceed 225 0 C, determine the length of the heater required in order to dissipate
1 kW of energy into the atmospheric air.
7.7. A plate 75 cm x 75 cm is thermally insulated on the one side and subjected to a
solar radiation flux of 720 W/m 2 on the other surface. The plate makes an angle
of 60 0 with the vertical such that the hot surface is facing upwards. If the surface
is exposed to quiescent air at 25 0 C and if the heat transfer is by pure free
convection determine the equilibrium temperature of the plate.

## 7.8. A 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m long vertical tube at a uniform temperature of 100 0C

is exposed to quiescent air at 20 0 C. calculate the rate of heat transfer from
the surface to air. What would be the heat transfer rate if the tube were kept
horizontally?
7.9. A horizontal electrical cable of 25 mm diameter has a heat dissipation rate of 30
W/m. If the ambient air temperature is 27 0 C, estimate the surface temperature
of the cable.
7.10. An electric immersion heater, 10 mm in diameter and 300 mm long is rated at
550 W. If the heater is horizontally positioned in a large tank of water at 20 0 C,
estimate its surface temperature. What would be its surface temperature if the
heater is accidentally operated in air.

338
A.Free Convection to or from plane surfaces

7.1. Solution:

Tw = 120 0 C

T∞ = 30 0C
L = 0.3m
Mean film temperature of air = 0.5 x (120 +30) = 750C
x
Properties of air at 750C are:

## k = 0.03 W/(m-K) ; ν = 20.555 x 10 − 6 m 2/s ;

First we have to establish whether the flow become turbulent within the given length of the
plate by evaluating the Rayleigh number at x = L.

## 9.81 x 2.874 x 10 − 3 x (120 – 30) x 0.3 3

GrL = (gβΔTL 3) / ν 2 = ----------------------------------------------------
20.555 x 10 − 6

= 1.62 x 10 8

## Rayleigh number = RaL = GrLPr = 1.62 x 10 8 x 0.693 = 1.12 x 10 8.

Since RaL < 10 9 flow is laminar for the entire height of the plate. Hence the average Nusselt
number is given by (from data hand book)

## Nuav = 0.59 x (RaL) 0.25 = 0.59 x (1.12 x 10 8) 0.25 = 60.695

60.6 x 0.03
Therefore hav = Nuav k / L = ---------------- = 6.069 W /(m2 – K).
0.3

Total heat transfer fro both sides of the plate per unit width of the plate is given by

339
Qtotal = hav(2LW) ΔT = 6.06 x (2 x 0.3 x 1) X (120 – 30) = 327.726 W/m.

7.2. Solution:

Insulated

qw = 600 W/m2
T∞ = 30 0C

L = 0.25 m

Since Tw is not known, it is not possible to determine the mean film temperature at which
fluid properties have to be evaluated. Hence this problem requires a trial and error solution
either by assuming Tw and then calculate Tw by using the heat balance equation and check for
the assumed value or assume a value for h av ,calculate Tw and then calculate hav and check for
the assumed value of hav.Since it is difficult to guess a reasonable value for Tw to reduce the
number of iterations, it is preferable to guess a reasonable value for h av for air as we know
that for air hav varies anywhere between 5 and 15 W/(m2-K).

## 9.81 x 3.003 x 10 − 3 x 600 x (0.25)4

* 4 2
Ra = GrL*Pr =[(gβqwx ) /(kν )]Pr = ----------------------------------------------x 0.696
L
0.02896 x (18.97 x 10 − 6) 2

Or RaL* = 4.61 x 10 9.

Since RaL* >10 9 flow is turbulent for the entire length of the plate

340
Hence Nuav = 1.25 Nux|x=L = 1.25 x 0.17 x (4.61 x 10 9) 0.2 = 55.37
Therefore hav = 55.37 x 0.02896 / 0.25 = 6.41 W/(m2 – K)

Since the calculated value of hav deviates from the assumed value by about 34 %, one more
iteration is required.

## 9.81 x 2.873 x 10 − 3 x 600 x 0.25 4

RaL* = ------------------------------------------- x 0.686 = 2.06 x 10 9
0.03338 x (25.45 x 10 − 6) 2

## Therefore hav = 45.27 x 0.03338 / 0.25 = 6.04 W/(m2 – K).

Since the calculated value of hav is very close to the assumed value (error < , the iteration is
stopped. The surface temperature of the plate is therefore given by

## 7.3. Solution:- Case(i) When the plate is vertical

Data:- Characteristic length = L = height of the plate = 0.3 m; Tw = 100 0C;T∞= 20 0C;

## 9.81 x 3.003 x 10 − 3 x (100 – 20) x (0.3) 3

= ---------------------------------------------------- x 0.696 = 1.23 x 10 8

341
(18.97 x 10 − 6 ) 2

= 86.256 W

## Heated surface facing upwards with heat transfer coefficient htop

T∞

T
Heated surface facing downwards with
Heat transfer coefficient hbottom

## Data:- T∞ = 20 0C; Temperature of both the surfaces = Tw = 100 0C;

Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (100 + 20) = 60 0C;L = W = 0.3 m
Properties of air at 60 0C are: β = 1 /(60 + 273) = 3.003 x 10 − 3 1/K; Pr = 0.696
ν = 18.97 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.02896 W/(m-K)

## gβΔTL 3 9.81 x (3.003 x 10 − 3) x (100 – 20) x (0.075) 3

RaL = ----------- Pr = ----------------------------------------------------------- x 0.696
ν2 (18.97 x 10 − 6) 2

Or RaL = 1.923 x 10 6.

From data hand book for heated surface facing upwards with constant surface temperature
the average Nusselt number is given by

342
Nutop = htopL/k = 0.54 x (RaL) 0.25 = 0.54 x ( 1.923 x 10 6) 0.25 = 20.11
Hence htop = 20.11 x 0.02896 / 0.075 = 7.76 W/(m2-K)

(b)To find hbottom:- From data hand book for heated surface facing downwards with constant
surface temperature, the average Nusselt number is given by

## = (0.3 x 0.3) x (100 – 20) x (7.76 + 3.88) = 83.808 W

7.4. Solution: Data:- Horizontal circular plate with D = 0.25 m;Tw = 100 0C ; T∞ = 20 0C

This problem is similar to the previous problem except for the characteristic length. For a
horizontal circular plate of diameter D the characteristic length is given by

## gβΔTL 3 9.81 x (3.003 x 10 − 3) x (100 – 20) x (0.0625) 3

RaL = ----------- Pr = ----------------------------------------------------------- x 0.696
ν2 (18.97 x 10 − 6) 2
6
Or RaL = 1.112 x 10 .

From data hand book for heated surface facing upwards with constant surface temperature
the average Nusselt number is given by

## Hence htop = 17.53 x 0.02896 / 0.0625 = 8.12 W/(m2-K)

(b)To find hbottom:- From data hand book for heated surface facing downwards with constant
surface temperature, the average Nusselt number is given by

## Nubottom = hbottomL/k = 0.27 x (1.112 x10 6) 0.25 = 8.76

343
hbottom = 8.76 x 0.02896 / 0.0625 = 4.059 W/(m2-K)

## 7.5. Soloution: Data:- L = W = 0.25 m; T∞ = 30 0C; Tw = 50 0C;

Mean film temperature = 50 − 0.25 x (50 - 30) = 45 0C;Properties of air at 45 0C are:
Pr = 0.6835; k = 0.02791 W/(m-K); ν = 17.455 x 10 − 6 m2/s.
β = 1/[{30 +0.25x(50-30)} +273] =3.25 x 10 − 3

## Characteristic length = L = 0.25 m

gβΔTL3
GrL = -----------
ν2
θ = − 50 0
9.81 x (50 – 30) x 3.25 x 10−3 x(0.25)3
= -------------------------------------------------
(17.455 x 10 − 6)2
Insulated
= 3.27 x 10 7

## Hence RaL = 3.27 x 10 7 x 0.6835 = 2.23x107

From data hand book, for inclined plate with heated surface facing upwards the Nusselt number is giv

## The above correlation is valid only if GrL > Grc.

From data hand book for θ = − 50 0, Grc = 4 x 10 8 which is more than GrL.Hence the above
correlation cannot be used. Instead the following correlation has to be used.

Nuav = 0.59 (GrLcos θ Pr) ¼ = 0.59 x (2.23 x 107 x cos 500) ¼ = 36.3

## (ii) Inclined plate with heated surface facing downwards:

344
The correlation for Nusselt number when the heated surface is facing downwards is given by
Nuav = 0.56 (GrLcos θ Pr) ¼ = 0.56 x (2.23 x 107 x cos 500) ¼

= 34.45
hav = 34.45 x 0.02791 / 0.25 = 3.84 W/(m2-K).

## Hence Q = 3.84 x (0.25 x 0.25) x (50 – 30) = 4.8 W

7.6. Solution:

Tw = 225
W

T∞=200C

L=0.2 m

Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (225 + 20) = 122.5 0C. Properties of air at 122.50C are: β = 1/(122.5 + 273
k = 0.03365 W/(m-K).

## 9.81 x 2.5 x 10 − 3 x(225 – 20) x 0.2 3

GrL = ---------------------------------------------- = 5.99 x 10 7
(25.9 x 10 − 6) 2

## Therefore hav = 47.24 x 0.03365/0.2 = 7.94 W/(m2-K)

1000
Now Q = havLWΔT or W = Q / (havLΔT) = -----------------------------
7.94 x 0.2 x (225 – 20)

= 3.0718 m

345
7.7. Solution:

## qw = qsolar =720 W/m2

θ = − 60 0 T∞ = 25 0 C

Insulated

Since Tw is not known, mean film temperature to evaluate the fluid properties cannot be
determined. Hence the problem requires a trial- and – error method by suitably assuming a
value for hav and then check for this assumpotion.

## = 25 + 0.25 x(169 – 25) = 61 0C

Therefore β = 1/[61 + 273] = 2.994 x 10 − 3 1/K.

## 9.81 x 2.994 x 10 − 3 x [169 – 25] x 0.75 3

GrL = ------------------------------------------------------ = 2.51 x 10 9
(26.62 x 10 − 6) 2

For θ = − 60 0, Grc = 10 8. Since GrL > Grc the average Nusselt number is given by

= 164.45

## Therefore hav = 164.45 x 0.03413 / 0.75 = 7.48 W/(m2-K).

346
Since the calculated value of hav is quite different from the assumed value one more iteration
is required.

## With this assumption, following the steps shown in trial 1 we get

Tw = 121.25 0C ;Tm = 97.18 0C C;Tβ = 49.06 0C; GrL = 2.311 x 10 9;Nuav = 159.96

Hence hav = 6.88 W/(m2-K). This value agrees with the assumed value within 8 %. Hence the
iteration is stopped and the equilibrium temperature of the plate surface is calculated as

## Tw = 100 0C Mean film temperature = 0.5x(100+20)

= 60 0C.
Properties of air at 60 0C are:Pr = 0.696

## m2/s;β = 1/(60 + 273) =3.003x10−31/K.

L = 1.5 m T∞ = 20 0C

## gβΔTL 3 9.81 x 3.003 x 10 − 3 x (100 – 20) x 1.5 3

GrL = ----------- = -------------------------------------------------- = 2.21 x 10 10
ν2 (18.97x10−6) 2

## (L/d) [ 1.5 / 0.05 ]

Now ------------ = --------------------------- = 0.0078
GrL1/4 [2.21 x 10 10] ¼

347
(L/d)
Since ------- < 0.025, the vertical tube/cylinder can be treated as a vertical flat surface
GrL1/4
For calculating the Nusselt number.
Now RaL = GrLPr = 2.21 x 10 10 x 0.696 = 1.538 x 10 10

## Therefore hav = 248.7 x 0.029 / 1.5 = 4.81 W/(m2 – K).

Rate of heat transfer = Q = πdLhavΔT = π x 0.05 x 1.5 x (100 – 20) x 4.81 = 90.67 W

(ii) When the pipe is horizontal:- When the pipe is horizontal, the characteristic length is the
diameter. Hence

## gβΔTd 3 9.81 x 3.003 x 10 − 3 x (100 – 20) x 0.05 3

Grd = ----------- = -------------------------------------------------- = 8.185 x 10 5
ν2 (18.97x10−6) 2

## From data hand book the average Nusselt number is given by

1/6

½
[Nuav] = 0.60 + 0.387 -----------------------------------
[1 + (0.559/Pr)9/16] 8/27
1/6
5
(5.697x 10 )
½
[Nuav] = 0.60 + 0.387 ----------------------------------- = 4.01 or Nuav = 16.08
[1 + (0.559/0.696)9/16] 8/27

## Q = π x 0.05 x 1.5 x (100 – 20) x 9.32 = 175.67 W

7.9. Solution:
T∞ = 27 0C Tw = ?

qw = 30 W/m d =.025 m

348
Since Tw is not known, it is not possible to evaluate the fluid properties at the mean film
temperature. Hence the problem has to be solved by trial and error solution by assuming a
suitable value for hav and check for the assumed value.

## 9.81 x 3.135 x 10 − 3 x (65 – 27) x 0.025 3

Grd = ---------------------------------------------------- = 6.0 x 10 4.
[17.45 x 10 − 6 ] 2

## Hence [Nuav] ½ = 0.60 + 0.387 ------------------------------------ = 2.8

[ 1 + (0.559/0.6985) 9/16] 8/27

Hence Nuav = 7.84 or hav = 7.84 x 0.028 / 0.025 = 8.78 W/(m2 – K).

Since the calculated value of hav deviates very much from the assumed value one more
iteration is required.

## (ii) Trial 2: Assume hav = 8.78 W/(m2-K).

Proceeding in the same way as in trial 1 we have Tw = 70.5 0C. Hence Tm = 48.75 00C
Properties of air at 50 0C are: β = 1/(50+273) = 3.05 x 10 − 3 1/K; Pr = 0.698;
k = 0.02826 W/(m-K); ν =17.95 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

## 9.81 x 3.05 x 10 − 3 x (70.5 – 27) x 0.025 3

Grd = ---------------------------------------------------- = 6.4 x 10 4.
[17.95 x 10−6 ] 2
1/6
4
(6.4 x 10 x 0.698)
[Nuav] ½ = 0.60 + 0.387 ----------------------------------- = 2.89 or Nuav = 8.35
[1 + (0.559/0.698)9/16] 8/27

## Hence hav = 8.35 x 0.02865 / 0.025 = 9.5691 W/(m2-K).

The calculated value of hav agrees with the assumed value within 5 % iteration is stopped.

349
The equilibrium temperature of the surface = Tw = 27 + 30 /(π x 0.025 x 9.5691) = 67 0C.

7.10. Solution:
Q

d
L

## Data:- L = 0.3 m; d = 0.01 m; Qw = 550 W; T∞ = 20 0C;

550
Wall heat flux = qw = Qw /(πdL) = ---------------------- = 58357 W/m2
(π x 0.01 x 0.3)

Since Tw is not known, fluid properties cannot be evaluated at the mean temperature and hence the proble

## Case(i):- When the heater is immersed in water

For free convection in liquids the order of heat transfer coefficient is around 10 to 1000 W/
(m2-K).Let us assume hav = 1000 W/(m2-K).

## 9.81 x 3.103 x 10 − 3 x (78.4 – 20) x (0.01) 3

Grd = ------------------------------------------------------- = 5.519 x 10 6
(0.5675 x 10 − 6) 2

## For horizontal cylinders Nusselt number is given by

Nud = C Rad n with C = 0.125 and n = 1/3 for this value of Rad.

## Hence Nud = 0.125 x (2.03 x 10 7) 1/3 = 33.908

350
Hence hav = 33.908 x 0.639 / 0.01 = 2166.21 W/(m2 –K)

## Hence mean film temperature =0.5x(20 + 46.94) = 33.47 0C.

Properties of water at 33 0C 0C are : k = 0.6129 W/(m-K); Pr = 5.68; β = 3.3 x 10 − 3; ν =
0.831 x 10 − 6 m2 /s.

## 9.81 x 3.3 x 10 − 3 x (46.94 – 20) x (0.01) 3

Grd = ----------------------------------------------------- = 2.2 x 106.
(0.831 x 10 − 6) 2
Rad = 2.2 x 10 x 5.68 = 1.24 x 10 7
6

## Hence, Nuav = 0.125 x (1.24 x 10 7) 0.333 = 28.77

Therefore, hav = 28.77 x 0.6129 / 0.01 = 1763.3 W/(m2 – K)

## Trial 3:- Assume hav =1763 W/(m2-K)

Tw = 20 + 58357 / 1763 = 53.1 0C. Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (20 + 53.1) = 36.55 0C.

## Properties of water at 400C are: k = 0.6280 W/(m-K); Pr = 4.34; β = 3.19 x 10 −3 1/K;

ν = 0.657 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

## 9.81 x 3.19 x 10 − 3 x (53 – 20) x (0.01) 3

Rad = ------------------------------------------------- x 4.34 = 1.03 x 10 7
(0.657 x 10 − 6) 2

## Hence, Nuav = 0.125 x (1.03 x 10 7) 0.333 = 27.05

Therefore, hav = 27.05x 0.6280 x / 0.01 = 1698.74 W/(m2-K)

Since the calculated value of hav agrees with the assumed value within 4%, iteration is
stopped and the equilibrium temperature of the heater is calculated as

## Tw = 20 + 58357 / 1698.74 = 54.35 0C

Case (ii):- When the heater is exposed to air

When a heated surface is exposed to air the order of heat transfer coefficient varies between 5
and 20 W/(m2-K).

## Trial 1:- Assume hav = 20 W/(m2-K)

Tw = 20 + 58357 / 20 = 2938 0C. Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (20 + 2938) = 1479 0C

## Properties of air at 1479 0C are : β = 1/(1479 +273) = 5.71 x 10 − 4 1/K; Pr = 0.7045;

351
k = 0.108 W/(m-K); ν = 294.3 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

## 9.81 x 5.71 x 10 − 4 x (2938 – 20) x (0.01) 3

Rad = ------------------------------------------------- --- x 0.7045 = 133
(294.3 x 10 − 6) 2

## Nuav = 0.850 x (133) 0.188 = 2.13

Hence hav = 2.13 x 0.108 / 0.01 = 23 W/(m2-K) This is 13% away from the assumed value
and hence one more iteration is required.

## Properties of air at 1289 0C are: β = 6.4 x 10 − 4 1/K; ν = 244.34 x 10 − 6 m2/s;Pr = 0.705;

k = 0.0978 W/(m-K)

## 9.81 x 6.4 x 10 − 4 x (2557 – 20) x (0.01) 3

Rad = ------------------------------------------------- --- x 0.705 = 188
(244.34 x 10 − 6) 2

Nuav = 0.850 x (188) 0.188 = 2.275.Hence hav = 2.275 x 0.0978 / 0.01 = 22.25 W/(m2 – K).

This value of hav agrees with the assumed value within 4% and hence the iteration is stopped.
The equilibrium temperature of the heater is therefore given by

## Tw = 20 + 58357 / 22.25 = 2643 0C.

352
Chapter 8 : Condensation & Boiling
8.1. Introduction: Knowledge of heat transfer occurring during change of phase i.e. during
condensation and boiling is very useful in a number of ways. For example in all power and
refrigeration cycles, it is necessary to convert a liquid into a vapour and vice-versa. This is
accomplished in boilers or evaporators and condensers.

## Heat transfer coefficients in both condensation and boiling are generally

much higher than those encountered in single phase processes. Values greater than 1000 W/
(m2-K) are almost always obtained. This fact has been used in several recent
applications where it is desired to transfer high heat fluxes with modest temperature
differences. An example is the “heat pipe” which is a device capable of transferring a large
quantity of heat with very small temperature differences.

## 8.2. Film-wise and Drop-wise condensation:- Condensation occurs whenever a vapour

comes into contact with a surface at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature of
the vapour corresponding to its vapour pressure. The nature of condensation depends on
whether the liquid thus formed wets the solid surface or does not wet the surface. If the liquid
wets the surface, the condensate flows on the surface in the form of a film and the process is
called “film-wise condensation”. If on the other hand, the liquid does not wet the surface, the
condensate collects in the form of droplets, which either grow in size or coalesce with
neighboring droplets and eventually roll of the surface under the influence of gravity. This
type of condensation is called “drop-wise condensation”.

The rate of heat transfer during the two types of condensation processes
is quite different. For the same temperature difference between the vapour and the surface,
the heat transfer rates in drop-wise condensation are significantly higher than those in film-
wise condensation. Therefore it is preferable to have drop-wise condensation from the
designer’s point of view if the thermal resistance on the condensing side is a significant part
of the total thermal resistance. However it is generally observed that, although drop-wise
condensation may be obtained on new surfaces, it is difficult to maintain drop-wise
condensation continuously and prolonged condensation results in a change to film-wise
condensation. Therefore it is still the practice to design condensers under the conservative
assumption that the condensation is of film type.

8.3. Nusselt’s theory for laminar film-wise condensation on a plane vertical surface:-
The problem of laminar film-wise condensation on a plane vertical surface was first
analytically solved by Nusselt in 1916.He made the following simplifying assumptions in his
analysis.
(i) The fluid properties are constant.
(ii) The plane surface is maintained at a uniform temperature, Tw which is less than the
saturation temperature Tv of the vapour.

(iii) The vapour is stationary or has a very low velocity and so it does not exert any drag on
the motion of the condensate: i.e., the shear stress at the liquid-vapour interface is zero.

353
(iv) The flow velocity of the condensate layer is so low that the acceleration of the
condensate is negligible.
(v) The downward flow of the condensate under the action of gravity is laminar.
(vi) Heat transfer across the condensate layer is purely by conduction; hence the liquid
temperature distribution is linear.

[τ + (∂τ/∂y)dy]dx
x pdy τdx
pdy
δ

dx

(p+dp)dy (p+dp)dy

ρLdxdyg ρvdxdyg

## Consider the film-wise condensation on a vertical plate as illustrated in Fig.8.1.

Here ‘x’ is the coordinate measured downwards along the plate, and ‘y’ is the coordinate
measured normal to the plate from the plate surface. The condensate thickness at any x is
represented by δ [ δ = δ(x)]. The velocity distribution u(y) at any location x can be
determined by making a force balance on a condensate element of dimensions dx and dy in x
and y directions as shown in Fig. 8.1(a). Since it is assumed that there is no acceleration of
the liquid in x direction, Newton’s second law in x direction gives

## or (∂τ/∂y) = (dp/dx) −ρLg …………………………………..(8.1)

Expression for (dp/dx) in terms of vapour density ρv can be obtained by making a force

balance for a vapour element as shown in Fig. 8.1(b). The force balance gives

354
or (dp/dx) = ρvg

## Substituting this expression for dp/dx in Eq. (8.1) we have

(∂τ/∂y) = (ρv−ρL)g

## Integrating with respect to y we have μL (∂u/∂y) = (ρv−ρL)g y + C1

(ρv−ρL)g y C1
Or (∂u/∂y) = --------------- + ------- ……(8.2)
μL μL

## Integrating once again with respect to y we get

(ρv−ρL)g y2 C1 y
u(y) = ---------------- + ------------- + C2 ......(8.3)
2 μL μL

## The boundary conditions for the condensate layer are: (i) at y = 0, u = 0;

(ii) at y = δ, (∂u/∂y) = 0.

Condition (i) in Eq. (8.3) gives C2 = 0 and condition (ii) in Eq. (8.2) gives

(ρv−ρL)g δ C1
0 = ------------- + ---------
2 μL μL

(ρv−ρL)g δ
Therefore C1 = − --------------
2

Substituting for C1 and C2 in Eq.(8.3) we get the velocity distribution in the condensate layer
as

g(ρL − ρv)
u(y) = --------------- [ δy – (y2/2)] …………………(8.4)
μL

## If ‘m’ is the mass flow rate of the condensate at any x then

δ
m = ∫ρLudy
0

355
δ
m = ∫ ρL{ g(ρL − ρv) / μL}[ δy – (y2/2)]dy
0

g ρL (ρL − ρv) δ 3
= ------------------ ………………………………..(8.5)
3 μL

g ρL (ρL − ρv) δ 2 dδ
Hence dm = ----------------------
μL

## g ρL (ρL − ρv) δ 2 dδ hfg

Or dq = ------------------------- ………………………….(8.6)
μL

Energy balance for the condensate element shown in the figure can be written as

dq = kL(Tv – Tw)dx / δ

## g ρL (ρL − ρv) δ 2 dδ hfg

Or ------------------------------- = kL(Tv – Tw)dx / δ………….(8.6)
μL

kL μL (Tv – Tw)dx
3
or δ dδ = ----------------------
g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

Integrating we get
δ4 kL μL (Tv – Tw)x
----- = --------------------- + C 3
4 g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

At x = 0, δ = 0. Hence C3 = 0.

## Therefore δ4 kL μL (Tv – Tw)x

----- = ---------------------
4 g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

4 kL μL (Tv – Tw)x
or δ = [-------------------------- ] 1/ 4……………………(8.7)
g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

356
Now kL (Tv – Tw)dx
----------------- = hx dx [Tv – Tw]
δ
kL g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3
Therefore hx = --------- = [ --------------------------] 1 / 4
δ 4 μL (Tv – Tw)x

## g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

Or hx = 0.707[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 ...............................(8.8)
μL (Tv – Tw)x

## hxx g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg x3

Nux = ----- = 0.707[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 ...............................(8.8)
kL μL (Tv – Tw)kL

The average heat transfer coefficient for a length L of the plate is given by
L
hav = (1/L) ∫ hxdx ………………………………………(8.9)
0

## g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

Or C = 0.707[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 …………………(8.10)
μL (Tv – Tw)

L
Hence hav = (1/L) C ∫ x − ¼ dx = (C / L) (4/3) L− ¼ = (4/3)C L− ¼
0

## g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

hav = 0.943[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 = (4/3)hx|x = L.........................(8.11)
μL (Tv – Tw)L

8.4. Condensation on Inclined Surfaces : Nusselt,s analysis given above can readily be
extended to inclined plane surfaces making an angle θ with the horizontal plane as shown in
Fig. 8.2.

357
y

## Fig. 8.2 : Condensatio

θ
g

The component of the gravitational force along the length of the pate is g sin θ.The expressions for local a

## g sin θρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

hx = 0.707[ ------------------------------------] 1 / 4
μL (Tv – Tw)x
…………….......(8.12)

## g sin θρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

and hav = 0.943[ ----------------------------------] 1 / 4 = (4/3)hx|x = L
μL (Tv – Tw)L

…………………………(8.13)

8.5. Condensation on a horizontal tube: The analysis of heat transfer for condensation on
the outside surface of a horizontal tube is more complicated than that for a vertical
surface. Nusselt,s analysis for laminar film-wise condensation on the surface of a horizontal
tube gives the average heat transfer coefficient as

## gρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

hav = 0.725 [ --------------------------------- ] 1 / 4 ……………(8.14)
μL (Tv – Tw) D

where D is the outside diameter of the tube. A comparison of equations (8.11) and (8.14) for
condensation on a vertical tube of length L and a horizontal tube of diameter D gives

[hav]vertical 0.943
--------------- = ------------(D/L) ¼ = 1.3 (D/L) 1/4 .....................................(8.15)
[hav]horizontal 0.725

This result implies that for a given value of (Tv – Tw), the average heat transfer coefficient for
a vertical tube of length L and a horizontal tube of diameter D becomes equal when L =

358
2.856 D.For example when L = 100 D, theoretically [hav]horizontal would be 2.44 times [hav]vertical.
Therefore horizontal tube arrangements are generally preferred to vertical tube arrangements
in condenser design.

## 8.6. Condensation on horizontal tube banks: Condenser design generally involves

horizontal tubes arranged in vertical tiers as shown in Fig. 8.3 in such a way that the

## Fig. 8.3 : Film-wise condensation on horizontal tubes arranged in a vertical tier.

condensate from one tube drains on to tube just below. If it is assumed that the drainage from
one tube flows smoothly on to the tube below, then for a vertical tier of N tubes each of
diameter D, the average heat transfer coefficient for N tubes is given by

## gρL(ρL – ρv)hfg kL3 1

[hav]N tubes = 0.725 [ ----------------------- ] ¼ = ------------ [hav] 1 tube ……………(8.16)
μL(Tv – Tw) N D N 1/ 4

This relation generally gives a conservative value for the heat transfer coefficient. Since
some turbulence and some disturbance of condensate are unavoidable during drainage, the
heat transfer coefficient would be more than that given by the above equation.

8.7. Reynolds number for condensate flow: Although the flow hardly changes to turbulent
flow during condensation on a single horizontal tube, turbulence may start at the lower
portions of a vertical tube. When the turbulence occurs in the condensate film, the average
heat transfer coefficient begins to increase with the length of the tube in contrast to its
decrease with the length for laminar film condensation. To establish a criterion for transition
from laminar to turbulent flow, a “Reynolds number for condensate flow” is defined as
follows.
ρL uav Dh
Re = ----------------- …………………..(8.17)
μL

359
where uav is the average velocity of the condensate film and Dh is the hydraulic diameter for
the condensate flow given by
4 x (Cross sectional area for condensate flow) 4A
Dh = --------------------------------------------- --------- = -------
Wetted Perimeter P
4A ρL uav 4M
Therefore Re = -------------------- = ---------------……………..(8.18)
P μL P μL

where M is mass flow rate of condensate at the lowest part of the condensing surface in kg/s.
The wetted perimeter depends on the geometry of the condensing surface and is given as
follows.
πD …..For vertical tube of outside diameter D ………….(8.19 a)
P = 2L …...For horizontal tube of length L …………………(8.19 b)
W ….. For vertical or inclined plate of width W………...(8.19 c)

Experiments have shown that the transition from laminar to turbulent condensation takes
place at a Reynolds number of 1800. The expression for average heat transfer coefficient
for a vertical surface [Eq.(8.11)] can be expressed as follows.

## g ρL(ρL – ρv) kL3 hfg

hav = 0.943 [ ----------------------------- ] 1 / 4
μL(Tv – Tw)

## g ρL2 kL3 hfg

hav = 0.943 [ ----------------------------- ] 1 / 4 ………………..(8.20)
μL(Tv – Tw)

## The above equation is valid for ReL < 1800.

It has been observed experimentally that when the value of the film Reynolds number is
greater than 30, there are ripples on the film surface which increase the value of the heat
transfer coefficient. Kutateladze has proposed that the value of the local heat transfer
coefficient be multiplied by 0.8(RE / 4)0.11 to account for the ripples effect. Using this
correction it can be shown that

ReL
(hav / kL)( νL2 / g) 1 / 3 = ------------------------ ………………(8.22)
[1.08 ReL1.22 – 5.2]

360
8.8. Turbulent film condensation: For turbulent condensation on a vertical surface,
Kirkbride has proposed the following empirical correlation based on experimental data.

## hav [νL2 / (gkL3) ] 1 / 3 = 0.0077 (ReL) 0.4 ……………………(8.23)

In the above correlation the physical properties of the condensate should be evaluated at the
arithmetic mean temperature of Tv and Tw.

8.9. Film condensation inside horizontal tubes: In all the correlations mentioned above, it
is assumed that the vapour is either stationary or has a negligible velocity. In practical
applications such as condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, vapour
condenses on the inside surface of the tubes and so has a significant velocity. In such
situations the condensation phenomenon is very complicated and a simple analytical
treatment is not possible. Consider, for example, the film condensation on the inside surface
of a long vertical tube. The upward flow of vapour retards the condensate flow and causes
thickening of the condensate layer, which in turn decreases the condensation heat transfer
coefficient. Conversely the down ward flow of vapour decreases the thickness of the
condensate film and hence increases the heat transfer coefficient.
Chato recommends the following correlation for condensation at low vapour
velocities inside horizontal tubes:

## g ρL(ρL – ρv) kL3 h*fg

hav = 0.555 [ --------------------------- ] 1 / 4 ……………..(8.24 –a)
μL(Tv – Tw) D

## where h*fg = hfg + (3/8)cp,L(Tv – Tw) ………………………….(8.24 –b)

This result has been developed for the condensation of refrigerants at low Reynolds number
[Rev = (ρvuvD) / μv < 35,000 ; Rev should be evaluated at the inlet conditions.]

For higher flow rates, Akers, Deans and Crosser propose the following
correlation for the average condensation heat transfer coefficient on the inside surface of a
horizontal tube of diameter D:

hav D
------ = 0.026 Pr 1 / 3 [ReL + Rev(ρL / ρv) ½ ] 0.8 ………..(8.25)
k

## where ReL = (4ML) / (πDμL) : Rev = (4Mv) / (πDμv) …………………….(8.26)

The above equation correlates the experimental data within 50 % for ReL > 5000 and