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1

11 ME 354: HEAT TRANSFER (4 – 0 – 0 −4)

Course Objectives:

1. Develop the ability to apply energy balance to heat transfer systems to solve engineering problems.

2. Learn the ability to apply the definitions of conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer to

engineering systems.

3. Predict the thermal response of engineering systems to energy transfer mechanisms for transient

and steady state situations.

4. To have working knowledge of variety of engineering correlations to heat transfer analysis and

thermal design of engineering components and systems.

Course Contents

UNIT – I 12 Hours

Chapter 1: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer- Basic laws governing each mechanism; combined

mechanisms; Illustrative examples

Chapter 2: Conduction Basic Equations and Boundary Conditions: Conduction Basic Equations:

one dimensional conduction equation in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates; thermal

diffusivity;3-dimensional conduction equation in Cartesian coordinates; boundary conditions of first,

second and third kind; radiation boundary condition ;illustrative examples on formulation of

conduction problems.

Chapter 3: One Dimensional Steady State Conduction: Analysis of one dimensional steady state

conduction in slab, radial conduction in cylinders and spheres without and with heat generation; one-

dimensional steady state conduction in composite medium- concept of thermal potential and thermal

resistance; contact resistance; critical thickness of insulation for cylinders and spheres; analysis of

fins of uniform cross section with different tip conditions; one-dimensional steady state conduction in

solids with variable thermal conductivity. Illustrative examples

UNIT – II 10 Hours

Chapter 4 : Transient Conduction: Lumped system analysis with illustrative examples; Criterion

for neglecting internal temperature gradients in transient conduction analysis ;One dimensional

transient conduction in a slab subjected to convective boundary condition- solution of this problem in

the form of Transient-Temperature Chart. Similar charts for radial transient conduction in an infinite

cylinder and in a sphere; illustrative examples; Use of these charts to solve multi-dimensional

transient conduction problems-illustrative examples. Transient temperature charts for semi-infinite

solids; Conduction shape factor: Illustrative examples

Chapter 5: Finite Difference Methods for Conduction: Finite Difference equations for one

dimensional steady state conduction in slabs, cylinders and spheres; Finite difference equations for

two dimensional steady state conduction; Explicit finite difference equations for one dimensional

transient conduction in slabs, cylinders and spheres; Implicit Scheme for one dimensional transient

conduction; Illustrative examples.

Chapter 6: Convection-Basic Concepts: Basic concepts for flow over bodies-Velocity boundary

layer, thermal boundary layer, drag coefficient, general expression for heat transfer coefficient in

2

terms of temperature gradient; illustrative examples. Concepts for flow through duct- hydraulic

diameter; hydrodynamically developing and developed flow; thermally developing and thermally

developed flow; general expression for pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for flow through

ducts; illustrative examples; Concept of turbulence- Prandtl’s mixing length theory; velocity

distribution in turbulent flow through tubes; Dimensionless Parameters in Forced Convection Flow

and their physical significance.

Chapter 7: Forced convection for flow inside ducts: Analysis of hydro dynamically and thermally

developed laminar flow-COUETTE flow, flow inside a circular tube; expressions for friction factor

and pressure drop for hydro dynamically and thermally developed laminar and turbulent flows;

hydrodynamic and thermal entrance lengths; use of correlations to determine pressure drop and heat

transfer coefficient for hydro dynamically and thermally developed flow through tubes; illustrative

examples.

Chapter 8: Forced convection for flow over bodies: Integral method of analysis for laminar

incompressible boundary layer over a flat plate; Correlations for drag coefficient and heat transfer

coefficient for flow over a flat plate, flow across a cylinder, flow across a sphere and flow across tube

bundles

UNIT – IV 08 Hours

Chapter 9: Free convection :- Dimensionless parameters for free convective heat transfer problems;

Correlations for free convection from vertical plane surfaces, vertical cylinders, horizontal and

inclined plane surfaces, horizontal cylinders, enclosed spaces; combined forced and free convection;

illustrative examples

Chapter 10: Boiling & Condensation:- Nusselt’s theory for laminar film condensation on a vertical

plane surface; correlations for determining heat transfer coefficient for laminar and turbulent film

condensation on a plane vertical surface and horizontal tubes. Illustrative examples..

UNIT – V 10 Hours

Chapter 11: Heat Exchangers: Classification of heat exchangers; overall heat transfer coefficient;

expressions for mean temperature difference for parallel flow, counter flow heat exchangers;

correction factors for other type of heat exchangers; Limitations of LMTD method ;Effectiveness-

NTU method for heat exchanger analysis; illustrative examples

Chapter 12: Radiation Heat Transfer Among Surfaces in a Non-Participating Medium: Basic

concepts and terms used in radiation heat exchange analysis; Planck’s law,Stefan-Boltzman law,

Wein’s displacement Law,Kirchoff’s law and Lambert’s Law; Radiation heat exchanger between two

parallel infinite black and gray surfaces; Radiation exchange between two finite surfaces – Concept of

View Factor; View factor algebra; Hottel’s Cross string formula; Net work method for analysis of

radiation heat exchange in an enclosure.

Text Book :

“Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer”, F.P.Incropera, D.P.Dewitt, T.L.Bergman ,A.S.Lavine,

K.N.Seetharamu, T.R.Seetharam,Wiley IndiaPvt.Ltd,New Delhi, Sixth Edition, 201

Reference Books:

1. “ Heat Transfer – A basic Approach”,M.Necati Ozisik, McGraw Hill International Edition, 1985

2. ”Principles of Heat Transfer”, Frank Kreith & Mark S. Bohn , Sixth Edition, Thomson Learning,

2001

3

CHAPTER 1

HEAT TRANSFER

1.1. Introduction:- We recall from our knowledge of thermodynamics that heat is a form

of energy transfer that takes place from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower

temperature solely due to the temperature difference between the two regions. With the

knowledge of thermodynamics we can determine the amount of heat transfer for any system

undergoing any process from one equilibrium state to another. Thus the thermodynamics

knowledge will tell us only how much heat must be transferred to achieve a specified change

of state of the system. But in practice we are more interested in knowing the rate of heat

transfer (i.e. heat transfer per unit time) rather than the amount. This knowledge of rate of

heat transfer is necessary for a design engineer to design all types of heat transfer equipments

like boilers, condensers, furnaces, cooling towers, dryers etc.The subject of heat transfer

deals with the determination of the rate of heat transfer to or from a heat exchange equipment

and also the temperature at any location in the device at any instant of time.

The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of a “temperature

difference”. The temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer, just as the

voltage difference for electric current flow and pressure difference for fluid flow. One of the

parameters ,on which the rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends, is the magnitude

of the temperature gradient in that direction. The larger the gradient higher will be the rate of

heat transfer.

1.2. Heat Transfer Mechanisms:- There are three mechanisms by which heat transfer can

take place. All the three modes require the existence of temperature difference. The three

mechanisms are: (i) conduction, (ii) convection and (iii) radiation

1.2.1Conduction:- It is the energy transfer that takes place at molecular levels. Conduction is

the transfer of energy from the more energetic molecules of a substance to the adjacent less

energetic molecules as a result of interaction between the molecules. In the case of liquids

and gases conduction is due to collisions and diffusion of the molecules during their random

motion. In solids, it is due to the vibrations of the molecules in a lattice and motion of free

electrons.

Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction:- The empirical law of conduction based on

experimental results is named after the French Physicist Joseph Fourier. The law states that

the rate of heat flow by conduction in any medium in any direction is proportional to the area

normal to the direction of heat flow and also proportional to the temperature gradient in that

direction. For example the rate of heat transfer in x-direction can be written according to

Fourier’s law as

4

Qx α – Ax ( ∂T∂x ) …………….

(1.1)

Or Q x = − k x Ax ( ∂T∂x ) …………….. ..

(1.2)

In equation (1.2), Qx is the rate of heat transfer in positive x-direction through area A x (Ax can

vary in the direction of x, for example, radial conduction in cylinders and spheres) of the

medium normal to x-direction, (dT/dx) is the temperature gradient and kx is the constant of

proportionality and is a material property called “thermal conductivity” of the material for

conduction in x-direction. Since heat transfer has to take place in the direction of decreasing

∂T

temperature, ( )

∂x

has to be negative in the direction of heat transfer. Therefore negative

sign has to be introduced in equation (1.2) to make Q x positive in the direction of decreasing

temperature, thereby satisfying the second law of thermodynamics. If equation (1.2) is

divided throughout by Ax we have

(1.3)

qx is called the heat flux in x-direction.

conduction, kx is a material property called the thermal conductivity for conduction along x-

direction (For isotropic solids thermal conductivity is independent of direction; i.e. k x = ky =

kz = k, where as for an-isotropic solids k x ≠ ky ≠ kz ).The units of thermal conductivity can be

obtained from equation (1.2) as follows:

qx

Solving for kx from Eq. (1.3) we have kx = − ∂T

( )

∂x

Therefore units of kx in SI system of units = (W/m2 ) * (m/ K) = W / (m – K) or

W / (m – 0 C). Thermal conductivity is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct heat. The

thermal conductivities of materials vary over a wide range as shown in Fig. 1.1.

It can be seen from this figure that the thermal conductivities of gases such as air

vary by a factor of 10 4 from those of pure metals such as copper. The kinetic theory of gases

predicts and experiments confirm that the thermal conductivity of gases is proportional to the

square root of the absolute temperature, and inversely proportional to the square root of the

molar mass M. Hence, the thermal conductivity of gases increases with increase in

temperature and decrease with increase in molar mass. It is for these reasons that the thermal

conductivity of helium (M=4) is much higher than those of air (M=29) and argon (M=40).For

wide range of pressures encountered in practice the thermal conductivity of gases is

independent of pressure.

5

The mechanism of heat conduction in liquids is more complicated due to the fact

that the molecules are more closely spaced, and they exert a stronger inter-molecular force

field. The values of k for liquids usually lie between those for solids and gases. Unlike gases,

the thermal conductivity for most liquids decreases with increase in temperature except for

water. Like gases the thermal conductivity of liquids decreases with increase in molar mass.

In the case of solids heat conduction is due to two effects: the vibration of lattice

induced by the vibration of molecules positioned at relatively fixed positions , and energy

transported due to the motion of free electrons. The relatively high thermal conductivities of

pure metals are primarily due to the electronic component. The lattice component of thermal

conductivity strongly depends on the way the molecules are arranged. For example, diamond,

which is highly ordered crystalline solid, has the highest thermal conductivity at room

temperature.

1000 Silver

Copper

Solid

metals

100 Sodium

Liquid

metals

Steel Oxides

10

Non-

k [W/(m-K)] Mercury Metallic

solids

1.0 Water

Fibres

Non-

Metallic Insulating He, H2

liquids Materials Non-

0.1 Metallic Evacuated

Plastics gases Insulating

Wood Oils materials

Foams

CO2

0.01

Fig. 1.1: Typical range of thermal conductivities of various materials

Unlike metals, which are good electrical and heat conductors, crystalline solids

such as diamond and semiconductors such as silicon are good heat conductors but poor

electrical conductors. Hence such materials find widespread use in electronic industry.

Despite their high price, diamond heat sinks are used in the cooling of sensitive electronic

6

components because of their excellent thermal conductivity. Silicon oils and gaskets are

commonly used in the packaging of electronic components because they provide both good

thermal contact and good electrical insulation.

One would expect that metal alloys will have high thermal

conductivities, because pure metals have high thermal conductivities. For example one would

expect that the value of the thermal conductivity k of a metal alloy made of two metals with

thermal conductivities k1 and k2 would lie between k1 and k2.But this is not the case. In fact k

of a metal alloy will be less than that of either metal.

some materials the variation is insignificant even for wide temperature range.At temperatures

near absolute zero, the thermal conductivities of certain solids are extremely large. For

example copper at 20 K will have a thermal conductivity of 20,000 W / (m-K), which is

about 50 times the conductivity at room temperature. The temperature dependence of thermal

conductivity makes the conduction heat transfer analysis more complex and involved. As a

first approximation analysis for solids with variable conductivity is carried out assuming

constant thermal conductivity which is an average value of the conductivity for the

temperature range of interest.

Thermal Diffusivity:- This is a property which is very helpful in analyzing transient heat

conduction problem and is normally denoted by the symbol α . It is defined as follows.

Heat conducted k

α = -------------------------------------- = -------- (m2/s) ……(1.4)

Heat Stored per unit volume ρCp

It can be seen from the definition of thermal diffusivity that the numerator represents the

ability of the material to conduct heat across its layers and the denominator represents the

ability of the material to store heat per unit volume. Hence we can conclude that larger the

value of the thermal diffusivity, faster will be the propagation of heat into the medium. A

small value of thermal diffusivity indicates that heat is mostly absorbed by

the material and only a small quantity of heat will be conducted across the material.

1.2.2. Convection :- Convection heat transfer is composed of two mechanisms. Apart from

energy transfer due to random molecular motion, energy is also transferred due to

macroscopic motion of the fluid. Such motion in presence of the temperature gradient

contributes to heat transfer. Thus in convection the total heat transfer is due to random

motion of the fluid molecules together with the bulk motion of the fluid, the major

contribution coming from the latter mechanism. Therefore bulk motion of the fluid is a

necessary condition for convection heat transfer to take place in addition to the temperature

gradient in the fluid. Depending on the force responsible for the bulk motion of the fluid,

convective heat transfer is classified into “forced convection” and “natural or free

convection”. In the case of forced convection, the fluid flow is caused by an external agency

7

like a pump or a blower where as in the case of natural or free convection the force

responsible for the fluid flow (normally referred to as the buoyancy force) is generated within

the fluid itself due to density differences which are caused due to temperature gradient within

the flow field. Regardless of the particular nature of convection, the rate equation for

convective heat transfer is given by

q = h ∆T …………………………………….. (1.5)

where q is the heat flux, ∆T is the temperature difference between the bulk fluid and the

surface which is in contact with the fluid, and ‘h” is called the “convective heat transfer

coefficient” or “surface film coefficient”. Eq.(1.5) is generally referred to as the Newton’s

law of cooling.If Ts is the surface temperature , Tf is the temperature of the bulk fluid and if

Ts > Tf, then Eq. (1.5) in the direction of heat transfer can be written as

The heat transfer coefficient h depends on (i) the type of flow (i.e. whether the flow

is laminar or turbulent), (ii) the geometry of the body and flow passage area, (iii) the thermo-

physical properties of the fluid namely the density ρ, viscosity μ, specific heat at constant

pressure Cp and the thermal conductivity of the fluid k and (iv) whether the mechanism of

convection is forced convection or free convection. The heat transfer coefficient for free

convection will be generally lower than that for forced convection as the fluid velocities in

free convection are much lower than those in forced convection. The heat transfer

coefficients for some typical applications are given in table 1.2.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Type of flow h ,W / (m2 – K)

Free convection

Gases 2 – 25

Liquids 50 – 1000

Forced Convection

Gases 25 – 250

Liquids 50 – 20,000

Convection with change of phase

Boiling or condensation 2500 – 100,000

1.2.3. Thermal Radiation:- Thermal radiation is the energy emitted by matter (solid, liquid

or gas) by virtue of its temperature. This energy is transported by electromagnetic waves (or

alternatively, photons).While the transfer of energy by conduction and convection requires

the presence of a material medium, radiation does not require.Infact radiation transfer occurs

most effectively in vacuum.

8

Consider radiation transfer process for the surface shown in Fig.1.2a.Radiation that

is emitted by the surface originates from the thermal energy of matter bounded by the

surface, and the rate at which this energy is released per unit area is called as the surface

emissive power E.An ideal surface is one which emits maximum emissive power and is

called an ideal radiator or a black body.Stefan-Boltzman’s law of radiation states that the

emissive power of a black body is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute

temperature of the body. Therefore if Eb is the emissive power of a black body at temperature

T 0K, then

G ρG E

qs

qsurr

temperature Ts Surface of emissivity ε, area A, and temperature Ts

(a) (b)

Fig.1.2: Radiation exchange: (a) at a surface and (b) between a surface and large surroundings

Eb α T 4

Or Eb = σ T 4 ………………………………….(1.7)

−8

σ is the Stefan-Boltzman constant (σ = 5.67 * 10 W / (m2 – K4) ). For a non black surface

the emissive power is given by

E = ε σ T 4…………………………………(1.8)

where ε is called the emissivity of the surface (0 ≤ ε ≤ 1).The emissivity provides a measure

of how efficiently a surface emits radiation relative to a black body. The emissivity strongly

depends on the surface material and finish.

Radiation may also incident on a surface from its surroundings. The rate at which the

radiation is incident on a surface per unit area of the surface is calle the “irradiation” of the

9

surface and is denoted by G. The fraction of this energy absorbed by the surface is called

“absorptivity” of the surface and is denoted by the symbol α. The fraction of the

incident energy is reflected and is called the “reflectivity” of the surface denoted by ρ and

the remaining fraction of the incident energy is transmitted through the surface and

is called the “transmissivity” of the surface denoted by τ. It follows from the definitions of α,

ρ, and τ that

α+ ρ + τ = 1 …………………………………….(1.9)

Therefore the energy absorbed by a surface due to any radiation falling on it is given by

Gabs = αG …………………………………(1.10)

The absorptivity α of a body is generally different from its emissivity. However in many

practical applications, to simplify the analysis α is assumed to be equal to its emissivity ε.

Radiation Exchange:- When two bodies at different temperatures “see” each other, heat is

exchanged between them by radiation. If the intervening medium is filled with a substance

like air which is transparent to radiation, the radiation emitted from one body travels through

the intervening medium without any attenuation and reaches the other body, and vice versa.

Then the hot body experiences a net heat loss, and the cold body a net heat gain due to

radiation heat exchange between the two. The analysis of radiation heat exchange among

surfaces is quite complex which will be discussed in chapter 10. Here we shall consider two

simple examples to illustrate the method of calculating the radiation heat exchange between

surfaces.

As the first example let us consider a small opaque plate (for an opaque surface τ

= 0) of area A, emissivity ε and maintained at a uniform temperature T s. Let this plate is

exposed to a large surroundings of area Asu (Asu >> A) whish is at a uniform temperature Tsur

as shown in Fig. 1.2b.The space between them contains air which is transparent to thermal

radiation.

Qem = A ε σ Ts4

The large surroundings can be approximated as a black body in relation to the small plate.

Then the radiation flux emitted by the surroundings is σ T sur4 which is also the radiaton flux

incident on the plate. Therefore the radiation energy absorbed by the plate due to emission

from the surroundings is given by

Qab = A α σ Tsur4.

The net radiation loss from the plate to the surroundings is therefore given by

10

Assuming α = ε for the plate the above expression for Qnet reduces to

The above expression can be used to calculate the net radiation heat exchange between a

small area and a large surroundings.

As the second example, consider two finite surfaces A1 and A2 as shown in Fig. 1.3.

Surroundings

A2, ε2, T2

A1, ε1, T1

The surfaces are maintained at absolute temperatures T1 and T2 respectively, and have

emissivities ε1 and ε2. Only part of the radiation leaving A1 reaches A2. Similar

considerations apply for the radiation leaving A2.If it is assumed that the radiation from the

surroundings is negligible when compared to the radiation from the surfaces A 1 and A2 then

we can write the expression for the radiation emitted by A1 and reaching A2 as

where F1 – 2 is defined as the fraction of radiation energy emitted by A1 and reaching A2.

Similarly the radiation energy emitted by A2 and reaching A1 is given by

where F2 – 1 is the fraction of radiation energy leaving A 2 and reaching A1. Hence the net

radiation energy transfer from A1 to A2 is given by

Q1 – 2 = Q1→2 − Q2→1

11

= [F1− 2 A1ε1σ T14] − [F2− 1 A2 ε2 σ T24]

F1-2 is called the view factor (or geometric shape factor or configuration factor) of A 2 with

respect to A1 and F2 - 1 is the view factor of A1 with respect to A2.It will be shown in chapter

10 that the view factor is purely a geometric property which depends on the relative

orientations of A1 and A2 satisfying the reciprocity relation, A1 F1 – 2 = A2 F2 – 1.

simplify the radiation heat transfer calculations by defining a radiation heat transfer

coefficient hr analogous to convective heat transfer coefficient as

Qr = hrA ΔT

For the example of radiation exchange between a surface and the surroundings

[Eq. (1. 11)] using the concept of radiation heat transfer coefficient we can write

Or hr = --------------------- = -----------------------------------------------

[Ts – Tsur] [Ts – Tsur]

Heat Transfer Problems : The first law of thermodynamics is an essential tool for solving

many heat transfer problems. Hence it is necessary to know the general formulation of the

first law of thermodynamics.

First law equation for a control volume:- A control volume is a region in space bounded by

a control surface through which energy and matter may pass.There are two options of

formulating the first law for a control volume. One option is formulating the law on a rate

basis. That is, at any instant, there must be a balance between all energy rates. Alternatively,

the first law must also be satisfied over any time interval Δt. For such an interval, there must

be a balance between the amounts of all energy changes.

First Law on rate basis :- The rate at which thermal and mechanical energy enters a control

volume, plus the rate at which thermal energy is generated within the control volume, minus

the rate at which thermal and mechanical energy leaves the control volume must be equal to

the rate of increase of stored energy within the control volume.

Consider a control volume shown in Fig. 1.4 which shows that thermal and

mechanical energy are entering the control volume at a rate denoted by Ein, thermal and

12

.

Eg . .

. Est Eout

Ein

.

mechanical energy are leaving the control volume at a rate denoted by Eout. The rate at

.

which energy is generated within the control volume is denoted by Eg and the rate at

.

which energy is stored within the control volume is denoted by Est. The general form of the

energy balance equation for the control volume can be written as follows:

. . . .

Ein + Eg − Eout = Est ……………………………(1.16)

.

Est is nothing but the rate of increase of energy within the control volume and hence can be

d Es

written as equal to

dt

First Law over a Time Interval Δt :- Over a time interval Δt, the amount of thermal and

mechanical energy that enters a control volume, plus the amount of thermal energy

generated within the control volume minus the amount of thermal energy that leaves the

control volume is equal to the increase in the amount of energy stored within the control

volume.

The above statement can be written symbolically as

The inflow and outflow energy terms are surface phenomena. That is they are associated

exclusively with the processes occurring at the boundary surface and are proportional to the

surface area.

The energy generation term is associated with conversion from some other form

(chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, or nuclear) to thermal energy. It is a volumetric

phenomenon.That is, it occurs within the control volume and is proportional to the magnitude

of this volume. For example, exothermic chemical reaction may be taking place within the

control volume. This reaction converts chemical energy to thermal energy and we say that

energy is generated within the control volume. Conversion of electrical energy to thermal

energy due to resistance heating when electric current is passed through an electrical

conductor is another example of thermal energy generation

13

Energy storage is also a volumetric phenomenon and energy change within the

control volume is due to the changes in kinetic, potential and internal energy of matter within

the control volume.

A. Conduction

Example 1.1:- Heat flux through a wood slab 50 mm thick, whose inner and outer surface

temperatures are 40 0 C and 20 0 C respectively, has been determined to be 40 W/m2. What is

the thermal conductivity of the wood slab?

Known: T1 = 40 0 C; T2 = 20 0 C; L = 0.05 m;

T1 q = 40 W / m2.

T1

q Find: Thermal conductivity,k

T2

T2 Assumptions: (i) steady state conduction

L

Solution: For steady state conduction across the thickness of the slab and noting that the slab

is not generating any thermal energy, the first law equation for the slab can be written as :

Rate at which thermal energy (conduction) is entering the slab at the surface x = 0 is equal to

the rate at which thermal energy is leaving the slab at the surface x = L.

That is

Separating the variables and integrating both sides w.r.t. ‘x’ we have

L T2

kA ( T 1−T 2 )

Qx ∫dx = − kA ∫dT . Or Qx =

L

T1

1

14

Qx k ( T 1−T 2 )

Heat flux = q = =

A L

qL 40∗0.05

Hence k= = = 0.1 W / (m – K)

T

( 1−T 2 ) ( 40−20 )

Example 1.2:- A concrete wall, which has a surface area of 20 m2 and thickness 30 cm,

separates conditioned room air from ambient air.The temperature of the inner surface of the

wall is 25 0 C and the thermal conductivity of the wall is 1.5 W / (m-K).Determine the heat

loss through the wall for ambient temperature varying from ─ 15 0 C to 38 0 C which

correspond to winter and summer conditions and display your results graphically.

T1

k = 1.5 W /(m-K) ;

Q

Find: Q for different values of T2 and plot Q vs T2 for different values of T2

T2

Assumptions: (i) steady state conduction

(ii) one dimensional conduction

(iii) solid is of constant thermal conductivity

L

By Fourier’s law,

Q = kA(T1 – T2) / L

= -------------------------

0.30

Or Q = 2500 – 100 T2 ………..(1)

Solution: By Fourier’s law of conduction we have

For steady state Q = =

L 0.3

15

Heat loss Q for different values of T2 ranging from – 15 0 C to + 38 0 C are obtained from Eq.

(1) and the results are plotted as shown: Scale x-axis : 1cm= 5 C ; y-axis : 1cm =1000W

Example 1.3:-

What is the

thickness

required of a

masonry wall

having a

thermal

conductivity of

0.75 W/(m-K),

if the heat

transfer rate is

to be 80 % of

the rate

through

another wall having thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/(m-K) and a thickness of 100 mm? Both

walls are subjected to the same temperature difference.

Let subscript 1 refers to masonry wall and subscript 2 refers to the other wall.

T1

k 1= 0.75 W /(m-K) ; k 2= 0.25 W /(m-K) ;

Q1

Find: L1

T2

Assumptions: (i) steady state conduction

(ii) one dimensional conduction

(iii) solid is of constant thermal conductivity

L1

16

Q1 k1 L2

---- = ----------

Q2 k2 L1

Q2 k1

Or L1 = ----------- L2 = (1 / 0.80) * (0.75/0.25) x 100 = 375 mm

Q1 k2

B. Convection:

Example 1.4:- Air at 40 0 C flows over a long circular cylinder of 25 mm diameter with

an embedded electrical heater. In a series of tests, measurements were made of power

per unit length, P required to maintain the surface temperature of the cylinder at 300 0 C

for different stream velocities V of the air. The results are as follows:

(a) Determine the convective heat transfer coefficient for each velocity and display your

results graphically. (h = P / 20.43)

(b)Assuming the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on velocity to be of the

form h = CV n , determine the parameters C and n from the results of part (a).

Ts

V,T∞

D

Find: (a) Heat transfer coefficient as a function of velocity of the fluid (b) To find the values

of C and n in the equation h = CVn

17

Assumptions: (i) Heat transfer from the surface of the solid to the flowing fluid is by

convection only.(i.e. radiation heat transfer between the surface of the solid and the fluid is

negligible)

Solution: If h is the surface heat transfer coefficient then the power dissipated by the cylinder

by convection is given by

where As is the area of contact between the fluid and the surface of the cylinder.

Values of h for different flow velocities are obtained and tabulated as follows:

(a) A graph of h versus V can now be plotted as shown in Fig. P 1.4 (a).

18

(b) h = CVn

Therefore ln h = ln C + n ln V …………………………(2)

If ln h is plotted against ln V it will be straight line and the slope of which will give the value

of n. Also the intercept of this line w.r.t the axis on which ln V is plotted will give the value

of ln C from which C can be determined. The log –log plot is as shown in Fig. P 1.4(b).

Scale X axis 1cm=0.25; Y axis 1cm=0.5

ln C = 3.1 or C = 22.2

and n = ----------------------- = ------------------- = 0.571

ln V 2.5

19

Example 1.5:- A large surface at 50 0 C is exposed to air at 20 0 C. If the heat transfer

coefficient between the surface and the air is 15 W/(m 2-K), determine the heat transferred

from 5 m2 of the surface area in 7 hours.

Ts

h

Find: Qtotal

Assumption (i) Steady state heat transfer; (ii)Heat transfer from the surface of the solid to

the surroundings is by convection only.(i.e. radiation heat transfer between the surface of the

solid and the surroundings is negligible)

convective heat transfer coefficient between the surface and air is 15 W/(m2-K),

determine the heat loss from the sphere.

h

Ts

D

T∞

Find: Q

20

Assumptions: (i) Heat transfer from the surface of the solid to the surrounding fluid is by

convection only.(i.e. radiation heat transfer between the surface of the solid and the fluid is

negligible)(ii) Steady state heat transfer

Solution: Q = hAs(Ts - T∞) = h 4πR2 (Ts - T∞) = 15 * 4π * (0.25/2)2 * (120 – 20) = 294.52 W

C. Radiation:

chamber whose walls are kept at 300 K. If the surface of the sphere is black and

maintained at 500 K what would be the radiation heat loss from the sphere to the walls

of the chamber?. What would be the heat loss if the surface of the sphere has an

emissivity of 0.8?

Sketch for the example:

T2

Find: (i) Q assuming the surface to be a black surface; (ii) Q assuming the surface to have an emissi

.

Assumptions: (i) Steady state Heat Transfer

T1

d1

If the surface of the sphere is black then

= 96.85 W

If the surface is having an emissivity of 0.8 then

Example 1.8:- A vacuum system as used in sputtering conducting thin films on micro

circuits, consists of a base plate maintained at a temperature of 300 K by an

electric heater and a shroud within the enclosure maintained at 77 K by circulating

liquid nitrogen. The base plate insulated on the lower side is 0.3 m in diameter and has

an emissivity of 0.25.

(a) How much electrical power must be provided to the base plate heater?

21

(b) At what rate must liquid nitrogen be supplied to the shroud if its latent heat of

vaporization is 125 kJ/kg?

Sketch:

Find: (a) Qr ; (b) Mass of nitrogen vapourized per unit time, mN2

Assumptions:

Solution: Surface area of the top surface of the base plate = As = (π / 4)d12 = (π / 4) * 0.32

= 0.0707 m2

4 4

(a) Qr = ε1σ As (T1 – T2 )

.

(b) If mN2 = mass flow rate of nitrogen that is vapourised then

. 8.08

mN2 = Qr / hfg = ---------------- = 6.464 * 10-5 kg/s or 0.233 kg/s

125 x 1000

Example 1.9:- A flat plate has one surface insulated and the other surface exposed to the

sun. The exposed surface absorbs the solar radiation at a rate of 800 W/m2 and dissipates

heat by both convection and radiation into the ambient at 300 K. If the emissivity of the

surface is 0.9 and the surface heat transfer coefficient is 12 W/(m2-K), determine the

surface temperature of the plate.

22

Qsolar

T∞

Qr

Qconv Ts , ε , h

Insulated

Find: Ts

Assumptions: (i) steady state heat transfer;(ii) the emissivity and the surface heat transfer

coefficient is uniform throughout the surface.

Solution: Energy balance equation for the top surface of the plate is given by

Qsolar = Qr + Qconv

Trial 1:- Assume Ts = 350 K. Then LHS of Eq. (1) = 972.6 which is more than RHS of Eq.

(1). Hence Ts < 350 K.

Trial 2 :- Assume Ts = 340 K. Then LHS of Eq. (1) = 932.6 which is slightly less than

RHS. Therefore Ts should lie between 340 K and 350 K but closer to 340 K.

Trial 3:- Assume Ts = 342.5 K. Then LHS of Eq.(1) = 942.5 = RHS of Eq. (1).

Therefore Ts = 342.5 K

Example 1.10:- The solar radiation incident on the outside surface of an aluminum

shading device is 1000 W/m2. Aluminum absorbs 12 % of the incident solar energy and

dissipates it by convection from the back surface and by combined convection and

23

radiation from the outer surface. The emissivity of aluminum is 0.10 and the convective

heat transfer coefficient for both the surfaces is 15 W/(m2 –K). The ambient temperature

of air may be taken as 20 0 C. Determine the temperature of the shading device.

q solar qr

qc1

qc2

Assumptions: (i) Steady state heat transfer; (ii) the emissivity and the surface heat transfer

coefficient are uniform throughout the surface

Solution: Solar radiation flux absorbed by aluminum = qa = α qsolar = 0.12 * 1000 = 120 W /

m2.

from the back surface and by combined convection and radiation from the outer surface.

Hence the energy balance equation can be written as

qa = qr + qc1 + qc2

Or 120 = 5.67 * 10 ─ 8* 0.10 (Ts4 – 0.12 * 2934) + (Ts – 293) * (15 + 15)

Trail 1:- Assume Ts = 300 K. Then LHS = 15981 which is > RHS.

24

Trail 2 :- Assume Ts = 295 K. Then LHS = 15710.73 which is < RHS. Hence Ts should lie

between 300K and 295 K.

Trial 3 :- Assume Ts = 297 K . Then LHS = 15819 which is almost equal to RHS (Within

0.34 %)

Therefore Ts = 297 K.

25

CHAPTER 2

2.1.Introduction: In this chapter, the governing basic equations for conduction in Cartesian

coordinate system is derived. The corresponding equations in cylindrical and spherical

coordinate systems are also mentioned. Mathematical representations of different types of

boundary conditions and the initial condition required to solve conduction problems are also

discussed. After studying this chapter, the student will be able to write down the governing

equation and the required boundary conditions and initial condition if required for any

conduction problem.

conduction equation, let us consider a volume element of the solid of thickness Δx along x –

direction at a distance ‘x’ from the origin as shown in Fig. 2.1.Qx represents the rate

A(x) q’’’

Qx Qx + Δx

O

x Δx

of heat transfer in x – direction entering into the volume element at x, A(x) area of heat flow

at the section x ,q′′′ is the thermal energy generation within the element per unit volume and

Qx+Δx is the rate of conduction out of the element at the section x + Δx. The energy balance

equation per unit time for the element can be written as follows:

[ Rate of heat conduction into the element at x + Rate of thermal energy generation within

the element − Rate of heat conduction out of the element at x + Δx ]

26

∂E

i.e., Qx + Qg – Qx+Δx =

∂t

∂2 Q x

or Qx + q′′′ Ax Δx – {Qx + ( ) Δx + ( ) (Δx) / 2! + …….}

∂Q x

∂x ∂ x2

2

∂

= [ρA(x)ΔxCpT]

∂t

Neglecting higher order terms and noting that ρ and Cp are constants the above equation

simplifies to

x

x p

Or − ( ∂Q∂ x ) + q′′′ A = ρA

x

x x Cp ( ∂T∂t )

Using Fourier’s law of conduction , Qx = − k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) , the above equation simplifies to

∂

−

∂x

{− k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) } + q′′′ Ax = ρAx Cp ( ∂T∂t )

∂

Or {1/Ax }

∂x

{− k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) ………

……………(2.1)

Eq. (2.1) is the most general form of conduction equation for one-dimensional unsteady state

conduction.

2.2.1.Equation for one-dimensional conduction in plane walls :- For plane walls, the area

of heat flow Ax is a constant. Hence Eq. (2.1) reduces to the form

∂

∂x

{k ( ∂T∂x ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t )

……………………..(2.2)

(i) If the thermal conductivity of the solid is constant then the above equation reduces to

27

2

( )

∂T

∂x

2 + (q′′′ / k) = (1/α ) ( ∂T∂t )

………………………(2.3)

(ii) For steady state conduction problems in solids of constant thermal conductivity

temperature within the solid will be independent of time (i.e.(∂T/ ∂t) = 0)

and hence Eq. (2.3) reduces to

( )

d T

dx

2 + (q′′′ / k) = 0 …………………………….

(2.4)

(iii) For a solid of constant thermal conductivity for which there is no thermal energy

generation within the solid q’’’ = 0 and the governing equation for steady state conduction is

obtained by putting q’’’ = 0 in Eq. (2.4) as

d2T

( )

dx

2 = 0 ………………………

(2.4)

R

Qr

r

Qr

For radial conduction in cylinders, by convention the radial coordinate is denoted by ‘r’

instead of ‘x’ and the area of heat flow through the cylinder of length L,at any radius r is

given by Ax = A(r) = 2πrL. Hence substituting this expression for Ax and replacing x by r in

Eq. (2.1) we have

28

1 ∂

{ ( 2 πrL ) ∂r

{k 2πrL ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t )

1 ∂

Or

r ∂r

{ {k r ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) ………..

……….(2.5)

(i) For cylinders of constant thermal conductivity the above equation reduces to

1 ∂

r ∂r

{ {r ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ / k =

1 ∂T

( )

α ∂t

…….

…………….(2.6)

where α = k / ρCp.

(ii) For steady state radial conduction (i.e. (∂T/ ∂t) = 0 ) in cylinders of constant k, the above

equation reduces to

1 d

r dr

{r ( dTdr ) } + q′′′ / k = 0

…………………….(2.7)

(iii) For steady state radial conduction in cylinders of constant k and having no thermal

energy generation (i.e. q’’’ = 0) the above equation reduces to

d

dr

{r ( dTdr ) } =0 ………………………

(2.8)

radial conduction in spheres, the area of heat flow at any radius r is given by Ar = 4πr2.

Hence Eq.(2.1) for a sphere reduces to

1 ∂

{

4πr 2 }

∂r

{k 4π r2 ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρCp ( ∂T∂t )

1 ∂

Or

r

2

∂r

{k r2 ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) …….

…………………(2.9)

(i) For spheres of constant thermal conductivity the above equation reduce to

29

1 ∂

r 2

∂r

{ r2 ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ / k =

1

α ( ∂T∂t )

……………………..(2.10)

(ii) For steady state conduction in spheres of constant k the above equation further reduce to

1 d

r 2

dr

{ r2 ( dTdr ) } + q′′′ / k = 0

……………………(2.11)

(iii) For steady state conduction in spheres of constant k and without any thermal energy

generation the above equation further reduces to

1 d

r

2

dr

{ r2 ( dTdr ) } =0

………………………(2.12)

Equation in compact form:- The general form of one – dimensional conduction equations

for plane walls, cylinders and spheres {equations (2..2), (2.5) and (2.9)} can be written in a

compact form as follows:

1 ∂

rn ∂r

{k rn ( ∂T∂r ) } + q′′′ = ρ Cp ( ∂T∂t ) ………..

……….(2.13)

n = 1 for radial conduction in cylinders

n = 2 for radial conduction in spheres,

and for plane walls it is customary to replace the ‘r’ variable by ‘x’ variable.

conduction equation, we assumed that conduction heat transfer is taking place only along one

direction. By allowing conduction along the remaining two directions and following the same

procedure we obtain the governing equation for conduction in three dimenions.

consider a volume element of dimensions Δx, Δy and Δz in x y and z directions respectively.

The conduction heat transfer across the six surfaces of the element is shown in Fig. 2.3.

30

z

y

Δz

x

Qx + Δx

Qx

Δy

Δx

Qy Qz

Fig. 2.3: Conduction heat transfer across the six faces of a volume element

= − ∂ / ∂x [− kx Δy Δz(∂T / ∂x)] Δx

in y – direction = ∂ / ∂y[ky (∂T / ∂y)] Δx Δy Δz

Hence the net rate of conduction into the element from all the three directions

Qin = {∂ / ∂x[kx (∂T / ∂x)] + ∂ / ∂y[ky (∂T / ∂y)] + ∂ / ∂z[kz (∂T / ∂z)] } Δx Δy Δz

31

Qin + Qg = ∂E / ∂t

{∂ / ∂x[kx (∂T / ∂x)] + ∂ / ∂y[ky (∂T / ∂y)] + ∂ / ∂z[kz (∂T / ∂z)] } + q′′′ = ρ Cp (∂T / ∂t)

……………………(2.14)

Equation (2.14) is the most general form of conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate

system. This equation reduces to much simpler form for many special cases as indicated

below.

Special cases:- (i) For isotropic solids, thermal conductivity is independent of direction; i.e.,

kx = ky = kz = k. Hence Eq. (2.14) reduces to

{∂ / ∂x[k (∂T / ∂x)] + ∂ / ∂y[k (∂T / ∂y)] + ∂ / ∂z[k (∂T / ∂z)] } + q′′′ = ρ Cp (∂T / ∂t)

……………………..(2.15)

(ii) For isotropic solids with constant thermal conductivity the above equation further reduces

to

Eq.(2.16) is called as the “Fourier – Biot equation” and it reduces to the following forms

under specified conditions as mentioned below:

(v) Steady state conduction without heat generation [i.e., (∂T / ∂t) = 0 and q’’’ = 0]:

32

2.3.2. Three dimensional conduction equation in cylindrical coordinate system:

system when we want to analyse conduction in cylinders. Any point P in space can be located

by using the cylindrical coordinate system r, θ and z and its relation to the Cartesian

coordinate system (See Fig. 2.4) can be written as follows:

z

P(x,y,z)

x

θ

r

y

Eq. (2.15) reduces to

1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂T

r ∂r (

kr + ) k

∂ r r2 ∂ θ ∂ θ ( ) + k( )

∂z ∂ z

+ q’’’ = ρCp

∂t

…………..(2.20)

spherical coordinate system. Any point P on the surface of a sphere of radius r can be located

by using the spherical coordinate system r, θ and φ and its relation to the Cartesian

coordinate system (See Fig. 2.5) can be written as follows:

33

z

OP’ = r sin φ.Hence

x = r sin φ cos θ ;

P(x,y,z)

y = r sin φ sin θ ;

z = r cos φ

r

φ

O

x

θ

P’

Fig: 2.5: Spherical coordinate system

y

Using the relation between x, y ,z and r, θ and φ, the conduction equation (2.15) can be

transformed into the equation in terms of r, θ and φ as follows.

1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T

r ∂r

2 (

kr2 )

+ 2 k

∂ r r ( sin φ ) ∂ θ ∂θ

2 ( ) + 2

r sin φ ∂φ(k sin φ

∂φ ) + q’’’ = ρCp

∂T

∂t

…………….(2.21).

2.4.Boundary and Initial Conditions:

The temperature distribution within any solid is obtained by integrating the above conduction

equation with respect to the space variable and with respect to time.The solution thus

obtained is called the “general solution” involving arbitrary constants of integration. The

solution to a particular conduction problem is arrived by obtaining these constants which

depends on the conditions at the bounding surfaces of the solid as well as the initial

condition. The thermal conditions at the boundary surfaces are called the “boundary

conditions” . Boundary conditions normally encountered in practice are:

(i) Specified temperature (also called as boundary condition of the first kind),

(ii) Specified heat flux (also known as boundary condition of the second kind),

(iii) Convective boundary condition (also known as boundary condition of the third kind) and

(iv) radiation boundary condition. The mathematical representations of these boundary

conditions are illustrated by means of a few examples below.

34

2.4.1. Specified Temperatures at the Boundary:- Consider a plane wall of thickness L

whose outer surfaces are maintained at temperatures T0 and TL as shown in Fig.2.6. For one-

dimensional unsteady state conduction the boundary conditions can be written as

y

T(x,t)

T0 TL T(x,y)

T = φ(x)

L T2

b

Ψ(y)

a

x

T1

x

Fig. 2.6: Boundary condition Fig.2.7: Boundary conditions of

of first kind for a plane wall first kind for a rectangular plate

Consider another example of a rectangular plate as shown in Fig. 2.7. The boundary

conditions for the four surfaces to determine two-dimensional steady state temperature

distribution T(x,y) can be written as follows.

2.4.2. Specified heat flux at the boundary:- Consider a rectangular plate as shown in Fig.

2.8 and whose boundaries are subjected to the prescribed heat flux conditions as shown in the

figure. Then the boundary conditions can be mathematically expressed as follows.

35

qb T(x,y)

y

q0 qa

b

a

x

insulated

2.4.3. Boundary surface subjected to convective heat transfer:- Fig. 2.9 shows a plane

wall whose outer surfaces are subjected to convective boundary conditions.The surface at x =

0 is in contact with a fluid which is at a uniform temperature T i and the surface heat transfer

coefficient is hi. Similarly the other surface at x = L is in contact with another fluid at a

uniform temperature T0 with a surface heat transfer coefficient h0. This type of boundary

condition is encountered in heat exchanger wherein heat is transferred from hot fluid to the

cold fluid with a metallic wall separating the two fluids. This type of boundary condition is

normally referred to as the boundary condition of third kind. The mathematical representation

of the boundary conditions for the two surfaces of the plane wall can be written as follows.

36

T(x)

Surface in contact with fluid at T0 with surface heat transfer coefficient h0

L

Surface in contact with fluid at Ti with surface heat transfer coefficient h i

x

Fig. 2.9: Boundaries subjected to convective heat transfer for a plane wall

having an emissivity ‘ε’ and is radiating heat to the surroundings at a uniform temperature T s.

The mathematical expression for the boundary condition at x = L can be written as follows:

T(x,t)

Surface with emissivity ε is radiating heat to the surroundings at Ts 0K

x

Fig. 2.10: Boundary surface at x = L subjected to radiation heat transfer for a plane wall

37

2.4.5. General form of boundary condition (combined conduction, convection and

radiation boundary condition): There are situations where the boundary surface is

subjected to combined conduction, convection and radiation conditions as illustrated in Fig.

2.11.It is a south wall of a house and the outer surface of the wall is exposed to solar

radiation. The interior of the room is at a uniform temperature T i. The outer air is at uniform

temperature T0 . The sky, the ground and the surfaces of the surrounding structures at this

location is modeled as a surface at an effective temperature of Tsky.

x

L

qradiation

qconduction αqsolar

qconvection

38

2.5. Illustrative Examples:

Example2.1.By writing an energy balance for a differential cylindrical volume element in the

‘r’variable (r is any radius), derive the one-dimensional time dependent heat conduction

equation with internal heat generation and variable thermal conductivity in the cylindrical

coordinate system.

Sketch :

r

Qr

dr

Qr

Qg

Qr+dr

Qr+dr

Solution:

A cylindrical element of thickness dr in the radial direction at a radius r is shown in the figure

above. For unsteady state one dimensional radial conduction with heat generation is given by

Qr + Qg – Qr+dr = (∂E / ∂t)

where Qr is the rate of conduction into the element at radius r = ─ k 2πrL (∂T /∂r)

(∂E / ∂t) is the rate of increase of the energy of the element. = 2π rL dr ρCp (∂T / ∂t)

where dV=2πrLdr-------- volume

39

Substituting these expressions in Eq.(1) we get

Simplifying we get

Example2.2.By writing an energy balance for a differential spherical volume element in the

variable (r is any radius), derive the one-dimensional time dependent heat conduction

equation with internal heat generation and variable thermal conductivity in the spherical

coordinate system.

Sketch:

dr

Qr+dr

Qr

Qg

Solution: Consider a spherical element of thickness dr at any radius r as shown in the figure

above. The energy balance equation for one – dimensional radial unsteady state conduction

with heat generation is given by

Qg = rate of heat generation within the element = (4/3)π [(r + dr)3 – r3 ] q′′′

40

(∂E / ∂t) = rate of increase of energy of the element = ρ (4/3)π [ (r + dr) 3 – r3 ](∂T/∂t)

(r + dr)3 – r3 = 3 r2 dr.

Therefore Qg = 4 π r2 dr q′′′

Substituting the expressions for Qr, Qg and (∂E / ∂t) in Eq. (1) we have

Simplifying the above equation and noting that if k is given to be constant we have

dimensional steady-state conduction equation with heat generation and constant

thermal conductivity for the following coordinate systems:

(a) Rectangular coordinate in the ‘x’ variable; (b) Cylindrical coordinate in the r variable.

(c) Spherical coordinates in the ‘r’ variable

Find: Differential equation for one dimensional time dependent heat conduction with heat

generation

Assumptions: One dimensional time dependent radial heat conduction with heat generation

Solution: (a) The general form of conduction equation for an isotropic solid in rectangular

coordinate system is given by

∂ / ∂x (k∂T / ∂x) + ∂ / ∂y (k∂T / ∂y) + ∂ / ∂z (k∂T / ∂z) + q′′′ = (ρ Cp) (∂T / ∂t)

…………..(1)

For steady state conduction (∂T / ∂t) = 0 ; For one dimensional conduction in x – direction

we have

∂T / ∂y = ∂T / ∂z = 0 . Therefore ∂T / ∂x = dT / dx .

Therefore Eq. (1) reduces to

41

d / dx (k dT / dx) + q′′′ = 0.

d2 T / dx2 + q′′′ / k = 0.

(b) The general form of conduction equation in cylindrical coordinate system is given by

(1 / r) ∂ / ∂r (kr ∂T / ∂r) + (1 / r2) ∂ / ∂θ(k ∂T / ∂θ) + ∂ / ∂z (k∂T / ∂z) + q′′′ = ρCp( ∂T / ∂t)

For steady state conduction, ( ∂T / ∂t) = 0 ; For one-dimensional radial conduction we have

∂T / ∂θ = 0 and ∂T / ∂z = 0. Therefore ∂T / ∂r = dT / dr. With these simplifications the

general form of conduction equation reduces to

(1 / r) d / dr (r dT/dr) + q′′′ / k = 0.

(a) The general form of conduction equation in spherical coordinate system is given by

+ {1/(r2 sin φ)} ∂ /∂φ (k sin φ ∂T/∂φ) + q′′′ = ρCp (∂T/ ∂t) ………..(1)

For steady state conduction (∂T ∂t) = 0 ; For one dimensional radial conduction we have

Eq. (1) we have (1/r2) d / dr (kr2 dT / dr) + q′′′ = 0.

one boundary surface and dissipates heat from the surface by convection to the ambient

which is at a uniform temperature of T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient of

h∞.Write the mathematical formulation of the boundary conditions for the plane wall.

Sketch :

42

h,T∞

q0

Boundary conditions are :

L (i)at x = 0; ─ k (dT / dx)x = 0 = q0

Example2.5.Consider a solid cylinder of radius R and height Z. The outer curved surface of

thecylinder is subjected to a uniform heating electrically at a rate of q0 W / m2.Both the

circular surfaces of the cylinder are exposed to an environment at a uniform

temeperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.Write the mathematical

formulation of the boundary conditions for the solid cylinder.

2

(ii)Surface heat flux at radiyus R = q0 W/m ; (iii) The two circular faces are exposed to

ambient at T∞ with surface heat transfer coefficient h

Solution:

h,T∞ Boundary conditions are:

z (i) at r = 0; (∂T/∂r) = 0 (axis of symmetry)

R

(ii) at r = R; k(∂T/∂r) = q0

q0

Z

h , T∞

Example2.6. A hollow cylinder of inner radius ri, outer radius r0 and height H is subjected

to thefollowing boundary conditions.

43

(a) The inner curved surface is heated uniformly with an electric heater at a constant rate of

q0 W/m2,

(b) the outer curved surface dissipates heat by convection into an ambient at a uniform

temperature, T∞ with a convective heat transfer coefficient,h

(c) the lower flat surface of the cylinder is insulated, and

(d) the upper flat surface of the cylinder dissipates heat by convection into the ambient at T ∞

with surface heat transfer coefficient h. Write the mathematical formulation of the boundary

conditions for the hollow cylinder.

Solution:

hz,T∞

hr,T∞ Boundary conditions are:

(i) at r = ri, ─ k(∂T/∂r) = q0 for all z;

q0

H for all z

q0

(iii) at z = 0, (∂T/∂z) = 0 for all r.

(iv) at z = H,

for all r

ri from the problem: hz=hr=h

Insulated ro

Example2.7. A plane wall of thickness L and with constant thermal properties is initially

at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly one of the surfaces of the wall is subjected to

heatingby the flow of a hot gas at temperature T∞ and the other surface is kept

insulated. Theheat transfer coefficient between the hot gas and the surface exposed to it

is h. There is no heat generation in the wall. Write the mathematical formulation of the

problem to determine the one-dimensional unsteady state temperature within the wall.

44

T = Ti at t = 0

L

Insulated h∞,T∞

T = T(x,t)

Solution:

Governing differential equation to determine T(x,t) is given by

The boundary conditions are : (i) at x = 0, (∂T / ∂x)x=0 = 0. (Insulated) for all t >0

Example2.8. A copper bar of radius R is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly the

heating of the rod begins at time t=0 by the passage of electric current, which generates

heat at a uniform rate of q’’’ W/m3. The outer surface of the dissipates heat into an

ambient at a uniform temperature T∞ with a convective heat transfer coefficient h.

Assuming that thermal conductivity of the bar to be constant, write the mathematical

formulation of the heat conduction problem to determine the one-dimensional radial

unsteady state temperature distribution in the rod.

h,T∞

T = Ti at t ≤ 0

q’’’ for t ≤ 0

R

Solution:

45

The governing differential equation to determine T(r,t) is given by

Example2.9. Consider a solid cylinder of radius R and height H. Heat is generated in the

solid at auniform rate of q’’’ W/m3. One of the circular faces of the cylinder is insulated and

theother circular face dissipates heat by convection into a medium at a uniform

temperature of T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient of h. The outer curved surface

of the cylinder is maintained at a uniform temperature of T0. Write the mathematical

formulation to determine the two-dimensional steady state temperature distribution

T(r,z) in the cylinder.

z Solution: The governing differential equation to determine T(r,z) is given by

h, T∞

(1/r)∂ /∂r(r∂T/∂r) + ∂2T/∂z2

T0

+ q’’’/k = 0

Boundary conditions are:

(i) at r = 0, ∂T/∂r|r=0 = 0, for all z (axis

H

of symmetry).

R (ii) at r = R, T = T0 for all z.

(iv) at z =rH,

─ k (∂T/∂z)z=H = h (T |z=H ─ T∞)

for all x.

Insulated

for all r.

Example2.10. Consider a rectangular plate as shown in Fig. 2.10. The plate is generating

heatat a uniform rate of q’’’ W/m3. Write the mathematical formulation to determine two

dimensional steady state temperature distribution in the plate.

46

h,T∞

T0

bb

a

a

x

Insulated

Fig. 2.10 : Schematic for example 2.10

Example2.11. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its

simple form as

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimensional?

(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?

(d) Is thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable?

It can be seen from this equation that T depends on one space variable x and the time variable

t. Hence the problem is one dimensional transient conduction problem. No heat generation

term appears in the equation indicating that the medium is not generating any heat.The

47

thermal conductivity of the medium does not appear within the differential symbol indicating

that the conductivity of the medium is constant.

Example2.12. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its

simple form as

(1/r) d / dr(r k dT/dr) + q’’’ = 0.

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimensional?

(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?

(d) Is the thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable?

It can be seen from this equation that the temperature T depends only on one space variable

‘r’ and it does not depend on time t. Also the heat generation term q’’’ appears in the

differential equation.Hence the problem is a one-dimensional steady state conduction

problem with heat generation. Since the thermal conductivity appears within the differential

symbol, it follows that the thermal conductivity of the medium is not a constant but varies

with temperature.

Example2.13. Consider a medium in which heat the heat conduction equation in its simplest

form is given as

(1/r2) ∂/∂r (r2 ∂T /∂r) = (1/α) (∂T/∂t)

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimension?

(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?

(d) Is the thermal conductivity constant or variable?

It can be seen from the above equation that the temperature T depends on two space variables

r and z and does not depend on time. There is the heat generation term appearing in the

equation and the thermal conductivity k appears within the differential symbol ∂/∂r and

∂/∂z. Hence the problem is two-dimensional steady state conduction with heat generation in

a medium of variable thermal conductivity.

Example2.14. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its

simplest form as

(1/r) ∂/∂r (k r ∂T /∂r) + ∂/∂z (k ∂T /∂z) + q’’’ = 0

48

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two- or three-dimension?

(c)Is there heat generation in the medium?

(d)Is the thermal conductivity constant or variable?

1 ∂ 2T

2 2

(1/r ) ∂/∂r (r ∂T /∂r) + ---------- [ -------] = (1/α) (∂T/∂t)

r2 sin 2 φ ∂θ2

It can be seen from the given equation that the temperature T depends two space variables r

and θ and it also depends on the time variable t. There is no heat generation term appearing in

the given equation . Also the thermal conductivity k do not appear within the differential

symbol. Hence the given equation represents two-dimensional, steady state conduction in a

medium of constant thermal conductivity and the medium is not generating any heat.

Example2.15. Consider the north wall of a house of thickness L. The outer surface of the

wall exchanges heat by both convection and radiation.The interior of the house is

maintained at a uniform temperature of Ti, while the exterior of the house is at a

uniform temperature T0. The sky, the ground, and the surfaces of the surrounding structures

at this location can be modeled as a surface at an effective temperature of T sky for radiation

heat exchange on the outer surface.The radiation heat exchange between the inner surface of

the wall and the surfaces of the other walls, floor and ceiling are negligible.The convective

heat transfer coefficient for the inner and outer surfaces of the wall under consideration are

hi and h0 respectively.The thermal conductivity of the wall material is K and the emissivity of

the outer surface of the wall is ‘ε 0’. Assuming the heat transfer through the wall is steady and

one dimensional, express the mathematical formulation (differential equation and boundary

conditions) of the heat conduction problem

49

Surface in contact with fluid at Ti and surface heat transfer coefficient hi

x

L T (x)

qradiation

surface in contac

at T0 and surface heat

qconduction transfer coefficient h0

qconvection

ε0

Solution: The problem is one-dimensional steady state conduction without any heat

generation and the wall is of constant thermal conductivity. Hence the governing differential

equation is

d2T / dx2 = 0.

50

CHAPTER 3

3.1. Introduction:- In this chapter the problems of one-dimensional steady state conduction

without and with thermal energy generation in slabs, cylinders and spheres and subjected to

different types of boundary conditions are analyzed to determine the temperature distribution

and rate of heat flow. The concept of thermal resistance is introduced and the use of this

concept, for solving conduction in composite layers is illustrated. The problem of critical

thickness of insulation for cylinder and sphere are also analyzed. The effects of variable

thermal conductivity on temperature distribution and rate of heat transfer are also studied.

Finally the problems of one dimensional heat conduction in extended surfaces (fins)

subjected to different types of boundary conditions are examined.

3.2.1. The Plane Wall (The Infinite Slab):- The statement of the problem is to determine the

temperature distribution and rate of heat transfer for one dimensional steady state conduction

in a plane wall without heat generation subjected to specified boundary conditions.

51

T = T(x)

T1 T2

Qx

R = L /(Ak)

L

Fig. 3.1: One dimensional steady state conduction in a slab

The governing equation for one − dimensional steady state conduction without heat

generation is given by

d2T

=0 ……………..(3.1)

d x2

T = C1x + C2 ………………………………(3.2)

where C1 and C2 are constants which can be evaluated by knowing the boundary conditions.

maintained at a uniform temperature T1 and the surface at x = L is maintained at another

uniform temperature T2, then the boundary conditions can be written as follows:

(i) at x = 0, T(x) = T1 ; (ii) at x = L, T(x) = T2.

( T 2−T 1 )

Or C1 =

L

Substituting for C1 and C2 in Eq. (3.2), we get the temperature distribution in the plane wall

as

52

x

T(x) = (T2 – T1) + T1

L

Or T(x) – T1 x

------------ = -------- ……………………………..(3.3)

(T2 – T1) L

For a plane wall A(x) = constant = A. From Eq. (3.3), dT/dx = (T2 – T1) / L.

Qx = ---------------- ………………………………..(3.4)

L

It can be seen from the above equation that Qx is independent of x and is a constant.

Eq.(3.4) can be written as

(T1 – T2) (T1 – T2)

Qx = -------------- = ------------------ ………………..(3.5)

{L /(kA)} R

where R = L / (Ak).

Eq. (3.5) is analogous to Ohm’s law for flow of electric current. In this equation (T1 – T2) can

be thought of as “thermal potential”, R can be thought of as “thermal resistance”,so that the

plane wall can be represented by an equivalent “thermal circuit” as shown in

Fig.3.1.The units of thermal resistance R are 0 K / W.

53

Surface in contact with a fluid at To with heat transfer coefficient ho

x

L

T1 T2

Rci R Rco

Ti

To

Qx Qx Qx Qx

Fig.3.2: Thermal Circuit for a plane wall with convective boundary conditions

If we assume that Ti > To, then for steady state conduction heat will transfer by convection

from the fluid at Ti to the surface at x = 0, then it is conducted across the

plane wall and finally heat is transferred by convection from the surface at x = L to the fluid

at To.

The expression for rate of heat transfer Qx can be written as follows:

Qx = hi A [Ti – T1]

or Qx = --------------- = ---------------- ………………………(3.6a)

1 / (hi A) Rci

(T1 – T2)

R

where R = L /(Ak) is the thermal resistance offered by the wall for conduction and

(T2 – To)

Qx = --------------- ………………………………………..(3.6c)

Rco

Where Rco = 1 / (hoA) is the thermal resistance offered by the fluid at the surface at x = L for

convection. It follows from Equations (3.6a), (3.6b) and (3.6c) that

54

(Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – T0)

Qx = --------------- = ------------------ = --------------

Rci R Rco

(Ti – To)

Or Qx = ------------------- ……………………………………(3.7)

[Rci + R + Rco]

The governing differential equation for one-dimensional steady state radial conduction in a

hollow cylinder of constant thermal conductivity and without thermal energy generation is

given by Eq.(2.10b) with n = 1: i.e.,

d

--- [r (dT / dr)] = 0 ………………………….(3.8)

dr

r (dT / dr) = C1

3.5

Integrating once again with respect to ‘r’ we get

T(r) = C1 ln r + C2 ………………………..(3.9)

where C1 and C2 are constants of integration which can be determined by knowing the

boundary conditions of the problem.

Hollow cylinder with prescribed surface temperatures: Let the inner surface at r = r 1 be

maintained at a uniform temperature T1 and the outer surface at r = r 2 be maintained at

another uniform temperature T2 as shown in Fig. 3.3.

T1 = C1 ln r1 + C2 ………………………….(3.10a)

T2 = C1 ln r2 + C2 ………………………….(3.10b)

55

C1 = ---------------- = -------------------

[ln r1 – ln r2] ln (r1 / r2)

(T1 – T2)

and C2 = T1 − ------------------ ln r1

ln (r1 / r2)

T(r) = -------------- ln r + T1 − ---------------- ln r1

ln (r1 / r2) ln (r1 / r2)

--------------- = ------------------- …………………………………………(3.11)

[ T2 – T1] ln (r2 / r1)

T2

T1

r2

r1

Eq. (3.11) gives the temperature distribution with respect to the radial direction in a hollow

cylinder. The plot of Eq. (3.11) is shown in Fig. 3.4.

Expression for rate of heat transfer:- For radial steady state heat conduction in a hollow

cylinder without heat generation energy balance equation gives

Qr = Qr|r = r1 = Qr|r = r2

56

Hence (dT / dr)|r = r1 = {[ T2 – T1] / ln (r2 / r1) }(1/ r1).

Substituting the expressions for A(r)|r = r1 and (dT / dr)|r = r1 in Eq. (3.12) we get the expression

for rate of heat transfer as

2 π L k (T1 – T2)

Qr = -------------------------- ……………………………….(3.13)

ln (r2 / r1)

3.7

(T – T1)

(T2 – T1)

0 r / r1

1.0 r2 / r1

Fig. 3.4:Radial temperature distribution for a hollow cylinder with prescribed surface temperature

ln (r2 / r1) 1

where R = ----------------- = --------- ……………………………..(3.14b)

2πLk k Am

Where Am = (A2 – A1) / ln (A2 / A1), when A2 = 2π r2 L = Area of the outer surface of the

cylinder and A1 = 2π r1 L = Area of the inner surface of the cylinder, and Am is logarithmic

mean area.

Hollow cylinder with convective boundary conditions at the surfaces:- Let for the hollow

cylinder, the surface at r = r1 is in contact with a fluid at temperature Ti with a surface heat

transfer coefficient hi and the surface at r = r2 is in contact with another fluid at a temperature

To as shown in Fig.3.5.By drawing the thermal circuit for this problem and using the concept

57

of thermal resistance it is easy and straight forward to write down the expression for the rate

of heat transfer as shown.

(Ti – T1)

Now Qr = hiAi(Ti – T1) = 2π r1L hi (Ti – T1) = -------------- ……………..(3.15a)

Rci

(T1 – T2)

Also Qr = -------------- …………………………………………………..(3.15c)

R

Surface in contact

With fluid at Ti and

Surface heat transfer

Coefficient hi

r1

r2

Qr

Rco R Rci

(T2 – To)

And Qr = --------------- ………………………………………………….(3.15e)

Rco

1

Where Rco = --------------…………………………………..(3.15f)

(2πr2Lho)

Qr = ------------- = -------------- = ----------------

Rci R Rco

58

(Ti – To)

Or Qr = ---------------------- ……………………….(3.16)

Rci + R + Rco

where Rci, R and Rco are given by Eqs.(3.15b), (3.15d) and (3.15f) respectively.

The governing differential equation for one-dimensional steady state radial conduction in a

hollow sphere without thermal energy generation is given by Eq.(2.10b) with n = 1: i.e.,

d

--- [r2 (dT / dr)] = 0 ………………………….(3.17)

dr

r2 (dT / dr) = C1

T(r) = − C1 / r + C2 ………………………..(3.18)

where C1 and C2 are constants of integration which can be determined by knowing the

boundary conditions of the problem.

uniform temperature T1 and the outer surface at r = r2 be maintained at another uniform

temperature T2 as shown in Fig. 3.6.

59

C1 = ------------------- and C2 = T1 + --------------------------

[1 / r2 – 1 / r1] r1[1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

T(r) = − ----------------------- + T1 + ----------------------

[1 / r2 – 1 / r1] [1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

Surface at temperature T2

Surface at temperature T1

r2

r1

Fig. 3.6: Radial conduction in a hollow sphere with prescribed surface temperatures

Or T(r) – T1 [1 / r2 – 1 / r]

----------------- = ---------------------- ……………………………(3.20)

[T1 – T2] [1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

(ii) Expression for Rate of Heat Transfer:- The rate of heat transfer for the hollow sphere is

given by

Now at any radius for a sphere A(r) = 4π r2 and from Eq. (3.20)

1

dT / dr = [T1 – T2] ------------------ (1 / r2)

[1 / r2 – 1 / r1]

Substituting these expressions in Eq. (3.21) and simplifying we get

4 π k r1 r2 [T1 – T2]

Qr = -------------------------- ……………………………………...(3.22)

60

[r2 – r1]

Where R is the thermal resistance for the hollow sphere and is given by

Hollow sphere with convective conditions at the surfaces:- Fig. 3.7 shows a hollow sphere

whose boundary surfaces at radii r1 and r2 are in contact with fluids at temperatures Ti and T0

with surface heat transfer coefficients hi and h0 respectively.

r2

r1

Fig. 3.7: Radial conduction in a hollow sphere with convective conditions at the two boun

The thermal resistance network for the above problem is shown in Fig.3.8

Where Qci = heat transfer by convection from the fluid at Ti to the inner surface of the hollow

sphere and is given by

[Ti – T1]

Qci = hi Ai [Ti – T1] = --------------- ……………………..(3.25)

Rci

61

Qr Qco

Ti Qci To

Rci R Rco

.

Fig. 3.8: Thermal circuit for a hollow sphere with convective boundary conditions

Rci = 1 / (hiAi) = the thermal resistance for convection for the inside surface

And Qco = Rate of heat transfer by convection from the outer surface of the sphere to the

outer fluid and is given by

[T2 – T0]

Qco = ho Ao [T2 – To] = --------------- ……………(3.26a)

Rco

Qr = hi Ai [Ti – T1] = -------------- = ---------------- = ----------------

Rci R Rco

[Ti – To]

62

Qr = ---------------------- …………………………………………(3.27)

[Rci + R + Rco]

There are many engineering applications in which heat transfer takes place through a

medium composed of several different layers, each having different thermal conductivity.

These layers may be arranged in series or in parallel or they may be arranged with combined

series-parallel arrangements. Such problems can be conveniently solved using electrical

analogy as illustrated in the following sections.

Composite Plane wall:- (i) Layers in series: Consider a plane wall consisting of three

layers in series with perfect thermal contact as shown in Fig. 3.10.The equivalent thermal

resistance network is also shown. If Q is the rate of heat transfer through an area A of the

composite wall then we can write the expression for Q as follows:

L1 L2 L3

Surface in contact with a fluid at T0 and surfac

k1 k2 k3

T1 T2 T3 T4

Rci R1 R2 R3 Rco

Ti T1 T2 T3 T4 To

Fig. 3.10: A composite plane wall with three layers in series and the equivalent thermal

resistance network

(Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – T3) (T3 – T4) (T4 – Tco)

Q = -------------- = --------------- = ------------- = ------------ = ----------------

Rci R1 R2 R3 Rco

63

Or Q = --------------------------------- = ------------…………………………….(3.28)

Rci + R1 + R2 + R3 + Rco Rtotal

express the rate of heat transfer through a medium in a manner which is analogous to the

Newton’s law of cooling as follows:

If U is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the composite wall shown in Fig. (3.10) then

Q = U A (Ti – To) ………………………………...(3.29)

Comparing Eq. (3.28) with Eq. (3.29) we have the expression for U as

1

U = --------------- ……………………………………..(3.30)

A Rtotal

1 1

Or U = --------------------------------= ----------------------------------------------------------------

A [ Rci + R1 + R2 + R3 ] A[1/(hiA) + L1/(Ak1) + L2/(Ak2) + L3/(Ak3)+ 1/(hoA)]

1

Or U = --------------------------------------------……………………………………(3.31)

[ 1/hi + L1 / k1 + L2 / k2 + L3 / k3 + 1/ho]

(ii) Layers in Parallel:- Fig.3.11 shows a composite plane wall in which three layers are

arranged in parallel. Let ‘b’ be the dimension of these layers measured normal to the plane of

the paper. Let one surface of the composite wall be in contact with a fluid at temperature T i

and surface heat transfer coefficient hi and the other surface of the wall be in contact with

another fluid at temperature To with surface heat transfer coefficient ho. The equivalent

thermal circuit for the composite wall is also shown in Fig. 3.11. The rate of heat transfer

through the composite wall is given by

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 ………………………….(3.32)

F

(T1 – T2)

Now Q1 = -------------- ……………………………………………………...(3.33a)

R1

Where R1 = {L / (H1bk1)}

F

64

L H1

k1 H2

k2

H3

k3

b

Q1

R1

Ti

T1 Q2 T2 To

Rci R2 Rco

Q3

R3

FFig. 3.11: Schematic and equivalent thermal circuit for a composite wall with

layers in parallel

(T1 – T2)

Similarly Q2 = -------------- …………………………………………………(3.33b)

R2

Where R2 = {L / (H2bk2)}

and

(T1 – T2)

and Q3 = -------------- = ……………………….. ………………………….(3.33c)

R3

Where R3 = {L / (H3bk3)}

Q = ------------- + ---------------- + ----------------- = -------------------- ……….(3.34)

R1 R2 R3 Re

65

Where 1 / Re = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

Hence Q = ----------- = ------------ = ------------- = -------------------- …………(3.35)

Rci Re Rco [Rci + Re + Rco]

Composite Coaxial Cylinders :- Fig. 3.12. shows a composite cylinder having two layers in

series. The equivalent thermal circuit is also shown in the figure.The rate of heat

k2

k1

r2 r3

r1

Surface in contact with fluid at To and surface heat transfer coefficient h0

Ti T1 T2 T3 To

Q Rci R1 R2 Rco

Fig. 3.12: Schematic and thermal circuit diagrams for a composite cylinder

(Ti – T1) (T1 – T2) (T2 – T3) (T3 – To) (Ti – T0)

Now Q = ------------- = ------------ = ----------- = ------------- = -----------------------------

Rci R1 R2 Rco [Rci + R1 + R2 + Rco]

……………..(3.36)

66

1 1

Where Rci = 1 / [hiAi] = -------------- ; R1 = ---------- ln (r2 / r1)

2 π r1L hi 2 π L k1

1 1

Rco = 1 / [hoAo] = -------------- ; R2 = ---------- ln (r3 / r2)

2 π r3L ho 2 π L k2

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for a Composite Cylinder:- For a cylinder the area of

heat flow in radial direction depends on the radius r we can define the overall heat transfer

coefficient either based on inside surface area or based on outside surface area of the

composite cylinder. Thus if Ui is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on inside surface

area Ai and Uo is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on outside surface area Ao then

(Ti – T0)

Now UiAi (Ti – To) = -----------------------------

[Rci + R1 + R2 + Rco]

Substituting the expressions for Ai, Rci,R1,R2 and Rco in the above equation we have

1

2 π r1L Ui = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1 /(2πr1Lhi) + {1/(2πLk1)}ln (r2 / r1) + {1/(2πLk2)}ln (r3 / r2) + 1/(2πr3Lho)]

1

Or Ui = ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ……..(3.38)

[ 1/hi + (r1 / k1) ln (r2/r1) + (r1/k2) ln (r3/r2) + (r1/r3) (1/ho) ]

1

Uo = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ …..(3.39)

[(r3/ r2) (1/hi ) + (r3 / k1) ln (r2/r1) + (r3/k2) ln (r3/r2) + (1/ho) ]

67

Composite Concentric Spheres:- Fig.3.13 shows a composite sphere having two layers with

the inner surface of the composite sphere in contact with fluid at a uniform temperature Ti

and surface heat transfer coefficient hi and the outer surface in contact with another fluid at a

uniform temperature To and surface heat transfer coefficient ho. The corresponding thermal

circuit diagram is also shown in the figure.

k2

k1

r1 r1

r2

r3

Surface in contact with fluid at To and surface heat transfer coefficient h0

Ti T1 T2 T3

Q Rci R1 R2 Rco

sphere

Eq. (3.36) is also applicable for the composite sphere of Fig. 3.13 except that the expression

for individual resistance will be different. Thus

( T i−T 0 )

Q= …………………………….(3.40)

( R ci + R1 + R2 + Rco )

1 1 ( r 2−r 1 ) 1 1

where Rci = = ; R1 = ; Rco = =

( hi A i ) 4 π r 21 h i 4 π k1 r1 r2 ( h0 A 0 ) 4 π r 23 h 0

;

68

( r 3−r 2 )

R1 =

4 π k2 r2 r3

Example 3.1: Consider a plane wall 100 mm thick and of thermal conductivity 100

W/(m-K). Steady state conditions are known to exist with T1 = 400 K and T2 = 600 K.

Determine the heat flux (magnitude and direction) and the temperature gradient dT/dx

for the coordinate system shown in Fig. P3.1.

T(x) T(x)

T(x)

T2 T2

T2

T1 T1

T1

L L L

x

x x

(a) (b) (c)

Sketch for example 3.1(a):

T(x),

T2

T1

69

(b) Sketch for example 3.1(b):

Solution:It can be seen fromT(x)

the figure shown that temperature is decreasing with increase in x or in othe

Therefore dT/dx = (T1 – T2)/L

= (400 – 600) / 0.1 = ─ 2000 0 C / m.

qx = ─ k dT/dx = ─ 100 * (─ 2000)

= + 200,000 W / m2.

+ ve sign for qx indicates that heat transfer is taking place in the + ve direction of x.

T2

T1

L

Solution: It can be seen from the figure shown that the temperature increasing with increase in x: i.e., dT

T(x)

Therefore dT/dx = (600 – 400) / 0.1

= 2000 0C / m.

T2

T1 heat transfer takes place in a direction opposite to the + ve direction of

Negative sign in qx indicates that

x

Example 3.2.Fig. P3.2 shows a frustum of a cone (k = 3.46 W/m-K). It is of circular cross

section with the diameter at any x is given by D = ax, where a = 0.25. The smaller cross

section is at x1 = 50 mm and the larger cross section is at x 2 = 250 mm. The corresponding

surface temperatures are T1 = 400 K and T2 = 600 K. The lateral surface of the cone is

completely insulated so that conduction can be assumed to take place in x-direction only.

(i) Derive an expression for steady state temperature distribution, T(x) in the solid and

(ii) calculate the rate of heat transfer through the solid.

70

Sketch for example 3.2:

T2 T1

.Known: X1 = 50 mm;X2 = 250 mm; D= ax with a = 0.25;T1 = 400 K; T2 = 600 K;

k = 3.46 W/m-K

Assumptions:

D2 (i) Steady state conduction

D1 (ii) One dimensional conduction through the cone; (iii) therm

D

X1

x

X2

Solution: By Fourier’s law, the rate of heat transfer in x-direction across any plane at a

distance x from the origin ‘o’ is given by

Qx = ─ k Ax (dT/dx).

For steady state conduction without heat generation Qx will be a constant. Also at any x,

D = ax. Therefore

dT = ─ (4/πa2k) Qx (dx/x2)

T x

∫dT = ─( 4Qx / π a k) ∫ (dx /x2)

2

T X

1 1

( 4 Qx)

Or T = T1 ─ --------------- [(1 / x ) – (1 / X1)] …………(1)

71

(π a2 k)

At x = X2, T = T2. Substituting this condition in Eq.(1) and solving for Qx we get

(π a2 k) (T2 – T1)

Qx = ----------------------------- …………………….(2)

4 (1/X2 – 1/X1)

Substituting this expression for Qx in Eq. (1) we get the temperature distribution in the cone

as follows:

T(x) = T1 + --------------------------------- ………………..(3)

(1/X2 – 1/X1)

Substituting the given numerical values for X1, X2, T1 and T2 in Eq.(3) we get the temperature

distribution as follows:

(600 – 400) [ 1/ x – 1/0.05]

T(x) = 400 + ------------------------------------

[ 1/0.25 – 1/0.05}

And Qx = -------------------------------------------- = ─ 2.123 W

4 * [ 1/0.25 – 1/0.05 ]

Example 3.3.A plane composite wall consists of three different layers in perfect thermal

contact. The first layer is 5 cm thick with k = 20 W/(m-K),the second layer is10 cm thick

with k = 50 W/(m-K) and the third layer is 15 cm thick with k = 100 W/(m-K).The outer

surface of the first layer is in contact with a fluid at 400 0C with a surface heat transfer

coefficient of 25 W/(m2–K),while the outer surface of the third layer is exposed to an

ambient at 30 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/(m2-K).Draw the

equivalent thermal circuit indicating the numerical values of the thermal resistances and

calculate the heat flux through the composite wall. Also calculate the overall heat transfer

coefficient for the composite wall.

72

Sketch for example 3.3:

L1 L2 L3

hi h0

k1 k2 k3

Ti

To

Q

Rci R1 R2 R3 Rc0

Ti = 400 0 C ; T0 = 30 0 C.

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the

composite wall; (iii) thermal conducvity of each layer is constant.

Solution:

1

Rci = 1 / (hiA1) = ---------------- = 0.04 m2 – K / W (A1 = A2 = A3 = A4 = 1 m2)

25 * 1

0.05

R1 = L1 /(k1A1) = --------------- = 0.0025 m2 – K / W.

20 * 1

0.10

R2 = L2 / (k2A2) = ---------------- = 0.002 m2 – K / W.

50 * 1

73

0.15

R3 = L3/ (k3A3) = ------------------ = 0.0015 m2 – K / W.

100 * 1

1

Rco = 1 / (h0A4) = ---------------- = 0.067 m2 – K / W.

15 * 1

Or ∑R = 0.113 m2-K/W.

Heat Flux through the composite slab = q = --------------- = ------------------

∑R 0.113

= 3274.34 W / m2.

If ‘U’ is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the given system then

Q 1 1

U = ---------------- = ------------- = -------------- = 8.85 W / (m2 – K).

(Ti – T0) ∑R 0.113

Example 3.4. A composite wall consisting of four different materials is shown in Fig

P3.10. Using the thermal resistance concept determine the heat transfer rate per m2 of

the exposed surface for a temperature difference of 300 0 C between the two outer

surfaces. Also draw the thermal circuit for the composite wall.

74

T1

k1 k2 k2 k4

2m

k3

k31 m

4cm 10 cm 5 cm

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the

composite wall; (iii) thermal conducvity of each layer is constant.

Solution:

0.04

0

R1 = L1 / (A1k1) = ---------------- = 0.0002 C / W.

2 * 100

0.10

0

R2 = L2 / (A2k2) = ---------------- = 2.50 C / W.

1 * 0.04

0.10

0

R3 = L3 / (A3k3) = --------------- = 0.005 C / W.

1 * 20

0.05

0

R4 = L4 / (A4k4) = ------------------ = 0.00036 C / W.

2 * 70

75

Q R2

R1 R4

R3

Thermal potential = T1 – T4

R2 and R3 are resistances in parallel and they can be replaced by a single equivalent resistance

Re, where

R2 R3 2.5 * 0.005

1 / Re = 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 or Re = --------------- = ----------------------- = 0.00499 0C/W

(R2 + R3) (2.5 + 0.005)

Q = --------------------- = ------------------------------------ = 40.82 x 103 W

(R1 + Re + R4) [0.002 + 0.00499 + 0.00036]

conductivity kA and kB. A thin electric resistance heater for which the interfacial contact

resistances are negligible separates the two materials. Liquid pumped through the inner

tube is at temperature Ti with the inside surface heat transfer coefficient hi. The outer

surface of the Composite wall is exposed to an ambient at a uniform temperature of To

with the outside surface heat transfer coefficient ho. Under steady state conditions a

uniform heat flux of qh is dissipated by the heater.

(a) Sketch the equivalent thermal circuit for the composite wall and express all thermal

resistances in terms of the relevant variables

(b)Obtain an expression that may be used to determine the temperature of the heater,Th.

(c)Obtain an expression for the ratio of heat flows to the outer and inner fluid, qo/qi.

76

ro heater

r1

ri

hi,Ti

Qi kA

Q0 ho,To

kB

Ri Rci Qi

Qtotal

Ro Rco Qo

Find: (b) Expression to determine Temperature of heater Th; (ii) q0 / qi

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional radial conduction through the

composite wall; (iii) thermal conductivity of each layer is constant; (iii)No contact resistance

between the surfaces of the two layers

1 1 1

Ri = ------------- ln (r1/ri) ; Rci = ------------------ = ---------------------

(2π LkA) hi A i (2π ri L hi)

1 1 1

Ro = ------------- ln (ro/r1) ; Rco = ------------------ = ---------------------

(2π LkB) ho A o (2π ro L ho)

2π r1L q h = -------------------------- + -----------------------

ln (r1/ri) 1 ln (ro/r1) 1

---------- + ------------- ---------- + -------------

2π L kA 2π L ri hi 2π L kB 2π L ro ho

77

(Th – Ti) (Th – To)

Therefore q h = ------------------------------- + --------------------------------

[ (r1/kA) ln (r1/ri) + r1/(rihi)] [(r1/kB) ln (ro/r1) + r1/(roho)

The temperature Th of the heater can be obtained from the above equation.

Now ------- = --------------------------- = --------------------------

Qi (Th – Ti) / (Ri + Rci) (Th – Ti) x (Ro + Rco)

= ----------- x -------------------------------------

(Th – Ti) [ 1 / (roho) + (1 / kB) ln (ro/r1) ]

Example 3.6. A hollow aluminum sphere with an electrical heater in the centre is used to

determine the thermal conductivity of insulating materials. The inner and outer radii of the

sphere are 15 cm and 18 cm respectively and testing is done under steady state conditions

with the inner surface of the aluminum maintained at 250 0 C. In a particular test, a spherical

shell of insulation is cast on the outer surface of the aluminum sphere to a thikness of 12 cm.

The system is in a room where the air temperature is 20 0 C and the convection coefficient is

30 W/(m2 – K). If 80 W are dissipated by the heater under steady state conditions, what is the

thermal conductivity of the insulating material?

ho,To

r3 Known: r1 = 0.15 m ; r2 =

0.18

r2 m ; r3 = 0.18 + 0.12 =

0.3 mr1

; k1 = 204 W/(m-K) from tables; k2 = 0.30 W/(m-K); ho = 30 W/(m2-K);Q = 60 W; T1 =

Find: k2

T1

k1

k2

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional radial conduction through

the composite wall; (iii) thermal conductivity of each layer is constant; (iii)No contact

resistance between the surfaces of the two layers

Solution:

(r2 – r1) (0.18 – 0.15)

R1 = ---------------- = ------------------------------ = 4.335 x 10 ─ 4 0

C / W.

4π k1 r1 r2 4 π * 204 * 0.18 * 0.15

78

(r3 – r2) (0.30 – 0.18)

0

R2 = ---------------- = ------------------------------ = 0.177 / k2 C / W.

4π k2 r2 r3 4 π * 0.30 * 0.30 * 0.18

1 1

0

Rco = 1 / (hoAo) = ------------------- = --------------------- = 0.0295 C / W.

4π r32 ho 4π * (0.3)2 * 30

(T1 – To)

Q = -------------------- or R2 = (T1 – To) / Q – (R1 + Rco)

R1 + R2 + Rco

Example 3.7. In a hollow sphere of inner radius 10 cm and outer radius 20, the inner surface

is subjected to a uniform heat flux of 1.6 x 10 5 W/m2 and the outer surface is maintained at a

uniform temperature of 0 0C.The thermal conductivity of the material of the sphere is 40 W /

(m – K).Assuming one-dimensional radial steady state conduction determine the temperature

of the inner surface of the hollow sphere.

T0

R2

q0

R1

Find: T/r= R1

Assumption: (i)Steady state one dimensional radial conduction without heat generation; (ii)

thermal conductivity of the sphere is constant.

79

Solution: The governing equation for one-dimensional steady-state radial conduction in a

sphere without heat generation is given by

d/dr ( r2 dT / dr ) = 0 …………………………………..(1)

(ii) at r = R2 T(r) = 0.

r2 (dT/dr) = C1

or dT / dr = C1 / r2 …………………………(2)

─ kC1 / R12 = q0

Or C1 = ─ q0 R12 / k

Or C2 = C1 / R2 = ─ (q0R12) / (kR2)

q0 R12 q0 R12

T(r) = -------------- ─ -------------------

kr k R2

T(r) = -------------------- / r ─ --------------------

40 40 * 0.2

80

Or T(r) = (40 / r) ─ 200

3.2.5. Thermal Contact Resistance: In the analysis of heat transfer problems for composite

medium it was assumed that there is “perfect thermal contact” at the interface of two layers.

This assumption is valid only the two surfaces are smooth and they produce a perfect contact

at each point.But in reality, even flat surfaces that appear smooth to the naked eye would be

rather rough when examined under a microscope as shown in Fig. 3.14 with numerous peaks

and valleys.

T2

T1

Rcont

LA LB

Tc1

Tc2 T2

Fig.3.14: Temperature drop across a contact resistance

The physical significance of thermal contact resistance is that the peaks will form good

thermal contact, but the valleys will form voids filled with air.As a result the air gaps act as

insulation because of poor thermal conductivity of air.Thus the interface offers some

resistance to heat conduction and this resistance is called the “thermal contact

resistance,Rcont”. The value of Rcont is determined experimentally and is taken into account

while analyzing the heat conduction problems involving multi-layer medium.The procedure

is illustrated by means of a few examples below.

Example 3.8. A composite wall consists of two different materials A [k = 0.1 W/(m-k)] of

thickness 2 cm and B[ k = 0.05 W/(m-K)] of the thickness 4 cm. The outer surface of layer A

is in contact with a fluid at 200 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/(m 2-K) and

the outer surface of layer B is in contact with another fluid at 50 0 C with a surface heat

transfer coefficient of 25 W/(m2-K). The contact resistance between layer A and layer B is

0.33 (m2-K) /W. Determine the heat transfer rate through the composite wall per unit area of

the surface. Also calculate the interfacial temperatures and the inner and outer surface

temperature.

81

Sketch for example 3.8:

Known: Ti = 200 0 C ; T0 = 50 0 C ; h0,T0

hi,Ti

Rcont

hi = 15 W/(m2 – K) ; h0 = 25W/(m2– K)

kA kB

kA = 0.1 W/(m-K) ; kB = 0.05 W/(m-K)

LA LB

Rcont = 0.33 (m2 – K) /W.

Assumptions: (i)T1

Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the composite wall; (i

Tc1

Tc2 T2

1

Rci = 1/(hiAA) = ------- = 0.067 m2-K/W

(15 * 1)

(200 – 50)

Heat flux = q = (Ti – To) / ∑R = ------------------ = 104.4 W/m2

1.437

82

Check : To = T2 – q Rco = 54.15 – (104.4 * 0.04) = 49.97 0 C

Example 3.9. A very thin electric heater is wrapped around the outer surface of a long

cylindrical tube whose inner surface is maintained at 5 0C. The tube wall has inner and

outer radii of 25 mm and 75 mm respectively and a thermal conductivity of 10 W/(m-K).

The thermal contact resistance between the heater and the outer surface of the tube

per unit length is 0.01 (m-K) / W. The outer surface of the heater is exposed to a fluid

with a temperature of – 10 0C and a convection coefficient of 100 W/(m2-K). Determine

the heater power required per metre length of the tube to maintain a heater

temperature of 25 0C.

h,T∞

Heater

r2

r1

Qtube T1 T2

Qamb

Qamb

Rco

Qtotal

Rcont Rcond Qtube

Assumptions: (i) Steady state conduction (ii) One dimensional conduction through the

composite wall; (ii) thermal conductivity of each layer is constant ; (iii)No contact resistance

between the surfaces of the two layers

83

Solution:

1

Rco = 1 / (h Ao) = ----------------------- = 0.0212 (m- K) / W.

100 * 2π * 0.075

1 1

Rcond = ------------- ln (r2 / r1) = ------------------ ln (0.075 / 0.025) = 0.0175 (m-K) / W.

2π L k (2* π * 1 * 10)

[25 – (─ 10)]

Qamb = (T2 - T∞) / Rco = ------------------- = 1651 W / m.

0.0212

Qtube = ------------------ = --------------------- = 727.3 W / m

Rcont + Rcond (0.01 + 0.0175)

3.3. One Dimensional Steady State Conduction With Heat Generation: The governing

equation for one – dimensional steady state conduction in solids which are generating is

given as follows.

The following examples illustrate the method of analysis of steady state heat conduction

In solids generating heat.

Example 3.10. A plane wall of thickness L and thermal conductivity k has one of its

surfaces insulated and the other surface is kept at a uniform temperature T1. Heat is

generated in the wall at a rate q’’’(x) where q’’’(x) = q0 cos{(πx) / (2L)} W / m3

where q0 is a constant.

(a) Develop an expression for one-dimensional steady state temperature distribution in the

solid and (b) develop an expression for the temperature of the insulated surface.

84

L

Insulated T1

T = T(x)

q’’’= q0 cos (πx/2L)

Known: (i) Expression for heat generation q’’’ = q0 cos ( 2πxL ) W/m3;(ii) the surface at x

= 0 is insulated i.e. (dT/dx)/x=0 = 0; (iii) T = T1 at x = L

Find: (a) expression for temperature distribution in the solid T(x); (ii) T/x = 0

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction ; (ii) solid is of constant thermal

conductivity

Substituting the given expression for q’’’ the above equation reduces to

(ii) at x = L, T = T1

Substituting the values of C1 and C2 in Eq. (3) we get the temperature distribution as

85

T(x) = -(π/2L)2 (q0/k) cos (πx/2L) + T1 …………………..(4).

radioactive material which generates heat uniformly within the cylinder at a rate of

3x10 5 W/ m3. The rod is cooled by convection from its cylindrical surface by ambient air

at 50 0C with a heat transfer coefficient of 60 W/(m2-K). Assuming one-dimensional

radial conduction determine the temperature at the centre of the rod as well as at the

outer surface of the rod.(175 0 C)

T = T(r)

q’’’

h, T∞

T∞ = 500C; h = 60 W/(m2 – K)

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional radial conduction; (ii) steady state conduction; (iii)

thermal conductivity of the rosd is constant

radial conduction with heat generation is given by

d / dr (r dT/dr) + q′′′ r / k = 0.

86

Integrating once w.r.t. r we get

r dT/dr + (q′′′ r2) / 2k = C1

T(r) = ─ -------------- + C1 ln r + C2 …………(3)

4k

Condition (i) in Eq. (2) gives 0 + 0 = C1 / 0 or C1 = 0.

T(r)|r=R = ─ -------------- + C2 …………………..(3)

4k

q′′′ R q′′′ R2

Or C2 = ----------- + -------------- + T∞

2h 4k

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq.(3) we get the temperature distribution in the

cylinder as

q′′′ R2

T(r) = T∞ + ------------- [ 1 –(r/R)2 ] + (q’’’R) / 2h …………………(4)

4k

3 * 10 5 * (0.05)2

Now q′′′ R2 / (4 k) = ----------------------- = 18.75 0 C.

4 * 10

5

3 x 10 x 0.05

q′′′ R / (2h) = ------------------------ = 125 0 C

2 x 60

87

Example 3.12. In a cylindrical fuel element for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor, the heat

generation rate within the fuel element due to fission can be approximated by the

equation

q’’’ = qo [1 – (r/R)2] W/m3,

where R is the outer radius of the fuel element and q o is a constant. The outer surface of the

cylinder is maintained at a uniform temperature T o. Assuming one-dimensional radial

conduction obtain an expression for the temperature distribution in the element. If R = 2 cm,

k = 10 W/(m-K) and qo = 1.16 x 10 5 W/m3, what would be the temperature difference

between centre temperature and the outer surface temperature.

T0

q’’’ = q0 [ 1 – (r/R)2]

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) Thermal conductivity of the

cylinder is constant

temperature distribution in a cylinder with heat generation is given by

q0 r [ 1 – (r/R)2 ]

d/dr(r dT/dr) + ---------------------- = 0 ……………………..(1)

k

88

Boundary conditions are: (i) at r = 0, dT / dr = 0 (axis of symmetry)

(ii) at r = R, T = T0

q0 r2 r4

(r dT/dr) + ---- [----- ─ -----------] = C1

K 2 4R2

Or q0 r r3 C1

dT/dr + ---- [----- ─ -----------] = ----------- ………..(2)

K 2 4R2 r

Integrating once again w.r.t. r we have

q0 r2 r4

T(r) = ─ ---------- [---------- ─ --------- ] + C1 ln r + C2 .....................(3)

k 4 16R2

Condition(i) in Eq.(2) gives

0 + 0 = C1 / 0 or C1 = 0.

q0 R2 R4

T0 = ─ ------ [ -------- ─ ---------- ] + C2

k 4 16 R2

3 q0 R2

Or C2 = T0 + ----------------

16 k

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq. (3) we have

q0 r2 r4 3 q0 R2

T(r) = ─ ---------- [---------- ─ ---------] + T0 + ---------------

k 4 16R2 16 k

Or q0 r2 r4 3 q0 R2

T(r) ─ T0 = ─ ---------- [---------- ─ ---------] + ---------------

k 4 16R2 16 k

Therefore T(r) |r=0 ─ T0 = ------------------ = ------------------------------- = 0.87 0 C.

16 k 16 x 10

89

Example3.13. Develop an expression for one-dimensional radial steady state

temperature distribution in a solid sphere of radius R in which heat is generated at a

rate given by

Assume that the outer surface is maintained at a uniform temperature To.

Known:Outer surface temperature = T0;

Solid is generating heat according to the law

q’’’ = q0(1 – r/R)

T0 radial temperature distribution T(r)

q’’’ = q0(1 – r/R)

Assumptions: (i) steady state one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the cylinder

Solution: The governing differential equation to find the one-dimensional radial steady state

temperature distribution in a sphere with heat generation is given by

Multiplying throughout by r2 and substituting the given expression for q′′′ we have

(ii) at r = R, T = T0.

q0 r3 r4

2

(r dT/dr) + ----- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] = C1

k 3 4R

q0 r r2

Or dT/dr = ─ ----- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] + C1 / r2 ………………….(2)

k 3 4R

Integrating once again w.r.t. r we get

90

q0 r2 r3

Or T(r) = ─ ----- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] ─ C1 / r + C2 …………….(3)

k 6 12R

q0 R2 R2

T0 = ─ ------ [ ------ ─ ---------- ] + C2

k 6 12

or C2 = T0 + q0 R2 / 12k

q0 r2 r3 q0 R2

T(r) = ─ ---- [ ------ ─ ---------- ] + T0 + -----------

k 6 12R 12 k

q0 R2

or T(r) = T0 + ---------- [ 1 ─ 2 (r/R)2 + (r/R)3 ]

12k

Example 3.14. A plane wall of thickness 2L is generating heat according to the law

where qo, β, and Tw are constants and T is the temperature at any section x from the mid-

plane of the wall. The two outer surfaces of the wall are maintained at a uniform temperature

Tw. Determine the one-dimensional steady state temperature distribution, T(x) for the wall.

q’’’ = q0 [1 – β(T – Tw)]

Tw

Tw

2L

91

Known: The two outer surfaces of the wall maintained at Tw; Solid is generating heat at a

rate given by q’’’ = q0 [1 – β(T – Tw)].

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) Solid is of constant thermal

conductivity

plane wall with constant thermal conductivity and which is generating heat is given by

or d2θ / dx2 − qo βθ /k = − qo / k

where m2 = q0 β /k ……………………………...(1b)

given by

θh(x) = A1 e mx + A2 e − mx…………………………….(4)

The term qo/k makes the governing differential equation non-homogeneous. Since this is a

constant θp(x) is also assumed to be constant. Thus let θp(x) = C, where C is a constant.

92

Substituting this solution in Eq. (5) we get

m 2C = qo / k

Or C = qo /(km2)

θ(x) = A1 e mx + A2 e − mx + 1 / β …………………..(7)

The constants A1 and A2 in Eq.(7) can be determined by using the two boundary conditions,

which are:

(ii) at x = L, T = Tw ; i.e., θ = 0

Or A1 = A2.

(1 / β)

Or A1 = ----------------------------

[e mL + e − mL]

Substituting the expressions for A1 and A2 in Eq. (7) we get the temperature distribution in

the plane wall as

(1 / β )

θ(x) = T(x) – Tw = -------------------- [ e mx + e − mx ] − 1 / β

[e mL + e − mL]

1 e mx + e − mx

Or T(x) – Tw = ---- [ ----------------- − 1]

β e mL + e − mL

or T(x) – Tw = (1 / β)---------------------------- = (1 / β)----------------------------

[e mL + e − mL] cosh mL

93

3.4. Critical Radius of Insulation:- For a plane wall adding more insulation will result in a

decrease in heat transfer as the area of heat flow remains constant .But adding insulation to a

cylindrical pipe or a conducting wire or a spherical shell will result in an increase in thermal

resistance for conduction at the same will result in a decrease in the convection resistance of

the outer surface because of increase in surface area for convection. Therefore the heat

transfer may either increase or decrease depending on the relative magnitude of these two

resistances.

3.4.1.Critical Radius of Insulation for Cylinder:- Let us consider a cylindrical pipe of outer

radius rs maintained at a constant temperature of T s. Let the pipe now be insulated with a

material of thermal conductivity k and outer radius r. Let the outer surface of the insulation

be in contact with a fluid at a uniform temperature T ∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient

h. Then the thermal circuit for this arrangement will be as shown in Fig.3.15.

Surface

r in contact with a fluid at T∞ and surface hea

Ts

rs

Ts

Rins Rco

Fig.3.15: Schematic of a cylindrical pipe covered with an insulation and exposed to an ambient and

The rate of heat transfer from the pipe to the ambient is given by

Q = ------------------ = ----------------------------------- …………………………...(3.44)

[Rins + Rco] ln (r / rs) 1

---------- + --------------

2πLk 2πrLh

It can be seen from Eq. (3.44) that if Ts and h are assumed not to vary with ‘r’ then Q

depends only on r and the nature of variation of Q with r will be as shown in Fig.3.16.

The value of r at which Q reaches a maximum can be determined as follows.

94

(Ts – To)

Eq. (3.44) can be written as Q = -----------

F(r)

ln (r / rs) 1

where F(r) = ---------- + --------------

2πLk 2πrLh

Qmax

Qbare

r

rs rcr = k / h

Or r = k / h.

The above expression for critical radius of insulation has been arrived with the assumption

that the change in outer radius of insulation r will have no effect on the inside surface

temperature of insulation or on the outer surface heat transfer coefficient h. Sparrow

considered a heat transfer coefficient that varies as

95

h – r –m │Ts − T∞│n …………………………(3.46a)

For this case, it is found that the heat transfer is maximized when

(1−m ) k

r = rcr = ……………………….(3.46b)

(1+ n ) h

(1−m )

The quantity is a correction factor (≤ 1) accounting for the r and ΔT

(1+ n )

dependencies of

h. As an example, consider forced convection flow across a cylinder. For Reynolds number

based on diameter between 4000 and 40,000, m = 0.382 and n=0. Correspondingly

Eq.(3.46b) gives the correction factor

(1−m )

= 0.618

(1+ n )

As a second example for free convection about a horizontal cylinder for which m = n = 0.25,

the correction factor will be 0.6.

It can be seen from Fig.(3.16) that if the outer radius of the bare tube or bare wire is

greater than the critical radius then, any addition of insulation on the tube surface

decreases the heat loss to the ambient. But if the outer radius of the tube is less than the

critical radius , the heat loss will increase continuously with the addition of insulation

until the outer radius of insulation equals the critical radius. The heat loss becomes

maximum at the critical radius and begins to decrease with addition of insulation beyond

the critical radius.

The value of critical radius rcr will be the largest when k is large and h is

small. The lowest value of h encountered in practice is about 5 W/(m2 – K) for free

convection in a gaseous medium and the thermal conductivity of common insulating

materials is about 0.05 W/(m – K). Hence the largest value of rcr that we may likely to

encounter is given by

0.05

rcr = --------- = 0.01 m = 1 cm

5

The critical radius would be much less in forced convection (it may be as low as 1mm)

because of large values of h associated with forced convection. Hence we can insulate hot

water or steam pipes freely without worrying about the possibility of increasing the heat

loss to the surroundings by insulating the pipes.

The radius of electric wires may be smaller than the critical radius. Therefore, the

plastic electrical insulation may enhance the heat transfer from electric wires, there by

keeping their steady operating temperatures at lower and safer levels.

3.4.2.Critical Radius Insulation for a Sphere:- The analysis described above for cylindrical

pipes can be repeated for a sphere and it can be shown that for a sphere the critical radius

of insulation is given by

2k

96

rcr = ------- …………………………………..(3.47)

h

through an ambient at 30 0 C with a convection coefficient of 120 W/(m2 – K). The

temperature of the conductor is to be maintained at 130 0 C. Calculate the rate of heat

loss per metre length of the conductor when (a) the conductor is bare and (b) conductor

is covered with bakelite insulation [k = 1.2 W/(m-K)] with radius corresponding to the

critical radius of insulation.

Ts

Dc ,k

D

Ts

h,T∞ h, T∞

(a) Conductor without Insulation. (b) Conductor with critical thickness of

Insulation

Known: D = 0.008 m; Ts = 130 0C ; for insulation k = 1.2 W/(m-K); h = 120 W/(m2-K);

T∞ = 30 0C

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady radial conduction (ii) the thermal conductivity of

insulation is constant (iii) by adding the insulation the outer surface temperature of the wire

will not change; (iv) the surface heat transfer coefficient for wire with and without insulation

remain same

Solution:(a) When the conductor is bare the rate of heat loss to the ambient is given by

1 1

R insulation = -------------- ln (Dc / D) = ----------------------- ln (0.02 / 0.008)

2π L k 2 π * 1.0 * 1.2

= 0.1215 (m – 0 C) / W.

1 1

97

Rco = 1 / (h Ac) = ---------------- = ------------------------ = 0.133 (m – 0 C)/W.

π Dc L h π * 0.02 * 1 8 120

Qwith insulation = ------------------- = --------------- = 392.93 W / m.

∑R 0.145

Example 3.16. An electrical current of 700 A flows through a stainless steel cable

having a diameter of 5 mm and an electrical resistance of 6x10 ─ 4 ohms per metre

length of the cable. The cable is in an environment at a uniform temperature of 30 0 C

and the surface heat transfer coefficient of 25 W/(m2 – 0C).

(a) What is the surface temperature of the cable when it is bare?

(b)What thickness of insulation of k = 0.5 W/(m – K) will yield the lowest value of the

maximum insulation temperature? What is this temperature when this thickness is used?

Known: Current flow through the cable = I = 700 A; diameter of cable = D = 5 mm;

Electrical resistance of cable / metre length = ρ = 6* 10−4 Ω/m; h= 25 W/(m2-K);

T∞ = 300C; for insulation k =0.5 W/(m-K)

Find: (a) Ts when the wire is bare; (ii) thickness of insulation for lowest value of maximum

insulation temperature; (iii) lowest value of maximum insulation temperature

Assumptions: i) one dimensional steady radial conduction (ii) the thermal conductivity of

insulation is constant (iii) by adding the insulation the outer surface temperature of the wire

will not change; (iv) the surface heat transfer coefficient for wire with and without insulation

remain same

(b) When the cable is covered with insulation: Lowest value of maximum insulatiuon

temperature occurs when the outer radius of insulation is equal to critical radius.

98

1 1

Rinsulation = --------------- ln (rc / ro) = ------------------- ln (0.02 / 0.0025) = 0.662 (m-K)/W

(2π L k) (2π * 1 * 0.5)

1 1

Rco = 1 / (hAo) = ------------------- = ------------------------------ = 0.318 (m-K) / W.

(2π rcL h) (2 * π * 0.02 * 1 * 25)

(Ts - T∞)

Q = --------------------- or Ts = T∞ + Q (Rinsulation + Rco) = 30 + 294 x (0.662 +0.318)

Rinsulation + Rco

Or Ts = 318.12 0 C.

With a 1 mm-thick plastic cover whose thermal conductivity is 0.15 W / (m-K).

Electrical measurements indicate that a current of 10 A passes through the wire and

there is a voltage drop of 8 V along the wire. If the insulated wire is exposed to a

medium at 30 0C with a heat transfer coefficient of 24 W / (m2 – K), determine the

temperature at the interface of the wire and the plastic cover in steady operation.

Also determine if doubling the thickness of the plastic cover will increase or decrease

this interface temperature.

Surface

r in contact with a fluid at T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h

Ts

rs

T∞

Ts

Rins Rco Q

Known: Outer radius of the bare wire = r s = 1 mm = 0.001 m ; Length of the wire = L = 10

m ; outer radius of plastic insulation = r = 1 + 1 = 2 mm = 0.002 m ;

Current through the wire = I = 10 A ; Voltage drop in the wire = V = 8 V ; Ambient

temperature = T∞ = 30 0C ; Thermal conductivity of the plastic cover = k = 0.15 W /(m– K) ;

Surface heat transfer coefficient = h = 24 W /(m2 – K).

99

Find: (i) Interface temperature = Ts ; (ii) Whether Ts increases or decreases when the

thickness of insulation is doubled.

Assumptions: i) one dimensional steady radial conduction (ii) the thermal conductivity of

insulation is constant (iii) by adding the insulation the outer surface temperature of the wire

will not change; (iv) the surface heat transfer coefficient for wire with and without insulation

remain same

Solution: (i) Q = VI = 8 x 10 = 80 W.

Rins = ------------ = ----------------------------- = 0.0735 K / W

2πLk 2 * π * 10 * 0.15

1 1 1

Rco = -------------- = -------------- = ------------------------------ = 0.3316 K / W

h Ao 2πLrh 2 * π * 10 * 0.002 * 24

Since rcr > r, increasing the thickness of plastic insulation will increase the heat transfer rate if

Ts is held constant or for a given heat transfer rate the interface temperature Ts will decrease

till the critical radius is reached. Now when the thickness is doubled then

r = 3 mm = 0.003 m . Therefore

ln ( 0.003 / 0.001)

Rins = ----------------------------- = 0.1166 K / W

2 * π * 10 * 0.15

1

Rco = ------------------------------ = 0.221 K / W

2 x π x 10 x 0.003 x 24

and Ts = 30 + 80 * 0.3376 = 57 0C

100

3.5.1 .Introduction: Convection: Heat transfer between a solid surface and a moving fluid is

governed by the Newton’s cooling law: Q = hA(Ts-T∞), where Ts is the surface temperature

and T∞ is the fluid temperature. Therefore, to increase the convective heat transfer, one can

• Increase the temperature difference (Ts-T∞) between the surface and the fluid.

• Increase the convection coefficient h. This can be accomplished by increasing the fluid flow

over the surface since h is a function of the flow velocity and the higher the velocity, the

higher the h. Example: a cooling fan.

• Increase the contact surface area A. Example: a heat sink with fins.

Many times, when the first option is not in our control and the second option (i.e. increasing

h) is already stretched to its limit, we are left with the only alternative of increasing the

effective surface area by using fins or extended surfaces. Fins are protrusions from the base

surface into the cooling fluid, so that the extra surface of the protrusions is also in contact

with the fluid. Most of you have encountered cooling fins on air-cooled engines

(motorcycles, portable generators, etc.), electronic equipment (CPUs), automobile radiators,

air conditioning equipment (condensers) and elsewhere.

In this section consideration will be limited to steady state analysis of rectangular or pin fins

of constant cross sectional area. Annular fins or fins involving a tapered cross section may be

analyzed by similar methods, but will involve solution of more complicated equations.

Numerical methods of integration or computer programs can be used to advantage in such

cases.

3.5.2.1.Fin equation:

The steady state Conduction Equation in three dimensions for solids of constant thermal

conducvity is given by Eq.(2.16) :

After making the assumption of One-Dimensional Conduction, this equation reduces to the

form:

This is a second order, ordinary differential equation and will require 2 boundary conditions

to evaluate the two constants of integration that will arise.

Consider the cooling fin shown in Fig. 4.1 :

Heat and Mass Transfer Prof. P

The fin is situated on the surface of a hot surface at T s and surrounded by a coolant at

temperature T , which cools with convective coefficient, h. The fin has a uniform cross

∞

sectional area, Ac, (This is the area through with heat is conducted.) and an overall length, L.

Note that as energy is conducted down the length of the fin, some portion is lost, by

convection, from the sides. Thus the heat flow varies along the length of the fin.We further

note that the arrows indicating the direction of heat flow point in both the x and y directions.

This is an indication that this is truly a two- or three-dimensional heat flow, depending on the

geometry of the fin. However, quite often, it is convenient to analyse a fin by examining an

equivalent one–dimensional system. The equivalent system

101

y

Fin attached

x to the primary surface and exposed to surroundings at T∞ with a heat transfer coe

Qfin

Primary surface at T0

Qc = hPΔx (T - T∞)

Δx

will involve the introduction of heat sinks (negative heat sources), which remove an amount

of energy equivalent to what would be lost through the sides by convection.

Consider a differential length of the fin. Across this segment the heat loss will be h(PΔx)(T-

T ), where P is the perimeter around the fin. The equivalent heat sink would be ─ q’’’Ac Δx

∞

Heat and Mass Transfer Pro

Indian Institute of Science Bangalore

Substituting this expression for q’’’ into Eq.(2.4.) we get

which is the equation for a fin with a constant cross sectional area. This is the Second Order

Differential Equation that we will solve for each fin analysis. Prior to solving, a couple of

simplifications should be noted. First, we see that h, P, k and A c are all independent of x in

102

the defined system (They may not be constant if a more general analysis is desired.). We

replace this ratio with a constant.

d2T/dx2 ─ m2 (T - T∞) = 0 ……………………….(3.50)

obtained from basic principles by writing the energy balance equation for an elemental length

of the fin as follows:

Q conv

Under steady state conditions, the energy balance equation for the fin element shown above

can be written as

Qx = Qx+dx + Qconv

For a fin of uniform cross sectional area Ax = Ac = constant. Also if the thermal conductivity

of the fin material is constant then the above equation reduces to

2

d T

– m2 (T - T∞) = 0 ……………………

d x2

(3.50)

conduction (Quasi One-dimensional Heat Transfer):

The quasi one dimensional heat transfer problems are those where heat is transferred in two

directions, but temperature changes are important only in one direction. We can examine

when temperature variation across the fin can be neglected in comparison to the temperature

variation along the length of the fin.Consider the heat transfer in y direction for the fin of

103

length L, width W and uniform thickness t. At any x ,if the rate of heat transfer in x direction

is of the same order of magnitude as the rate in y direction we have

−k Ax ( ∂T∂x ) ≈ −k Ay ( ∂T∂y )

Using first order linear approximation, the above equation can be written as

( ΔT ) y

( ΔT )x

−k t W ≈ −k L W t

L

2

( ΔT ) y t 2

Or

( ΔT ) x

≈ ()

L

For fins t is very much smaller than L; therefore, for the heat transfers to be of the same order

of magnitude ,it follows that the temperature variation in y direction must be much smaller

∂T ∂T

than the temperature variation in x direction: i.e.

∂y

≪ ( ) ( )

∂x

.

Solution to the fin equation: We notice that equation (3.50) is non-homogeneous (due to

the T∞ term). Recall that non-homogeneous differential equations require both a

homogeneous and a particular solution. We can make this equation homogeneous by

introducing the fin temperature relative to the surroundings:

Let θ ≡ T - T∞ …………………………………….(3.51)

Solution for Equation (3.53): Eq. (3.53) is a second order linear homogeneous differential

equation the general solution for which is given by

104

Generally the exponential solution is used for very long fins, the hyperbolic solutions for

other cases.

Boundary Conditions:

Since the solution results in 2 constants of integration we require 2 boundary conditions. The

first one is obvious, as one end of the fin will be attached to a hot surface and will come into

thermal equilibrium with that surface.

Hence, at the fin base (x = 0),

θ =T0 - T∞ = θ0 ……………………………..(3.56a) e

of Science

The second boundary condition depends on the condition imposed at the other end of the

fin. There are various possibilities, as described below.

Very long fins:

For very long fins, the end located a long distance from the heat source will approach the

temperature of the surroundings. Hence,

θ(∞) = 0 …………………………………(3.56b)

Substitute the second condition into the exponential solution of the fin equation:

θ(∞)= 0 = Ae m∞ + Be ─m∞

The first exponential term is infinite and the second is equal to zero. The only way that this

equation can be valid is if A = 0. Now apply the second boundary condition.

θ (0) = θ 0 =B

θ(x) = θ 0 e ─mx

…………………………. (3.57)

If we wish to find the heat flow through the fin, we may apply Fourier Law:

At any x, the rate of heat conduction is given by

Q = ─ kAc(dT/dx) = ─ kAc(dθ/dx)

All the heat dissipated by the fin to the surroundings is coming from the fin base. Hence the

rate of heat transfer from the fin to the surroundings is given by

Qfin = Q|x=0

= ─ kAc(dθ/dx)x=0 ………………(3.58)

_____

Qfin = kmAcθ0= √hpkAc θ0 ………………(3.59)

105

The fin with insulated tip:

Assume that the tip is insulated and hence there is no heat transfer at the fin tip.

Hence the boundary condition at the tip is given by

At x = L, dθ/dx = 0.

Substituting this condition and the boundary condition at x = 0 and simplifying we get the

temperature profile for this case as

cosh m(L−x )

θ(x) = θ0 ….

cosh mL

……………(3.60)

We may find the heat flow at any value of x by differentiating the temperature profile and

substituting it into the Fourier Law:

If we compare this result with that for the very long fin, we see that the primary difference in

form is in the hyperbolic tangent term. That term, which always results in a number equal to

or less than one, represents the reduced heat loss due to the shortening of the fin

Indian Institute of Science Bangalore

Other tip conditions:

We have already seen two tip conditions, one being the long fin and the other being the

insulated tip. Two other possibilities are usually considered for fin analysis: (i) a tip

subjected to convective heat transfer, and (ii) a tip with a prescribed temperature. The

expressions for temperature distribution and fin heat transfer for all the four cases are

summarized in the table below.

We have already seen two tip conditions, one being the long fin and the other being the

insulated tip. Two other possibilities are usually considered for fin analysis: (i) a tip

subjected to convective heat transfer, and (ii) a tip with a prescribed temperature. The

expressions for temperature distribution and fin heat transfer for all the four cases are

summarized in the table below.

106

Table 3.1: Expressions for Temperature distribution and rate of heat dissipation from a

fin for different tip conditions

Condition Expression for Temperature Profile Rate of Heat Transfer

cosh m(L−x )

Tip Insulated θ(x) = θ0 Qfin = kmAcθ0tanh

cosh mL

mL

θL

sinh mx+sinh m(L−x )

Temp,TL θ(x) = θ0 Qfin = kmAcθ0

sinh mL

θL

cosh mL−

θ0

sinh mL

by convection with + (he/km)sinh m(L-x)] (he/km) cosh mL]

surface heat transfer θ(x) = ----------------------------------- Qfin = kmAcθ0 ---------------------

Coefficient,he [cosh mL +(he/km)sinh mL] [cosh mL +

(he/km) cosh mL]

3.5.2.4.Performance of a fin:

“efficiency of a fin, η” given by

η = ------------------------------------------------------ = ------------ …………(3.62)

Maximum Possible heat transfer rate from fin (Qfin)max

The rate of heat transfer from the fin will be maximum when the entire fin surface is at the

fin base temperature (This means that the fin is having an infinite thermal conductivity): i.e.,

107

(Qfin)max = hPL(To - T∞) = hPLθ0 …………………....(3.63)

Fin Effectiveness: Fins are used to enhance the heat transfer, and the use of fins on a surface

cannot be recommended unless the enhancement in heat transfer justifies the added cost and

complexity associated with the fins. In fact, there is no assurance that by adding fins on a

surface, the heat transfer rate will enhance.The performance of the fin is judged on the basis

of enhancement in heat transfer relative to the no-fin case.To know how effective an

extended surface as compared to a bare primary surface is, another parameter called

effectiveness is used. It is given by

ε = --------------------------------- = -------------- = -------------- …………….(3.64)

Heat Transfer without fin Qbare hAbθ0

It should be noted that both the fin efficiency and the fin effectiveness are related

to the performance of the fin, but they are different quantities.However they are related to

each other as shown below.

Q fin η h A f θ0 Af

From Eq. (3.64) ε= = = θ

h A b θ 0 h A b θ0 Ab 0

………………(3.65)

Hence, the fin effectiveness can be determined easily when the efficiency of the fin is known,

or vice-versa.

Considerations in the design and selection of fins: The rate of heat transfer from a very

long fin of uniform cross section under steady state conditions is given by Eq.

(3.59).Substituting this expression in Eq.(3.65) we get

εlong = -------------- = ----------------- = ---------------------

hAbθ0 hAbθ0 hAb

(3.66)

ε long =

√ kP

hA

…………………

Several important conclusions can be drawn from Eq.(3.66) which helps in design and

selection of fins for various applications.

108

(i) The therml conductivity k of the fin material should be as high as possible.Hence

fins are made of materials like copper.aluminium are iron. The most widely used

material is aluminium because of its low cost and weight and its resistance to

corrosion.

(ii) The ratio of the perimeter to the cross-sectional area of the fin P/A should be as

high as possible. This criterion is satisfied by employing thin plate fins and

slender pin fins.

(iii) The use of fins is most efficient in applications involving low convection heat

transfer coefficients. Thus the use of fins is easily justified when the medium is

gas instead of a liquid and the heat transfer mechanism is by free convection

(iv) rather than by forced convection.Therfore in a liquid to gas heat exchangers like

automobile radiators, fins are placed on the gas side of the heat exchangers.

exposed to ambient air at 20 0C with a heat transfer coefficient 64 W/(m2 – K). One end of

the rod is maintained at a uniform temperature of 120 0C. Determine the rate of heat from the

rod to the ambient and the temperature of the tip of the rod exposed to ambient if (i) the rod

is very long, (ii) rod is of length 10 cm with negligible heat loss from its tip, (ii) rod is of

length 25 cm with heat loss from its tip.

x

Find: (i) Qfin if the rod is long; (ii) Qfin if L = 10 cm and negligible heat loss from the tip;

(iii)Qfin if L = 25 cm and with heat loss from the tip

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the fin; (ii)

thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

or m = (√ 50∗0.02

4∗64

) = 16 m−1

109

(ii) Rod of finite length with negligible heat loss from the tip:

For rod of finite length with negligible heat loss from the tip we have

= 23.16 W

(iii) Rod of finite length with heat loss from the tip:

When the heat loss from the rod tip is not negligible with he = h , then we can use the same

formula as in case (ii) with modified length Le given by

Hence mLe = 16 * 0.105 = 1.68 and tanh mLe = tanh 1.68 = 0.9329

Example 3.19. A thin rod of uniform cross section A, length L and thermal conductivity

k is thermally attached from its ends to two walls which are maintained at temperatures

T1 and T2. The rod is dissipating heat from its lateral surface to an ambient at

temperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.

(a) Obtain an expression for the temperature distribution along the length of the rod

(b) Also obtain an expression for the heat dissipation from the rod to the ambient

T1 k h,T∞

x T2

Known: Temperatures at the two ends of the rod, rod cross sectional area A,thermal

conductivity of the rod k, ambient temperature T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h.

110

Find: (a) Temperature distribution T(x) along the length of the rod; (b)Rate of heat

dissipation from the rod to ambient

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the fin; (ii)

thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

Solution: The general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state temperature distribution

along the length of a rod dissipating heat by convection from its lateral surface is given by

___________

where θ(x) = T(x) - T∞ ; m = √ (hP) / (kA) :

(ii) at x = L, T = T2 or θ = T2 - T∞ = θL (say).

C2 = ------------------------ .

sinh mL

θ(x) = θo cosh mx + ------------------------ sinh mx

sinh mL

0r θ(x) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------

sinh mL

0r θ(x) = -------------------------------------- ……………………………………..(2)

sinh mL

Expression for the rate of heat dissipation from the rod:

111

Qamb

x

Q|x=0

Q |x=L

L−x

From Eq. (2) we have (dθ / dx) = −m [ L

θ cosh mx+ θL cosh m ( ¿ ) ]

sinh mL

−m [ θL +θ 0 cosh mL ]

Therefore (dθ / dx)|x = 0 =

sinh mL

−m [ θL cosh mL+ θ0 ]

and (dθ / dx)|x = L =

sinh mL

Hence Qamb =

sinh mL

=

sinh mL

Example 3.20. Heat is generated at a constant rate of q’’’ W/m3 in a thin circular rod of

length L and diameter D by the passage of electric current. The two ends of the rod are

maintained at uniform temperatures with one end at temperature T0 and the other end

at 0 0 C, while heat is being dissipated from the lateral surface of the rod to an ambient

at 0 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.

(a) Derive the one-dimensional steady state energy equation to determine the

temperature distribution along the length of the rod

(b) Solve the above equation and obtain the temperature distribution.

112

00 C h,T∞

q’’’ W/m3

T = T0

x

L

Qamb

Qx Qx+dx

dx Qg

x

Known: Thin rod of diameter D and length L is generating heat at a constant rate of q’’’

W/m3;One end of the rod is maintained at 0 0C and the other end at T0; Lateral surface of the

rod is exposed to ambient at T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.

(b) Temperature distribution T(x) along the length of the rod

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the rod; (ii)

thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

Solution: Since the rod is generating heat and dissipating heat to the ambient, the governing

differential equation to determine the one-dimensional steady state temperature distribution

has to be obtained from first principles as illustrated below.

Consider an elemental length ‘dx’of the rod as shown in the figure above. The various

energies crossing the boundaries of the rod as well as the energy generated are also shown in

the figure. For steady state condition the energy balance equation for the rod element can be

written as

Qx + Qg = Qx+dx + Qamb

Or Qx + Qg = Qx + (dQx/dx) dx + Qamb

Or (dQx/dx) dx + Qamb = Qg

113

Or (d2T / dx2) – (hP / kA) (T - T∞) = ─ (q’’’ / k)

Let T - T∞ = θ and (hP / kA) = m2. then the above equation reduces to

solution can be written as

where θh(x) satisfies the homogeneous part of the differential equation namely

and θp(x) is the particular integral which satisfies Eq. (1). Solution to Eq.(3) is given by

θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e ─ mx -----------------------------(4)

To find θp(x) : Since the RHS of Eq.(1) is a constant let us assume θp(x) = B, where B is a

constant. Substituting this solution in Eq.(1) we have

0 – m2 B = ─ (q’’’ / k)

Or B = (q’’’ / km2)

(ii) at x = L, T = T0

0 = T∞ + C1 + C2 + (q’’’/ km2)

114

Or C1 e mL + C2 e ─ mL = T0 ─ T∞ ─ (q’’’/km2) ----------------------------- (b)

T0 ─ {T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{1 ─ e ─ mL }

Solving for C1 we get C1 = --------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

T0 ─ {T∞ + (q’’’/km2)}{1 ─ e ─ mL }

’’’ 2

C2 = ─{ T∞ + (q /km ) }─ --------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

C2 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

{ T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }[ ─ e mL + e ─ mL + 1 ─ e ─ mL] ─ T0

C2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

{ T∞ + (q’’’/km2) }[ 1 ─ e mL] ─ T0

C2 = ----------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Eq. (5) and simplifying we get

T(x) = T∞ + (q’’’/km2) + -------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

+ ----------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

T0(e mx - e ─ mx)

’’’ 2

T(x) = T∞ + (q /km ) + --------------------- +

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

{ e mL ─ e ─ mL }

Example 3.21. Two very long slender rods of the same diameter are given. One rod is

115

of aluminum (k = 200 W/(m-K)). The thermal conductivity of the other

rod is not known. To determine this, one end of each rod is thermally attached to a metal

surface maintained at a uniform temperature T0. Both rods are losing heat to the ambient air

at T∞ by convection with a surface heat transfer coefficient h. The surface temperature of

each rod is measured at various distances from hot base surface. The temperature of the

aluminum rod at 40 cm from the base is same as that of the rod of unknown thermal

conductivity at 20 cm from the base. Determine the unknown thermal conductivity.

Ta

xa

ka

Tb = Ta

xb

kb = ?

Known: Two slender rods A and B are of same diameter;Base temperature T0 is same for

both the rods;Conductivity of rod A = ka = 200 W/(m-K);Ambient temperature T∞ same for

both the rods. Surface heat transfer coefficient h same for both the rods; Ta = Tb with xa = 0.4

m and xb = 0.2m

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the rods; (ii)

thermal conductivity of the two rods is constant (iii)rods are assumed to be of infinite length

distribution along the length of the rod is given by

θ (x) = θ0 e ─ mx ……………………………..(1)

Or mb = 2 ma

116

Or √ [(hPb) / (kbAb)] = 2√[ (hPa) / (kaAa)]

Example 3.22. Show that for a finned surface the total heat transfer rate is given by

Qtotal = [η β + (1 – β)] a h θ0 = ή a h θ0

Where η = fin efficiency ; β= af / a : af = surface area of the fin, a = total heat transfer area

(i.e. finned surface + unfinned surface) ; θ0 = T0 - T∞, with T0 = fin base temperature and T ∞

= ambient temperature, and ή = area – weighted fin efficiency.

Solution:

Qtotal = Qfin + Qbare

Where Qtotal = Total heat transfer rate, Qfin = Heat transfer rate from the finned surface

here, β= af/a

= ha θ0 [ηβ + (1 – β)]

Example 3.23. The handle of a ladle used for pouring molten lead at 327 0 C is 30 cm long

and is made of 2.5 cm x 1.5 cm mild steel bar stock (k = 43 W/(m-K)). In order to reduce the

grip temperature, it is proposed to make a hollow handle of mild steel plate 1.5 mm thick to

the same rectangular shape. If the surface heat transfer coefficient is 14.5 W/(m 2-K) and the

ambient temperature is 27 0C, estimate the reduction in the temperature of the grip. Neglect

the heat transfer from the inner surface of the hollow shape.

Sketch for example 3.23 (a) : (a) When the handle is made of solid steel bar:

117

2.5 cm

Known: h = 14.5 W/(m2-K) ;

1.5 cm k = 43 W/(m-K)

θ0 = 327 – 27 = 300 0 C

Cross section of the handle

( hP)(1/2) √ [14.5 * 8 * 10 ─ 2]

Therefore m = ------ = -------------------------- = 8.48 (1/m)

(kA)(1/2) √[43 * 3.75 * 10 ─ 4]

When the heat loss from the tip of the handle is neglected the temperature at any point along

the length of the handle is given by

cosh m(L – x)

θ(x) = θ0 ----------------------

cosh mL

Or T(x)|x=L = 47 + 27 = 74 0 C.

Area of the cross section of the fin is

2.5 cm

A = [(2.5 * 1.5) – (2.5 – 0.3) * (1.5 – 0.3)]

= 1.11 cm 2 = 1.11 * 10 − 4 m2

1.5 cm

P = 2 * [ 2.5 + 1.5 ] = 8 cm = 8 * 10 − 2 m

_________ √(14.5 * 8 * 10 − 2)

1.5 mm thick

m = √(hP) / (kA) = ----------------------------

√( 43 * 1.11 * 10 − 4)

118

Or m = 15.59 1/m. Therefore mL = 15.59 * 0.3 = 4.68

θ0 (327 – 27)

θ(x)|x=L = -------------------- = ----------------- = 5.57 0 C.

cosh mL cosh 4.68

Example 3.24. Derive an expression for the overall heat transfer coefficient across a plane

wall of thickness ‘b’ and thermal conductivity ‘k’ having rectangular fins on both sides.

Given that over an overall area A of the wall, the bare area on both sides, not covered by the

fins are Au1 and Au2, the fin efficiencies are η1 and η2, and the heat transfer coefficients h1 and

h2.

Solution:

Let Ti be the temperature of the fluid in contact with the surface 1, T0 be the temperature of

the fluid in contact with surface 2, T1 be the temperature of surface 1 and T2 be the

temperature of surface 2.Let Ti >T0. Then the rate of heat transfer from Ti to T0 is given by

Q = Qbare + Q fin

= hiAu1 (Ti – T1) + hi η1Af1(Ti – T1)

Or Q = --------------- − -------------------

(1 /h1Au1) (1/h1η1Af1)

(Ti – T1)

Q = ------------------ ---------------- …………………………(1)

[(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) ]

(T2 – T0)

Q = ------------------ ---------------- …………………………(2)

[(1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) ]

(T1 – T2)

Q = ---------------- …………………………………………(3)

(b/Ak)

119

(Ti – T1) + (T1 – T2) + (T2 – T0)

Q = --------------------------------------------------------------------------

[(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) + (1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) +(b/Ak)]

(Ti – T0)

Q = -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ……(4)

[(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) + (1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) +(b/Ak)]

Q = UA(Ti – T0)

(Ti – T0)

= ----------------- ………………………………….(5)

(1/UA)

From Eqs. (4) and (5) we have

1

U = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A [(1 /h1Au1) + (1/h1η1Af1) + (1 /h2Au2) + (1/h2η2Af2) +(b/Ak)]

Example 3.24. Calculate the effectiveness of the composite pin fin shown in Fig.P3.22.

Assume k1 = 15 W/(m-K), k2 = 50 W/(m-K) and h = 12 W/(m2 – K).

Solution:

k1 3 mm = d1

d2 = 10 mm

x k2

Qc

K1=15 W/m-k , K2=50W/m-k,

h=12 W/(m2 –K)

Qx Qx+dx

(b) Energy transfer across the surfaces of the fin element

dx

120

Energy balance equation for the fin element is given by

Qx = Qx+dx + Qc = Qx + (dQx/dx) dx + Qc

Or dQx / dx + Qc = 0 ………………………………………..(1)

Qx consists of two components namely the heat transfer Qx1 through the material of thermal

conductivity k1 and the rate of heat transfer Qx2 through the material of conductivity k2.

hP2

2 2

(d T / dx ) − ------------------- (T – T∞) = 0

(k1A1 + k2A2)

When the heat loss from the fin tip is negligible , the solution to equation (2) is given by

θ(x) = θ0 ---------------------- ………..(3)

cosh mL

The rate of heat transfer from the fin base is given by

= ----------------------------------------------------

cosh mL

= ----------------------------------------

hP2L θ0

121

Noting that hP2 / (k1A1 + k2A2) = m2, the above expression for η simplifiers to

tanh mL

η = ------------------------ ……………………(4)

mL

P2 = π x 0.01 0.0314 m.

√ [ 12 x 0.0314]

m = ----------------------------------------------------- = 10.12

√[(15 x 7.1 x 10 − 6 ) + (50 x 7.15 x 10 − 5)]

tanh (1.012)

η = ------------------ = 0.757

1.012

Example 3.25. A plane wall 4 cm thick has one of its surfaces in contact with a

fluid at 130 0C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 250 W/(m2 – K) and the

other surface is in contact with another fluid at 30 0C with a surface heat transfer

coefficient of 500 W/(m2-K). The thermal conductivity of the wall varies with

temperature according to the law

k = 20 [ 1 + 0.001 T]

where T is the temperature. Determine the rate of heat transfer through the wall and

the surface temperatures of the wall.

Solution:

Rci = Thermal resistance for convection at the surface at Ti = 1/(hiA) = 1 / (250 x 1)

= 0.004 m2 – K /W

122

Or Rco = 0.002 m2-K/W

Now Q = (Ti – T1) / Rci, where T1 = Surface temperature in contact with fluid at Ti.

0.04

Or R = ---------------------------

[21.6 – 2 * 10 − 5Q]

Q = --------------------- = ---------------------------* --------------------------

R 0.04

For physically meaningful solution T1 should lie between Ti and To. This is possible only

If

Q = (1.41 * 10 6 − 1.39 * 10 6) / 2 = 10000 W.

Example 3.26. The thermal conductivity of a plane wall varies with temperature

according to the equation

k(T) = k0 [ 1 + β T2 ]

where k0 and β are constants.

123

(a) Develop an expression for the heat transfer through the wall per unit area of the wall

if the two surfaces are maintained at temperatures T1 and T2 and the thickness of the

wall is L.

(b) Develop a relation for the thermal resistance of the wall if the heat transfer area is A.

Solution:

K = k0 [ 1 + βT2]

T1

T2

L

L

Or Qx = − k0[1 +βT2]A(dT/dx)

L T2

∫Qxdx = − k0A ∫[1 +βT2]dT

T1

1

Or QxL = − k0A [(T2 – T1) + (β/3)(T23 – T13)]

(T1 – T2)

Qx = -------------------------------------------------------

1

---------------------------------------------------

(k0A/L) [1 + (β/3)(T12 +T1T2 + T22)]

124

Therefore thermal resistance of the wall is given by

1

R = ---------------------------------------------------

(k0A/L) [1 + (β/3)(T12 +T1T2 + T22)]

Example 3.27. Find the steady-state heat flux through the composite slab made up of two

materials as shown in Fig. P 3.26. Also find the interfacial temperature. The thermal

conductivities of the two materials vary linearly with the temperature in the following

manner:

k1 = 0.05 [1 + 0.008 T] W/m-K and k2 = 0.04 [1 + 0.0075 T] W/m-K

600 0 C 30 0 C

k1 k2

5 cm 10 cm

T3

Data:- T1 = 600 0 C ; T2 = 30 0 C ;

T2

L1 = 0.05 m ; L2 = 0.10 m ;

T1

k1 k2

k1 = 0.05 [ 1 + 0.008T ] ;

k2 = 0.04 [ 1 + 0.0075T ]

To find T3 and q

L1 L2

125

Mean thermal conductivity for the first layer is given by

= 0.17 + 2 * 10 − 4 T3 W/(m-K)

Q = ----------------------- = ---------------------------------------------

L1 0.05

Q = -------------------- = ----------------------------------------------

L2 0.10

--------------------------------------------- = ---------------------------------------------------

0.05 0.10

______________________

− 254.55 ± √ [ (254.55)2 – 4 * 373337]

Therefore T3 = --------------------------------------------------

2

________________________

− 254.55 + √ [ (254.55)2 – 4 * 373337]

T3 = ----------------------------------------------------

2

= 496.9 0 C.

126

Therefore km1 = 0.17 + 2 * 10 − 4 * 496.9 = 0.269 W / (m-K)

= ----------------------------- = 555.22 W / m2.

0.05

Example 3.28. Consider a slab of thickness L in which heat is generated at a uniform rate of

q’’’ W/m3. The two boundary surfaces are maintained at temperatures T1 and T2. The thermal

conductivity of the slab varies with temperature according to the equation

k(T) = k0 [ 1 + βT ]

where k0 and β are constants. Develop an expression for the heat flux q(x) in the slab.

Measurements show that steady-state conduction through a plane wall without heat

generation produced a convex temperature distribution such that the mid-point temperature

was ΔT0 higher than expected for a linear temperature distribution. Assuming that the

thermal conductivity has a linear dependence on temperature [k = k 0(1 + βT)], where k0 and

β are constants,develop a relationship to evaluate β in terms of ΔT0, T1 and T2.

Solution:

L

k = k0 [ 1 + βT ]

ΔT0 k = k0

T1

T2

For constant thermal conductivity k0, the temperature distribution in the wall is linear and is

given by

127

T(x) = T1 – (T1 – T2) x / L

When the thermal conductivity varies with temperature the temperature distribution in the

wall is determined as follows.

Integrating the above equation between x = 0 and any x at which the temperature is given by

T*(x) we have

x T*

∫Qxdx = ∫− k0A(1 + βT) dT

T1

1

Or Qx x = − k0A [(T* - T1) + (β/2)(T*2 – T12)] ……………(3)

Therefore

___________________________________________

T* = − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – (2km / βk0)(x / L)(T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

_____________________________________

T*|x=L/2 = − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – (km / βk0)(T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

__________________________________________________

= − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – [k0{1 + β(T1 + T2)/2}/ βk0](T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

128

_______________________________________________

= − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – [{1 + β(T1 + T2)/2}/β ](T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

Hence we have

______________________________________________

(T1 + T2)/2 +ΔT0 = − (1/β) ± √ (1/β2) – [{1 + β(T1 + T2)/2}/β ](T1 – T2) + T12 + (2 / β)T1

Example 3.29. A slab of thickness ‘L’ has its two surfaces at x=0 and x = L maintained at

uniform temperatures of T0 and TL respectively. The thermal conductivity of the slab has

spatial variation according to the law k = k 0 [1 + α x], where ko and α are constants. Obtain

expressions for (i) temperature distribution in the slab, and (ii) rate of heat transfer through

the slab assuming one dimensional steady state conduction.

Solution:

k = k0 [1 + α x]

T1 T2

The governing differential equation for one dimensional steady state conduction without

heat generation is given by

d dT

k ( )

dx dx

=0

129

d dT

(k [ 1+αx ]

dx 0 dx ) =0 …………………………..(1)

terms of the variable ‘y’ as follows.

{ [

d

dy

k0 y

dT

dy ( )

α α ]} =0

Or { [

d

dy

k0 y

dT

dy ( )

α ]} =0

[ ( )]

k0 y

dT

dy

α = C1

C1 dy

Or dT = ( )

α k0 y

C1

T= ( )

α k0

ln y + C2

C1

T= ( )

α k0

ln (1 + α x) + C2 ………………..(2)

Eq.(2) is the general solution of Eq.(1). The values of C1 and C2 can be obtained from the two

boundary conditions at x = 0 and at x = L as follows.

C1

Condition (ii) in Eq. (2) gives T2 = ( )

α k0

ln (1 + α L) + T1

130

α k0

Or C1 = (T2 – T1) .

ln (1+ αL )

Substituing the values of C1and C2 in Eq.(2) we get the temperature distribution as:

ln ( 1+αx )

T(x) = (T2 – T1) + T1

ln (1+ αL )

A (T2 – T1) α 1

= − [k0 (1 + α x)] ------------------- x -----------------

ln(1 + α L) (1 + α x)

k0 α A (T1 – T2)

Or Qx = -----------------------------

ln(1 + α L)

Example 3.30. If in the above problem the thermal conductivity varies with distance

according to the law

K = k0 [1 + α x2]

Obtain expressions for (i) the temperature distribution T(x) and (ii) the rate of heat transfer.

Solution:

131

L

k = k0 [1 + α x 2]

T1 T2

The governing differential equation for one dimensional steady state conduction without heat

generation is given by

√α = sec 2 y (dy/dx)

√α

2

or (dy/dx) = √α / sec y = ------------------- .

[ 1 + α x2 ]

Or d/ dy [k0 √α (dT/dy)] = 0.

132

Or dT = [C1 /( k0 √α)] dy.

[T2 – T1]k0 √α

Or C1 = ------------------

tan −1(√α L)

tan −1 (√α x)

T(x) = [T2 – T1] -----------------

tan −1 (√α L)

Qx = − k0 [1 + α x2] A (dT/dx)

√α

2

= − k0 [1 + α x ] A [T2 – T1] ---------------------------

[1 + α x2] tan −1 (√α L)

k0 A √α [T1 – T2]

Or Qx = -------------------------------

tan −1 (√α L)

Example 3.31. A hollow cylinder has its internal surface at radius r 1 maintained at a

uniform temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform

temperature T2. The thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius

according to the law k = k0 [1 + α r], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for (i)

radial temperature distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the

cylinder. Assume one-dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Example 3.32. A hollow cylinder has its internal surface at radius r 1 maintained at a

uniform temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform

temperature T2. The thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius

according to the law k = k0 [1 + α r2], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for

133

(i) radial temperature distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the

cylinder. Assume one-dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Example 3.33. A hollow sphere has its internal surface at radius r1 maintained at a uniform

temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform temperature T2. The

thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius according to the law k

= k0 [1 + α r], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for (i) radial temperature

distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the cylinder. Assume one-

dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Example 3.34. A hollow sphere has its internal surface at radius r1 maintained at a uniform

temperature T1 and external surface at radius r2 maintained at a uniform temperature T2. The

thermal conductivity of the material of the cylinder varies with radius according to the law k

= k0 [1 + α r2], where k0 and α are constants. Derive expressions for (i) radial temperature

distribution in the cylinder and (ii) rate of heat transfer through the cylinder. Assume one-

dimensional radial steady state conduction in the cylinder.

Chapter 4

Transient Conduction

4.1.Introduction:- In general, the temperature of a body varies with time as well as

position.In chapter 3 we have discussed conduction in solids under steady state conditions for

which the temperature at any location in the body do not vary with time. But there are many

practical situations where in the surface temperature of the body is suddenly altered or the

surface may be subjected to a prescribed heat flux all of a sudden. Under such circumstances

the temperature at any location within the body varies with time until steady state conditions

are reached. In this chapter, we take into account the variation of temperature with time as

well as with position.However there are many practical applications where in the temperature

variation with respect to the location in the body at any instant of time is negligible. The

134

analysis of such heat transfer problems is called the “lumped system analysis”. Therefore in

lumped system analysis we assume that the temperature of the body is a function of time

only.

4.2. Lumped system analysis:- Consider a solid of volume V, surface area A, density ρ,

Specific heat Cp and thermal conductivity k be initially at a uniform temperature Ti.Suddenly

let the body be immersed in a fluid which is maintained at a uniform temperature T∞, which

is different from Ti.The problem is illustrated in Fig.4.1.Now if

T∞ with surface heat transfer

Coefficient h

V = volume

A=surface area

ρ = density

Cp = specific heat

k = conductivity

Conduction heat transfer

T(t) is the temperature of the solid at any time t, then the energy balance equation for the

solid at time t can be written as

Rate of increase of energy of the solid = Rate of heat transfer from the fluid to the solid

hA

Or ( dTdt ) =

ρV C p

[T∞ − T(t)]

135

hA

For convenience, a new temperature θ(t) = T(t) - T∞ is defined and denoting m =

ρV C p

the above equation can be written as

(4.1)

Eq.(4.1) is a first order linear differential equation and can be solved by separating the

variables. Thus

dθ

= − m dt

θ

Or θ = C e – mt …………………………………...(4.2)

get

C = θi.

Substituting this value of C in eq. (4.2) we get the temperature θ(t) as follows.

θ(t) = θi e − mt

θ (t)

or = e – mt ………………………………

θi

(4.3)

Since LHS of Eq.(4.3) is dimensionless, it follows that 1/m has the dimension of time and is

called the time constant.Fig. 4.2 shows the plot of Eq.(4.3) for different values of m. Two

observations can be made from this figure and Eq. (4.3).

1.Eq. (4.3) can be used to determine the temperature T(t) of the solid at any time t or to

determine the time required by the solid to reach a specified temperature.

2.The plot shows that as the value of m increases the solid approaches the surroundings

temperature in a shorter time.That is any increase in m will cause the solid to

respond more quickly to approach the surroundings temperature.

136

1.0

θi

t

Fig.4.2: Dimensionless temperature as a function of time for a

solid with negligible internal temperature gradients

The definition of m reveals that increasing the surface area for a given volume and the heat

transfer coefficient will increase m. Increasing the density, specific heat or volume decreases

m.

temperature gradient of the solid so that lumped system analysis becomes applicable, a

Characteristic length Ls is defined as

Ls = V /A ………………………………(4.4)

h Ls

Bi = ……………………………..

k

(4.5)

For solids like slabs, infinite cylinder, and sphere, it has been found that the error by

neglecting internal temperature gradients is less than 5 %, if

The physical significance of Biot number can be understood better by writing the expression

for Biot number as follows

Bi = ------ = -------------- = -------------------------------------------

k ( 1 / hA) Thermal resistance for convection

137

Hence a very low value of Biot number indicates that resistance for heat transfer by

conduction within the solid is much less than that for heat transfer by convection and

therefore a small temperature gradient within the body could be neglected.

Example 4.1. A copper cylinder 10 cm diameter and 15 cm long is removed from a liquid

nitrogen bath at ─ 196 0 C and exposed to room temperature at 30 0 C. Neglecting internal

temperature gradients find the time taken by the cylinder to attain a temperature of 0 0C,

with the following assumptions: Surface heat transfer coefficient = 30 W / m2 – K.

Density of the copper cylinder = 8800 kg / m3.Specific heat of the cylinder = 0.38 kJ/(kg-K)

Thermal conductivity of the cylinder = 350 W / (m-K).

D = 10 cm or R = 0.05 m; L = 0.15 m

T∞ D h = 30 W/(m2 – K); k = 350 W / (m-K) ;

h T(t) = 0

Assumptions: (i)Internal temperature gradients are negligible; (ii) solid properties are

constant

Solution: Biot Number = hR / k = 30 x 0.05 / 350 = 0.0043 which is << 0.1. Hence internal

In that case we have

θ(t) = T(t) – Ti = θ0 e −(hA/ρVcp) t, where θ0 = Ti − T∞

(hA/ρVcp) = ------------------- = ----------- = ------------------------------------------

πR2L ρcp ρcpRL 8800 x 0.38 x 1000 x 0.05x 0.15

= 4.785 x 10 − 4 1/s

T(t) − T∞

Now ------------------ = e − (hA/ρVcp) t

138

Ti – T∞

0 − 30

Hence ------------------- = exp (− 4.785 x 10 − 4 x t)

− 196 – 30

Example 4.2: A thin copper wire having a diameter D and length L (insulated at

the ends) is initially at a uniform temperature of T0. Suddenly it is exposed to a gas

stream, the temperature of which changes with time according to the equation

T∞ = Tf (1 ─ e─ ct) + T0

where Tf, T0 and c are constants. The surface heat transfer coefficient is h. Obtain an

expression for the temperature of the wire as a function of time t.

h,T∞

T(0) = T0

L

Known: Rod of diameter D and length L, initially at T0, is suddenly exposed to en

environment whose temperature varies with time according to the law T∞ = Tf (1 ─ e─ ct) + T0,

where Tf, T0 and c are constant

Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible; (ii) Thermal

properties of the rod are constant

Solution: Let T(t) be the temperature of the cylinder at any time t. Energy balance for the

cylinder for a time interval dt is given by

where dT is the increase in temperature of the cylinder in time dt.

dT

Or = (hA/ρVCp) [T∞ - T(t)]

dt

139

Putting m = (hA/ρVCp), the above equation reduces to

dT

+ m T(t) = m T∞

dt

dT

+ m T(t) = m [T0 + Tf (1 – e - ct)]

dt

dT

or + m [T(t) – T0] = mTf (1 – e – ct )

dt

dθ

+ m θ (t) = mTf (1 – e – ct ) ………………………

dt

(1).

dy

This equation is of the form + Py = Q, which is solved by multiplying throughout by

dx

an integrating factor and then integrating. For equation (1) the integrating factor is

d

or (emtθ) = mTf [ e mt – e (m – c)t]

dt

m

or θ(t) = Tf − Tf e − ct + C1e − mt …………………(2)

( m−c )

When t = 0 , T(0) = T0 i.e., θ(0) = 0. Substituting this condition in equation (2) we get

m

or 0 = Tf − Tf + C1

( m−c )

140

c

Or C1 = ( ( m−c ))

Tf.

Substituting this expression for C1 in equation (2) we get the temperature of the cylinder as

m c

θ(t) = Tf − Tf e − ct + Tf e − mt

( m−c ) ( m−c )

m c

Or T(t) – T0 = Tf [ 1 − e − ct + e − mt]

( m−c ) ( m−c )

instant of time (t >0), the sphere is suddenly exposed to the surroundings at a temperature T f

and the surface heat transfer coefficient, ‘h’. In addition from the same instant of time, heat is

generated within the sphere at a uniform rate of q ’’’ units per unit volume. Neglecting internal

temperature gradients, derive an expression for the temperature of sphere as a function of

time

T(0) = T0

R

h,Tf

Known: Solid sphere of radius R is initiallt at temperature T0; Suddenly at time t = o the

sphere is generating heat at q’’’ W/m3 and simultaneously the sphere is losing heat to the

ambient at Tf with a surface heat transfer coefficient h.

141

Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible; (ii) Thermal

properties of the rod are constant

Solution:Energy balance equation for the sphere at any time t can be written as

Or ( dTdt ) + (3h/ ρRCp)[T(t) – Tf] = (q′′′ /ρCp)

( dθdt ) + mθ = q0 ………………………………..(1)

d

or (θemt) = q0emt

dt

get C1 = (T0 – Tf) – (q0 / m). Therefore the temperature in the sphere as a function of time is

given by

where (q0 / m) =

ρC p

* = (q′′′ R / 3h)

3h

142

Example 4.4: A solid steel ball (ρ =8000 kg/m3 ; cp = 0.42 kJ/kg-K) 5 cm in diameter is at a

uniform temperature of 450 0 C. It is quenched in a controlled environment which is initially

at 90 0C and whose temperature increases linearly with time at the rate of 10 0C per minute.

If the surface heat transfer coefficient is 58 W/(m2-K), determine the variation of the

temperature of the ball with time neglecting internal temperature gradients. Find the value of

the minimum temperature to which the ball cools and the time taken to reach this minimum

temperature.

T(0) = Ti

h,Tf

dTf

at t = 0, Tf = 90 0C; ( )

dt

= 10 0C / min = (1/6) 0 C / s

the solid is a function of time only; (ii) Thermal properties of the ball are constant

dTf

Therefore a = 90 0 C and b = ( )

dt

= (1/6) 0 C / s.

Or Tf = 90 + t / 6 , t in seconds ……………….(1)

Energy balance equation for the sphere at any time t can be written as

hA

Or

dT

( )

dt

= ( ρV C p ) [Tf(t) – T(t)]

143

Letting m = ( ρVhAC )

p

the above equation can be written as

d

or (T e mt) = m [90 + t / 6 ] e mt

dt

(T e mt) = m ∫[90 + t / 6 ] e mt dt + C1

Or T(t) = m e − mt ∫[90 + t / 6 ] e mt dt + C1 e − mt

When t = 0 , T(t) = Ti. Substituting this condition in the above equation and solving for C1 we

get

C1 = [Ti – 90 + 1 / 6m]

144

(360 m + 1/6) e − mt = 1/6

Or e mt = (2160 m + 1) -----------(4)

4 π R2 h

Now m = ( hA

ρV C p

2.07 x 10 − 3. …(5)

) =

( ρG p()4

3

π R3 ) =

3h

ρC pR

=

3∗58

8000∗0.025∗0.42∗10

3 =

T(t)=9.4857 + (230.5152)*(0.9979)t

d2T

Now from the above expression for T(t), > 0.

d t2

mt = 1.7

Or t = 1.7 / m = 1.7 / (2.07 x 10 − 3) = 821 s = 13.7 min

Example 4.5: A house hold electric iron has a steel base [ρ =7840 kg/m3 ; cp = 450 J/(kg-

K) ;k = 70 W/(m-K)] which weighs 1 kg. The base has an ironing surface area of 0.025 m2

and is heated from the other surface with a 250 W heating element. Initially the iron is at a

uniform temperature of 20 0 C with a heat transfer coefficient of 50 W/(m2-K). (a) Determine

the temperature of the plate 300 seconds after the heater switch is on .(b) What would be the

equilibrium temperature of the iron if the control of the iron box did not switch of the

current?

145

Q

Qc h ,T∞

A

Assumptions: (i) Internal temperature gradients for the rod is negligible; (ii) Thermal

properties of the iron are constant

1.275 x 10 − 4

L = V / A = ------------------ = 0.005 m

0.025

50 x 0.005

Bi = (hL / k) = -------------------- = 0.00364

70

Since Bi < 0.1, it can be assumed that temperature gradients within the plate are negligible.

Hence the temperature of the plate depends only on time till steady state condition is reached.

Energy balance at any time t for the plate can be written as

Q − Qc = ρVCp ( dTdt )

Or Q – hA(T - T∞) = ρVCp ( dTdt )

Or ( dTdt ) + m(T - T∞) = (Q / ρVCp) ……………………………..(1)

146

( dθdt ) + m θ = (Q / ρVCp)

Multiplying the above equation by the integrating factor e mt,( e∫mdt=emt) we get

d

Or (θe mt) = (Q / ρVCp) emt

dt

When t = 0, T = Ti or θ = Ti - T∞ = 20 – 20 = 0 0 C.

0 = (Q / ρVCpm) + C1 or C1 = − (Q / ρVCpm)

θ = (Q / ρVCpm) [ 1 − e − mt ]

θ = (Q / hA) [ 1 − e − mt ] …………………………………..(3)

Q 250 50∗0.025

hA

=

50∗0.025

= 200 ; m = 1∗450

= 2.8 * 10 − 3

Or T = 113.7 + 20 = 133.7 0 C.

(b) When the control switch is not switched off and the iron is left in the ambient, steady state

condition will be attained as t tends to ∞ so that the heat transferred to the base plate will be

convected to the ambient. i.e., Q = Qconvection

Or T = 220 0 C.

147

This answer can also be obtained by putting t = ∞ in equation (3) and solving for T.

4.3 One-dimensional Transient Conduction ( Use of Heissler’s Charts): There are many

situations where we cannot neglect internal temperature gradients in a solid while analyzing

transient conduction problems. Then we have to determine the temperature distribution

within the solid as a function of position and time and the analysis becomes more complex.

However the problem of one-dimensional transient conduction in solids without heat

generation can be solved readily using the method of separation of variables.The analysis is

illustrated for solids subjected to convective boundary conditions and the solutions were

presented in the form of transient – temperature charts by Heissler. These charts are now

familiarly known as “Heissler’s charts”.

2L, which is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. Suudenly let the solid be exposed to an

environment which is maintained at a uniform temperature of T ∞ with a surface heat transfer

coefficient of h for time t > 0.Fig.4.3 shows the geometry , the coordinates and the boundary

conditions for the problem. Because of symmetry in the problem with respect to the centre

of the slab the ‘x’ coordinate is measured from the centre line of the slab as shown in the

figure.

2L

Surfaces exposed to a fluid at T∞ with heat transfer coefficient h for time t ≥ 0

T = Ti at t =

T = T(x,t)

x

Fig.4.3: Geometry, coordinates and boundary conditions for one dimensional tr

conduction in a slab

148

2

∂T ∂T

Governing differential equation: = (1/α)

∂x

2

∂t

………………………..(4.7a)

(4.7d)

It is more convenient to analyze the problem by using the variable θ(x,t), where

θ(x,t) = T(x,t) - T∞. Then equations (4.7a) to (4.7d) reduce to the following forms:

∂2 θ ∂θ

= (1/α)

∂ x2 ∂t

………………………..(4.8a)

∂θ

(i) at x = 0, = 0 for all t > 0 (axis of symmetry) …………………………..

∂x

(4.8c)

(4.8d)

d2 X

Y ( )

d x2

= (X/α) ( dYdt )

Or

149

2

( )

1 d X

X d x2

=

1

Yα ( dYdt )

…………………….(4.10)

LHS of Eq. (4.10) is a function of x only and the RHS of Eq. (4.10) is a function of t

only.They can be equal only to a constant say − λ2.(The reason to choose the negative sign is

to get a physically meaningful solution as explained later in this section).Hence we have two

equations namely

with C1, C2 and D are constants of integration. Substituting these solutions in Eq.(4.9) we

have

θ(x,t) = D exp (− αλ2t) [C1 cos (λx) + C2 sin (λx)]

Eq.(4.15) is the general solution involving the constants A1, A2 and λ which can be

determined using the two boundary conditions and the initial condition as illustrated below.

∂θ

Now from Eq. (4.15), = λ exp (− αλ2t) [ −A1 sin (λx) + A2 cos (λx)]

∂x

Substituting boundary condition (i) we have 0 = λ exp (− αλ2t) [0 + A2] for all t.

∂θ

and = λ exp (− αλ2t) [ −A1 sin (λx) ]

∂x

150

k λ A1 exp (− αλ2t) sin (λL) = h A1 exp (− αλ2t) cos (λL)

where Bi = hL / k.

Equation (4.17) is called the “characteristic equation” and has infinite number of roots

namely λ1, λ2, λ3, ..............Corresponding to each value of λ we have one solution and hence

there are infinite number of solutions. Sum of all these solutions will also be a solution as the

differential equation is linear. Therefore the solution θ(x,t) can be written as follows.

To find An:- The constants An in Eq. (4.18) can be found using the orthogonal property of

trigonometric functions as shown below.Substituting the initial condition we have

θi = ∑ An cos (λnx)

Multiplying both sides of Eq.(4.18) by cos λmx and integrating w.r.t ‘x’ between the limits 0

and L we have L L

∫ θi cos (λmx) dx = ∫ ∑ An cos (λmx) cos (λnx) dx

1 1

∫ An cos (λmx) cos (λnx) dx = 0 for λn ≠ λm

The above equation reduce to

L L

∫ θi cos (λnx) dx = ∫ An cos 2(λnx) dx

0

1

L

θi 0 ∫cos (λnx) dx

Or An = ---- L-------------------

∫ cos 2 (λnx)dx

0

θ(x,t)

----- = ∑ (An* exp (− λn* 2 Fo) cos (λn* x / L) ………………………………(4.19)

θi

4.3.2.Heissler’s Charts for transient conduction:- For values of Fo > 0.2 the above series

solution converges rapidly and the solution will be accurate within 5 % if only the first term

in the series is used to determine the temperature. In that case the solution reduces to

151

θ(x,t)

----- = A1* exp (− λ1* 2 Fo) cos (λ1* x /L) ………………………………(4.20)

θi

From the above equation the dimensionless temperature at the centre of the slab (x =0) can be

written as

θ(0,t)

----- = A1* exp (− λ1* 2 Fo) ………………………………….(4.21)

θi

The values of A1* and λ1* for different values of Bi are presented in the form of a table (See

Table 4.1). These values are evaluated using one term approximation of the series solution.

Table 4.1: Coefficients used in one term approximate solution of transient one dimensional heat

conduction in plane walls, cylinders, and spheres (Bi = hL/k for a plane wall of thickness 2L, and Bi =

hro/k for a cylinder or sphere of outer radius r0)

Cylinder

λ1* A1* λ1* A 1* λ1* A 1*

0.01 0.099 1.001 0.1412 1.0025 0.173 1.003

8 7 0 0

0.02 0.141 1.003 0.1995 1.0050 0.244 1.006

0 3 5 0

0.04 0.198 1.006 0.2814 1.0099 0.345 1.012

7 6 0 0

0.06 0.242 1.009 0.3438 1.0148 0.421 1.017

5 8 7 9

0.08 0.279 1.013 0.3960 1.0197 0.486 1.023

1 0 0 9

0.10 0.3111 1.016 0.4417 1.0246 0.542 1.029

1 3 8

0.20 0.432 1.0311 0.6170 1.0483 0.759 1.059

8 3 2

0.30 0.521 1.045 0.7465 1.0712 0.920 1.088

8 0 8 0

0.40 0.593 1.058 0.8516 1.0931 1.052 1.1164

2 0 8

0.50 0.653 1.070 0.9408 1.1143 1.165 1.144

3 1 6 1

0.60 0.705 1.081 1.0184 1.1345 1.264 1.171

1 4 4 3

0.70 0.750 1.091 1.0873 1.1539 1.352 1.197

6 8 5 8

0.80 0.701 1.101 1.1490 1.1724 1.432 1.223

0 6 0 6

0.90 0.827 1.1107 1.2048 1.1902 1.504 1.248

4 4 8

1.00 0.860 1.1191 1.2558 1.2071 1.570 1.273

3 8 2

152

2.00 1.076 1.178 1.5995 1.3384 2.028 1.479

9 5 8 3

3.00 1.192 1.210 1.7887 1.4191 2.288 1.622

5 2 9 7

4.00 1.264 1.228 1.9081 1.4698 2.455 1.720

6 7 6 2

5.00 1.313 1.240 1.9898 1.5029 2.570 1.787

8 3 4 0

6.00 1.349 1.247 2.0490 1.5253 2.653 1.833

6 9 7 8

7.00 1.376 1.253 2.0937 1.5411 2.716 1.867

6 2 5 3

8.00 1.397 1.257 2.1286 1.5526 2.765 1.892

8 0 4 0

9.00 1.414 1.259 2.1566 1.5611 2.804 1.910

9 8 4 6

10.0 1.428 1.262 2.1795 1.5677 2.836 1.924

9 0 3 9

20.0 1.496 1.269 2.2880 1.5919 2.985 1.978

1 9 7 1

30.0 1.520 1.271 2.3261 1.5973 3.037 1.989

2 7 2 8

40.0 1.532 1.272 2.3455 1.5993 3.063 1.994

5 3 2 2

50.0 1.540 1.272 2.3572 1.6002 3.078 1.996

0 7 8 2

100. 1.555 1.273 2.3809 1.6015 3.1102 1.999

0 2 1 0

∞ 1.570 1.273 2.4048 1.6021 3.141 2.000

8 2 6 0

It can also be concluded from Eq.(4.20) at any time ‘t’ the ratio θ(x,t) / θ(0,t) will be

independent of temperature and is given by

θ(x,t)

------ = cos (λ1* x /L) ……………………………………(4.22)

θ(0,t)

Heissler has represented Eq. (4.21) and (4.22) in the form of charts and these charts are

normally referred to as Heissler’s charts. Eq. (4.21) is plotted as Fourier number Fo versus

dimensionless centre temperature θ(0,t) / θi using [Fig.4.4(b)].

reciprocal of Biot number1 / Bi as the parameter [Fig.4.4(a)], where as Eq. (4.22) is plotted

as θ(x,t) / θ(0,t) versus reciprocal of Biot number using the dimensionless distance x / L as

the parameter.In Fig.[4.4(a)], the curve for 1/Bi = 0 corresponds to the case

h → ∞, or the outer surfaces of the slab are maintained at the ambient temperature T∞. For

large values of 1 / Bi, the Biot number is small, or the internal conductance is large in

comparison with the surface heat transfer coefficient. This in turn, implies that the

temperature distribution within the solid is sufficiently uniform and hence lumped system

analysis becomes applicable.

Fig. (4.5) shows the dimensionless heat transferred Q / Q 0 as a function of

dimensionless time for different values of the Biot number for a slab of thickness 2L. Here Q

153

represents the total amount of thermal energy which is lost by the slab up to any time t during

the transient conduction heat transfer. The quantity Q0, defined as

represents the initial thermal energy of the slab relative to the ambient temperature.

transient-temperature distribution and the heat transfer results for infinite cylinder and

sphere can also be represented in the form of charts as in the case of slab. For infinite

cylinder and sphere the radius of the outer surface R is used as the characteristic length so

that the Biot number is defined as Bi = hR / k and the dimensionless distance from the centre

is r/R where r is any radius (0 ≤ r ≤ R).These charts are illustrated in Figs. (4.6) to (4.9).

transient temperature charts for slabs, infinite cylinders and spheres is illustrated in the

following examples.

Example 4.6: A brick wall ( α = 0.5 x 10 ─ 6 m2/s, k = 0.69 W/(m-K) and ρ = 2300 kg/m 3 ) of

10 cm thick is initially at a uniform temperature of 230 0 C. The wall is suddenly exposd to a

convective environment at 30 0 C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 60 W/(m 2-K).

Using the transient-temperature charts, determine

(a) the centre temperature at ½ hour and 2 hours after the exposure to the cooler

ambient,

(c) energy removed from the wall per m2 during ½ hour and during 2 hours.

(d) What would be the time taken for the surface of the wall to reach a

temperature of 40 0C.

2L

154

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is

constant

60 x 0.05

Bi = hL / k = --------------- = 4.35.

0.69

Since Bi > 0.1, internal temperature gradients cannot be neglected. i.e. T = T(x,t)

( 0.5 x 10 − 6 x 1800)

1/ Bi = 1 / 4.35 = 0.23 ; Fo = (αt / L2) = -------------------------- = 0.36

0.052

(T0 - T∞)

θ0 = --------------- = 0.8 (T0 = Centre temperature of the slab)

(Ti - T∞)

=190 0 C.

(0.5 x 10 − 6 x 7200)

(ii) when t = 2 h = 7200 s we have Fo = ---------------------------- = 1.44.

(0.052)

(T0 – T∞)

From chart, -------------- = 0.125.

(Ti – T∞)

(T|x=L – T∞)

Hence from the chart ---------------- = 0.275

(T0 – T∞)

= 74 0 C.

155

(ii) t = 7200 s. Hence T|x=L = T∞ + 0.275 (T0 – T∞) = 30 + 0.275 x (55 – 30)

= 36.9 0 C.

(c) (i) Bi2 Fo = 4.35 2 x 0.36 = 6.81; From chart Qremoved / Qmax = 0.50 .

0.69 x 1 x 0.1

Qmax = ρCpV(Ti – T∞) = (k / α)V(Ti – T∞) = ------------------- x (230 – 30)

0.5 x 10 − 6

= 27.6 x 10 6 = 27.6 MJ / m

------- = ---------------- = 0.05

θi (230 – 30)

Now for x / L = 1.0 and 1 / Bi = 0.23 from the chart the ratio of surface temperature

difference to the centre temperature difference can be read as

From the chart corresponding to this value of θ (0,t) / θi and 1 / Bi = 0.23, the Fourier

number can be read as

initially at 200 0 C. Suddenly it is immersed in water at a temperature of 20 0 C. Assuming

the heat transfer coefficient to be 200 W/(m2-K), determine (a) the centre and the surface

temperatures after 10 minutes have elapsed, and (b) the energy removed from the cylinder

during this 10 minute period.

156

T∞,h

R Ti

Find: (a) T/r=0 and T/r = R after t = 10 min; (b) Qremoved during 10 minute period

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thrmal conductivity of the solid is

constant

(1.39 x 10 − 5 x 600)

2

1/Bi = 1 / 0.1 = 10 ; Fo = (αt / R ) = ------------------------

0.0252

(T0 – T∞)

-------------------- = 0.08 ; Hence T0 = T∞ + 0.08 (Ti - T∞)

(Ti – T∞)

= 34.4 0 C.

(T|r=R – T∞)

r / R = 1.0 ; 1 / Bi = 0.1 ; From chart -------------- = 0.13

(T0 – T∞)

157

From energy chart for the infinite cylinder, Q / Qmax = 0.875

Suddenly it is placed in a refrigerator in which the air temperature is 2 0 C. If the surface

heat transfer coefficient is 50 W/(m2-K), determine the time required for the centre of the

orange to reach 10 0 C. Assume for the orange α = 1.4 x 10 ─ 7 m2/s and k = 0.59 W/(m-K).

Known: R = 0.05 m ; Ti = 30 0 C ; T∞ = 2 0 C ; T0 = 10 0 C ;

α =1.4 x10−7 m2/s

radial conduction; (iii) Orange properties are constant.

Solution:

Now ----------- = θ0 = ---------- = 0.286

(Ti – T∞) (30 – 2 )

(0.3 x 0.05 2)

Therefore t = ------------------ = 5357 s = 1.5 h

(1.4 x 10 − 7)

158

Solution using Tables: For the given problem we have

(T0 – T∞)

Therefore -------------- = 0.286 = 1.7362 exp[− λ12Fo]

(Ti – T∞)

0.2925∗R2 0.2925∗0.052

Or t= = = 5223 s = 1 h 27 min.

α 1.45∗10−7

body that has a single plane surface and extends to infinity in all directions.The transient

conduction problems in semi-infinite solids have numerous practical applications in

engineering. Consider, for example, temperature transients in a slab of finite but large

thickness, initiated by a sudden change in the thermal condition at the boundary surface. In

the initial stages, the temperature transients near the boundary surface behave similar to those

of semi-infinite medium, because some time is required for the heat to penetrate the slab

before the other boundary condition begins to influence the transients.The earth for example,

can be considered as a semi-infinite solid in determining the variation of its temperature near

its surface

Consider a semi-infinite solid with constant thermo physical properties, without any

internal heat generation and uniform thermal conditions on its exposed surface.Let the solid

initially be at a uniform temperature T i. Heat transfer in this case occurs only in the direction

normal to the surface (x-direction) and thus it is one dimensional. The depth of the solid is

very large (x → ∞) compared to the depth upto which heat can penetrate and these

phenomena can be expressed mathematically as a boundary condition as T(x→∞,t) = T i. Heat

conduction in a semi-infinite solid is governed by the thermal condition imposed on the

exposed surface , and thus the solution depends strongly on the boundary condition at x = 0

We come across basically three types of boundary conditions while

analyzing the problem of one-dimensional transient conduction in semi-infinite solids.These

three problems are as follows:

Problem 1:- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature Ti and suddenly at time t>0

the boundary-surface temperature of the solid is changed to and maintained at a uniform

temperature T0 which may be greater or less than the initial temperature Ti.

159

Problem 2:- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature Ti and suddenly at time t>0 the

boundary surface of the solid is subjected to a uniform heat flux of q0 W/m2.

Problem 3:- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly at time t>0 the

boundary surface is exposed to an ambience at a uniform temperature T ∞ with the surface

heat transfer coefficient h. T∞ may be higher or lower than Ti.

Solution to Problem 1:- The schematic for problem 1 is shown in Fig. 4.10. The

mathematical formulation of the problem to determine the unsteady temperature distribution

in an infinite solid T(x,t) is as follows:

The governing differential equation [Eq. 4.7(a)] is

2

∂T ∂T

= (1/α) ……………………

∂x

2

∂t

4.7(a)

It is convenient to solve the above problem in terms of the variable θ(x,t), where θ(x,t) is

defined as

T ( x , t )−T ∞

θ(x,t) =

T i −T ∞

……………………..4.25

The governing differential equation in terms of θ(x,t) will be

0

x

Fig. 4.10: Semi-infinite solid with specified surface temperature T0 for t > 0

160

The initial condition will be at time t = 0, θ(x,0) = Ti − T∞ …………………….4.26(b)

This problem has been solved analytically and the solution θ(x,t) is represented graphically

as θ(x,t) as a function of the dimensionless variable x / [2√(αt)] as shown in Fig. 4.11.

In engineering applications, the heat flux at the boundary surface x = 0 is also

of interest. The analytical expression for heat flux at the surface is given by

k(T0 – Ti)

qs(t) = -------------- ……………………..4.27

√(παt)

Solution to problem 2:- The schematic for this problem is shown in Fig. 4.11.

T(x,t) = Ti at t = 0

q0 W/m2

for t > 0 x

Fig. 4.11: An infinite solid subjected to a constant heat flux at x = 0 for t > 0

Governing differential equation in terms of T(x,t) and the initial condition are same that for

problem 1[i.e. equations 4.26(a) and 4.26(b)].

2q0

T(x, t) = Ti + ------ (αt) ½ [ (1 / √π) exp (− ξ2) + ξ erf (ξ) − ξ ] …………………..(4.28 a)

k

___ 2 ξ

161

where ξ = x / (2√ αt ) and erf (ξ) = ------- ∫ exp (− y2) dy ……………………...(4.28b)

√π 0

Here erf (ξ) is called the “error function” of argument ξ and its values for different values of

ξ are tabulated.

Solution to Problem 3 :- The solid is initially at a uniform temperature T i and suddenly for t

>0 the surface at x = 0 is brought in contact with a fluid at a uniform temperature T ∞ with a

surface heat transfer coefficient h [see Fig. 4.12]. For this problem the solution is represented

in the form of a plot where the dimensionless temperature [1 − θ(x,t)] is plottedagainst

dimensionless distance x / √(αt), using h√(αt) / k as the parameter. It can be noted that the

case h → ∞ is equivalent to the boundary surface ay x = 0 maintained at a constant

temperature T∞.

0

x

Fig. 4.12: Semi-infinite solid with surface at x = 0 is subjected to convective heat transfer coefficien

Example 4.9:-A thick stainless steel slab [α = 1.6 x 10 ─ 5 m2/s and k = 61 W/(m-K)] is

initially at a uniform temperature of 150 0 C. Its surface temperature is suddenly lowered to

20 0 C. By treating this as a one-dimensional transient conduction problem in a semi-infinite

medium, determine the temperature at a depth 2 cm from the surface and the heat flux 1

minute after the surface temperature is lowered

162

Sketch for example 4.9:

0

x

m2 / s ; k = 61 W/(m – K) ; x =

0.02 m ;t = 1 min

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal properties of the solid is constant

Solution: (i)

x 0.02

ξ = -------------- = --------------------------------- = 0.323

2 √ (αt) 2 x √ ( 1.6 x 10 − 5 x 60)

T(x,t) – T0

From chart, --------------------- = 0.35

Ti – T0

(ii)

qs(t) = --------------------- = ------------------------------ = − 435.5 W / m2

√ (παt) √ (π x 1.6 x 10 − 5 x 60)

163

Example 4.10:- A semi-infinite slab of copper (α = 1.1 x 10 ─ 4 m2/s and k = 380 W/(m-K) is

initially at a uniform temperature of 10 0 C. Suddenly the surface at x = 0 is raised to 100 0C.

Calculate the heat flux at the surface 5 minutes after rising of the surface temperature . How

long will it take for the temperature at a depth of 5 cm from the surface to reach 90 0 C?

For t > 0, the surface at T0

0

x

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is

constant.

Solution:

qs(t) = ------------------- = -------------------------------- = 11012 W / m2 = 11.012 kW/m2

√ (παt) √ (π x 1.1 x 10 − 4 x 300)

T(x,t) – T0 90 – 100

θ(x,t) = ------------------ = --------------------- = 0.11 . From chart ξ = 0.1

Ti – T0 10 – 100

x x2 0.05 2

ξ = -------------- or t = ------------------- = --------------------------------- = 586 s = 9.46 min

2√ (αt) 4 α ξ2 4 x 1.1 x 10 − 4 x (0.1) 2

164

Example 4.11:-A thick bronze [α = 0.86* 10 ─ 5 m2/s and k = 26 W/m-K] is initially at 2500C

Suddenly the surface is exposed to a coolant at 25 0 C. If the surface heat transfer coefficient

is 150 W/(m2-K), determine the temperature 5 cm from the surface 10 minutes after the

exposure.

0

x

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is

constant.

Solution:

x 0.05

ξ = ---------------- = ------------------------------------ = 0.35

2 √(α t) 2 x √ ( 0.86 x 10 − 5 x 600)

____ __________________

h √(α t) 150 x √ [ 0.86 x 10 − 5 x 600]

-------------- = -------------------------------------- = 0.414

K 26

[T(x,t) – T∞]

165

Therefore from chart 1 − ------------------------ = 0.15

(Ti – T∞)

Example 4.12:- A thick wood [α = 0.82 x 10 ─ 7 m2/s and k = 0.15 W/(m-K)] is initially at 20

0

C. The wood may ignite at 400 0 C. Suddenly the surface of the wood is exposed to gases at

500 0 C. If the surface heat transfer coefficient is 45 W/(m2-K), how long will it take for the

surface of the wood to reach 400 0 C ?

0

x

α = 0.82 x 10 − 7 m2 / s.

Find: Time t for T/x = 400 C

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the solid is

constant.

Solution:

____ _______________

h √ (α t) 45 x √ (0.82 x 10 − 7 x t)

---------- = ------------------------------- = 0.086 √t

k 0.15

____ T(x,t) – T∞ (400 – 500)

x / 2√( α t) = 0. Also 1 − -------------------- = 1 − ------------------- = 0.9799

Ti – T∞ (20 – 5000)

___

Hence from chart h √(α t) / k = 2.75.

166

_

Therefore 0.086 √ t = 2.75 or t = 1023 s = 17 min.

Problems (Product Solution):

The solution to the problem of multi-dimensional transient conduction in solids without heat

generation subjected to convective boundary conditions can be obtained using the Heissler’s

charts developed for one dimensional transient conduction. The approach adopted is called

the “Product Solution”.

Consider a rectangular bar of sides 2L1 and 2L2 confined to the region – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and – L2

≤ y ≤ L2 as shown in Fig.4.13.Initaially the bar is at a uniform temperature Ti. Suddenly at

y

h1, T∞

L2

h2, T∞

−L1 o L1

x

h2,T∞

−L2

−L2

h1,T∞

temperature T∞.The mathematical formulation of this conduction problem is given by

2 2

∂T ∂T 1 ∂T

2 + 2 = α ∂t in – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2

∂x ∂y

……………4.29a

∂T

The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry)

∂x

…………….4.29b

∂T

at x= L1, − k = h1 [T −T∞]

∂x

……………..4.29c

167

∂T

at y = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry)

∂y

…………….4.29d

∂T

at y= L2, − k = h2 [T −T∞]

∂y

………………..4.29e

The initial condition is : at t = 0, T = Ti …………………4.29f

T ( x , y ,t )−T ∞

θ(x,y,t) = ……………

T i−T ∞

4.30

∂2 θ ∂2 θ 1 ∂θ

+ = α ∂t in – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1 and – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2

∂ x2 ∂ y2

……………4.31a

∂θ

The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry) ...

∂x

………….4.31b

∂θ

at x= L1, − k = h1 θ

∂x

……………..4.31c

∂θ

at y = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry)

∂y

………….4.31d

∂θ

at y= L2, − k = h2 θ

∂y

…………..4.31e

The initial condition is : at t = 0, θ = 1 ……………4.31f

It can be shown that the solution for the problem given by Eq. 4.31a to 4.31f can be

expressed as a product of solutions of two one − dimensional problems θ 1(x,t) and θ2(y,t) as

illustrated below.

Substituting this in Eq. 4.31a to 4.31f and rearranging we have θ 1 (x,t) to be the solution of

the following one-dimensional problem:

∂2 θ 1 1 ∂ θ1

= in – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1

∂ x2 α ∂t

…………4.33a

168

∂θ 1

The boundary conditions are: at x = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry) ...

∂x

………….4.33b

∂θ 1

at x= L 1, − k = h1 θ1

∂x

…………..4.33c

The initial condition is : at t = 0, θ1 = 1 …………4.33d

∂2 θ 2 1 ∂ θ2

= in – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2

∂ y2 α ∂t

…………4.34a

∂θ 2

The boundary conditions are: at y = 0, = 0 (axis of symmetry) ...

∂x

………….4.34b

∂θ 2

at x= L 2, − k = h1 θ1

∂x

…………..4.34c

The initial condition is : at t = 0, θ2 = 1 …………4.34d

The above one − dimensional problems for θ1(x,t) and θ2(y,t) are exactly the same as that

whose solution is given by the transient temperature chart for infinite slabs. Thus the solution

for two− dimensional transient conduction problem for a rectangular region – L1 ≤ x ≤ L1

and – L2 ≤ y ≤ L2 can be constructed as the product of two one-dimensional transient

conduction problems for infinite slabs.This concept of product solution is also illustrated in

Fig.4.14(a)

2L2 x

2L1

169

The basic idea developed here can be extended to other configurations. For example the

product solution ,θ(r,x,t)for two dimensional transient conduction in a finite cylinder of

radius R and height 2L will be the product of one dimensional conduction solution for an

infinite slab, θ1 (x,t) and one dimensional solution for an infinite cylinder, θ2(r,t).This is

illustrated in Fig.4.14(b).

x

r

2L

initially at a uniform temperature of 225 0C. Suddenly the bar is immersed in a fluid which is

maintained at a uniform temperature of 250C. The surface heat transfer coefficient for all the

outside surfaces of the bar is 500 W/(m2-K). Determine (i) the temperature at the centre of

the bar 2 minutes after the immersion of the bar into the fluid, (ii) the temperature at any one

corner of the bar 2 minutes after immersion

h2,T∞

h1,T∞

170

2L2 x

2L1

Known: 2L1 = 5 cm; 2L2 = 4 cm; α = 1.6 * 10−5m2/s; h1= h2= 500 W/(m2-K); T∞ =250C;

Ti = 2250C; t=2 min; k = 60 W/(m-K)

Assumptions:(i) Surface heat transfer coefficient is constant and is same for all surfaces,i.e.

h1= h2; (ii)Thermal properties of the solid are constant

Solution:

(i) θ(0,0,t) = θ1 (0,t) * θ2(0,t)

T ( x , y ,t )−T ∞ T 1 ( x , t ) −T ∞ T 2 ( y , t )−T ∞

i.e. = *

T i−T ∞ T i−T ∞ T i −T ∞

h1 L1 500∗0.025 αt 1.6∗10−5∗(2∗60)

To find θ1 (0,t): Bi = = = 0.21 ; Fo = =

k 60 L21 0.0252

= 3.072

h2 L2 500∗0.02 αt 1.6∗10−5∗(2∗60)

To find θ2 (0,t): Bi = = = 0.167 ; Fo = =

k 60 L22 0.022

= 4.8

Hence θ(0,0,2 min) = = 0.58 * 0.50 = 0.29

T i −T ∞

T ( L1 , L2 ,2 min ) −T ∞

(ii) = θ1 (L1,t) * θ2(L2,t)

T i−T ∞

θ1 (L1,t)

θ1 (L1,t) = ------------ * θ1 (0,t)

171

θ1 (0,t)

x

For the corner

L1

= 1 and Bi = 0,21 as calculated before.

Hence from Heisller’s chart

θ1 (L1,t)

--------------- = 0.9 . Hence θ1 (L1,t) = 0.9 * 0.58 = 0.522

θ1 (0,t)

T ( L1 , L2 ,2 min ) −T ∞

Therefore = 0.522 * 0.46 = 0.24

T i−T ∞

diameterand 4 cm in height. It is initially at a uniform temperature of 2250C and is suddenly

exposed to an environment at 250C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 300 W/(m2-K).

Determine (i) the centre temperature and (ii)the temperature at a location 1 cm from the

outer surface of the cylinder and at a height of 2 cm from one of its ends 2 minutes after

exposure to the environment.

r

2L

172

R

Known: Short cylinder with R = 2.5 cm and 2L = 4 cm; α = 1.6 * 10−5m2/s; k = 60 W/m-K;

Assumption: (i) Two-demensional conduction; (ii) Thermal properties of the cylinder are

constant; (iii) the surface heat transfer coefficient is constant and is same for all boundary

surfaces; (iv) The solid is not generating any heat

hR 500∗0.025

To find θ1 (0,2 min) : Bi = = = 0.208 or 1/Bi = 4.8

k 60

αt −5

1.6∗10 ∗2∗60

Fo = 2 = 2 = 3.1

R 0.025

From Heisller’s chart for infinite cylinder we have θ1 (0,2 min) = 0.31.

hL 500∗0.02

Similarly for infinite slab, Bi = = = 0.167 or 1 / Bi = 6.0

k 60

αt −5

1.6∗10 ∗2∗60

Fo = 2 = 2 = 4.8

L 0.02

and θ(0,0,2 min) = = 0.31 * 0.45 = 0.14

T i −T ∞

(ii) θ(1.5 cm,2 cm,2 min) = θ1 (1.5 cm,2 min) * θ2(2 cm,2 min)

173

1.5

To find θ1 (1.5 cm,2 min): for r = 1.5 cm, r/R = = 0.6 and 1/Bi = 4.8.

2.5

θ 1 ( 1.5 cm ,2 min )

Hence from chart = 0.95 .

θ 1 ( 0,2 min )

2

To find θ2 (2 cm,2 min): For infinite slab we have x/ L = = 0.5 and 1 / Bi = 6.0

4

θ 2 ( 2 cm ,2 min )

Therefore from chart we have = 0.94

θ 2 ( 0,2 min )

Therefore . θ(1.5 cm,2 cm,2 min) = θ1 (1.5 cm,2 min) * θ2(2 cm,2 min)

Therefore ¿ = 0.1246

T¿

¿

Example 4.15:An aluminium ingot (k = 200 W/m-K;ρ= 2700 kg/m 3; Cp = 890 J/kg-K) of

dimensions 6 cm X 5 cm X 3 cm is initially at a uniform temperature of 175 0C. Suddenly the

ingot is immersed in a fluid which is maintained at a uniform temperature of 25 0C with the

surface heat transfer coefficient of 250 W/(m 2-K). Determine (i) The temperature at the

centre of the ingot 2 minutes after immersion and (ii)temperature at one of the corners after

the same time interval.

z

174

2L2

2L3

2L1

Assumptions: (i)Properties of the ingot are constant; (ii) the surface heat transfer

coefficient is constant and is same for all boundary surfaces; (iii) The solid is not generating

any heat

Solution:

(i) θ(0,0,0,2 min) = = θ1 (0,2 min) * θ2(0,2 min) * θ2(0,2

T i −T ∞

min)

k 200

To find θ1 (0,2 min): α =

ρC p

= = 8.323 * 10 −5 m2/s

2700∗890

h L1 250∗0.03 αt −5

8.323∗10 ∗2∗60

Bi = = = 0.0375 ; Fo = = = 11.1

k 200 L21 0.03

2

T ( 0,0,0,2 min )−T ∞

Therefore = 0.6 * 0.4 * 0.35 = 0.084

T i −T ∞

= θ1 (L1,2 min) * θ2(L2,2 min) * θ2(L3,2 min)

T i−T ∞

175

To find θ1 (L1,2 min): x/L1 = 1and 1/Bi = 1/0.0375 = 27

---------------- = 0.975

θ1 (0,2 min)

Therefore = .585 * 0.39 * .34475 = 0.07865

T i−T ∞

CHAPTER 5

NUMERICAL METHODS IN CONDUCTION

176

5.1. Introduction: Analytical solutions that allow for the determination of the exact

temperature distribution in a solid are only available for limited ideal cases.Graphical

solutions have been used to gain an insight into complex conduction heat transfer problems,

where analytical solutions are not available, but they have limited accuracy and are primarily

used for two-dimensional problems. For solids having complicated geometries, boundary

conditions, and temperature − dependent thermal properties, numerical method of solution

has to be used.Advances in numerical computing now allow for complex heat transfer

problems to be solved rapidly on computers using numerical techniques..The current

numerical techniques include: finite-difference analysis; finite element analysis (FEA); and

finite-volume analysis. In general, these techniques are routinely used to solve problems in

heat transfer, fluid dynamics, stress analysis, electrostatics and magnetics, etc.In this chapter

the use of finite-difference analysis to solve conduction heat transfer problems is illustrated.

In the finite difference method the governing partial differential equation of heat conduction

is approximated by a set of algebraic equations for temperature at a number of nodal points

over the region. Hence the first step in the analysis is the finite difference representation of

the governing partial differential equation into a set of algebraic equations, either by using

Taylor’s series expansion and neglecting higher order terms or by writing the energy balance

equation for each node in the region. Then the set of algebraic equations thus obtained are

solved for unknown temperatures.

Plane wall:

5.2.1. Finite difference formulation from differential equation using Taylor’s Series

Expansion:

The governing differential equation for one dimensional steady-state conduction in a plane

wall of thickness L with heat generation is given by

+ =0 in 0 < x ≤ L 5.1

d x2 k

L

Δx =

M

5.2

location whose coordinate is iΔx. Let Ti be the temperature at node i;Then the region contains

M + 1 nodal temperatures for i = 0, 1,2,3,………………..,M nodes.

Δx Δx

L

177

0 1 2 i−1 i i+1 M−1 M

x

iΔx

i−½ i+½

d 2 T (x)

The second derivative of temperature at a node i can be represented in

d x2

dT ( x )

finite differences as shown below.The first derivative of temperature at locations i

dx

+ ½ and

i − ½ can be approximated using Taylor’s series expansion as

dT ( x ) T i+1 −T i

│ i + ½) ≈

dx Δx

5.3(a)

dT ( x ) T i−T i−1

│ (i − ½) ≈

dx Δx

5.3(b)

d 2 T ( x)

Now the second derivative of temperature at node i can be approximated as

d x2

dT ( x) dT ( x )

d 2 T (x) │ ( i+½ )− │(i−½)

│i ≈ dx dx

d x2 Δx

T i−1−2 T i +T i+1

= 2 5.4

Δx

178

T i−1−2 T i +T i+1 ( q'g' ' ) i

+ =0

Δx 2 k

Δx 2

Or Ti-1 − 2Ti + Ti+1 = −( q'g' ' ) i 5.5

k

Where ( q 'g' ' )i represents the heat generation per unit volume at node i.Eq. 5.5 is known as

the finite difference form of the heat conduction equation 5.1 and is valid for all interior

nodes, i.e. i= 1, 2, 3,…………………….M – 1, of the region.In this equation the heat

generation q'i ' ' , thermal conductivity k and mesh size Δx are known quantities. Then Eq.

5.5 gives

M – 1 algebraic equations for the M + 1 unknown node temperatures Ti, i= 0,1,2,3……M+1.

Two additional relations are needed to make the number of equations equal to the number of

unknown node temperatures Ti. These two relations are obtained from the finite difference

representation of the two boundary conditions at nodes i=0 and i=M.

Eq. 5.5 can also be obtained by writing the energy balance equation for the control volume

surrounding the node i (shown by hatched portion in Fig.5.1) as follows. For steady state

conduction the energy balance equation can be written as

Rate of conduction into the control volume from the left + Rate of heat generation within the

control volume – Rate of heat conduction out of the control volume to the right = 0.

Assuming linear variation of temperature between the adjacent nodes and using Fourier’s of

conduction, Eq.5.6 can be written as

(kA)│(i-1),i + Ai Δx ( q 'g'' )i − (kA)│i,(i + 1) =0

Δx Δx

5.7

Or + + ΔV ( q 'g'' )i = 0

R(i−1 ), i R (i+1 ) ,i

5.8

( i−1 ) ,i

= Thermal Resistance between nodes i-1 and i

5.9a

179

R(i +1) ,i = ( kAΔx )( i+1) , i

= Thermal Resistance between nodes i+1 and i

5.9b

Eq.5.8 is the finite difference formulation of the one-dimensional steady state conduction

problem with heat generation. This equation is more general than Eq.5.5, as it allows for the

variation of thermal conductivity and cross sectional area with position along the x-axis.If k

and A are constants, Eq. 5.7 reduces to Eq.5.5

specified as

(i) at x = 0, T(x) = T0 5.10a

where T0 and TM are known temperatures. Then the temperatures at the nodes i = 0 and

i = M in Fig.5.1 are taken as

T│i=0 = T0 5.11a

Eq.5.11a and 5.11b provide the two additional relations needed to make the number of

equations equal the number of unknown node temperatures.

(ii)Boundaries with prescribed heat flux: Let the boundary surface at x = 0 is subjected to

a prescribed heat flux of q0 and the boundary surface at x = L is subjected to a prescribed

heat flux of qM as shown in Fig. 5.2.

q0

0 1 2 M–2 M−1 M

qM

Δx

Δx Δx

2

Δx

2

180

Fig. 5.2 Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for prescribed surface heat flux

boundary conditions

The energy balance equation for a differential volume element surrounding the grid point ‘o’

can be written as follows:

q0 A0 + Qg – Q 0,1 = 0 5.12

( T 0 −T 1 )

q0 A0 + A0(Δx/2)q0’’’ – kA0 =0

( Δx )

Similarly for the volume element surrounding the grid point M, the energy balance equation

after simplification reduces to

For the insulated boundary at x = 0 we have q0 = 0 and for the insulated boundary at x = L we

have qM = 0.Substituting these conditions in Eq. 5.13 and 5.14 we get the finite difference

equations for the boundary nodes as

Let the two boundary surfaces are exposed to ambient at a uniform temperature T∞ with

surface heat transfer coefficient h as shown in Fig.5.3.

T∞,h

0 1 2 M–2 M−1 M

T∞, h

Δx Δx

Δx Δx

2 2

Fig. 5.3 Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for convection boundary

conditions

The energy balance equation for the element surrounding node 0 can be written as

181

( T 0 −T 1 )

hA0[T∞ − T0] + A0(Δx/2)q0’’’ – kA0 =0

( Δx )

2 ' ''

2 Δx h Δx q0 2 Δx h

Or 2T1 – ( 2+

k )

T0 +

k

+

k

T∞ = 0 for i = 0

5.17

2 Δx h Δx 2 q'M''

and 2TM −1 – ( 2+

k

TM +) k

2 Δx h

+ k

T∞ = 0 for i = M

5.18

7

W/m3.The boundary surface at x = 0 is maintained at a uniform temperature of 500C and the

boundary surface at x = L is in contact with a fluid at a temperature of 100 0C with a surface

heat transfer coefficient of 200 W/(m2- K). The thermal conductivity of the slab is 18 W/(m –

K).Dividing the region into five equal sub regions write the finite difference formulation of

this heat conduction problem and express the equations fro determination of unknown

temperatures in matrix form.

L

0 1 2 3 4 5

T∞, h

Δx

Δx Δx

Δx

2 2

= 2* 10−3m; q'i ' ' = 7.2*107 W/m3

Find: Finite difference equations to determine the unknown temperatures; (ii) Express these

equations in matrix form.

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction: (ii) Thermal conductivity of the

slab is constant

182

Solution: For intermediate nodes 1 to 5 the finite difference equations are given by Eq.5.5:

−q 'i' ' Δx 2

Ti-1 − 2Ti + Ti+1 = i = 1,2,…….,5

k

−q '1' ' Δx 2

T0 – 2T1 + T2 =

k

−7.2∗10 7∗0.0022

Or 50 – 2T1 + T2 =

18

−7.2∗10 7∗0.0022

T1 – 2T2 + T3 =

18

Or T1 – 2T2 + T3 = − 16 (2)

T2 – 2T3 + T4 = − 16 (3)

For the boundary nod 5 the finite difference equation is given by Eq.5.18:

2 ' ''

2 Δx h Δx q5 2 Δx h

2T4 – ( 2+

k )T5 +

k

+

k

T∞ = 0

2 7

2∗0.002∗200 2∗0.002∗200

2T4 − ( 2+

18 )

T5 + 0.002 ∗7.2∗10

18

+

18

* 100 = 0

183

[ ] {} { }

−2 1 0 0 0 T1 −66

1 −2 1 0 0 T2 −16

0 1 −2 1 0 T3 = −16 (6)

0 0 1 −2 1 T4 −16

0 0 0 −2 −2.044 T5 −20.44

The above system of equations are solved using ONLINE solutions using MATLAB and the

unknown temperatures are found to be as shown in the Table 5.1 below. In the same table the

exact solution is also given for comparison. The exact solution for this example is given by

x

T(x) = 50 + 5*

L

+ 200 * (19− Lx ) * ( xL )

(7)

Table 5.1: Comparison betweenfinite difference solution and exact solution for one

dimensional steady state conduction in a slab

x/L 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

0

Temperature in C T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Finite Difference Solution 119.05 172.09 209.13 230.18 235.22

Exact Solution 119.00 172.00 209.00 230.00 235.00

Fin of Uniform Cross Section:

Consider a fin of uniform cross section whose base is maintained at a uniform temperature T0

and is exposed to an ambient at a uniform temperature T∞..Let L be the length of the fin and A

be the area of cross section of the fin.Let h be the surface heat transfer coefficient for the

lateral surface of the fin and he be the surface heat transfer coefficient for the fin tip. The fin

is subdivided into M sub regions as shown in Fig.5.4(a).

T∞, h

L he

Δx

Δx Δx

Δx

2 2

184

Fig. 5.4(a) Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for a fin of uniform cross

section

Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes 1 to M -1: For the sub region surrounding

an intermediate node i the difference equation is obtained by writing the energy balance

equation for the sub region shown in Fig.5.4(b)

Qconvection

iii

Node i

Q i-1,i Qi,i+1

Fig5.4(b) Thermal Energy crossing the boundaries of the volume element surrounding

the node i

Rate of conduction into the sub region from the node i-1 to node i

– Rate of conduction out of the region from node i to node i+1 – Rate of convective heat

transfer from the boundary surface of the region into the ambient = 0

or kA [ T i−1−T i

Δx ] – kA [ T i−T i+1

Δx ] – hPΔx [Ti − T∞] = 0

Finite difference equations for the outer boundary node M: The sub region surrounding the

outer boundary node M is shown Fig.5.4(c).

Qc1

Node M - 1 Node M

Qc2

h e, T ∞

185

QM-1,M

Fig5.4(c) Thermal Energy crossing the boundaries of the volume element surrounding

the boundary node M

Energy balance equation for the sub region surrounding the node 5 can be written as

Q4-5 – Qconvection = 0

i.e.

kA [ T M −1−T M

Δx ] − hP 2

Δx

[TM − T∞] − heA [ T M −T ∞ ] =0

e

M =0

(5.20)

If the heat loss from the tip is negligible or if the tip is insulated then he = 0. In that case Eq.

(5.20) reduces to

Example 5.2:An iron rod (k = 50 W/m-K) of length 5 cm and diameter 2 cm protrudes from a

wall and is exposed to an ambient at 200C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 100 W/

(m2-K).The base of the rod is at 320 0C and the heat transfer from the tip of the rod is

negligible. Determine the temperature distribution along the length of the rod using finite

difference method and compare the solution with the exact solution.

k h,T∞

x Insulated

Find: Temperature distribution along the length using finite difference method and compare

this with the exact solution

Assumptions: (i) One dimensional steady state conduction along the length of the rod

186

(ii)Thermal conductivity of the rod is constant

Solution: The rod is divided into 5 equal subdivisions as shown below. Then Δx = L/5 = 5/5

= 1 cm = 0.01 m

T∞, h

L

Insulated

0 1 2 3 4 5

Δx

Δx Δx

Δx

2 2

For 5 sub regions, the difference equation for intermediate nodes are given by Eq.5.20

Finite difference equations for the boundary node 5: Since the heat loss from the tip is

negligible the difference equation for node 5 is giv en by Eq.(5.21). i.e.

2 θ4 – [2 + (NΔx)2] θ5 = 0 (2)

2

4∗100∗0.01

Now (NΔx) = 2

( 50∗0.02 ) = 0.04

Substituting this numerical value in Eq. (1) and (2) we get the finite difference equations for

temperatures of the nodes as

Therefore we have

187

for i = 4, θ3 – 2.04 θ4 + θ5 = 0 (5d)

The above system of equations is solved using ONLINE Linear Algebra Tool Kit and the

results are compared with exact solution in the table 5.2 given below

Table 5.2: Comparison between finite difference solution and exact solution for one

dimensional steady state conduction in a fin of uniform cross section

0

Temperature in C θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 θ5

Finite Difference Solution 260.10 230.6 210.4 198.6 194.7

Exact Solution 260.00 230.5 210.2 198.3 194.4

5.4. Finite Difference Formulation for One-dimensional Steady state Radial Conduction

in cylinders and spheres:

5.4.1. Cylindrical Geometry: The finite difference formulation for the problem of one

dimensional radial steady state conduction in a solid cylinder is illustrated in this section.Let

the solid cylinder is of radius R and is generating thermal energy at rate of q’’’(r) W/m3.The

R

region 0 ≤ r ≤ R is divided into M cylindrical subregions, each of thickness Δr = as

M

shown in Fig.5.5.

TM

TM-1

Ti+1

Ti

Ti-1

T1

T0

0 1 i−1 i i+1 M-1 M

Δr

2

188

Δr

iᴧr

Fig.5.5 Nomenclature for finite difference formulation for one dimensional radial

conduction in a solid cylinder

5.4.1.1Finite difference equation for an intermediate node i: Energy balance equation for

the sub region surrounding the grid point i can be written per unit length of the cylinder as

k [ (

2 π iΔr−

Δr

2 )

∗1

] [ ] T i−1−T i

Δr

+ ( 2 πiΔr∗Δr∗1 ) q'i ' '

− k[ ( ) ] [2 π iΔr +

Δr

2

∗1

T i−T i+1

Δr ] =0 i = 1,2,3……

M-1

[ 1−

1

2i ] Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]

1+

1

2i

Ti+1 = −

k

i= 1, 2,3,…. M – 1

(5.22a)

5.4.1.2.Finite difference equation for the innermost node 0: The energy balance equation

for the sub region surrounding the node 0 can be written as

)[ ]

2

Δr Δr T 0 −T 1

q'0' ' π ( )

2

*1 – k ( 2π

2

∗1

Δr

=0

q'0' ' Δr 2

Or − T0 + T1 = −

4k

(5.22b)

surface is exposed to an environment at a uniform temperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer

coefficient h.The various energies crossing the boundary surface of the volume element

surrounding node M is shown in Fig.5.6

189

Qconv

QM-1.M

o M–1 M

Δr

2

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node M can be written as

T M−1 – T m

Or k * 2π [ ( M −1 ) Δr+

Δr

2

∗1] ¿

Δr

'''

+ q M ∗2

πMΔr∗Δr

2

∗1

[ 1−

1

2M ] TM-1 – [( 1−

1

2M

+

hΔr

)k ] TM = −

q'M'' Δr 2

2k

−

hΔr

K

T∞

(5.22c)

Eqs.(5.22a) to (5.22c) form a set of M+1 simultaneous equations which can be solved for

unknown temperatures T0 to TM+1.

(ii)Boundary surface is maintained at a specified temperature,TM: For this case , since the

temperature at node M is specified, the number of unknown temperatures will be M and Eqs.

(5.22a) and (5.22b) will form a set of M equations which can be solved for unknown

temperatures T0,T1, …………………,TM-1.

5.4.2. Spherical Geometry: Following the procedure illustrated in section 5.4.1for radial

steady state conduction in a solid cylinder, the finite difference formulation for radial

conduction in a solid sphere can be written as follows:

( 1−

2i )

( T i−1−T i) + ( 1+

2i )( T i +1−T i ) +

k

=0 i= 1,2,………M-1

(5.23)

190

2 2

Making the approximation that ( 1−

1

2i ) ≈ [ 1−

1

2i ] and ( 1+

1

2i ) ≈ [ ]

1+

1

2i

[ ]

1−

1

i

Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]

1+

1

i

Ti+1 = −

k

i= 1, 2,3,…. M – 1

(5.24a)

Eq. (5.24a) is similar to Eq.(5.23a) for a solid cylinder except that 1/2i is replaced by 1/i.

Δr 2 q'0' '

6T1 – 6T0 = −

k

(5.24b)

[( ) ]

' '' 2

1 2 hΔr

2

1 hΔr q M Δr

( 1−

2M ) TM-1 − 1−

2i

+

K

TM = −

K ∞

T −

2k

2 2

Making the approximation that ( 1−

1

2i ) ≈ [ 1−

1

2i ] and ( 1+

1

2i ) ≈ [ ]

1+

1

2i

We get

[1−

M

1

] TM-1 − [( ) ] T

1−

1

M

+

hΔr

k M =−

hΔr

K ∞

T −

q'M'' Δr 2

2k

(5.24c)

Eqs. (5.24a) to (5.24c) form a set of M+1 simultaneous equations which can be solved for

unknown temperaturatures T0 to TM.

Example 5.3: A long cylindrical fuel element of radius 1 cm and thermal conductivity of 25

W/(m-K) generates energy at a constant rate of 5* 10 8 W/m3. The boundary surface is

maintained at a uniform temperature of 1000C.Assuming one-dimensional radial conduction,

determine the radial temperature distribution in the fuel element using finite difference

method and compare the values with exact solution for the problem.

Known: R = 0.01m; k = 25 W/(m-K); q'i ' ' = 5* 10 8 W/m3 for all the nodes;TM = 1000C

191

Find: Radial steady state temperature distribution in the cylinder by finite difference method

and compare with exact solution

constant

0.01

Δr = = 0.002 m

5

The finite difference equation for the innermost node ‘0’ is obtained from Eq.(5.22b) as

q'0'' Δr 2 8 2

T0 – T1 = − = − 5∗10 ∗0.002

4k 4∗25

[ 1−

1

2i ] Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]

1+

1

2i

Ti+1 = −

k

i= 1, 2,3,…. M – 1

2 '''

Hence for i = 1 we have [ 1−

1

2i ] Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ] 1+

1

2i

Ti+1 = −

Δr qi

k

=−¿ 80

(2)

Eqs. (1) to (5) are solved using Online Linear Algebra Tool Kit and tabulated as shown in the

Table below. This table also gives the exact solution at the 5 nodes for comparison. The exact

solution is given by

r 2

R [ ( )] (6)

192

Table 5.3:: Comparison between finite difference solution and exact solution for one

dimensional steady state radial conduction in a cylinder

0

Temperature in C T0 T1 T2 T3 T4

Finite Difference Solution 600.3 580.3 520.3 420.3 280.4

with 5 sub regions

Finite Difference Solution 600.27 580.0 520.0 420.0 280.0

with 10 sub regions

Exact Solution 600.0 580.0 520.0 420.0 280.0

The numerical solution agrees very well with the exact solution (the maximum deviation

being 0.143 %) and hence there is no need to divide the region 0 ≤ r ≤ R into more number of

sub regions to improve the accuracy. It can also be seen from the above table that by dividing

the given region into 10 sub regions the numerical predictions exactly matches with the exact

solution

Example 5.4. A spherical fuel element of radius 1 cm and thermal conductivity of 25 W/(m-

K) generates energy at a constant rate of 7.5* 10 8 W/m3. The boundary surface is

maintained at a uniform temperature of 1000C.Assuming one-dimensional radial conduction,

determine the radial temperature distribution in the fuel element using finite difference

method and compare the values with exact solution for the problem.

Known: R = 0.01m; k = 25 W/(m-K); q'i ' ' = 7.5* 10 8 W/m3 for all the nodes; TM = 1000C

Find: Radial steady state temperature distribution in the sphere by finite difference method

and compare with exact solution

constant

0.01

Δr = = 0.002 m

5

Finite difference equation for the inner most node ‘0’ is obtained from Eq.(24b) as

6T1 – 6T0 = − =−

k 25

193

For intermediate nodes form i = 1 to 4 Eq.(5.24a) is applicable:

[ ]

1−

1

i

Ti-1 – 2Ti + [ ]

1+

1

i

Ti+1 = −

k

i= 1, 2,3,4

(2)

Eqs. (1) to (5) are solved using online Linear Algebra Tool Kit and the solution is shown in

Table below.The table also gives the exact solution for comparison. The exact solution is

given by

[ ( )]

2

r

T(r) = 100 + 500 1+

R

Table 5.3:: Comparison between finite difference solution and exact solution for one

dimensional steady state radial conduction in a sphere

0

Temperature in C T0 T1 T2 T3 T4

Finite Difference Solution 600 580 520 420 280

with 5 sub regions

Exact Solution 600 580 520 420 280

Example 5.5: A long triangular fin attached to a surface is made of Aluminium (k = 180 W/

(m2-K).The fin is 5 cm long having a base thickness of 1 cm.The base is maintained at a

uniform temperature of 200 0C. The fin is exposed to an ambient at 25 0C and the convective

heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/(m2-K). Using finite difference method with six equally

spaced nodes determine(a) the temperature at the nodes, (b) the rate of heat dissipation from

the fin to the ambient and (c) the fin efficiency

θ 1 2 3 4

T0 θ

194

0 5

b

Known: L = 0.05 cm; b = 0.01 cm; k = 180 W/(m-K); T0= 200 0C; T∞ = 250C; h = 15

W/(m2-K) ; Δx = L/5 = 0.05/5 = 0.01m ;

Find: (a) Temperatures at nodes 1 to 5; (b) Qfin; (c) fin efficiency η

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the fin

is constant; (iii) heat dissipation to the ambient is by convection only

Solution: Volume element surround ing an intermediate node i is shown below with adjacent

nodes.

Δx

A i- 1/2 Length =

cos θ

Fin Base Node i

Ai+1/2

Node (i – 1) Node (i + 1)

Δx

iΔx

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node i can be written as

k A i- ½ ( T Δx−T )

i−1 i

− k A i+ ½ ( T Δx−T )

i−1 i

−h

2 wΔx

( T −T ∞ ) = 0

cos θ i , j

2kw [ 1

L – (i− ) Δx

2 ] tan θ

Δx

− 2kw [ 1

L – (i+ )Δx

2 ] tan θ

Δx

195

2 wΔx

−h ( T −T ∞ ) = 0

cos θ i , j

Or [ 1 Δx

1 – (i− )

2 L ] Ti – 1 − [2 – 2i

Δx

L

−

h Δx 2

kLsin θ

] Ti + [ 1 Δx

1 – (i+ )

2 L ] Ti + 1

2

h Δx

= − T∞ i = 1,2,3,and 4

kLsin θ

(2)

0.01

Now tan θ = b/2L = = 0.1 Hence sin θ = 0.0995

2∗0.05

The finite difference equation for node i = 5 is obtained by writing the energy balance

equation for the volume element having a length of Δx / 2 surrounding node 5 as shown in

Fig. below

Δx/(2cos θ)

4 5

Δx/2 Δx/2

k *2w

Δx

2

tan θ ( T Δx−T )

4 5

– h *2w *

Δx/2

cos θ

(T5 - T∞) = 0

hΔx hΔx

or T4 – [1 + ]T5 = − T∞

k sinθ k sinθ

Hence for node 5 we have T4 – 1.008 T5 = − 0.2 (e)

Solving Eqs. (a) to (e) using ONLINE Linear Algebra Tool Kit we get the unknown

temperatures as follows:

196

Node 1 2 3 4 5

Temp (0 C) 199.76 198.99 197.31 195.70 194.30

(b) Qfin = Sum of heat dissipated from all the volume elements to the surroundings

Δx/2 Δx

= h* 2w (T0 - T∞) + h*2W [(T1 − T∞) + (T2 − T∞) + (T3 − T∞)

cos θ cos θ

Δx/ 2

+ (T4 − T∞)] + h* 2w (T5 − T∞)

cos θ

wΔx

=h [T0 + 2(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4) + T5 −10 T∞]

cos θ

15∗1∗0.01

= * [200 + 2* (199.76 + 198.99 + 197.31 + 195.7) + 194.3 – 10 *25]

cos 5.71

= 260.46 W

2 wL 15∗2∗1∗0.05

(c) Qmax = h Afin,total (T0 − T∞) = h (T0 − T∞) = * (200 – 25) = 263.8

cos θ cos 5.71

W

260.46

Fin efficiency = η = = 0.987 = 98.7%

263.8

Example 5.6: A pin fin of variable circular cross section has a diameter of 2 cm at its base

and 1 cm at its tip and is 12 cm long. It is made of a material of thermal conductivity of 1 W/

(m-K). The fin base temperature is 125 0C and the fin is exposed to an ambient at 25 0C with a

surface heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/(m 2-K).Determine the steady state temperature

distribution along the length of the fin using finite difference method

Δx/2

Δx/2

θ D2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

D1

197

Δx

L

T0 = 1250C; T∞ = 250C

Find: (a) Steady state temperature distribution along the length using finite difference

method; (b)Qfin

Assumptions: (i) one dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) thermal conductivity of the fin

is constant; (iii) heat dissipation to the ambient is by convection only

Solution: The fin is divided equally into 6 subregions each of length Δx so that

( D1−D2 ) ( 0.02−0.01 )

Δx = L/6 = 0.12/6 = 0.02 m. Also tan θ = = = 0.0417 or θ =

2L 2∗0.12

2.388 0

Difference equations for intermediate nodes from 1 to 5: The volume element surrounding

an intermediate node ‘i’ along with corresponding nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.6(a).

Δx / cos θ

X

i–1 i i +1

i Δx

Δx

Ai–½ Ai +1/2

Fig. E5.6(a): Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding an intermediate

node ‘i’

Energy balance equation for the volume element shown can be written as

kAi – ½ ( T Δx−T )

i−1 i

− kAi +½ ( T −TΔx )

i i+ 1

– h Asi [Ti −T∞] = 0 i = 1 to 5

(1)

hΔx

Let φ = T − T∞. and Hi = Asi

k

198

Ai – ½ φi-1 – [Ai – ½ + Ai +½ + H i ] φi + Ai +½ φi+1 = 0 i = 1 to 5 (2)

Δx Δx

where Ai – ½ = π [D2/2 + (L – iΔx + ) tan θ]2 ; Ai +½ = π [D2/2 + (L – iΔx − ) tan

2 2

θ]2

Asi =

0.02

cos 2.388

∗2∗π∗

0.01

2 [

+ ( 0.12−0.02 i )∗0.0417

]

= 1.258* 10 – 3 – 1.049 * 10 – 6 i

Numerical values of Ai – ½ , Ai +½ and Hi are found for different values of i from 1 to 5 are

tabulated as shown below.

Hi = [1.258* 10 – 3 – 1.049 * 10

k

–6

i]

2 2.395* 10 −4 1.970* 10 −4 3.768* 10 − 4

3 1.960*10 −4 1.577* 10 −4 3.765* 10 − 4

4 1.568*10 −4 1.228* 10 −4 3.761* 10 − 4

5 1.219*10 −4 0.922* 10 −4 3.758* 10 − 4

Substituting the calculated values of A i – ½ , Ai +½ and Hi for different nodes the final form of

Eqs.(3) for nodes 1 to 5 c an be written as

(a)

(b)

199

i = 3: 1.960 φ2 – 7.302 φ3 + 1.577 φ 4 = 0

(c)

(d)

(e)

Difference equations for node 6: The volume element surrounding node 6 is shown in Fig.

E5.6(b).

A5+1/2

Δx

2 cos θ

5 6

D2

Δx/2 Δx/2

Energy balance equation for the volume element shown can be written as follows:

Q5-6 – Qconvection = 0

5 6

– h As6 [T6 − T∞] = 0

[ π D 22

)]

2

D2 Δx D Δx

Where A5+1/2 = π ( 2

+

2

tan θ ) and As6 =

4 (

+

Δx

2 cos θ )

∗2 π∗ 2 +

2 (2

tanθ

hΔx

A5+1/2 φ5 – [A5+1/2 + A s6 ¿ φ6 = 0

k

2

0.01 0.02

Now A5+1/2 = π ( 2

+

2

∗0.0417 ) = 9.219 * 10 – 5

200

2

π∗0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02

and As6 =

4

+ (

2cos 2.388

∗2 π∗ ) 2

+

2 (

∗0.0417 ) = 4.192 * 10 −4

15∗0.02

Or 9.219 * 10 – 5 φ5 – [9.219 * 10 – 5 + * 4.192 * 10 −4] φ6 = 0

1

Or φ5 – 2.364 φ6 = 0 (f)

Eqs. (a) to (f) can be solved using any standard technique of solving a system of linear

equations.

5.5. Finite Difference Formulation for Two-dimensional Steady State conduction with

Energy Generation

steady-state heat conduction equation with heat generation in a solid with constant thermal

conductivity is given by

∂2 T ∂2 T ' ''

+ + q (x , y) = 0 in region R

∂ x2 ∂ x2 k

(5.25)

shown in Fig.5.7.Symbols i,j are used to denote the location of a nodal point whose

coordinates are x = iΔx, y = jΔy. Then the temperature at a node (i,j) is denoted by Ti,j.

y

(i – 1, j) (i, j+1) (i, j) (i+1, j)

Δx

(i, j-1)

(j +1)Δy

jΔy

Δy

(j – 1)Δy

201

x

(i −1)Δx iΔx (i +1)Δx

Fig.5.7: Rectangular mesh of size Δx, Δy and intermediate node (i,j) surrounded by 4

neighboring nodes

Difference equation for all intermediate nodes: Control volume surrounding the nodal point

i,j is shown in Fig.5.7.The energy balance equation for this control volume under steady state

conditions can be written as follows:

k (Δy *1) + k (Δx *1) + k (Δy *1) +

Δx Δy Δx

T i , j−1−T i , j

k (Δx *1) + (Δx *Δy*1) q'i ', 'j = 0

Δy

q'i 'j'

Ti – 1,j + Ti ,j+1 + Ti + 1,j + Ti ,j – 1 − 4 Ti ,j + Δx 2

( )

k

=0

(5.27)

Eq.(5.27) is the finite difference form of the heat conduction equation for any interior nodal

point (i,j).

(i , j+1)

(i +1, j)

q0 ( i , j)

subjected to prescribed heat flux

(i, j – 1)

Δx

202

Energy ba;ance equation for the control volume surrounding the nodal point (i,j) can be

written as:

q0*(Δy*1) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Qg =0 (5.28)

Using Fourier’s law for heat conduction the above equation reduces to

q0*(Δy*1) + k (Δx/2 *1) + + k (Δy *1)

Δy Δx

( T i , j−1−T i , j )

+ k (Δx/2 *1)

Δy

+ ( Δy∗Δx

2

∗1 ) q ' ''

i, j =0

Ti , j+1 + 2Ti+1 , j + Ti, j−1 −4Ti , j = − −

k k

(5.29)

If the boundary containing the node (i,j) then q0 = 0. In that case Eq. (5.29) reduces to

Ti , j+1 + 2Ti+1 , j + Ti, j−1 −4Ti , j = −

k

(5.29a)

(i , j+1)

(i +1, j)

( i , j)

subjected to convection

(i, j – 1)

Δx

Energy balance equation for the control volume surrounding the nodal point (i,j) can be

written as:

Qconvection + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Q(i , j+1) , (i,j) + Qg =0

203

( T i , j+1 −T i , j ) ( T i +1, j−T i , j )

h(Δy*1)[T∞ − Ti j] + k (Δx/2 *1) + + k (Δy *1)

Δy Δx

( T i , j−1−T i , j )

+ k (Δx/2 *1)

Δy

+ ( Δy∗Δx

2

∗1 ) q ' ''

i, j =0

Substituting Δx = Δy and simplifying, the above equation reduces to

Ti , j+1 + 2Ti+1 , j + Ti, j−1 – [ 4+

2 h Δy

k ] Ti , j = −

2 hΔy

k

T∞ −

k

(5.30)

If the boundary containing the node (i,j) is insulated then h = 0 and there fore Eq.(5.30)

reduces to Eq. (29a).

(i) Difference equation for exterior corner nodal point subjected to convection with ambient

temperature at T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h.

Q2-convection

(i , j) (i +1, j)

Q1-convection

Δy Fig.5.10 Nomenclature for an exterior nodal point

(i, j – 1) Δx

T i+1, j−T i , j )

h ( Δy2 ∗1) [T −T ∞ i, j ] +h ( Δx2 ∗1)[ T −T ∞ i, j ] +k ( Δy2 ∗1) ( Δx

[ ]

Δx

Δx ( T i , j −1 −T i , j ) ∗Δy

+k ( 2

∗1 ) Δy

+ 2

2

∗1 q'i ', 'j

=0

204

2 ' ''

2Ti+1, j + 2Ti, j−1 – [ 4+

4 hΔx

k ]

T i, j = −

4 hΔx

k

T∞ −

Δx qi , j

k

(5.31)

(ii) Difference equation for nodal point at the intersection of two convection boundaries

with ambient temperature at T∞ and surface heat transfer coefficient h.

The nomenclature for the nodal point (i,j) at the intersection of two convection boundaries is

shown in Fig. 5.11.

(i, j+1)

intersection of two convection boundaries

(i,j-1)

Energy balance equation for the control volume surrounding the node (i,j) can be written as

follows:

Q(i-1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i,j+1) – (i,j) + Q(i+1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i ,j-1) – (i,j) + Qconvection + Qg = 0

k (Δy *1) ( Δx ) + k (Δx *1) ( Δy ) + k (Δy/2*1) ( Δx )

[ ]

Δx

T i , j−1−T i , j

+ k (Δx/2 *1) ( Δx ) + h [ Δx Δy

2

+

2 ] [T∞ − T,j] + 3 2

∗Δy

2

∗1 q'i ', 'j =

2

2 hΔx 2 hΔx

Ti,j-1 + 2Ti-1,j + 2Ti,j+1 + Ti+1,j – ( 6+

k ) Ti,j = −

k

T∞ −

3 Δx ' ' '

q

2 k i,j

=0

(5.32)

205

Consider a node (i,j) located next to a curved surface as shown in Fig.5.12.Let the two stirngs

from the node (i,j) intersect the curved boundary at say points A and B as shown in Fig.5.12.

Node (i-1,J)

A

Node (i,j)

ξΔy

B

Δy Fig. 5.12 Nomenclature for a node adjacent to a

Δx ηΔx curved boundary

Node (i,j-1)

Assuming that the temperatures at A and Bi.e. TA and TB are known the energy balance

equation for the control volume surrounding the node (i,j) can be written as follows

( T i−1, j−T i , j ) ( T A −T i , j )

k [( Δy ξΔy

2

+

2

∗1 ) ]

Δx

+k [( Δx ηΔx

2

+

2

∗1 ) ]

ξΔy

+k

( T B−T i , j )

[( Δy ξΔy

2

+

2

∗1) ]

ηΔx

T i , j−1−T i , j )

+k ([ Δx2 + ηΔx2 )∗1] ( Δy

+ ( Δx2 + ηΔx2 ) ( Δy2 + ξΔy2 ) q ' ''

i, j =0

Δx qi , j

(1+ η )

+

(1+ ξ )

− ( )+

η ξ

Ti,j = −

η ( 1+η )

−

ξ ( 1+ξ )

−

2k

(5.33)

Example 5.7: A solid body of square cross section of side 2 cm. is generating heat at a

uniform rate of 2*10 6W/m3.The thermal conductivity of the body is 15 W/(m-K).The left

surface of the body is insulated and the bottom surface is maintained at a uniform

temperature of 1000C.The right surface is subjected to a uniform heat flux of 5000 W/m 2 and

the top surface is in contact with a fluid at a temperature of 25 0C with a surface heat

transfer coefficient of 75 W/(m2-K).Assuming Δx = Δy = 1 cm obtain the finite difference

equations for the unknown temperatures assuming steady state conduction at the six nodes

and solve for these temperatures.

206

Sketch for example 5.7

Node 2

Δx h = 75 W/(m2-K), T∞ = 25 0C

1 2 3

ΔΔΔ

Node 5

Δy

7 8 9

T = 100 0C

Known: Δx = Δy = 0.01 m; k = 15 W/(m-K); q'i ' ' =2*10 6W/m3 for all ‘i’;qs = 5000 W/m2;

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to find unknown temperatures T1 to T6 (ii) Numerical

values of T1 to T6 by solving the finite difference equations

Assumptions: (i) steady state two dimensional conduction heat transfer; (ii) thermal

conductivity and heat generation in the solid are constant

h, T∞

1 2

Insulated Δy/2

Δy/2 node 1

4

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 1 per unit width measured

normal to the paper can be written as:

207

T 4 −T 1

k

Δx

2

∗1 ( Δy ) +k

Δy

2 ( T Δx−T )

2 1

+h

Δx

2

*1 ( T ∞−T 1 ) +

Δx

( 2

∗Δy

2 )

' ''

∗1 q1

=0

[ ]

2

hΔx hΔx

T4 + T2 – 2+

k

T1 = −

k

− ( )

Δx ' ' '

2k

q1

[ ]

2

75∗0.01 75∗0.01

T4 + T2 – 2+

15

T1 = −

15

– ( )

0.01

2∗15

∗2∗10 6

Finite difference equation for node 2: Volume element surrounding node 2 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(2).

Δx h, T∞

1 2 3

Δy/2

Δx/2 Δy/2

5

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 2 per unit width measured

normal to the paper can be written as:

T 1−T 2 T 3 −T 2

k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) + k ( Δx∗1 ) ( T Δy−T )

5 2

+ h (Δx *1) (T∞ -

T2)

208

+ ( Δx∗Δy

2

∗1 ) q ' ''

2 =0

Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

T1 – [4 + ¿ T2 + T3 +2T5 = − T∞ − q2 =0

k k k

2

2∗75∗0.01 2∗75∗0.01 0.01 6

T1 – [4 + ¿ T2 + T3 +2T5 = − *25 − ¿ 2∗10 =0

15 15 15

Finite difference equation for node 3: Volume element surrounding node 3 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(3).

h, T∞

2 3

Δy/2 qs

Δy Δx/2

Δx 6

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 3 per unit width measured

normal to the paper can be written as:

T 2−T 3 T 6 −T 3

Or k ( Δy

2

∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δx

2

∗1)( Δy ) +h ( Δx2 ∗1) (T∞ − T3)

Δx

+ ( Δy

2

∗1 ) qs +

( 2

∗Δy

2 )

∗1 q'3' ' =0

T2 – [2 + ] T3 + T6 = − T∞ − qs − q3 =0

k k k 2k

209

Substituting the given data in the above equation we have

T2 – [ 2 + ] T3 + T6 = − *25 – * 5000 –

15 15 15 2∗15

* 2 * 10 6

Finite difference equation for node 4: Volume element surrounding node 4 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(4).

h, T∞

1

Insulated

4 5

7

Δx

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 4 per unit width measured

normal to the paper can be written as:

T 1−T 4

Or k ( Δx

2

∗1)( Δy ) + k (Δy*1) ( T Δx−T )

5 4

+k ( Δx

2

∗1

T 7 −T 4

)( Δy )

+ ( Δy∗Δx

2

∗1 ) q ' ''

4 =0

2

Δx '''

T1 – 4T4 + 2T5 = − T7 − q3

k

210

2

0.01

T1 – 4T4 + 2T5 = − 100 − * 2 * 10 6

15

Finite difference equation for node 5: Volume element surrounding node 5 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(5).

2

5

4 5 6

Δx Δy

8

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 3 per unit width measured

normal to the paper can be written as:

Or k Δy ( T Δx−T )

4 5

+ k Δx ( T Δy−T )

2 5

+ k Δy ( T Δx−T )

6 5

+ k Δx ( T Δy−T )

8 5

+ (Δx*

Δx2 '''

T2 + T4 + T6 – 4 T5 = − T8 − q3

k

Substituting the given data in the above equation we have

0.012

T2 + T4 + T6 – 4 T5 = − 100 − * 2 * 10 6

15

Or T2 + T4 + T6 – 4 T5 = − 113.33 (e)

Finite difference equation for node 6: Volume element surrounding node 6 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.7(6).

211

3

Δx

Δy

5 6

qs

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 6 per unit width measured

normal to the paper can be written as:

Or k Δy ( T Δx−T )

5 6

+k ( Δx

2

∗1

T 3−T 6

)( Δy ) +k ( Δx

2

∗1

T 9 −T 6

Δy )( ) + (Δy*1)qs

+ ( Δy∗Δx

2

∗1 ) q ' ''

6 =0

Substituting Δy = Δx and simplifying we get

2

2 Δx Δx '''

T3 + 2T5 – 4T6 = − T9 – q – q6

k s k

2∗0.01∗5000 0.012

T3 + 2T5 – 4T6 = − – * 2* 10 6

15 15

Eqs. (a) to (f) are solved using Online Linear Algebra Tool Kit and the nodal temperatures

are found to be as follows:

T6 = 119.030C

212

Example 5.8:Hot combustion gases of a furnace are flowing through a concrete chimney

[(k = 1.4 W/(m-K)] of rectangular cross section as shown in Fig. E5.8.The flow section of

the chimney is 20 cm X 40 cm, and the thickness of the wall of the chimney is 10 cm. The

average temperature of the hot gases in the chimney is Ti = 280 0C, and the average

convective heat transfer coefficient inside the chimney is h i = 75 W/(m2-K). The chimney is

losing heat from its outer surface to the ambient air at 15 0C by convection with a surface

heat transfer coefficient of ho = 18 W/(m2-K). Using the finite difference method with Δx = Δy

= 10 cm and taking full advantage of the symmetry, determine (a) the finite difference

formulation of the problem to find steady two-dimensional temperatures at the nodal points,

(b) the temperatures at these nodal points, and (c) the rate of heat loss for a 1-m-long section

of the chimney.

h0, T0

k

10 cm

20 cm

10 cm

H

10 cm 40 cm 10 cm

h i , Ti

213

Sketch for example 5.8 with nodes:Because of symmetry only one fourth of the cross section

of the chimney is considered for analysis as shown below.

Axis of symmetry

(Insulated boundary)

1 2

hi,Ti

Δx

3 4 5 6

4

Δy/2

Δy/2

7 8 9 10

Δx/2 h0,T0

Known: k = 1.4 W/(m-K); Δx = Δy = 0.1 m ; hi =75 W/(m2-K); Ti = 280 0C;

h0 = 18 W/(m2-K); T0 = 15 0C

Find: (i) finite difference equations to determine steady two dimensional temperatures at

different nodes in the chimney T1 to T10 (ii) temperatures at the nodes and (iii) rate of heat

transfer for 1 m height of the chimney

Assumptions: (i) Two dimensional steady state conduction; (ii) Thermal conductivity of the

chimney is constant; (iii) No radiation losses from the outer surface of the chimney to the

surroundings

Solution: Finite difference equation for node 1: The volume element surrounding node 1 is

shown in Fig. E5.8(1). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as

1 2

Δy/2

hi,Ti

Δy

Δx/2

214

Q5-1 + Q2-1 + Qconvection = 0

5 1

+k ( Δy2 ∗1) ( T Δx−T )

2 1

+ hi ( Δy2 ∗1) (Ti – T1) =

0

hi Δx hi Δx

−[2 + ¿ T1 + T2 + T5 = − [ ¿ Ti

k k

75∗0.1 75∗0.1

−[2+ ]* T1 + T2 + T5 = − [ ]*280

1.4 1.4

Finite difference equation for node 1: The volume element surrounding node 2 is shown in

Fig. E5.8(2). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as

1 2

Δy/2

ho,To

Δy

Δx/2

1 2

+k ( Δx2 ∗1) ( T Δy−T )

6 2

+ ho ( Δy2 ∗1) (To – T2) =

0

+ ho Δx ho Δx

T1 – [2 ¿ T2 + T6 = − To

k k

215

Substituting for the given quantities we have

75∗0.1 75∗0.1

T1 − [ 2 + 1.4

]* T2 + T6 = − [

1.4

]*15

Finite difference equation for node 3: The volume element surrounding node 3 is shown in

Fig. E5.8(3). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows.

hi,Ti

3 4

Δy/2

Δy

Δx/2

7

Axis of Symmetry (Insulated)

T 7−T 3 T 4 −T 3

Or k ( Δx

2

∗1 )(Δy ) +k ( Δy

2

∗1 )( Δx ) + hi ( Δx2 ∗1) ( T Δ−Ty )

i 3

=0

+ hi Δx hi Δx

T7 – [2 ¿ T3 + T4 = − Ti

k k

75∗0.1 75∗0.1

T7 − [ 2 + 1.4

]* T3 + T4 = − [

1.4

]*15

Finite difference equation for node 4: The volume element surrounding node 4 is shown in

Fig. E5.8(4). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows.

Δx h i , Ti

216

4

3 5

Δy/2

Δx/2 Δy/2

8

T 3−T 4

Or k ( Δ2y ∗1)( Δx ) + k (Δx *1) ( T Δ−Ty )

8 4

+k ( Δ2y ∗1)(

T 5−T 4

Δx )

+ hi(Δx*1)(Ti – T4) = 0

2∗75∗0.1 2∗75∗0.1

T3 − [ 4 + ]* T4 + 2T8 = − * 280

1.4 1.4

Finite difference equation for node 5: The volume element surrounding node 5 is shown in

Fig. E5.8(5). Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows.

hi,Ti

Δy/2

4 5 6

Δy/2

Δx/2 Δx/2

217

Q4-5 + Q1-5 + Q6-5 + Q9-5 + Qconvection = 0

T 4−T 5 T 1−T 5 T 6 −T 5

Or k ( Δy

2

∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δx

2

∗1 )( Δy ) + k ( Δy∗1 ) ( Δx )

T 9 −T 5

+ k ( Δx∗1 )

Δy ( ) + hi ([ Δx2 + Δy2 )∗1]( T −T )

i 5 =0

Finite difference equation for node 6: Volume element surrounding node 6 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(6). Energy balance equation for the volume element can

be written as follows:

Δx

Δy ho, To

5 6

10

218

Q5-6 + Q3-6 + Q10-6 + Qconvection = 0

Δx Δx

∗1 ∗1

2 2

Or k (Δy*1) ( T Δx−T )

5 6

+k T 3−T 6 +k T 10−T 6

(¿ )

( Δy ) (¿ )

(

Δy )

+ ho(Δy *1) (To – T6) = 0

Finite difference equation for node 7: Volume element surrounding node 7 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(7). Energy balance equation for the volume element can

be written as follows:

T 3−T 7 T 8 −T 7

Or k ( Δx2 ∗1)( Δy ) +k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) + ho ( Δx2 ∗1) (To – T7) = 0

Axis of symmetry

3

Δx

Δy

7 8

ho, To

219

Fig. E5.8(7) Volume element surrounding node 7

T3 – [2 + hoΔx / k] T7 + T8 = − ho( Δx / k) To

Finite difference equation for node 8: Volume element surrounding node 8 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(8). Energy balance equation for the volume element can

be written as follows:

4

Δx

Δy

7 8 9

ho,To

T 7 −T 8 T 4 −T 8

Or k ( Δy

2

∗1 )( Δx )+ k (Δx *1) ( Δy ) + k ( Δy2 ∗1)( T Δx−T )

9 8

220

Finite difference equation for node 9: Volume element surrounding node 9 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(9). Energy balance equation for the volume element can

be written as follows:

5

Δx

Δy

8 9 10

ho, To

T 8 −T 9

Or k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) + k (Δx *1) ( T Δ−Ty )

5 9

+k ( Δy2 ∗1)(

T 10−T 9

Δx )

+ ho (Δx *1)(To – T9) = 0

Finite difference equation for node 10: Volume element surrounding node 10 with the

nomenclature is shown in Fig. E5.8(10). Energy balance equation for the volume element can

be written as follows:

221

Δx

Δy

9 10

ho, To

T 9 −T 10 T 6 −T 10

Or k ( Δy2 ∗1)( Δx ) +k ( Δx2 ∗1)( Δy ) + ho ( Δx2 + Δy2 )∗1 [To –T10] =

0

Equations (a) to (j) form a system of 10 linear equations and are listed below:

T1 – 7.357T2 + T6 = − 110.355 (b)

– 7.357T3 + T4 + T7 = − 110.355 (c)

T3 – 14.714T4 + 2T8 = − 3000 (d)

T1 + T4 – 10.714T5 + 2T6 + 2T9 = − 3000 (e)

T3 + 2T5 – 6.571T6 + T10 = − 38.571 (f)

T3 – 3.286T7 + T8 = − 19.286 (g)

T7 – 6.571T8 + 2T4 = − 38.571 (h)

2T5 + T8 – 6.571T9 + T10 = − 38.571 (i)

T6 – 4.571T10 + T9 = − 38.571 (j)

222

[ai,j]{Ti} = {ci}

and z directions in Cylinders with Energy Generation

5.6.1.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes: The cylinder is divided into small

sub regions as shown in Fig. 5.13 (a).The volume element surrounding the node i,j is shown

Δz iΔr

Δr

jΔz

223

z

i,j+1

i+1,j

i,j

i-1,j

i, j-1

separately in Fig.5.13(b). The volume element is in the form of a circular ring of thickness Δz

in the z-direction and of radial thickness Δr in the radial direction as shown in the

figure.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as follows:

Or k*2π iΔr*Δr (T −T i , j

i , j−1

Δz ) + k*2π (iΔr + Δr/2)Δz (T −T i , j

i +1, j

Δr )

+ k*2π iΔr*Δr

'''

(T −T i , j

i , j+1

Δz ) + k*2π (iΔr − Δr/2)Δz (T −T i , j

i−1, j

Δr ) + 2πiΔr*Δr*Δz

qi , j =0

1 1 Δr 2

Ti,j-1 + Ti,j+1 + ( 1−

2i ) Ti-1,j + ( 1+

2i ) Ti+1,j − 4Ti,j = −

k

'''

qi , j

(5.34)

(j+1)Δz

224

jΔz

(j-1)Δz (i,j)

(i+1,j)

(i,j-1) (i,j+1) Δr

(i+1)Δr Δz

(i-1,j)

iΔr

(i-1)Δr

cylinder:Fig.5.13(c) shows a volume element surrounding the node (0,j) on the axis of the

cylinder .

(1,j)

Δz

Δr

Axis of cylinder

Δz

intermediate node (0,j) on the axis of the cylinder

Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows:

T 0, j−1 – T 0, j T 1, j – T 0, j

k π (Δr/2)2 ( Δz ) + k* 2π (Δr/2) Δz ( Δr ) + k π (Δr/2)2

(T – T 0, j

0, j+1

Δz )

225

+ π (Δr/2)2Δz q'0,' 'j = 0

2

T 0, j−1 + T 0, j +1 + 4 T 1, j − 6 T 0, j = − ( )

Δr '' '

k

q 0, j j = 1,2,3……N-1

(5.35)

5.6.3.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the outer curved surface of the

cylinder subjected to convection boundary condition: Fig.5.13(d) shows a volume element

surrounding the node (M,j) on the outer surface of the cylinder subjected to the convection

boundary condition.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as

follows:

hM, T∞

jΔz

Δr/2

Δz Δr

M-1,j

[ ) ](

T M , j−1−T M , j

[ ) ](

T M , j +1−T M , j

2 2

kπ

2

(

( MΔr ) – MΔr−

Δr

2 Δz ) + kπ

2

(

( MΔr ) – MΔr−

Δr

2 Δz )

226

[ )]

2

T M−1, j −T M , j

+ k*2π ( MΔr−

Δr

2 ) Δz ( Δr ) +

2

(

( MΔr ) – MΔr−

Δr

2

Δz q'M' ' , j

+ 2π M Δr Δz hM (T∞ − TM,j) = 0

3 M −1 2 h M Δr Δr 2 2 h M Δr T ∞

TM,j-1 + TM,j+1 – [4 ( 4 M −1

+

k) ¿ TM,j = −

k

q'M' ' , j −

k

j = 1,2,3,…N-1 (5.36)

5.6.4.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the outer curved surface of the

cylinder subjected to prescribed heat flux condition: Fig.5.13(e) shows a volume element

surrounding the node (M,j) on the outer surface of the cylinder subjected to the convection

boundary condition.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as

follows:

(qs)M,j

jΔz

Δr/2

Δz Δr

M-1,j

Q(M,j-1) – (M,j) + Q(M,j+ 1) – (M,j) + Q(M-1,j) – (M,j) + Qg + Qs = 0 for j = 1,2,3,…N-1

227

[ ) ](

T M , j−1−T M , j

[ ) ](

T M , j +1−T M , j

2 2

kπ

2

(

( MΔr ) – MΔr−

Δr

2 Δz ) + kπ

2

(

( MΔr ) – MΔr−

Δr

2 Δz )

) [ )]

2

T M−1, j −T M , j

+ k*2π ( MΔr−

Δr

2 ) Δz ( Δr

+

2

(

( MΔr ) – MΔr−

Δr

2

Δz q'M' ' , j

+ 2π M Δr Δz (qs)M,j = 0

3 M −1 2

2 ( q s ) M , j Δr

TM,j-1 + TM,j+1 – 4 ( 4 M −1 ) TM,j = −

Δr

k

'''

qM , j −

k

j = 1,2,3,…N-1 (5.37)

5.6.5.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes on the outer flat surface of the

cylinder subjected to convection boundary condition: Fig.5.13(f) shows a volume element

surrounding the node (i,0) on the flat surface at z = 0 of the cylinder subjected to the

convection boundary condition. Energy balance equation for this volume element can be

written as follows

i+1,0

h0,T∞ Δr

i,0 i,1

i-1,0 iΔr

Δz

228

i, 0

[( Δr 2

)]

2

Δr Δz Δr

k*2π (iΔr +

2

) ( )

2

T i +1,0−T ¿ + k π

( ¿¿ Δr )

iΔr +

2 ) (− iΔr−

2

(T i,1 −T i , 0

Δz )

i,0

[( Δr 2

)]

2

Δr Δz Δr

+ k*2π (iΔr −

2

) ( ) 2

T i−1,0 −T ¿

( ¿ ¿ Δr )

+ h0 π iΔr +

2) ( − iΔr−

2

(T∞ − Ti,0)

[( Δr 2

) ] ( Δz2 )

2

Δr

+π iΔr +

2 ) (− iΔr−

2

'''

qi , 0 = 0

1 1 2 h0 Δr 2 h0 Δr

( 1+

2i ) Ti+1,0 + ( 1−

2i ) Ti−1,0 + 2 Ti,1 – [2 +

k

¿ Ti,0 = −

k

T∞ −

Δr 2 '''

qi , 0

2k

i = 1,2,3,……………M-1 (5.38)

Similarly the energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node i,N [See

Fig.5.13(g)] can be written as follows:

1 1 2 h0 Δr 2 h N Δr

( 1+

2i ) Ti+1,N + ( 1−

2i ) Ti−1,N + 2 Ti,N-1 – [2 +

k

¿ Ti,N = −

k

T∞ −

Δr 2 '''

qi , N

2k

i = 1,2,3,……………M-1 (5.39)

i+1,N

Δr

hN,T∞

i,N-1 i,N

229

i-1,N iΔr

Δz

5.6.6.Finite difference equations for volume elements surrounding the nodes (0,0) and

(0,N): The nomenclature for the volume elements surrounding the nodes (0,0) and (0,N) are

shown in Fig. 5.13(h). The energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the

node (0,0) can be written as:

Δz h0,T∞ hN,T∞ Δz

(1,0) (1,N)

Δr Δr

Axis of symmetry

Fig.5.13(k): Nomenclature for volume elements surrounding nodes (0,0) and (0,N)

k*2π (Δr/2)(Δz/2) ( Δr ) + k* π(Δr/2)2 ( Δz ) + h0 π(Δr/2)2[T∞ − T0,0]

+ π(Δr/2)2(Δz/2) q'0,0

''

=0

''

(5.40)

230

Similarly it can be shown that the energy balance equation for the volume element

surrounding the node (0,N) is given by

''

(5.41)

5.6.7.Finite difference equations for volume elements surrounding the nodes (M,0) and

(M,N):

The nomenclature for the volume elements surrounding the nodes (M,0) and (M,N) are

shown in Fig. 5.13(k). The energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the

node (M,0) can be written as:

hM,T∞

Δr Δr

Δz Δz

Fig.5.13(k): Nomenclature for volume elements surrounding nodes (M,0) and (M,N)

M ,1

Δz ) + k 2π (MΔr – Δr/2)(Δz/2) (T −T M , 0

M−1,0

Δr )

+ hM {π[(MΔr)2 – (MΔr – Δr/2)2] + 2πMΔr(Δz/2)}(T∞− TM,0)

231

Assuming Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

(2− 21M ) M(Δr/2) [TM,1 – TM,0] + (1− 21M ) MΔr [TM-1,0 – TM,0]

2

1 1

+ hMMΔr (Δr/k) [2 −

4M

] [T∞ − TM,0] + ( 2−

2M ) MΔr ( )

Δr

4k

q'M' ' ,0 =0

Or ( 1−

1

4M ) TM,1 + ( 1−

1

2M ) TM-1,0 – {( 1−

1

2M

h Δr

+ M

k

2−) 1

4M ( )} TM,0

= {( 1−

1

2M

h Δr

)

+ M

k

2−

1

4M( )} T∞ − ( 2−

1 Δr 2

2M 4k ) '''

q M ,0 (5.42)

Similarly for the volume element surrounding the node (M,N) the energy balance equation

reduces to

1

2M

h Δr

+ M

k )2−

1

4M ( )} TM,N

= {( 1−

1

2M

+)

h M Δr

k

2−( 1

4M )} T∞ − ( 2−

1 Δr 2

2M 4k ) '''

q M ,0 (5.43)

and θ directions in Cylinders with Energy Generation

5.7.1.Finite difference equations for intermediate nodes: The cylinder is divided into small

sub regions and the volume element surrounding the node i,j will be as shown in Fig.5.14.

(i,j+1)

(i+1,j)

(i,j)

(i-1,j)

232

(i, j-1)

Δθ

Δθ

iΔr Δr

Fig.5.14: Nomenclature for the volume element surrounding an intermediate node (i,j)

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node (i,j) can be written as

follows:

Q(i-1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i+1,j) – (i,j) + Q(i,j+1) – (i,j) + Q(i,j-1) – (i,j) + (Q'g' ' )(i , j) =0

Or k [(iΔr −

Δr

2

)Δθ*1] ( Δr ) + k (iΔr +

Δr

2

)Δθ ( Δr ) +k

T i , j−1−T i , j

[Δr*1] ( iΔr Δθ )

T i , j+1 −T i , j

+ k [Δr*1] ( iΔr Δθ ) ' ''

+ (iΔrΔθ*Δr*1) ( q g )(i, j ) = 0

1 1 1 1

Or [1 − ] Ti−1,j + [1 + ] Ti+1,j + Ti,j-1 + Ti,j+1

2i 2i (iΔθ )2 (iΔθ )2

2 Δr 2

− [2 +

(iΔθ )2

] Ti,j = −

k

( q 'g' ' )(i, j )

5.7.2 Finite difference equations for innermost node (0,0): The volume element

surrounding the innermost node (0,0) will be as shown in Fig.5.15.Energy balance equation

233

Δθ

(1,j)

(0,0)

Δr

for the volume element surrounding the node (0,0) can be written as follows:

Δr

Δθ∗1

2

Or k T 1, j −T 0,0 + ( Δr2 Δθ∗Δr ∗1 ) ( q '' '

)

g (0,0) = 0 for j = 1,2,3, …..N-1

(¿ )

( Δr ) 2

2

Δr

Or T1,j – T0,0 = −

2k

(q 'g'' )(0,0) for j = 1,2,3, …..N-1

(5.45)

5.7.3.Finite difference equations for nodes on the outer surface with convective boundary

condition: The volume element surrounding a node (M,j) on the outer surface of the cylinder

will be as shown in Fig.5.16.Energy balance equation for this element can be written as

follows:

(M,j+1)

h,T∞

(M,j)

(M-1,j)

234

Δθ

Δθ

(M,j-1)

MΔr

Q(M-1,j) – (M,j) + Q(M,j+1) – (M,j) + Q(M,j−1) – (M,j) + Qconvection + (Qg)M,j = 0 for j = 1,2,3,….N

T M−1, j −T M , j T M , j−1−T M , j

Or k { (MΔr −

Δr

2

)Δθ*1} ( Δr ) + k(

Δr

2

* 1) ( MΔrΔθ ) + k(

Δr

2

* 1) ( T MΔrΔθ

−T

M , j+1

) M, j

Δr Δr

+ h (MΔrΔθ*1)(T∞ − TM,j) + (MΔr −

4

)Δθ*

2

*1 (q 'g'' )(M , j) = 0 for j

=1,2,3,….N

Simplifying we get

2 ( MΔθ )

2

) ( +

T M , j+1

2 ( MΔθ )

2

) − ([ 1− 2 1M )+ ( MΔθ1 ) +( hΔrk )]

2 TM,j

2

hΔr

=− ( )

k

T∞ − ( 1−

1

4M )( ) (q

Δr

2

' ''

)

g (M , j) for j=1,2,3,..N

(5.46)

Example 5.9.A a heating element in the form of a short solid cylinder of radius 2 cm and

length 6 cm is generating heat at a uniform rate of 2*106 W/m3. The thermal conductivity of

the heating element may be taken as 50 W/(m-K). The element is exposed to the surroundings

at a uniform temperature of 300C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 200 W/(m2-

k).Assuming two dimensional steady state conduction in r and z direction (i) obtain the finite

difference equations to determine the steady state temperature in the cylinder assuming Δr =

Δz = 1 cm (ii) solve the system of equations thus obtained for temperature distribution in the

cylinder.Assume that the circular faces of the cylinder are insulated.

r

Symmetry lines

8 9 10 11

h,T∞

4 5 6 7 R Insulated

235

Δr

0 1 2 3 z

Δz

q'i ', 'j = 2*106 W/m3; T∞ = 30 0C.

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to determine the temperatures at discrete points in the

cylinder;(ii Temperatures from the finite difference equations thus formed

Assumptions: (i) two dimensional steady state conduction in r and z directions only

(ii)Thermal conductivity and the heat generation are constants.(iii) Heat transfer coefficients

from all the outer surfaces (the curved surface and the flat surface)are same.

Solution: Since there are two symmetry lines as shown in the figure only one fourth of the

cylinder need be considered for finite difference formulation .Since Δr = Δz = 1 cm there will

be 12 nodes as shown in the figure above.

4

Δr

0 1

Δz

The nomenclature for the volume element surrounding node 0 is shown in the figure

above.Energy balance equation for this volume element can be written as

Q4-0 + Q1-0 + Qg = 0

Or k 2π (Δr/2)(Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )

4 0

+ k π (Δr/2)2 ( T Δr−T )

1 0 '''

+ π (Δr/2)2)(Δz/2) ( q g )0

= 0

Δr 2 '''

4(T4 – T0) + 2(T1 – T0) = − ( q g )0

k

236

'''

Substituting for Δr,k and ( q g )0 we get

0.012

− 6T0 + 2T1 + 4T4 = − *2*10 6

50

Finite difference Equations for node ‘3’: The volume element surrounding the node 3 is

shown in figure below.Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 3

can be written as

7 Insulated

Axis of symmetry

Δr

2 3

Δz

Q7-3 + Q2-3 + Qg = 0

T 7 −T 3 T 2−T 3

Or k 2π (Δr/2)(Δz/2) ( Δr ) + k π (Δr/2)2 ( Δr ) '''

+ π (Δr/2)2)(Δz/2) ( q g )3 =

0

Finite Difference Equations for nodes 1 and 2: The volume elements surrounding nodes 1

and 3 are shown below.

5 6

Δz

Δr

0 2 1 1 2 3

Axis of symmetry

Energy balance equation surrounding the node 1 can be written as

237

k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )

'''

0 1

+ k 2π (Δr/2)Δz ( T Δr−T )

5 1

+ k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )

2 1

+π

(Δr/2)2Δz ( q g )1 =0

2

Δr '''

T0 – 6T1 + T2 + 4T5 = − ( q g )1

k

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k and ( q g )0 we get

0.012

T0 – 6T1 + T2 + 4T5 = − * 2* 106

50

k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )

1 2

+ + k 2π (Δr/2)Δz ( T Δr−T )

6 2

+ k π(Δr/2)2 ( T Δz−T )

3 2

'''

+ π (Δr/2)2Δz ( q g )2 =0

2

Δr '''

T1 + 4T6 + T3 – 6 T2 = − ( q g )2

k

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k, and ( q g )0 we get

0.012

T1 + 4T6 + T3 – 6T2 = − * 2* 106

50

Finite Difference Equations for node 4: The volume element surrounding the node 4 is

shown in the figure below.Energy balance equation for the element is

238

Or k 2π (Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )

0 4

+ k 2π (Δr +Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )

8 4

+

[( )] (

2 2

T 5−T 4

kπ Δr +

Δr

2 ) (

− Δr−

Δr

2 Δz )

[( Δr 2

)]

2

Δr

+π Δr +

2 ) (

− Δr−

2

(Δz/2) ( q g ) 4

'''

=0

4 5

Δr

Δz

0

2 Δr 2 '''

T0 – 8T4 + 3T8 = − (qg )4

k

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k, and ( q g )0 we get

Finite Difference Equations for nodes 5 and 6: Both these nodes are internal nodes and

hence the heat transfer across the boundary surfaces of these nodes are only by

conduction.The volume elements surrounding node 5 is shown below.

9

5

4 6

Δr

Δz

239

1

Fig.: Volume element surrounding node 5

Energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node 5 can be written as

[( ) ( ) ] ( T Δz−T )

Δr 2 Δr 2

Or k π Δr +

2

−

2

4 5

+ k 2π ( Δr + Δr2 ) Δz ( T Δr−T )

9 5

[( ) ( ) ] ( T Δz−T )

2 2

+kπ Δr +

Δr

2

−

Δr

2

6 5

+ k 2π ( Δr2 ) Δz ( T Δr−T )

1 5

[( ) ( ) ] Δz (q )

Δr 2 Δr 2

' ''

+π Δr + − g 5 =0

2 2

2 Δr 2 '''

T1 + 2T4 − 8T5 + 2T6 + 3T9 = − ( q g )5

k

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k, and ( q g )0 and simplifying we get

Finite Difference Equations for node 7: The volume element surrounding node 7 is shown

below.The energy balance equation is

11

Δr Insulated

6 7

240

Δz

3

[( ) ( ) ] ( T Δz−T )

Δr 2 Δr 2

Or kπ Δr +

2

−

2

6 7

+ k 2π (Δr +Δr/2) (Δz/2) ( T Δr−T )

11 7

+

3 7

+

[( ) ( )]

Δr 2 Δr 2

'''

+π Δr + − (Δz/2) ( q g )7 =0

2 2

2 Δr 2 '''

T3 + 4T6 – [ 8 ] T7 + 3T11 = − ( q g )7

k

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )7 and simplifying we get

Finite Difference Equations for node 8: The volume element surrounding the node 8 is

shown in the figure below. Energy balance equation for the element is given by

8 h,T∞ 9

Δr

Δz

Symmetry line

Δr

241

Or

2

T 4 −T 8

k 2π (Δr+ Δr/2)Δz/2) ( Δr ) +kπ ( 2

( 2 Δr ) −

2{ } ) ( T Δz−T )

3 Δr 9 8

+

2

h{2π 2Δr (Δz/2)}(T∞ −T8) + π ( ( 2 Δr ) −

2

{ } )( Δz/2)

3 Δr

2

'''

( q g )8 =0

7 Δr 2 '''

6 T4 – [13 + 8 (hΔr/k)]T8 + 7T9 = − 8 (hΔr/k)T∞ − ( q g )8

k

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )8 and simplifying we get

Finite Difference Equations for nodes 9 and 10 : The volume element surrounding node 9

is shown in figure below.Energy balance equation for the volume element shown is

h,T∞

8 9 10

Δr

Δz

5

Axis of cylinder

Δr

Or

k π{(2Δr)2 – (Δr + Δr/2)2} ( T Δz−T )

8 9

+ k 2π(Δr + Δr/2)Δz ( T Δr−T )

5 9

+

T 10−T 9

k π{(2Δr)2 – (Δr + Δr/2)2} ( Δz ) + h2π(Δr + Δr/2)Δz (T∞ − T9)

'''

+ π{(2Δr)2 – (Δr + Δr/2)2}Δz ( q g )9 =0

242

Substituting Δz = Δr and simplifying we get

'''

12 T5 + 7T8 – [26 + (12hΔr/k)]T9 + 7T10 = − (12hΔr/k)T∞ − 7 (Δr2/k) ( q g )9

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )8 and simplifying we get

h,T∞

9 10 11

Δr

Δz

6

Axis of cylinder

Δr

It can be shown that the energy balance equation for this volume element will be

Finite Difference Equations for node 11: The volume element surrounding node 11 is

shown in the figure below. The energy balance equation for this element is as follows

h,T∞

10 11 Insulated

Δr

Δz

7

Fig. Volume element surrounding node 11

Δr

243

Q10-11 + Q7-11 + Qconvection + (Qg)11 = 0

Or

T 10−T 11 T 7 −T 11

k π[(Δr + Δr/2)2 – (Δr/2)2] ( Δz ) + k 2π (Δr + Δr/2)Δz ( Δr )

+ h 2π(2Δr)(Δz/2)(T∞ − T11)

'''

+ π[(Δr + Δr/2)2 – (Δr/2)2](Δz/2) ( q g )11 =0

'''

3T7 + 2T10 – [5 + 2hΔr/k]T11 = − 2(hΔr/k)T∞ − (Δr2/k) ( q g )11

'''

Substituting the values for Δr,k,h,T∞ and ( q g )8 and simplifying we get

Equations (1) to (12) form a system of linear equations which can be solved by using any of

the standard techniques.

In steady state conduction problems the solution obtained is valid for any time since under

steady state conditions, the temperatures in the solid do not change with time. But in transient

conduction problems the temperatures change with time as well as with position. Therefore

the finite difference solution of transient problems requires discretization in time in addition

to discretization in space as shown in Fig.5.17 for one dimensional transient conduction

problem.The discretization in time domain is done by selecting a suitable time step Δt and

solving for unknown nodal temperatures for each time step Δt until the solution at the desired

time is obtained.In a transient conduction problem a superscript (say ‘k’) is used to indicate

the index or counter of time steps with k = 0 corresponding to the specified initial condition.

Thus Tik represents the temperature at the node ‘i’ after time steps kΔt have elapsed.The

energy balance equation for transient conduction involves one additional term representing

the change in the energy content of the solid with time, Hence this equation for a volume

element for time duration of Δt can be written as follows:

{Net amount of heat transfer into the volume element across all its surfaces during time

interval Δt} + {Heat generated within the element during time interval Δt}

244

= {The amount of increase of the energy content of the element during the time

interval Δt}.

k +1 k+1 k+1

T Ti-1 Ti Ti+1

k +1

Δt

k

k–1 k

Ti+1

k

Ti k

Ti-1

Δt Δx Δx

x

0 1 2 i–1 i i +1

problem

All sides

Where the rate of heat transfer Q normally consists of conduction terms for interior nodes,

but may involve convection, surface heat flux and radiation for boundary nodes.

Noting that ΔEelement = ρ ΔVCp ΔT, where ρ is the density,ΔV is the volume and Cp is the

specific heat of the element and dividing Eq. (5.44) by Δt we have

ΔT

∑Q + [Qg]element = ρΔV Cp

Δt

(5.45)

All sides

245

Eq.(5.45) is applicable to volume element surrounding any node ‘i’ in the domain.ΔT

represents the change in the temperature of the volume element surrounding the node i for a

time step of Δt and this can be written as [Tik+1 – Tik]. Hence Eq. (5.45) reduces to

∑Q + [Qg]element = ρΔV Cp

( T ik+1−T ki )

Δt

(5.45)

All sides

The term ∑Q involves temperatures at adjacent nodes i – 1 and i +1 and question arises as

All sides

whether to use these temperatures at previous time step ‘k’ or the new time step ‘k+1’. Both

these approaches are used in practice. The approach using the previous time step is called the

explicit method where as the method using the new time step is called the implicit method

Therefore Eq.(5.45) takes the following forms for the two methods:

( T ik+1−T ki )

Δt

(5.46)

All sides

+ [Qg] i+1

element = ρΔV Cp

( T ik+1−T ki )

Δt

(5.47)

All sides

The explicit and implicit formulations given in Eqs.(5.46) and (5.47) are quite general and

can be used in any coordinate system and is applicable to multi dimensional transient

conduction problems also except that the volume element in multi dimensional problems will

have more surfaces and thus involve more terms in the summation.

The explicit method is easy to implement but imposes a limit on the allowable time step

in order to avoid instabilities in the solution and the implicit method requires the nodal

temperatures to be solved simultaneously for each time step but imposes no limit on the

magnitude of the .time step

Consider unsteady one dimensional conduction in a plane wall of thickness L with heat

generation per unit volume equal to q'g' ' (x,t). In generalthe heat generation may wary with

time and position. Let the conductivity of the wall be a constant equal to k. The wall is

subdivided into M small regions so that the thickness of each such small region is Δx =

L/M.For any internal small regions shown in Fig.5 18 the energy balance equation per unit

time can be written as follows:

246

(Q'g' ' )i

Qi-1,I Qi+1,i

x

0 1 2 3 i-1 i i+1 M-1 M

node i

ΔE

Qi-1,i+ Qi+1,i + (Qg) i =

Δt

T ki−1−T ki T ki +1−T ik

Or k AΔx ( Δx ) + k AΔx ( Δx ) + AΔx q'g' ' = ρAΔxCp

T ki +1−T ki

( Δt )

T ki−1 +T ki+1−2 T ik

( )

k +1 k

( T i −T i

Δt ) =α

( Δx )2

' '' 2

q g Δx

T ik+1 = τ (T ki−1+ T ki+ 1) + ( 1−2 τ ) T ki + τ ; i = 1,2,3,…..M-1

k

(5.48)

αΔt

Where τ=

Δx 2

(5.49)

τ is the Fourier number for the element under consideration with characteristic length Δx.

247

Eq. (5.48) is called the explicit scheme because the temperature at any node i at the present

time step (k+1) is explicitly expressed in terms of the temperatures at the previous time step

k.

Restriction on τ (Stability Criterion): The explicit method, though easy to use has an

undesirable feature which restricts its utility. The method is not unconditionally stable and

there is a restriction on the value of the parameter τ if the scheme has to be stable.The

restriction is that in Eq.(5.48) ( 1−2 τ ) ≥ 0 i.e.

0<τ≤ ½ (5.50)

This restriction implies that for given values of α and Δx, the time step Δt cannot exceed the

limit imposed on it by Eq. (5.50). This is called the stability criterion. It can be shown

mathematically or by invoking second law of thermodynamics that the stability criterion is

satisfied if the coefficients of all T ik in the expressions for T ik+1 are greater than or

equal to zero for all nodes.If this stability criterion is violated then the solution becomes

unstable as shown in Fig.5.19.It is instructive to determine this stability criterion by the

following physical argument.

k

Let at any time step k the temperatures T i−1 and T ik+1 at nodes i-1 and i+1 are

equal but less than T ik at node i between them. Then if the value of τ exceeds ½, the

coefficient ( 1−2 τ ) becomes negative. Then, according to Eq.(5.48),for negative value of

( 1−2 τ ) , the temperature T ik+1 at node i at the next time step will be less than that at the

neighbouring two nodes. This is not possible according to the second law of

thermodynamics, since we had assumed that T ik higher than that at neighboring nodes.

Hence to obtain meaningful solution it is necessary that ( 1−2 τ ) should not be negative.

Exact solution

finite difference solution

Finite Difference Equations for Nodes on Boundaries: Eq. (5.48) can be used for all

internal nodes (i = 1,2,3,……………M-1).If the boundary temperatures are specified then we

have M-1 equations to solve for the temperatures at M-1 nodes.If the boundaries are

subjected to convection or prescribed surface heat flux then we have to develop the finite

difference equations for the boundary nodes also to determine the boundary temperatures.The

248

time dependent energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding the node 0 (see

Fig.5.20) subjected to convection can be written as follows:

k

(Q'g' ' ) 0

h 0 , T∞

0 1

Δx/2

Δx

k ΔE

Q1-0 + Qconvection + (Q'g' ' )0 =

Δt

T k1 −T 0K

Or kA ( Δx ) + h0 A (T ∞−T k0 ) + A(Δx/2)

k

(q 'g'' )0 = ρ A(Δx/2) Cp

T k0 +1−T k0

( Δt )

Solving for T k+1

0 we get

T k+1

0 = ( 1−2 τ −2 τ

k )

T 0 + 2τ T 1k + 2τ

k

T∞ + τ

k

( qg )0

(5.51)

Similarly for the other boundary node M subjected to convection boundary condition the

finite difference equation can be written as

h M Δx k hM Δx 2

T k+1

M = ( 1−2 τ −2 τ

k )TM + 2τ T kM−1 + 2τ

k

T∞ + τ

Δx ' ' ' k

k

( qg )0

(5.52)

k k

For stability of the scheme the coefficients of T 0 and T M should be ≥ 0. i.e.

249

(1−2 τ −2 τ h kΔx ) ≥ 0

0

and (1−2 τ −2 τ MΔx

k )

≥0

1

Or τ≤

2( 1+ h0 Δx /k )

(5.53a)

1

and τ≤

2(1+ hM Δx /k)

(5.53b)

Example 5.10.A marble slab[k = 2W/(m – 0C) and α = 1*10 −6 m2/s],2 cm thick is initially at

a uniform temperature of 200 0C. Suddenly one of its surfaces is lowered to 00C and is

maintained at that temperature, while the other surface is kept insulated. Develop an explicit

finite difference scheme to determine the temperature distribution in the slab as a function of

position after 80 seconds have elapsed by dividing the slab into 5 sub-regions and also find

the heat flux at the boundary surface which is maintained at 00C after 80 seconds.

Insulated T5

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 x

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to determine temperatures at nodes 0 to 4at different

time steps; (ii) q5k

across the thickness of the slab

Solution: The finite difference equations for internal nodes from 1 to 4 are given by Eq.

(5.48) and (5.49) with q'g' ' = 0 and M = 5. With these conditions we have

Ti

k+1

=τ (T ki−1+ T ki+ 1) + ( 1−2 τ ) T ki i = 1,2,3,and 4.

250

For i = 2 T 2k+1 = τ (T k1 +T k3 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k2 (b)

For i = 3 T3

k+1

=τ (T k2 +T k4 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k3 (c)

For i = 4 T k+1

4 =τ (T k3 +T k5 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k4 (d)

k k

( T 0 −T 1

Δx ) = 0 for all k.

k+1 k+1

Therfore we have T 0 =T 1 (e)

αΔt

Choosing 1 − 2τ = 0 we have τ = ½ =

Δx 2

Δx 2 0.004 2

Or Δt = = = 8 s.

2α 2∗1∗10−6

k+1

T2 = 0.5* (T k1 +T k3 ) (ii)

T4

k+1

= 0.5* (T k3 +T k5 ) (iv)

T k+1

0 = T 1k+1 (v)

Eqs. (i) to (v) are used to calculate the temperatures at different nodes for each time step as

shown in the table below :

k t (s) i=0 1 2 3 4 5

x(m) = 0 00.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020

251

0 0 200 200 200 200 200 200

1 8 200 200 200 200 200 0.00

2 16 200 200 200 200 100 0.00

3 24 200 200 200 150 100 0.00

4 32 200 200 175 150 75 0.00

5 40 187.5 187.5 175 125 75 0.00

6 48 181.2 181.2 156.25 125 62.5 0.00

7 56 168.7 168.7 153.1 109.4 62.5 0.00

8 64 160.9 160.9 139.1 107.8 54.7 0.00

9 72 150 150 134.4 96.9 53.9 0.00

10 80 142.2 142.2 123.5 94.2 48.5 0.00

Heat flux at the boundary surface at x = L after t = 80 s i.e after 10 time steps is given by

10 10

q10

M =k ( T 4 −T 5

Δx ) =2* ( 48.5−0.0

0.004 )

= 24,250W/m 2

Example 5.11. A large uranium plate of thickness 4 cm, thermal conductivity 28 W/(m-K)

and thermal diffusivity of 12.5* 10 −6 m2/s is initially at a uniform temperature of 200

0

C.Heat is generated at a constant rate of 5*10 6 W/m3.Suddenly at time t = 0, one side of the

plate is brought into contact with iced water and is maintained at 0 0C at all times, while the

other side is subjected to convection to an environment at 30 0C with a heat transfer

coefficient of 45 W/(m2-K). Considering a total of three equally spaced nodes, two at the

boundaries and one at the middle of the plate, estimate the temperature distribution in the

plate 150 s after the start of the cooling process using explicit method.

Node 1

L

T0 h,T∞

0 2 x

Δx/2

Δx

Known: L = 4 cm =0.04 m; k = 28 W/(m-K); α = 12.5 * 10 −6 m 2/s; T0 = 00C; M = 3;

T∞ = 300C;h2 = 45 W/(m 2-K); q'g' ' = 5 * 10 6 W/m3;

Find: (i) Finite difference equations to determine temperatures at nodes 1 and 2 after time

150 s

252

Assumptions: (i)the plate is having constant thermal properties and constant rate of heat

generation (ii) one dimensional conduction across the thickness of the plate

Solution: The finite difference equations for internal node 1 is given by Eq. (5.48) and

(5.49) with i = 1 and M = 2. With these conditions we have

' '' 2

q g Δx

T1

k+1

=τ (T k0 +T k2 ) + ( 1−2 τ ) T k1 + τ

k

(a)

αΔt

Where τ=

Δx 2

The finite difference equation for boundary node 2 is given by Eq.(5.52) with M = 2.

i.e. k+1

T2 = ( 1−2 τ −2 τ

k )

T 2 + 2τ T 1k + 2τ

k

T∞ + τ

k

( qg )0

(b)

h2 Δx 45∗0.02

Δx = L / M = 0.04/2 = 0.02 m ; = = 0.032

k 28

From Eq.(a) for stability of the difference scheme 1−2 τ ≥ 0 or τ ≤ 0.5 (c)

≥0

1

Or (1 - 2τ – 2*0.032τ ) ≥ 0 i.e. τ ≤ i.e. ≤ 0.484

2.064

(d)

Therefore we have to choose a value of τ which satisfies both Eqs. (c) and (d)

0.484∗( 0.02 )2

Let τ = 0.484. Then Δt = = 15.5 s.

12.5∗10−6

Any time step ≤ 15.5 s can be used. Since we want the temperature after 150 s it will be

convenient to choose Δt = 15 s so that we get the required temperatures at nodes 1 and 2 after

10 time steps.Therefore

−6

12.5∗10 ∗15

τ= = 0.46875

( 0.02 )2

253

1−2∗0.46875 5∗106 (0.02)2

k+1

T1 = 0.46875* (T k0 +T k2 ) +( ¿) T

k + 0.46875*

1 28

k+1 k k

Or T1 = 0.0625 T 1 + 0.46875 T 2 + 33,482

(i)

(ii)

The temperatures at nodes 1 and 2 at each time step are calculated using the above two

equations and substituting the temperatures at the previous time step. The results are shown

in Table E5.11

k t (s) i=0 1 2

x(m) = 0 0.02 0.04

0 0 0 200 200

1 15 0 139.7 228.4

2 30 0 149.3 172.8

3 45 0 123.8 179.9

4 60 0 125.6 156.3

5 75 0 114.6 157.1

6 90 0 114.3 146.9

7 105 0 109.5 146.3

8 120 0 108.9 141.8

9 135 0 106.7 141.1

10 150 0 106.3 139.0

254

5.8.1(b). Explicit Method for One-dimensional Transient Radial conduction in a cylinder

The energy balance equation for the volume element surrounding node i (see Fig. 5.5) for a

time step Δt can be written as follows.

ΔE

Qi-1,i+ Qi+1,i + (Qg) i =

Δt

Or

k [ ( ) ] [ ]

2 π iΔr−

Δr

2

∗1

T ki−1−T ik

Δr

+ ( 2 πiΔr∗Δr∗1 ) q'i ' '

[ ( ) ] [ ]

k k k +1 k

+ k 2 π iΔr +

Δr

2

∗1

T i+1−T i

Δr

= ρ *2πiΔr2*1*Cp ( T i −T i

Δt )

i = 1,2,3……M-1

T ik+1 = τ [( ) ( )

1−

1 k

2i

T i−1+ 1+

1 k

2i

T i+1 +q'i ' '

Δr2

k ] + [ 1−2 τ ] T ki

i = 1,2,3……M-1

αΔt

where τ = and α = k/(ρCp )

Δr 2

(5.54)

Referring to Fig. 5.5, the energy balance equation for node 0 can be written as follows:

Δr 2

k ( Δr

2 π ∗1

2 )[

T 0 −T 1

Δr ] + q'0' ' π

2

( Δr2 ) *1 = ρCpπ ( )

2

∗1∗( T 0k+1−T k0 )

Δt

255

After simplification the above equation reduces to

T k+1

0 = 4τ

[ k

T +

1

q'0' ' ( Δr )2

k ] + [ 1−4 τ ] T k0

(5.56)

(iii) Finite difference Equation for outermost node M when outer surface is subjected to

prescribed heat flux: The nomenclature for the volume element surrounding the outer most node M

is shown in Fig. 5.21.Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows:

M qs

M-1

MΔr

prescribed heat flux

( T kM−1−T kM ) + 2π MΔr*1 qs + π [(MΔr)2 − (MΔr – Δr/2)2]*1*

Δr

'''

q M

M − T kM ¿ / Δt

256

[ ]

1 1

T k+1

=4 τ

( 1−

2M)

T

k

+ 1−4 τ

( 1−

2M )

T

k

+

4 τ q s Δr

1 +

M

(2− 21M )

M −1

(2− 21M )

M

(

k 2−

2M )

τ q'M' ' ( Δr )2

(5.58)

k

[ ]

1

( 1−

2M )

≥0

(2− 21M )

(5.59)

(iii) Finite difference Equation for outermost node M when outer surface is in contact with a

fluid at a uniform temperature T∞ with a surface heat transfer coefficient h (convective

boundary condition):

The nomenclature for the volume element surrounding the outer most node M is shown in Fig.

5.22.Energy balance equation for the volume element can be written as follows:

( T kM −1−T kM ) + 2π MΔr*1*h [ T ∞−T kM ]

Δr

M − T kM ¿ / Δt

M h,T∞

M-1

MΔr

257

Fig.5.21: Nomenclature for volume element surrounding the node M subjected to

convective condition

[ ]

1 1

TM

k+1

=4 τ

( 1−

2M) k

T M −1 + 1−4 τ

( 1−

2M )

−

4 τ hΔr k

TM +

(2− 21M ) (2− 21M ) k ( 2− 21M )

4 τ hΔr T ∞

τ q'M' ' ( Δr )2

1 +

(

k 2−

2M ) k

(5.60)

[ ]

1

( 1−

2M )

−

4 τ hΔr

≥0

(2− 21M ) k ( 2− 21M )

(5.61)

diameter is initially at a uniform temperature of 1000C. It is suddenly subjected to a

convection environment at 500C with a surface heat transfer coefficient of 400 W/(m 2- K).

Assuming one dimensional radial unsteady state conduction determine the radial

temperature distribution in the cylinder 9 seconds after the exposure to the environment

using explicit finite difference scheme.

Schematic : The cylinder is divided equally as shown in the figure with Δr = R/2, where

Δr 2 h,T∞

Δr/2 1

0 R

.

R is the radius of the cylinder.

R = 0.02 m; Δr = 0.02/2 = 0.01 m; M = 2; Initial temperatures at the three nodes,

T 00=T 01=T 02 = 100 0C; T∞ = 50 0C; h = 400 W/(m2-K) ; Length of cylinder = 1 m

258

Find: Temperatures at the nodes after 9 seconds.

Assumptions: (i) Constant physical properties for aluminium; (ii) Radial unsteady state

conduction

The finite difference equation for the internal node 1 is given by Eq.(5.54) with i = 1.

αΔt

where τ = 2 .

Δr

The finite difference equation for the internal node 0 is given by Eq.(5.54) with q'0' ' = 0.

k+1

i.e. T0 = 4τ T 1k + [ 1−4 τ ] T k0

…………………………………(3)

The finite difference equation for the outermost node 2 is given by Eq.(5.60) with q'2' ' = 0.

[ ]

1 1

i.e., T

k+1

=4 τ

( 1− )

4

T

k

+ 1−4 τ

( 1− )

4

−

4 τ hΔr

T

k

+

4 τ hΔr T ∞

2

(2− 14 )

1

(2− 14 ) k (2− 14 )

M

( 14 )

k 2−

4 τ∗400∗0.01 k

40∗1.75

T2 + ] 4 τ∗400∗0.01∗50

40∗1.75

k+1 k k

Or T 2 =¿ 1.714τ T 1 + [ 1 – 1.943τ] T 2 + …………………….

(5)

259

1

For stability 1 – 1.943τ ≥ 0 Or τ ≤

1.943

………………………….(6)

The numerical value of τ has to be selected such that all the three stability conditions viz.,

Eqs.(2),(4) and (6) are satisfied. The condition τ ≤ ¼ will satisfy all the three stability

condtions.Hence choose τ ≤ ¼ : i.e. τ ≤ 0.25.

Then ≤ 0.25 or Δt ≤

Δr 2 1.1∗10−5

Or Δt ≤ 2.27 s

t 9

Selecting Δt = 2.25 s, τ = 0.247 no of time steps required = = =4

Δt 2.25

With the value of τ = 0.247 the nodal equations (1), (3) and (5) reduce to

T k+1

0 = 0.012 T k0 + 0.988 T 1k (a)

k+1

T1 = 0.123 T k0 + 0.506 T 1k + ¿ 0.37 T 2k

(b)

k+1

And T 2 =¿ 0.423 T 1k + 0.52 T 2k + 2.82 (c)

The temperatures at the three nodes at different time steps are calculated using Eqs. (a), (b)

and (c) and are shown in the table below.

Time step (k) Δt (s) t = kΔt (s) Temperature at different nodes (0C)

T0 T1 T2

0 2.25 0 100 100 100

1 2.25 2.25 100 99.9 97.10

2 2.25 4.50 99.9 98.78 95.57

3 2.25 6.75 98.79 97.63 94.30

4 2.25 9.00 97.64 96.44 93.15

260

5.8.2.Implicit Method for Transient conduction

In the explicit finite difference scheme, the temperature at any node at time (t + Δt)

is calculated from knowledge of temperatures at the same and neighboring nodes for the

preceding time t. Hence determination of temperature at a node at some time is independent

of temperatures at other nodes for the same time. This method, though offers computational

convenience, it suffers from the limitations on the time step Δt. For a given Δx, the time step

is limited by the stability requirements as illustrated in examples 5.10 and 5.11. This dictates

the use of smaller Δt resulting in large number of time steps to determine the transient

tenmpeartures of the nodes after certain time.By employing an implicit scheme the restriction

on Δt can be completely eliminated.In the implicit scheme the space derivatives in finite

difference form are expressed using temperatures of the all the nodes at time t+∆t, while the

backward finite difference form of the derivative of temeperature iwthrespect to time is

used.

Refering to Fig 5.18, for a plane wall the energy balance equation in implicit form for any

internal node can be written as

T ki−1−T k+ 1

T ki +1−T ik+1 T ki +1−T ki

k AΔx ( Δx

i

) + k AΔx ( Δx ) + AΔx q'''

g = ρAΔxCp ( Δt )

i = 1,2,3….. M – 1

( 1+2 τ ) T 1 – τ [T 1−1 −T i+1 ]= k +T i i = 1,2,3….. M – 1

Similar equations for the boundary nodes 0 and M can be obtained depending on the

boundary conditions specified.

261

Chapter 6

6.1. Definition of Convective Heat Transfer:- When a fluid flows over a body or inside a

channel and if the temperatures of the fluid and the solid surface are different, heat transfer

will take place between the solid surface and the fluid due to the macroscopic motion of the

fluid relative to the surface. This mechanism of heat transfer is called as “convective heat

transfer”.If the fluid motion is due to an external force (by using a pump or a compressor)

the heat transfer is referred to as “forced convection”. If the fluid motion is due to a force

generated in the fluid due to buoyancy effects resulting from density difference (density

difference may be caused due to temperature difference in the fluid) then the mechanism of

heat transfer is called as “natural or free convection”.For example, a hot plate suspended

vertically in quiescent air causes a motion of air layer adjacent to the plate surface because

the temperature gradient in the air gives rise to a density gradient which in turn sets up the air

motion.

6.2. Heat Transfer Coefficient:- In engineering application, to simplify the heat transfer

calculations between a hot surface say at temperature Tw and a cold fluid flowing over it at a

bulk temperature T∞ as shown in Fig. 6.1 a term called “heat transfer coefficient,h” is defined

by the equation

q = h(Tw – T∞)………………………………………………..6.1(a)

where q is the heat flux (expressed in W / m2) from the surface to the flowing fluid.

Alternatively if the surface temperature is lower than the flowing fluid then the heat transfer

takes place from the hot fluid to the cold surface and the heat flux is given by

q = h(T∞ – Tw)………………………………………………..6.1(b)

The heat flux in this case takes place from the fluid to the cold surface.If in equations 6.1(a)

and 6.1(b) the heat flux is expressed in W / m2, then the units of heat transfer coefficient will

be W /(m 2 – K) or W / (m 2 – 0 C).

The heat transfer coefficient is found to vary with (i) the geometry of

the body, (ii) the type of flow (laminar or turbulent), (iii) the transport properties of the fluid

262

(density, viscosity,specific heat and thermal conductivity),(iv) the difference in temperature

between the average temperature of the fluid and the surface with which the fluid is in

contact , (v) the position along the surface of the body, and (vi) whether the heat transfer is

by forced convection or free convection. For convection problems involving simple

geometries like flow over a flat plate or flow inside a circular tube, the heat transfer

coefficient can be

u∞, T∞ T∞

y

x Tw

determined analytically. But for flow over complex configurations, experimental / numerical

approach is used to determine h.There is a wide difference in the range of values of h for

various applications.Typical values of heat transfer coefficients encountered in some

applications are given in Table 6.1.

263

Condensing steam 5500 – 120000

6.3. Basic concepts for flow over a body:- When a fluid flows over a body, the velocity and

temperature distribution at the vicinity of the surface of the body strongly influence the heat

transfer by convection.By introducing the concept of boundary layers (velocity boundary

layer and thermal boundary layer) the analysis of convective heat transfer can be simplified.

6.3.1.Velocity Boundary Layer:- Consider the flow of a fluid over a flat plate as shown in

Fig. 6.2 The fluid just before it approaches the leading edge of the plate has a velocity u ∞

which is parallel to the plate surface.As the fluid moves in x-direction along the plate,

u∞

y

u(x, y)

δ(x)

u(x, y)

x

xcr Turbulent Region

Laminar Region Transition

Fig. 6.2: Velocity boundary layer for flow over a flat plate

those fluid particles that makes contact with the plate surface will have the same velocity as

that of the plate. Therefore if the plate is stationary, then the fluid layer sticking to the plate

surface will have zero velocity (This is called no-slip condition).But far away from the plate

(y = ∞) the fluid will have the velocity u ∞.Therefore starting from the plate surface (y = 0)

there will be retardation of the fluid in x-direction component of velocity u(x,y).This

retardation effect is reduced as we move away from the plate surface.At distances sufficiently

long from the plate(y = ∞) the retardation effect is completely reduced: i.e. u → u ∞ as y → ∞.

This means that there is a region surrounding the plate surface where the fluid velocity

changes from zero at the surface to the velocity u∞ at the outer edge of the region. This region

is called the velocity boundary layer. The variation of the x-component of velocity u(x,y)

with respect to y at a particular location along the plate is shown in Fig. 6.2.The distance

measured normal to the surface from the plate surface to the point at which the fluid attains

99% of u∞ is called “velocity boundary layer thickness” and denoted by δ(x)

Thus for flow over a flat plate, the flow field can be divided into two distinct regions,

namely, (i) the boundary layer region in which the axial component of velocity u(x,y) varies

264

rapidly with y with the result the velocity gradient (∂u /∂y) and hence the shear stress are

very large and (ii) the potential flow region which is outside the boundary layer region,

where the velocity gradients and shear stresses are negligible.

The flow in the boundary layer, starting from the leading edge of the

plate will be initially laminar in which the fluid particles move along a stream line in an

orderly manner. In the laminar region the retardation effect is due to the viscosity of the fluid

and therefore the shear stress can be evaluated using Newton’s law of viscocity.The laminar

flow continues along the plate until a critical distance ‘x cr’ is reached. After this the small

disturbances in the flow begin to grow and fluid fluctuations begin to develop. This

characterizes the end of the laminar flow region and the beginning of transition from laminar

to turbulent boundary layer. A dimensionless parameter called Reynolds number is used to

characterize the flow as laminar or turbulent. For flow over a flat plate the Reynolds number

is defined as

u∞ x

Rex =

ν

……………………….6.2

where u∞ = free-stream velocity of the fluid, x = distance from the leading edge of the plate

and ν = kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

For flow over a flat plate it has been found that the transition from

laminar flow to turbulent flow takes place when the Reynolds number is ≈ 5 x 10 5.This

number is called as the critical Reynolds number Recr for flow over a flat plate.Therefore

u ∞ x cr 5

Re cr = = 5 x 10

ν

………….6.3

The critical Reynolds number is strongly dependent on the surface roughness and the

turbulence level of the free stream fluid. For example, with very large disturbances in the free

stream, the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow may begin at Re x as low as 1 x 10 5

and for flows which are free from disturbances and if the plate surface is smooth transition

may not take place until a Reynolds number of 1 x 10 6 is reached.But it has been found that

for flow over a flat plate the boundary layer is always turbulent for Re x ≥ 4 x 10 6.In the

turbulent boundary layer next to the wall there is a very thin layer called “the viscous sub-

layer”, where the flow retains its viscous flow character. Next to the viscous sub-layer is a

region called “buffer layer” in which the effect of fluid viscosity is of the same order of

magnitude as that of turbulence and the mean velocity rapidly increases with the distance

from the plate surface.Next to the buffer layer is “the turbulent layer” in which there is large

scale turbulence and the velocity changes relatively little with distance.

Boundary Layer Concept for flow over a Curved Body: Fig. 6.3 illustrates the boundary

layer growth for flow over a curved body.Here ‘x’ coordinate is measured along the curved

surface of the body. Starting from the stagnation point, and at each location along x, the y

265

coordinate is measured normal to the surface of the body.The free stream velocity U ∞, in this

case is not a constant as in the case of flow over a flat plate but is a function of x. The

Fig. 6.3: Boundary layer growth for flow over a curved body

boundary layer thickness δ(x) increases with the distance x along the surface. But, because of

the curvature of the body, after some distance, the velocity profile u(x,y) exhibits a point of

inflexion; that is at this location (ðu / ðy) becomes zero at the wall surface. Beyond the point

of inflexion, reversal of flow takes place, and the boundary layer is said to be detached from

the surface.Beyond the point of flow reversal the flow become very complicated and the boundary

layer analysis is no longer valid.

6.3.2. Drag coefficient and Drag force:- If the velocity distribution u(x,y) in the boundary

layer at any ‘x’ is known then the viscous shear stress at the wall can be determined using

Newton’s law of viscosity. Thus the wall-shear stress, τ w(x) at any location x can be written

as :

………………….6.4

where μ is the absolute viscosity of the fluid.The drag coefficient is dimensionless wall shear

stress. Therefore the local drag coefficient, Cx at any ‘x’ is defined as

τ w ( x)

Cx = 1 2

ρu

2 ∞

……………………….6.5

Substituting for τw(x) in the above equation from Eq. 6.4 and simplifying we get

2ν (∂u / ∂y)y = 0

Cx = ---------------------- ……………….6.6

266

u∞2

Therefore if the velocity profile u(x,y) at any x is known then the local drag coefficient C x at

that location can be determined from Eq. 6.6.The average value of C x for a total length L of

the plate can be determined from the equation

L

Cav = (1/L) ∫Cx dx ……………………6.7

0

L

∫ τw(x)dx

Cav = ------------------------

L (1/2) ρu∞2

_

τw

Or Cav = -------------------- ……………….6.8

(1/2) ρu∞2

_

Where τw is the average wall-shear stress for total length L of the plate.

The total drag force experienced by the fluid due to the presence of the plate can be written

as

_

FD = As τw …………………………….6.9

Where As is the total area of contact between the fluid and the plate. If ‘W’ is the width of the

plate then As = LW if the flow is taking place on one side of the plate and A s = 2LW if the

flow is on both sides of the plate.

6.3.3.Thermal boundary layer:- Similar to the velocity boundary layer one can visualize the

development of a thermal boundary layer when a fluid flows over a flat plate with the

temperature of the plate being different from that of the free stream fluid.Consider that a fluid

at a uniform temperature T∞ flows over a flat plate which is maintained at a uniform

temperature Tw.Let T(x,y) is the temperature of the fluid at any location in the flow field.Let

the dimensionless temperature of the fluid θ(x,y) be defined as

T(x,y) – Tw

θ(x,y) = ------------------- …………………………….6.10

T∞ − Tw

The fluid layer sticking to the plate surface will have the same temperature as the plate

surface [T(x,y)y = 0 = Tw] and therefore θ(x,y) = 0 at y = 0.Far away from the plate the fluid

temperature is T∞ and hence θ(x,y) → 1 as y → ∞. Therefore at each location x along the

plate one can visualize a location y = δ t(x) in the flow field at which θ(x,y) = 0.99. δ t(x) is

called “the thermal boundary layer thickness” as shown in Fig. 6.3. The locus of such

267

points at which θ(x,y) = 0.99 is called the edge of the thermal boundary layer. The relative

thickness of the thermal boundary layer δt(x) and the velocity

boundary layer δ(x) depends on a dimensionless number called “Prandtl number” of the

fluid.It is denoted by Pr and is defined as

μCp (μ/ρ) ν

Pr = --------- = ---------- = -------- ………..6.11

k (k/ρCp) α

Where μ is the absolute viscosity of the fluid, Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure

k is the thermal conductivity,υ is the kinematic viscosity and α is the thermal diffusivity of

the fluid.The Prandtl number for fluids range from 0.01 for liquid metals to more than

100,000 for heavy oils. For fluids with Pr = 1 such as gases δ t(x) = δ(x), for fluids with Pr

<< 1,such as liquid metals, δt(x) >> δ(x) and for fluids with Pr >> 1, like oils δt(x) << δ(x).

6.3.4. General expression for heat transfer coefficient:- Let us assume that Tw > T∞.Then

heat is transferred from the plate to the fluid flowing over the plate.Therefore at any ‘x’ the

heat flux is given by

q = − k (∂T /∂y)y=0 ………………………..6.12(a)

In terms of the local heat transfer coefficient hx, the heat flux can also be written as

− k (∂T /∂y)y=0

hx = ------------------ ………………………6.13

(Tw − T∞)

268

From equation 6.10 we have (∂T /∂y)y=0 = [T∞ − Tw] (∂θ /∂y)y=0. Substituting this expression

in Eq.6.13 and simplifying we get the general expression for hx as

The same expression for hx could be obtained even when Tw < T∞. Equation 6.14 can be used

to determine the local heat transfer coefficient for flow over a flat plate if the dimensionless

temperature profile θ(x,y) is known.

Average heat transfer coefficient:- For a total length L of the plate the average heat transfer

coefficient is given by

L

hav = (1 /L) ∫hxdx ……………………………..6.15a

0

L

hav = (1 /L) ∫ k (∂θ /∂y)y=0 dx ………………….6.15b

0

Since (∂θ /∂y)y=0 at any x depends on whether the flow at that section is laminar or turbulent

the expression for hav can be written as

xcr L

hav = (1 /L) { ∫ k [(∂θ /∂y)y=0]laminar dx + ∫ k [(∂θ /∂y)y=0]turbulent dx }……5.16

0

xcr

Relation Between Fluid Friction and Heat Transfer (Reynolds – Colburn Analogy):

For laminar flow over a flat plate an analogy between momentum transfer and heat transfer

exists; that is, it is possible to establish a relation between the local drag coefficient, C x and

the local Nusselt number Nux as shown below.

The excat expression for the local drag coefficient is given by

The exact expression for the local Nusselt number, Nux is given by

hx

Stx = -------------- .

ρ Cp u∞

The expression for Stx can be written as

hx x /k Nux

269

Stx = -------------------------- = ---------------

(ρ x u∞ /μ) (μ Cp/k) Rex Pr

Eq. 6.18 is also applicable to turbulent flow over a flat plate, but it does not apply to flow

through tubes.This analogy is referred to as “Reynolds – Colburn Analogy”.

Example 6.1:- Assuming the transition from laminar to turbulent flow takes place at a

Reynolds number of 5 x 10 5, determine the distance from the leading edge of a flat plate at

which transition occurs for the flow of each of the following fluids with a velocity of 2 cm/s

at 40 0 C.(i) Air at atmospheric pressure;(ii)Hydrogen at atmospheric pressure;(iii) water;

(iv) Engine oil;(v) mercury.Comment on the type of flow for the 5 fluids if the total length of

the plate is 1 m.

u∞ xcr Recr ν 5 x 10 5 x 17 x 10 − 6

Recr = ----------- or xcr = -------------------- = ---------------------------- = 4.25 m.

ν u∞ 2

5 x 10 5 x 117.9 x 10 − 6

Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 29.5 m

2

5 x 10 5 x 0.658 x 10 − 6

Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 0.1645 m

2

5 x 10 5 x 0.24 x 10 − 3

Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 60 m

270

2

5 x 10 5 x 0.107 x 10 − 6

Therefore xcr = ------------------------------- = 0.027 m

2

3 Water 0.1645 xcr < L Flow is partly Laminar & Partly Turbulent

5 Mercury 0.027 xcr << L Flow is turbulent for almost entire length

Example 6.2:- An approximate expression for the velocity profile u(x,y) for laminar

boundary layer flow along a flat plate is given by

where δ(x) is the velocity boundary layer thickness given by the expression

(b) Develop an expression for the average drag coefficient for a length L of the plate.

(c) Determine the drag force acting on the plate 2 m x 2 m for flow of air with a free

stream velocity of 4 m /s and a temperature of 80 0C.

u(x, y) = u∞ {2[y / δ(x)] − 2[y / δ(x)] 3+ [y / δ(x)] 4 }

271

Therefore (∂u / ∂y)y=0 = 2u∞ / δ(x)

= ----------------- = ------------------------ = 0.343 (μu∞) [u∞ /(x ν)]1/2 ….(1 )

5.83 x 5.83 x

Cx = ----------------- = -------------------------------------------

(1/2) ρu∞2 (1/2) ρu∞2

0.686 0.686

= ---------------------- = -----------------

{(u∞x) / ν}1/2 (Rex) ½

L L

Cav = (1/L) ∫ Cx dx = (1/L) ∫ 0.686 (Rex) − ½ dx

0

1

{ 0.686 (u∞/ν) − ½} L

= ----------------------- ∫ x − ½ dx

0

L

Or 2 x 0.686 1.372

Cav = --------------- = ------------------

(u∞L / ν) ½ (ReL) ½

u∞L 4x2

ReL = ----------------- = ------------------- = 3.793 x 10 5

ν 21.09 x 10 − 6

1.372 1.372

Average drag coefficient = Cav = ------------------- = ------------------------ = 2.228 x 10 − 3

ReL0.5 (3.793 x 10 5)0.5

Drag force assuming that the flow takes place on one side of the plate is given by

_

FD = τw LW = (1/2)ρ u∞2 Cav LW for flow over one side of the plate

272

= (1/2) x 1.00 x 42 x 2.2228 x 10 − 3 x 2 x 2

= 0.071 N

Example 6.3:- An approximate expression for temperature profile θ(x,y) in the thermal

boundary layer region for flow over a flat plate is given by

5.5

δt / x = ----------------- ; Rex is the Reynolds number based on ‘x’ and

Rex0.5Pr 1/3

Pr is the Prandtl number of the fluid. Develop an expression for (i) the local heat transfer

coefficient hx and (ii) the average heat transfer coefficient for total length L of the plate.

hx = k (∂θ / ∂y)|y = 0.

Now θ(x,y) = 2(y / δt )− (y / δt)2

2 Rex0.5Pr 1/3

Hence (∂θ / ∂y)|y = 0. = 2 / δt = ---------------------

5.5.x

0.5 1/3

2 k Rex Pr

Or hx = ------------------------ = 0.364 (k / x) Rex0.5 Pr 1/3

5.5.x

hx x

----- = 0.364 Rex0.5 Pr 1/3

K

hx x /k is a dimensionless number involving local heat transfer coefficient and is called

(ii) The average heat transfer coefficient for a total length L of the plate is given by

L

hav = (1 / L) ∫hx dx = (1 / L) ∫ 0.364 (k / x) Rex0.5 Pr1/3 dx

0

= (1 / L) (L 0.5 /0.5) 0.364 Pr1/3 k (U∞ / ν)0.5 = 0.728 (k / L) (U∞L / ν) 0.5 Pr 1/3

273

hav L / k is a dimensionless number involving the average heat transfer coefficient and is

called the “average Nusselt number”.

Example 6.4:- The heat transfer rate per unit width from a longitudinal section x 2 ─ x1 of a

flat plate can be expressed as q12 = h12 (x2 – x1)(Ts - T∞), where h12 is the average heat

transfer coefficient for the section length of (x 2 – x1). Consider laminar flow over a flat plate

with a uniform temperature Ts. The spatial variation of the local heat transfer coefficient is of

the form hx = C x ─ 0.5, where C is a constant.

(a) Derive an expression for h12 in terms of C,x1 and x2.

(b) Derive an expression for h12 in terms of x1, x2, and the average coefficients h1 and h2

corresponding to lengths x1 and x2 respectively.

Solution:

u∞, T∞ q12

Ts

x1

x2

(a) hx = C x − 0.5

_ 1 x2

Therefore h12 = -------------- ∫hx dx

(x2 – x1) x1

1 x2

= ------------------- ∫ C x − 0.5 dx

0

(x2 – x1)

2C

= ------------------ [ x2 0.5 – x1 0.5]

(x2 – x1)

_ x1

(b) h1 = (1/x1) ∫C x − 0.5 dx

0

= 2C / √ x1

_ ___

274

Similarly h2 = 2C / √ x2

x1 __ _ 1 x2 x1

Since ∫ hxdx = x1h1, h12 = -------------- [ ∫ hxdx - ∫ hxdx ]

0 0 0

( x2 – x1)

_ _

_ h2x2 - h1x1 {2C / √ x2 } ─ {2C / √ x1 }

h12 = ----------------- = ----------------------------------- = 2C [√ x2 ─ √ x1]

x2 – x1 (x2 – x1)

6.4. Basic Concepts For Flow Through Ducts :- The basic concepts developed on the

development of velocity and thermal boundary layers for flow over surfaces are also

applicable to flows at the entrance region of the ducts.

6.4.1.Velocity Boundary Layer:- Consider the flow inside a circular tube as shown in

Fig.6.5. Lat uo be the uniform velocity with which the fluid approaches the tube. As the fluid

enters the tube, a “velocity boundary layer” starts to develop along the wall-surface. The

velocity of the fluid layer sticking to the tube-surface will have zero velocity and the fluid

layer slightly away from the wall is retarded. As a result the velocity in the central portion of

the tube increases to satisfy the continuity equation (law of conservation of mass).The

thickness of the velocity boundary layer δ(z) continuously grows along the tube-surface until

it fills the entire tube. The region from the tube inlet up to little beyond the hypothetical

location where the boundary layer reaches the tube centre is called “hydrodynamic entrance

region or hydrodynamically developing region” and the

corresponding length is called “hydrodynamic entrance length Lh”. In the hydrodynamically

developing region the shape of the velocity profile changes both in axial and radial direction,

i.e., u = u(r,z). The region beyond the hydrodynamic entry length is called

“Hydrodynamically developed region”, because in this region the velocity profile is invariant

with distance along the tube,i.e., u = u(r).

If the boundary layer remains laminar until it fills the tube, then laminar flow will prevail

in the developed region. However if the boundary layer changes to turbulent before its

thickness reaches the tube centre, fully developed turbulent flow will prevail in the

hydrodynamically developed region. The velocity profile in the turbulent region is flatter

than the parabolic profile of laminar flow. The Reynolds number, defined as

is used as a criterion for change from laminar flow to turbulent flow. In this definition, u m is

the average velocity of the fluid in the tube, D h is the hydraulic diameter of the tube and ν is

the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The hydraulic diameter is defined as

275

Hydrodynamic Entrance Hydrodynamically developed

uo Region Region

δ(z) r

R

Lh

z Fully developed profile

u = u(r)

Fig. 6.5: development of velocity boundary layer at entrance region of a tube

4 x Area of flow

Dh = ------------------------------ ……………………(5.20)

Wetted Perimeter

For flows through ducts it has been observed that turbulent flow prevails for

But this critical value is strongly dependent on the surface roughness, the inlet conditions and

the fluctuations in the flow. In general, transition may occur in the range 2000 < Re d < 4000.

It is a common practice to assume a value of 2300 fro transition from laminar flow to

turbulent flow.

6.4.2. Friction Factor and Pressure Drop Relations For Hydrodynamically Developed

Laminar Flow

In engineering applications, the pressure gradient (dp / dz) associated with the flow is a

quantity of interest, because this decides the pumping power required to overcome thr

frictional losses in the pipe of a given length.

Consider a differential length dz of the tube at a distance z from the entrance and

let this length be in the fully developed region. The various forces acting on the fluid

element in the direction of flow are shown in Fig.6.6.

276

(PA)z (pA)z + d/dz(pA) dz

τw Sdz

Fig. 6.6: Forces acting on a fluid element in fully developed floe region

Using Taylor’s series expansion and neglecting higher order terms we can write

Rate of change of momentum in the direction of flow = 0 because the velocity u does not

vary with respect to z in the fully developed region.

For duct of uniform cross section A is constant. Therefore the above equation reduces to

dp/dz = − τw S /A ……………………………….(6.22)

dp μS

------ = -------- (du/dr)|wall ……………………….(6.23)

dz A

Eq.(6.23) is not practical for the determination of (dp/dz), because it requires the evaluation

of the velocity gradient at the wall. Hence for engineering applications a parameter called

“friction factor, f ” is defined as follows:

(dp/dz) Dh

f = − ------------------- ………………………….(6.24a)

½ (ρum2)

277

Substituting for (dp/dz) from Eq. (6.23) we have

(μS/A) (du/dr)|wall Dh

f = − ---------------------------- …………………..(6.24b)

½ (ρum2)

Hence for a circular tube Eq. (6.24b) reduces to

8μ

f = − ------- (du/dr)|wall …………………………(6.24c)

(ρum2)

(½ ) (ρum2) f

dp = − ----------------- dz

Dh

Integrating the above equation over a total length L of the tube we have

p2 (½ ) (ρum2) f L

∫dp = − ------------------- ∫dz

p1 Dh 0

.

Pumping power is given by P = V Δp ………………………………………...(6.26)

.

where V = volume flow rate of the fluid.

6.4.3. Thermal Boundary Layer for Flow Through Tubes: In the case of temperature

distribution in flow inside a tube, it is more difficult to visualize the development of thermal

boundary layer and the existence of thermally developed region. However under certain

heating or cooling conditions such as constant wall-heat flux or constant wall-temperature it

is possible to have thermally developed region.

Consider a laminar flow inside a circular tube subjected to uniform heat flux

at the wall. Let ‘r’ and ‘z’ be the radial and axial coordinates respectively and T(r,z) be the

local fluid temperature. A dimensionless temperature θ(r,z) is defined as

T(r,z) – Tw(z)

θ(r,z) = ------------------- ………………………………..(6.27a)

Tm(z) – Tw(z)

where Tw(r,z) = Tube wall-temperature and Tm(z) = Bulk mean temperature of the fluid.

The bulk mean temperature at any cross section ‘z’ is defined as follows:

278

∫ ρ(2πrdr) u(r,z) Cp T(r,z) ∫ rdr u(r,z)T(r,z)

Tm(z) = --------------------------------- = ---------------------- ………………..(6.27b)

∫ ρ(2πrdr) u(r,z) Cp ∫ rdr) u(r,z)

At the tube wall it is clear that θ(r,z) = 0 and attains some finite value at the centre of the

tube. Thus we can visualize the development of thermal boundary layer along the tube

surface as shown in Fig. 6.7.The thickness of the thermal boundary layer δ t continuously

grows along the tube surface until it fills the entire tube. The region from the tube inlet to the

hypothetical location where the thermal boundary layer thickness reaches the tube centre is

called the “thermal entry section”. In this region the shape of the dimensionless temperature

profile θ(r,z) changes both in axial and in radial directions. The region beyond the thermal

entry section is called as the “thermally developed region”, because in this region the

dimensionless temperature profile θ remains invariant with respect to z. That is in this region

θ = θ(r).It is difficult to explain qualitatively why θ should be independent of z even though

the temperature of the fluid T depends both on r and z. However it can be shown

mathematically that ,for both constant wall-heat flux and constant wall-temperature

conditions, θ depends only on r for large values of z.For constant wall-heat flux condition

the wall-temperature Tw(z) increases with z.

Tfi

θ = θ(r)

A Tube Subjected to Constant Wall-Heat Flux Condition

The variation of wall-temperature and the bulk fluid temperature as we proceed along the

length of the tube for constant wall-heat flux conditions is shown in Fig. 6.8. It can be shown

that for constant wall-heat flux condition the temperature difference ΔT between the tube

wall and the bulk fluid remains constant along the length of the tube in the thermally

developed region

The growth of the thermal boundary layer for constant wall-temperature conditions

is similar to that for constant wall-heat flux condition except that the wall temperature does

279

not vary with respect to z. Therefore the temperature profile T(r,z) becomes flatter and flatter

as shown in Fig. 6.9 as we proceed along the length of the tube and eventually the fluid

temperature becomes equal to the wall temperature. Since the wall-temperature remains

constant and the bulk fluid temperature varies along the length the temperature difference

between the tube wall and the bulk fluid varies along the length of the tube as shown in Fig.

5.10.

Tw(z)|z=L

Tm(z)|z=L = Tfo

0 L

z θ = θ(r)

Fig. 6.8: Variation of tube wall-temperature and bulk fluid temperature along the length of the tube

280

Tw Tw Tw

Tw

Tfi

z

Thermally developing region Thermally developed

Thermal entrance length Lth region

Fig.6.9: Growth of thermal boundary layer for flow through a tube with

constant wall-temperature

Tw

ΔTo

Tfo

ΔTi

Tfi

L

0

z

Fig. 6.10: Variation of bulk fluid temperature along the length of the tube

for tube with constant wall-temperature

6.4.4. Mean Temperature Difference, ΔTm: If Q is the total heat transfer rate between the

fluid and the tube surface , As is the area of contact between the fluid and the surface, h m is

the average heat transfer coefficient for the total length of the tube then we can write

Q = hm As ΔTm …………………………….(6.28)

281

Where ΔTm = mean temperature difference between the tube wall and the bulk fluid.An

expression for ΔTm can be obtained in terms of ΔT i and ΔTo where ΔTi is the temperature

difference between the tube-wall and the bulk fluid at inlet and ΔT o is the temperature

difference between the tube-wall and the bulk fluid at exit as shown below.

dQ

mm

dz

Consider a control volume consisting an elemental length dz of the tube at a distance z from

the inlet as shown in Fig.5.11. Let T m be the bulk temperature of the fluid entering the control

volume and Tm + dTm be the bulk temperature of the fluid leaving the control volume. Let dQ

be the heat transfer rate from the tube wall to the fluid over the length dz.

Energy balance for the control volume neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential

energies in comparison with change in enthalpy gives

where S is the perimeter of the tube.From the above two equations wer have

dTm hSdz

-------------------- = -------------- (6.29c)

[Tw(z) – Tm(z)] m Cp

For a tube with constant wall-heat flux condition, since the temperature difference between

the fluid and the tube surface remains constant along the length of the tube it follows that

ΔTm = [Tw(z)|z=0 − Tfi] = [Tw(z)|z=L − Tfo] …………………(6.29d)

For a tube with constant wall-temperature condition the mean temperature difference is given

by

282

6.4.5. General expression for heat transfer coefficient : Let the fluid be heated as it flows

through the tube. Then at any z the heat flux from the tube surface to the fluid is given by

Fourier’s law as

qw(z) = k (∂T / ∂r)|wall ……………………(6.30)

[Note that when the fluid is heated Tw> Tm so that (∂T / ∂r)|wall will be positive).

If hz is the heat transfer coefficient then

k (∂T / ∂r)|wall

hz = ------------------- ……………………(6.32)

[Tw(z) – Tm(z)]

[T(r,z) – Tw(z)]

Now θ(r,z) = --------------------

[Tm(z) – Tw(z)]

Since (dθ / dr)|wall is independent of z it follows that the heat transfer coefficient h z is

independent of z. This is true both for constant wall-temperature and constant wall-heat flux

conditions.

Example 6.5:- The velocity profile for hydrodynamically developed laminar flow inside a

circular tube of radius R is given by

283

where um is the average velocity of the fluid in the tube.Develop an expression for the friction

factor f and express it in terms of the Reynolds number Re d where Red is defined as Red =

(umD) / ν.

Solution:

u(r) = 2um[ 1 – (r/R)2]

− (dp/dz) D 32 μum /D 64

Friction factor = f = ----------------- = --------------- = --------------

½ (ρum2) ½ (ρum2) (ρumD / μ)

Or f = 64 / Red

Example 6.6:- The velocity profile u(y) for hydro dynamically developed laminar

flow between two parallel plates a distance 2L apart is given by u(y) / um = (3 / 2)

[1– (y /L) 2]where um is the mean flow velocity and the coordinate axis y is as shown

in Fig. P6.6.

2L

o x

H

Fig. P 6.6 : Schematic for problem 5.6

(b) Write the expression for calculating the pressure drop Δp over a length H of the channel.

284

y

dz

z τw1

p

z p+ (dp/dz)dz

2L

τw2

H

Solution:

Consider a fluid element of length dz at a distance z from the origin as shown in the

figure. Resultant force acting on the fluid element is given by

For fully developed flow there is no change in the momentum of the fluid in z-direction.

Hence by Newton’s second law F = 0.

It is given that,

u = (3/2) um [ 1 – (y/L)2 ]

= (3μum)/L

= − [(3μum)/ L2]

285

(a) The friction factor f is given by

− (dp/dz) dh [(3μum)/ L2] dh

f = --------------------- = ------------------------

(1/2) ρum2 (1/2) ρum2

4 x 2L

as ( dp/dz) = (1/2) ρ um2 f (1/dh), dh = hyd. Diameter = -------------- = 4L

2

12 x 2 24

= ------------------- = ----------------

(ρumL)/μ ReL

p2 H

Δp = p1 − p2 = − ∫dp = − ∫ −[(3μum) / L2]dz = 3 (H/L)(μum / L)

p1 0

3 (H/L) (ρum2)

= --------------------- = 3 (H/L) (ρum2) / ReL

(ρumL/μ)

Example 6.7:-The friction factor for hydro dynamically developed laminar flow

through a circular tube is given by

Water at a mean temperature of 60 0 C and a mean velocity of 10 cm/s flows inside a tube of

1 cm ID. Calculate the pressure drop for a length of 10 m of the tube and also the

corresponding pumping power required.

Solution:

Properties of water at 60 0 C are : ρ = 985 kg/m3 ; μ = 0.78 x 10 − 3 kg / (m – s);

Mean velocity of water = um = 0.1 m/s ; Di = 0.01 m ; L = 10 m.

Red = (ρumDi ) / μ = ------------------------- = 2060.7 or 2061

0.78 x 10 − 3

Pressure drop = Δp = f (L/Di) (1/2)ρum2 = ----------------------------------

2 x 0.01

286

= 152.68 N / m2.

. π x (0.01)2 x 0.1

Volume flow rate = V = (πDi2/4) um = ------------------------ = 7.85 x 10 − 6 m3/s

4

.

Pumping power = Δp V = 152.68 x 7.85 x 10 − 6 = 1198.5 x 10 − 6 J / s.

laminar flow between two parallel plates a distance 3 cm apart and subjected to a

constant heat flux of 2500 W/m2. The average heat transfer coefficient for the hydro

dynamically and thermally developed flow is given by

where 2L is the distance between the plates. Calculate the temperature difference between

the plate surface and the mean fluid temperature.

Solution:

(hm4L) / k = 8.235

circular tube and showed that at low flow rates the flow was streamlined; but as the flow rate

was increased, the streamlines become unstable and the laminar motion changed to turbulent

flow: i.e. the fluid motion become chaotic in nature and involves crosswise mixing or

eddying superimposed on the motion of the main stream.

The crosswise mixing in turbulent flow is advantageous in the sense that it assists

greatly in improvig the heat transfer, but it has the disadvantage of increasing the resistance

to flow. The flow pattern in turbulent flow is quite complex as they consist of a spectrum of

coexisting vortices which are varying in size from the larger ones to those of microscopic

dimensions. For example, in the case of turbulent flow through a tube , the size of the

287

vortices varies from a significant fraction of the tube radius at the central region of the tube

to microscopic sizes near the wall where the velocity approaches zero.

In turbulent flow, the fluid properties such as velocity, pressure, and temperature are

subject to fluctuations both with the location in the flow field and with time. Hence the

instantaneous values of these properties can be represented as a sum of a time averaged

mean part and a fluctuating part as follows:

_ _ _ _

u = u + u’; v = v + v’ ; T = T + T’ ; p = p + p’ …………………………………..6.35

_ _ _ _

where u,v,T and p are the instantaneous values ; u,v,T and p are the time-averaged values and

u’,v’,T’ and p’ are the fluctuations. If the temperature of a flowing fluid is recorded at a

location in the flow field and if the flow is turbulent at that location, then the plot of

temperature versus time will be as illustrated in Fig.6.11. In turbulent flow, the fluctuations

are considered superimposed on local average flow.The time averaged value of temperature,

for example, can be defined as

__ 1 t + Δt

T = ------ ∫ T dt …………………………6.36

Δt t

T

T’ = Temperature Fluctuation

__

T = Time –Averaged Temperature

Time,t

Fig: 6.11. Temperature fluctuations with time in turbulent flow

where Δt is a very small time interval which is large enough to record the turbulent

fluctuations but small for the temperature to be unaffected by the external disturbances on the

system.Similar averaging process can be defined for velocity and pressure (according to

Eq.5.36, the time average of fluctuating quantities are all equal to zero).The effects of these

fluctuations occurring in velocity and temperature in turbulent flow are to increase heat

transfer and resistance to fluid flow.

288

Consider turbulent flow along a flat plate as shown in Fig. 6.12.The y coordinate

is measured normal to the plate surface. Let u, and v be the instantaneous

u∞

y

u(x, y)

u(x, y)

x

xcr Turbulent Region

Turbulent Layer

Laminar Region Transition

Buffer Layer

Viscous sublayer

Fig. 6.12: Turbulent boundary layer for flow over a flat plate

values of the components of of velocities along x and y directions and T be the instantaneous

value of the temperature. Let u’,v’ and T’ be the corresponding fluctuations respectively.Let τ

be the shear stress in x direction at a location y from the plate surface.This shear stress can be

considered as to be composed of two parts:

_

viscous shear stress resulting from the mean flow velocity u and turbulent shear stress

resulting from the velocity fluctuations u’ and v’. Then we can write

_

where τviscous = μ(ðu / ðy) …………………………….6.37b

___

τturbulent = ─ ρ u’v’ …………………………….6.37c

Here the viscous shear stress term given by Eq. 6.37b is the laminar flow contribution.

The physical significance of the turbulent shear stress term given by Eq. 6.37c is not quite

apparent,but it can be derived by introducing the instantaneous velocities u and v in the x

momentum equation (See Ref.1) and by applying the rules of averaging to terms involving

the cross products of fluctuations.

Now if q is the heat flux in the y direction, then q can be considered as composed of

two parts: the diffusive or conductive heat flux due to gradient of mean temperature and the

turbulent heat flux resulting from the temperature fluctuations T’ and the velocity

fluctuations v’ in the y direction. With this consideration, we can write

289

q = qdiffusive + qturbulent ………………………….6.38a

_

Where qdiffusive = ─ k (ðT / ðy)………………………...6.38b

____

qturbulent = ρcp v’T’ ……………………………...6.38c.

Here the diffusive heat flux given by Eq. 6.38b is similar to that encountered in conduction

heat transfer, but the significance of turbulent heat flux given by Eq. 6.38c is not quite

apparent.It is derived by introducing the instantaneous velovities u and v and the

instantaneous temperature T in the energy equation (See Ref.1) for forced convection and

time averaging these equations.The relations for turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux

given by equations 6.37c and 6.38c are not useful for computational purposes unless they are

related to the mean quantities ū and T. A number of models heve been proposed to develop

such relations by semi-empirical hypothesis. For example the ‘mixing length model”

proposed by Prandtl and von Karman have been used extensively and successively in relating

turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux to the gradients of average velocity and average

temperature.

6.5.2. Prandtl’s Mixing Length Model: The basic idea behind this model is analogus to the

concept of “mean free path” for the motion of molecules in kinetic theory of gases. The

main difference is that in turbulent flow macroscopic lumps are envisioned.That is, in

turbulent flow in the x-direction along the surface, Prandtl postulated that fluid particles at a

distance y from the wall surface coalesce into macroscopic lumps and then travel, on the

average a distance l in the direction normal to the main flow while retaining their x-direction

momentum before they are dispersed.Thus , if the slow moving lumps enter the fast-moving

layer, they act as drag on the fast moving layer, and the momentum is transferred between

layers as a result of transeverse mixing. It is to be noted that l is an unknown quantity, and in

reality there is no such clear defined distance. Though the concept lacks generality, it has

been found useful in most engineering applications.According to Prandtl’s theory, the

velocity fluctuations can be related to

(ðū / ðy) by the following equations.

where u’ and v’ are of opposite sign and l 1 and l2 are the “mixing lengths for momentum

transport”.Similarly the temperature fluctuation is related to the gradient of mean

tempaerature as _

T’ = l3 (ðT / ðy) ……………………………..6.39c

Where l3 is the “mixing length for energy transport”. Now the turbulent shear stress can be

written as:

___

τturbulent = ─ ρ u’v’ = ρl1l2 (ðū / ðy)2 = ρlm2 (ðū / ðy)2

290

or τturbulent = ρεm (ðū / ðy) ……………………………………..6.40a

___ __

qturbulent = ─ ρ T’v’ = ρl3l2 (ðū / ðy) (ðT / ðy) = ρlh2 (ðū / ðy)(ðT / ðy)

__

qturbulent = ρεh(ðT / ðy) …………………………………….5.41a

εm and εh are called as “eddy diffusivity for momentum transfer” and “eddy difussivity for

heat transfer” respectively. Therefore for turbulent flow the total shear stress and the total

heat heat flux can be written as follows:

__

(q / ρcp) = ─ (α + εh) (ðT / ðy) …………………………..6.42b

Where υ is the kinematic viscosity and α is the thermal diffusivity of the fluid. Equations

6.42a and 6.42b clearly demonstrates the effects of turbulent flow in enhancing the drag as

well as the heat transfer. Depending on the level of turbulence in the flow field, the turbulent

transport properties εm and εh may be an order of magnitude larger than the diffusive

properties υ and α. In general ε m and εh are not the same. Their ratio is defined as “turbulent

Prandtl number, Prt”. Thus

Prt = εm / εh ………………………….6.43.

Pr = υ / α ……………………………..6.44.

The physical significance of Pr and Prt should be distinguished. The Prandtl number is a

physical property of the fluid. It varies from a value much less than 1 for liquid metals to

values much greater than 1 for liquds and ois. It is about 1 for gases. The turbulent Prandtl

number is a property of the flow field and various models have been proposed for its

determination. The simplest model is due to Reynolds who assumed Pr t = 1, which implies

that heat and momentum transfer in turbulent flow takes place exactly by the same process.

The numerical value of Prt may vary between 1 and 2.

been investigated extensively due to its importance in practice.But no fundamental theory is

yet available to determine this distribution by purely theoretical approaches. Therefore,

empirical and semi-empirical relations are used to correlate the velocity in turbulent flow.

291

One of the velocity distribution which has been used widely is based on the concept

of dividing the turbulent flow field into three distinct layers as illustrated in Fig.5.10.A very

thin layer adjacent ot the wall where laminar or viscous shear stress dominate is called the

“viscous sublayer”. Adjacent to this layer is the “buffer layer”, where the viscous and

turbulent shear stresses are of the same order of magnitude and the third layer next to the

buffer layer is called “turbulent layer”, where the turbulent shear stress dominates.For the

steady, turbulent flow of an incompressible, constant property fluid over a smooth surface the

velocity distribution is expressed using the following dimensionless parameters:

ū

+

u = ------------ = Dimensionless velocity

√(τw / ρ)

y

+

y = ------ √(τw / ρ) = Dimensionless distance

υ

where ρ is the density, τw is the shear stress at the wall, υ is the kinematic viscosity and ū

component of mean velocity parallelto the wall surface.

Experiments have shown that for region where y + < 5, turbulent shear stress

contribution is negligible and the region is viscous sublayer.Therefore the shear stress takes

the form τw = μ(ðū / ðy). Integration of this expression for constant τ w with ū = 0 at y = 0

gives the following distribution for viscous sublayer:

The buffer layer is considered to be in the region between y + = 5 and y + = 30. In this region

the velocity distribution is assumed to follow the logarithmic law of the form

u + = A ln y + + B. The constants A and B are determined from requirement that at

y + = 5 ,velocity u + be equal to that of viscous sublayer and be equal to that of turbulent layer

at y + = 30.Hence for the buffer region the velocity distribution will be of the form

The region y + > 30 is considered to be the “turbulent layer” where the laminar

shear stress is negligible in comparison to the turbulent shear stress. By using the mixing

length concept and assuming that the mixing length varies linearly with the distance from the

wall in the form l = κy, it can be shown that the velocity distribution in the turbulent layer has

a logarithmic profile in the form

u + = (1/κ ) ln y + + C …………………………….6.47

where κ is called the universal constant. Experiments have shown that κ = 0.4 and the

constant C has been determined by the correlation of Eq. 6.47 with the measured velocity

profile. For turbulent flow inside a smooth pipe, C = 5.5. Then the velocity distribution in the

turbulent layer is given as

292

u + = 2.5 ln y + + 5.5 for turbulent layer y + > 30 ……..6.48

Though the above velocity distribution [Eq.6.45, Eq. 6.46 and Eq. 6.48] by dividing the

turbulent flow field into three distinct regions appears to be in reasonably good agreement

with the experimental data, the transition from a viscous to turbulent flow regime takes place

gradually.Therefore , he representation of of velocity distribution by three different curves

having discontinuous slopes at locations where they join is not realistis.A more serious

inconsistency of the logarithmic velocity distribution given by Eq.5.48 is that it does not give

zero velocity gradient at the tube centre. For this reason the average velocity for flow inside a

pipe as determined using the above equations overestimates the velocity.But these equations

have been used extensively in literature to study the relation between momentum and heat

transfer in turbulent flow.

discussed above is applicable to turbulent flow over “hydrodynamically smooth surfaces”. A

surface is considered as hydrodynamically smooth if the heights ‘λ’ of the protrusions are

much smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. Surfaces encountered in engineering

applications generally are not smooth and since viscous sublayer is very thin, the protrusions

may penetrate it.Nikuradse made extensive experiments with turbulent flow inside artificially

roughned pipe over a wide range of “relative roughness, λ /Di” from about 1 / 1000 to 1 / 30.

The sand – grain roughness used in these experiments has been adopted as standard for the

effects of roughness. The experiments showed that to study the effects of roughness, it is

desirable to introduce a “roughness Reynolds number λ+” defined as

λ

λ + = ---- √(τw / ρ) …………………………….6.49

υ

+

If λ < 5, the roughness has no effect on the friction factor.With this consideration three

distinct situations are envisioned for the effects of roughness:

For the hydrodynamically smooth case, the heights of roughness are so small that all

protrusions are covered by the viscous sublayer and hence roughness has no effect on friction

factor. For the transitional case, the protrusions are partly outside the viscous sublayer and

cause some additional rsistance to flow. For the fully rough case, the heights of protrusions

are so large that all protrusions penetrate the viscous sublayer; hence the viscous sublayer no

longer exists and protrusions influence the turbulent mixing.

For the fully turbulent region (y + > 30),the logarithmic velocity profile guven by Eq.

6.47 is applicable if y + is replaced by y / λ. In that acse the velocity distribution is given by

293

u + = (1/κ ) ln (y / λ )+ C ……………………….6.51

where κ = 0.4 as in the case of smooth wall but the constant C is different. A correlation of

this relation with Nikuradse’s experiments has shown that C = 8.5. Then Eq. 5.51 takes the

form

Eq. 6.52. is called logarithmic velocity distribution for turbulent flow in rough pipes in the

fully rough region.

A significant difference between laminar and turbulent flow lies in the fact that, in

turbulent flow the velocity profile is affected by the surface roughness, where as in laminar

flow, the velocity profile is not affected by the surface roughness. Since the velocity

distribution affects the shear stress at the wall and hence the friction factor, it is expected that

in turbulent flow the friction factor will depend not only on the Reynplds number but also on

the relative roughness, where as in laminar flow the friction factor is a function of Reynolds

number only.

Example 6.11.Starting with the definition of the total shear stress in the turbulent flow given

by ___ ___

τ = μ(ðu / ðy) ─ ρ u’v’ , u’v’ = ─ lm2 (ðū / ðy)2 and lm = κy

derive the logarithmic velocity distribution, u + = (1/κ ) ln y + + C for the fully turbulent

region.

ū y

Where u + = ------------ and y + = ------ √(τw / ρ)

√(τw / ρ) ν

Example 6.12. Show that the velocity distribution in the viscous sublayer is given by

u+ = y +

with u+ and y+ are as defined in example 5.11.

294

Chapter 7

Ducts

7.1. Introduction:

Heat transfer and pressure drop calculations in flow through ducts are required in many

industrial applications. Laminar flow through pipe is encountered generally in compact heat

exchangers, cryogenic systems, heating or cooling of heavy fluids like oils.For such flows

analytic expressions are available for the prediction of friction factor and heat transfer

coefficient.But most of the available correlations to determine heat transfer and friction factor

for turbulent flows are either empirical or semi-empirical in nature.

7.2.1. Couette Flow: Consider a special case of parallel flow of an incompressible fluid

between two parallel plates where one plate is stationary and the other plate is

moving with an uniform velocity U.A distance L separates the two plates (refer Fig.

7.1). The stationary plate is maintained at temperature To and the moving plate at

temperature TL. This type of flow is referred to as COUETTE flow and occurs, for

example, in journal bearing. The continuity, momentum and energy equations for

such a flow are given as follows:

For parallel flow along the plate the continuity equation (6.54b) reduces to

du / dx = 0 (7.1)

The momentum equation (6.59a) reduces to

d2u / dy 2 = 0 (7.2)

295

y

TL

y

u(y) = U

To, u(y) = 0

Fig. 7.1: Schematic for Couette Flow

at y = 0, u(y) = 0 (7.4)

Substituting these values of C1 and C2 in equation (2) we get the velocity distribution as

From equation (7.7) (∂u / ∂y) = U / L substituting this in the energy equation (7.3)

296

at y = 0 T = T0 (7.9)

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in Equation (7.8 ) we get the temperature as

Or T(y) – T0 =

y

L [ ( T L −T 0 ) +

2k ( )]

μ U2

1−

y

L

(7.11)

T ( y )−T 0

T L −T 0

=

y

L[1+

1 μ U2

2 k ( T L−T 0 )

1−

y

L ( )]

(7.12)

μ U2

Now the term can be written as follows:

k ( T L −T 0 )

μ U2 μCp μU 2

= = Pr * E where Pr is the Prndtl

k ( T L −T 0 ) k C p ( T L −T 0 )

number and E is

T ( y )−T 0

T L −T 0

=

y

L [1

1+ Pr E 1−

2

y

L ( )]

(7.13)

T ( y )−T 0 y

Fig. 7.2 shows the plot of as a function of for different values of the

T L −T 0 L

parameter

Pr*E.The case when Pr*E = 0 corresponds to no flow condition. Hence heat transfer from the

hot plate to cold plate is by conduction in y direction. Therefore the temperature distribution

is linear.The physical significance for other values of Pr*E can be understood better if heat

transfer at the wall (either at the upper wall or at the lower wall) is considered.The heat flux

at the upper wall is given by

297

q(y)| y = L = − k (dT /dy)| y = L

T L−T 0

From Eq.(7.12) we have (dT /dy)| y = L =

L (1− 12 Pr∗E )

T L−T 0

Therefore q(y)| y = L = − k

L (1− 12 Pr∗E )

(7.14)

The above result shows that the direction of heat flow at the upper wall for the case T L >

T0 depends on the value of the parameter Pr*E.

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

For Pr * E > 2, the right side of Eq.(7.14) is positive. Therfore the heat flows in the

positive y direction, i.e., from the fluid into the wall though the upper wall is at higher

temperature than the lower wall.

298

For Pr * E < 2, the right side of Eq. (7.14) is negative. Hence the heat flows in the

negative y direction,i.e., from the upper wall to the fluid.

For Pr * E = 2, the right hand side of Eq.(7.14) reduces to zero. Hence there is no heat

flow at the upper wall.

When TL = T0, both plates are at the same temperature, Therfore from Eq. (7.11) the

temperature distribution reduces to

(7.15)

It can be seen from the aboe equation that the maximum temperature occurs at y = L/2

and the maximum temperature will be

μ U2

T max – T0 =

8k

(7.16)

Combining Eq. (7.15) and Eq. (7.16) the the temperature distribution can be expressed in

terms Tmax as

T ( y )−T 0 y y

T L −T 0

= 4

L

1−( )

L

(7.17)

temperature flows in the clearance between a journal andits bearing. Assuming that both the

journal and the bearing are at the same temperature, determine the maximum temperature

rise in the fluid for velocity U = 6 m/s.

Find: Tmax – T0

Assumptions: (i)The oil properties are constant; (ii) the flow of oil in the space between the

journal and its bearing is considered as flow between two parallel plates; i.e. the flow is

coquette flow.

Solution: For Couette flow when T0 = TL, the maximum temperature rise is given by Eq.

(7.16): i.e.

2 2

μU 0.25∗6

ΔTmax = Tmax – T0 = = = 9 0C

8k 8∗0.125

299

Example 7.2.A lubricating oil of viscosity μ and thermal conductivity k fills the clearance L

between two rotating cylinders, which can be regarded as two parallel plates in motion for

the purpose of analysis. The velocity of the inner cylinder is U 1 and that of the outer cylinder

is U2.Find the relation for the velocity distribution in the oil layer for (a) the inner and outer

cylinders are rotating in the same direction but U 2 > U1 and (b) the inner and outer cylinders

are rotatibg in the opposite directions. Also find an expression for the shear stress in the fluid

resulting from the rotation.

Known: Viscosity of the oil = μ; Thermal conductivity of oil = k ; Clearnace between the two

rotating cylinders = L;velocity of lower plate=U1; Velocity of upper plate = U2

Find: (a) u(y) when both U1 and U2 are in same direction with U 2 > U1; (b) u(y) and shear

stress when U2 is in opposite direction with respect to U2.

Assumptions: (i) Fluid properties are constant; (ii) The flow between the two rotating

cylinders is considered as flow between two parallel plates (Couette flow)

d2u / dy 2 = 0 (1)

y

y

u(y) = U2

L

u(y) = U1

Integrating Eq.(1) twice we have

C2 = U 1 (3)

300

U2 = C1L + U1

( U 2−U 1 )

Or C 1 =

L

(3)

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in eq. (2) we get the velocity distribution as

y

u(y) = ( U 2−U 1) + U1

L

u ( y ) −U 1 y

or =

U 2−U 1 L

(4)

( U 2−U 1 )

Shear stress is given by τ=μ ( dudy ) =μ

L

Schematic for Case (b) :- U2 = − U1 :See Fig.E7.2b

y

y

u(y) = U2

L

u(y) = U1

The general solution Eq.(7.2) holds good for this case also.

− U2 = C1L + U1

( U 1+ U 2 )

Or C1 = −

L

301

Hence the velocity distribution is given by

y

u(y) = − ( U 1 +U 2 ) + U1

L

U 1−u( y ) y

=

U 1 +U 2 L

(5)

( U 1+ U 2 )

Shear stress is given by τ = μ ( dudy ) = − μ

L

(6)

Example 7.3.Consider Couette flow with heat transfer for which the lower plate moves with

a velocity of U = 15 m/s and is perfectly insulated (see Fig. E7.3). The upper plate is

stationary and is made of material with k up = 1.5 W/(m-K) and thickness L up = 3 mm. Its

outer surface is maintained at Tup = 40 0 C. The plates are separated by a distance of L 0 = 5

mm which is filled with an engine oil of viscosity μ = 0.8N-s/m 2 and thermal conductivity k0

=0.145W/(m- K).

(a) On T(y) ─ y coordinates, sketch the temperature distribution in the oil film and in the

moving plate.

(b) Obtain an expression for the temperature at the lower surface of the film T 0 in terms of

the plate speed U, the stationary plate parameters T up,kup,Lup and the oil parameters μ, k0, L0.

Calculate this temperature for the prescribed conditions.

302

y Tup

Stationary Plate

Lup

oil L0

Moving plate

Fig. E7.3: Schematic for example 7.3

Solution:

d2u /dy2 = 0.

Condition (i) in equation (1) gives C2 = U and condition (ii) in equation (1) gives

C1 = − U / L0.

Substituting the expressions for C1 and C2 in equation (1) we get the velocity distribution as

303

Therefore equation (3) reduces to

k0(d2T / dy2) = −μ (U / L0)2

At y = 0 the surface is insulated i.e. (dT/dy) = 0. Substituting this condition in equation (4)

we have

C1= 0.

At y = L0, the condition is

At lower surface y = 0

304

7.1. Determine the friction factor, the pressure drop and pumping power for fully

developed laminar flow of water at 21 0 C [μ = 9.8 kg/(m-s) ; ρ = 997.4

kg/m3]through a 2.5 cm diameter, 100 m long tube for a mass flow rate of 0.015

kg/s. What are the mean and maximum velocities of flow?

7.2. Determine the friction factor, the pressure drop and pumping power required for

the flow of water at 0.5 kg/s and 40 0 C through a tube of square cross section of

2 cm x 2 cm and 12 m long. What would be the corresponding values if the pipe

is of equilateral-triangular cross section of side 2 cm and length 5 m ?

7.3. Water at 30 0 C with a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s enters a 2.5 cm-ID tube whose

wall is maintained at a uniform temperature of 90 0 C. Calculate the length of the

tube required to heat the water to 70 0 C.

7.4. Water at 20 0 C with a mass flow rate of 5 kg/s enters a circular tube of 5 cm-ID

and 10 m long. If the tube surface is maintained at 80 0 C, determine the exit

temperature of water.

7.5. Air at 27 0 C with a flow rate of 0.01 kg/s enters a rectangular tube 0.6 cm x 1.0

cm in cross section and 2 m long. The duct wall is subjected to a uniform heat

flux of 5 kW/m2. Determine the outlet temperature of air and the duct surface

temperature at the exit assuming that the flow is hydro dynamically and

thermally developed.

7.6. Three kg/min of liquid sodium is heated from a bulk mean temperature of 400 0 C

to 500 0 C, as it flows through a stainless steel tube of 5 cm-ID and 2 mm thick.

The sodium is heated by a constant wall-heat flux, which maintains the tube-wall

temperature at 30 0 C above the bulk mean temperature of sodium all along the

length of the tube. Calculate the length of the tube required. Assume the

following properties for liquid sodium.

ρ = 846.7 kg/m3 ; k = 68.34 W/(m-K) ; Cp = 1.274 kJ/(kg-K) ; Pr = 0.00468 ;

ν =0.2937 x 10 ─ 6 m2 /s.

7.7. Consider hydro dynamically and thermally developed turbulent flow of water with

a mass flow rate of M kg/s inside a circular tube of inside diameter ‘D’. The

Dittus-Boelter equation can be used to determine the heat transfer coefficient. If

the tube’s inside diameter is changed from D to D/2 while the mass flow remains

same, determine the resulting change in the heat transfer coefficient.

7.8. Mercury at a temperature of 100 0 C and with a velocity of 1 m/s enters a 1.25

cm ID tube, which is maintained at a uniform temperature of 250 0 C. Determine

the length of the tube required to heat mercury to a temperature of 200 0C.

305

B. Hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths:

7.9. Determine the hydro dynamic entry lengths for flow at 60 0 C and at a rate of

0.015 kg/s of water, ethylene glycol and engine oil through a circular tube of 2.5

cm ID.

7.10. Determine the hydro dynamic entry length, thermal entry length and the heat

transfer coefficient for fully developed flow for engine oil at 60 0 C flowing at a

rate of 0.01 kg/s through a square duct 1 cm x 1cm cross section and subjected

to a uniform wall-temperature. Assume the following physical properties for the

engine oil:

ρ = 864 kg/m3 ; Cp = 2047 J/(kg-K) ; k = 0.14 W/(m-K) ; μ = 0.0725 kg/(m-s) ;

Pr = 1050

7.11. Atmospheric air at 25 0 C flows over both the surfaces of a flat plate 1 m long

with a velocity of 5 m/s. The plate is maintained at a uniform temperature of

750C.

(a) Determine the velocity boundary layer thickness, the surface shear stress and

the heat flux at the trailing edge of the plate.

(b) Determine the drag force on the plate and the total heat transfer from the plate

to air.

7.12. Air at 30 0 C flows with a velocity of 10 m/s along a flat plate 4 m long. The plate

is maintained at a uniform temperature of 130 0 C. Assuming a critical Reynolds

number of 2 x 10 5 and width of plate to be 1 m determine (a) the heat flux at

the trailing edge of the plate, (b) the heat transfer from the laminar portion of

the plate, (c) the total heat transfer from the plate and (d) the heat transfer from

the turbulent portion of the plate.

7.13. A highly conducting thin wall 2 m long separates the hot and cold air streams

flowing on both sides parallel to the plate surface. The hot stream at 250 0 C is

flowing with a velocity of 50 m/s while the cold stream at 50 0 C is flowing with a

velocity of 15 m/s. Calculate (a) the average heat transfer coefficients for both

the air streams and the heat transfer between the two streams per metre width

of the plate and (b) the local heat flux at the mid point of the plate. Assume that

the wall is at the arithmetic mean of the temperature of the two streams for the

purposes of calculating the physical properties of the two streams and the critical

Reynolds number to be 2 x 10 5.

using independently controlled heat generating rectangular modules of thickness

10 mm and length 50 mm. Each module is insulated from its neighbours, as well

as its back side.(see Fig. P 6.14). Atmospheric air at 25 0 C flows over the plate

at a velocity of 30 m/s. The thermo-physical properties of the module are : k =

5.2 W/(m-K) ; Cp = 320 kJ/(kg-K) ; ρ = 2300 kg / m3.

306

150 0 C

T∞ = 25 0 C

u∞ = 30 m/s

10 mm

700 mm

50 mm

(a) Find the required power generation in W/m 2 in a module positioned at a distance

of 700 mm from the leading edge of the plate.

(b) Find the maximum temperature in the heat generating module.

pressure. The air moves in cross flow over the pipe at 15 /s, while the outer

surface of the pipe is maintained at 115 0 C. What is the drag force exerted on

the pipe per unit length of the pipe? What is the rate of heat transfer per unit

length of the pipe?

7.16. A long cylindrical heating element [k = 240 W/(m-K), ρ = 2700 kg/m 3 and Cp =

900 kJ/(kg-K)] of diameter 10 mm is installed in a duct in which air moves in

cross flow over the heating element at a temperature of 27 0 C with a velocity of

10 m/s.

(a) Estimate the steady state surface temperature of the heater when electrical

energy is being generated at a rate of 1000 W per metre length of the cylinder.

(b) If the heater is activated from an initial temperature of 27 0 C, estimate the time

required for the surface temperature to come to within 10 0 C of its steady state

value.

electrical heater. Measurements of the effect of the free stream velocity V on the

power per unit length P, required to maintain the cylinder surface temperature at

300 0 C yielded the following results:

V (m/s) : 1 2 4 8 12

307

(a) Determine the convection coefficient for each of the above test conditions.

Display your results graphically.

(b) For the corresponding Reynolds number range, determine the suitable constants

C and m for use with an empirical correlation of the form Num = C Redm Pr1/3.

7.18. A thermocouple is inserted into a hot air duct to measure the air temperature.

The thermocouple (T1) is soldered to the tip of a steel thermocouple well of

length 15 cm and inner and outer diameters of 5 mm and 10 mm respectively. A

second thermocouple (T2) is used to measure the duct wall temperature (see Fig.

P 6.18).

T2

Air

at T∞, u∞ L Steel well

Di

Do

Consider the conditions for which the air velocity in the duct u ∞ = 3 m/s and the

two thermocouples register temperatures of T 1 = 450 K and T2 = 375 K.

Neglecting radiation determine the air temperature T ∞. Assume that for steel k =

35 W/(m-K), and for air ρ = 0.774 kg / m3, μ = 251 x 10 ─ 7 N-s / m2, k = 0.0373

W/(m-K), and Pr = 0.686

7.19 Air at atmospheric pressure and 30 0 C flows over a bank of tubes consisting 1

cm OD tubes, 10 rows deep. The velocity of air before it enters the bundle is 1

m/s.

(a) Determine the friction factor and the pressure drop and (b) the average heat

transfer coefficient for the following cases:

(i) Tubes are in equilateral-triangular arrangement with ST / D = SD / D = 1.25

(ii) Tubes are in square arrangement with ST / D = SL / D = 1.25

7.20. Hot flue gases at 375 0 C flow across a tube bank consisting of 1.25 cm OD tubes,

which are maintained at a uniform surface temperature of 30 0 C by flowing water

through the tubes. The tube bundle is 10 rows deep in the direction of flow and

contains 40 tubes in each row. The tubes are 1 m long and have an in-line

arrangement with SL / D = ST / D = 2. he velocity of the flow gases entering the

tube matrix is 7 m/s. Determine the average heat transfer coefficient and the

total heat transfer rate. Assume that thermo-physical properties of the flow gases

to be same as that of air at any temperature.

308

A.Hydro-dynamically and Thermally developed flow through ducts

7.1. Solution:-

Water di

At 200C

Reynolds Number = Red = uav dh / ν, where uav = average velocity of the fluid in the pipe

and dh = hydraulic diameter for the pipe.

Now m = ρ(πdi2/4)uav.

4 x 0.015

Or uav = (4m) / ρ(πdi2) = --------------------------- = 0.0305 m / s

1000 x π x 0.0252

0.0305 x 0.025

Therefore Red = ----------------------- = 757.95

1.006 x 10 − 6

Since Red < 2300, flow is laminar. For hydro-dynamically developed laminar flow we

have friction factor as

309

The velocity of the fluid at any radius for fully developed laminar flow through a circular

tube is given by

7.2. Solution

0.5

uav = m / (ρab) = -------------------- = 1.26 m / s.

994.59 x 0.022

1.26 x 0.02

Reynolds number Red = uav dh / ν = ------------------- = 38299

0.658 x 10 − 6

For fully developed turbulent flow through a pipe of square cross section the friction factor f

is given by (Moody chart, smooth pipe)

f = 0.02175.

Pressure drop = Δp = (1/2)f (L/dh) ρuav2 = 0.5 x 0.02175 x (12 / 0.02) x 994.59 x 1.262

= 10303 N / m2

310

For a tube of equilateral triangular cross section, dh = 4 {√3 x a2/4} / 3a, where a is the side of

the triangle.

0.5

Average velocity = uav = ----------------------------- = 2.9 m/s

994.59 x (√3/4) x 0.02 2

2.9 x 0.0115

Reynolds number = Red = --------------------- = 50684

0.658 x 10 − 6

Since Red > 2300, flow is turbulent. Hence from Moody chart we have

f = 0.02

7.3. Solution:

Tw

Tfi di Tfo

L

Data :- Tfi = 30 0C ; Tfo = 70 0C ; Tw = 90 0C ; m = 2 kg / s ; di = 2.5 cm = 0.025 m.

311

Since nothing has been specified in the problem regarding the type of flow, it is assumed that

the flow is hydro dynamically and thermally developed.

4x2

2

Average velocity = uav = m / (ρx πdi /4) = ---------------------------- = 4.11 m/s.

990 x π x 0.025 2

Reynolds number = Red = ρ uav dh / μ = ----------------------------- = 1.86 x 10 5

0.547 x 10 − 3

Since Red >2300, flow is turbulent. For fully developed turbulent flow the Nusselt number is

given by

= 628

To find the length of the tube L, we write the energy balance equation for the entire length of

the tube as

Heat supplied to fluid from the tube wall = Increase of energy of the fluid

Where ΔTm = logarithmic mean temperature difference = [ΔTi – ΔTo] / ln (ΔTi / ΔTo)

Hence L = -------------------------------- = 7.23 m.

16171 x π x 0.025 x 36.41

7.4. Solution:

312

Tw

To find Tfo.

Since Tfois not known we cannot determine the bulk fluid mean temperature to know the

properties of the fluid. Hence this problem has to be solved by trial and error method as

shown below

Trial No. 1:- Assume suitable value for Tfo noting that Tfo < Tw.

4x5

2

Average velocity of water = uav = 4m /( πd ρ) = --------------------------

i

π x (0.05)2 x 994.59

= 2.56 m/s.

2.56 x 0.05

Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = ------------------------ = 1.945 x 10 5

0.658 x 10 − 6

313

= 704.5

704.5 x 0.628

Heat transfer coefficient = h = Nud k / dh = ---------------------- = 8848.5 W /(m2 – K).

0.05

Heat balance equation for the total length of the tube can be written as

---------------------------- = mcp [ΔTi – ΔTo]

ln[ΔTi / ΔTo]

[80 – 20]

= ----------------------------------------------------

exp{(8848.5 x π x 0.05 x 10) / (5 x 4178.4)}

= 30.85 0 C.

Therefore Tfo = 80 – 30.85 = 49.15 0 C. This temperature is quite away from the

assumed value and hence one more iteration is required.

uav = ------------------ ------ = 2.556 m/s; Red = -------------------- = 1.696 x 10 5

π x 0.05 2 x 996.22 0.7537 x 10 − 6

[80 – 20]

Therefore Tfo = 80 − ---------------------------------------------------------

exp {(8328.6 x π x 0.05 x 10) / (5 x 4179.3)}

iteration can be stopped.

314

7.5. Solution:

qw

a

Tfi Tfo b

L

Data :- Fluid is air ; Tfi = 27 0 C ; m = 0.01 kg/s; a = 0.01 m; b = 0.006 m; L = 2 m;

qw = 5000 W / m2.

Energy balance equation for total length of the tube can be written as

2 x (0.01 + 0.006) x 2 x 5000

Therefore Tfo = 27 + --------------------------------------- = 58.8 0 C.

1.1 x 1005.7

Properties of air at 42.9 0 C are : ρ = 1.12 kg / m3; 1006.8 J/kg-K; ν = 17.30 x 10 − 6 m2/s;

temperature between Tfi and Tm is very negligible and hence this problem does not require

trial and error solution)

Hydraulic diameter = dh = ------------ = ------------- = ------------------------- = 0.0075 m.

2[a + b] [a + b] [0.01 + 0.006]

0.01

Average velocity = uav = m / [ρab] = ------------------------- = 149 m /s.

1.12 x 0.01 x 0.006

149 x 0.0075

315

Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = --------------------- = 64595

17.3 x 10 − 6

Since Red >2300 flow is turbulent. Assuming that the flow is hydrodynamically and

thermally developed we have

Nud = 0.023 Red 0.8Pr n, with n = 0.4 as air is being heated.

140.9 x 0.02745

Heat transfer coefficient = h = Nud k / dh = ---------------------- = 515.7 W/(m2 – K).

0.0075

7.6.Solution:

Data: Fluid is liquid sodium; m = 3/60 =0.05 kg/s; Tfi = 400 0 C; Tfo = 500 0C;di = 0.05 m

4 x 0.05

Average velocity = uav = 4m / ( ρπdi2) = ------------------------ = 0.03 m/s.

846.7 x π x 0.05 2

0.03 x 0.05

Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = ----------------------- = 5107

0.2937 x 10 − 6

Since Red > 2300, flow is turbulent.Assuming the flow to be hydrodynamically and thermally

developed and since Pr << 1 (Liquid metal), the Nusselt number for constant wall heat flux

condition is given by

5.075 x 68.34

Heat transfer coefficient = h = Nud k / dh = ------------------------ = 6936.5 W/(m2 – K).

316

0.05

Energy balance equation for the total length of the tube can be written as

or L = -------------------- = ----------------------------------- = 0.195 m

h (πdi)ΔTm 6936.5 x π x 0.05 x 30

7.7. Solution:

The Dittus-Boetler correlation for hydrodynamically and thermally developed flow is given

by

Nud = hdh/k = 0.023 Red0.8 Pr n ………………..(1)

4M

For a circular tube of diameter D, Red = uavD / ν = --------------

ρπDν

----- = 0.023 [4M/( ρπDν)] 0.8 Pr n

k

Similarly when the diameter of the tube is reduced to D/2, for the same mass flow rate the

heat transfer coefficient is given by

6.8. Solution:

317

Tw

di

Tfi Tfo

To find L

Bulk mean temperature of mercury = Tm = ½(Tfi + Tfo) = 0.5 x (100 + 200) = 150 0C.

1.0 x 0.0125

Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = ----------------------- = 1.445 x 10 5

0.0865 x 10 − 6

Since Red > 2300, flow is turbulent. Therefore for liquid metal flow subjected to uniform

wall-temperature Nusselt number is given by

17.4 x 11.425

Heat transfer coefficient, h = Nudk/dh = -------------------- = 15904.5 W/(m2-K)

0.0125

318

= [150 – 50] / ln(150 / 50) = 91 0 C

= 1.952 kg/s

Energy balance equation for the total length of the pipe is given by

Therefore L = ------------------ = ------------------------------------

h πdi ΔTm 15904.5 x π x 0.0125 x 91

= 0.4715 m

6.9. Solution:

Data:- Tfi = 60 0C ; m = 0.015 kg / s; di = dh = 0.025 m.

4 x 0.015

Average velocity = uav = 4m / ρπdi2 = -------------------------- = 0.032 m/s.

985.46 x π x 0.025 2

0.032 x 0.025

Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = --------------------- = 1728

0.478 x 10 − 6

Since Red < 2300, flow is laminar. Hence the hydrodynamic entrance length Lh for a circular

pipe is given by

Lh / dh

-------- = 0.056

Red

= 2.419 m

(ii)Fluid is ethylene glycol: ρ = 1087.66 kg/m3 ; ν = 4.75 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

4 x 0.015

Average velocity = uav = 4m / ρπdi2 = -------------------------- = 0.0281 m/s.

1087.66 x π x 0.025 2

319

0.0281 x 0.025

Reynolds number = Red = ---------------------------- = 147.9

4.75 x 10 − 6

= 0.21 m.

(iii) Fluid is engine oil; ρ = 864.04 kg/m3 ; ν = 0.839 x 10 − 4 m2/s.

4 x 0.015

Average velocity = uav = 4m / ρπdi2 = -------------------------- = 0.0354 m/s.

864.04 x π x 0.025 2

0.0354 x 0.025

Reynolds number = Red = ---------------------------- = 10.55

0.839 x 10 − 4

square duct with a = 0.01m ; ρ = 864 kg/m 3; cp = 2047 J/kg-K; k = 0.14 W/(m-K);

μ = 0.0725 kg/(m-s); Pr = 1050.

0.01

2

Average velocity = uav = m / (ρa ) = --------------------- = 0.1157 m/s.

864 x (0.01) 2

Reynolds number = Red = (ρuavdh) / μ = ------------------------- = 13.8

0.0725

---------- = 0.09 for a tube of square section.

Red

320

(Lt / dh)

---------- = 0.041

Pe

(iii)For fully developed laminar flow through a square tube Nusselt number is given by

Nu T = hdh / k = 2.976

Consider the flow of water at a rate of 0.01 kg/s through an equilateral triangular duct of

sides 2 cm and whose walls are kept at a uniform temperature of 100 0C. Assuming the flow

to be hydrodynamically and thermally developed, determine the length of the tube required to

heat the water from 200C to 70 0C.

Solution:

Tw = 100 0C

Water

Tfo=700C

Tfi = 20 0C

m = 0.01 kg/s

L= ?

a = 0.02 m

Bulk mean temperature of water = ½(Tw + T∞) = 0.5x (20 + 70) = 45 0C.

ν = 0.598 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.63375 W/(m-K); cp = 4179.9J/kg-K

For an equilateral triangular tube, area of flow = A = (√3 / 4)a 2 = (√3 / 4) x 0.02 2

= 1.732 x 10 − 4 m 2

321

4 [(√3 / 4)a 2] a 0.02

Hydraulic diameter = dh = --------------------- = ------------- = ------------ = 0.01155 m

3a √3 √3

m 0.01

Average velocity of water = uav = ----------------- = -------------------------------

ρA 992.3075 x 1.732 x 10 − 4

=0.0582 m/s

0.0582 x 0.01155

Reynolds number = Red = uavdh / ν = -------------------------- = 1124

0.598 x 10 − 6

Since Red <2300 flow is laminar.For thermally developed laminar flow with constant wall-

temperature the Nusselt number is given by

2.47 x 0.63375

Therefore hav = ------------------ = 135.53 W/(m2-K)

0.01155

Mean temperature difference between the surface and the bulk fluid is given by

Rate of heat transfer to water = Q = mcp(Tfo – Tfi) = 0.01 x 4179.9 x (70 – 20)

= 2090 W

Q 2090

Or L = -------------------- = -------------------------------- = 5.13 m

hav 3a ΔTm 135.53 x 3 x 0.02 x 50.1

6.11. Solution:

322

u∞, T∞

Tw

x

L

k = 0.028 W/(m-K).

= 2.775 x 10 5

Assuming the critical Reynolds number to be 5 x 10 5, the flow is laminar at the trailing edge.

Therefore from heat transfer data hand book we have

= 0.0088 m.

= 1.26 x 10 − 3

323

Nux|x=L = 0.332 ReL 0.5 Pr 0.333

= 155.5

= 4.354 W/(m2-K)

6.12. Solution:-

u∞ = 10 m/s (air)

T∞ = 30 0 C Tw = 130 0 C

x

W=1 m

L= 4 m

To find :- (a) qw(x)|x=L; (b) Qlaminar; (c) Qtotal assuming Recr = 2 x 10 5 (d) Qturbulent

k = 0.03047 W /(m-K).

324

10 x 4

ReL = u∞L / ν = -------------------------- = 1.86 x 10 6

21.48 x 10 − 6

For turbulent flow of air over a flat plate the local Nusselt number is given by

2714 x 0.03047

Therefore [hx|x=L] L / k = 2803 or hx|x=L = ---------------------- = 20.67 W /(m2-K)

4

Recr ν 2 x 10 5 x 21.48 x 10 − 6

Or xcr = --------- = ------------------------------- = 0.4296 m

u∞ 10

263.3 x 0.03003

[hav]laminar = [Nuav] laminar k / xcr = -----------------------

0.4296

2

= 18.40 W /(m –K)

Heat transfer rate from laminar portion = Qlaminar = [hav]laminar [x cr W] (Tw – T∞)

= 790.5.0 W

325

(c)Average Nusselt number for the entire length of the plate is given by

3085 x 0.03047

Hence hav = Nuav k / L = ----------------------- = 23.5 W/(m2 – K)

4

6.13. Solution:

Hot air at T∞1 =250 0 C, u∞1 = 50 m/s

Tw = ½( T∞1+ T∞2)

= 150 0 C

L= 2 m

To find (i) hav for the hot surface ; (ii) hav for the cold surface ; (iii) qw(x)|x=L/2

(i) Mean film temperature for the hot fluid = ½(Tw + T∞1) = 0.5 x (150 + 250) = 200 0C.

50 x 2

Or ReL = ------------------- = 2.869 x 10 6

34.85 x 10 − 6

Since ReL > Recr, flow is partly laminar and partly turbulent. Therefore the average Nusselt

number is given by

326

Where A = 0.037 Recr0.8 – 0.664 Recr 0.5.

4465 x 0.0391

Hence for the hot surface [hav] hot = Nuav k / L = ---------------------- = 87.29 W/(m2-K)

2

(ii) Mean film temperature for the cold surface = ½(150 + 50) = 100 0C.

Properties of air at the mean film temperature are: ν = 23.33 x 10 − 6 m2/s; Pr = 0.693

k = 0.03184 W/(m-K)

15 x 2

ReL = u∞2L / ν = -------------------------- = 1.286 x 10 6

23.33 x 10 − 6

2219 x 0.03184

Hence for the cold surface [hav]cold = -------------------- = 35.33 W/(m2-K).

2

(iii) The rate of heat transfer from the hot air stream to cold air stream is given by

1

Now Rc1 = 1 / [hav]hot A = ------------------- = 0.00573 m2 – K / W.

87.29 x (2 x 1)

1

Similarly Rc2 = 1 / [hav]cold A = -------------------- = 0.01415 m2 – K / W.

35.33 x (2 x 1)

327

(iv) At mid point of the plate x = L / 2.

Therefore Tw = ----------------------- ; C = ---------------- = ---------- = 2.33

1+C [hx|x=L/2]cold 46.2

(2.33 x 250) + 50

Hence Tw = -------------------------- = 189.94 0C

1 + 2.33

Also check for qw(x)|x=L/2 ; qw(x)|x=L/2 = 46.2 x (189.94 – 50) = 6465.2 W/m2

6.14. Solution:

328

Air with u∞ = 30 m/s,T∞ = 25 0C

Tw = 150 0 C

10 mm

X1 = 700 mm Insulated

X2 = 750 mm

ρm = 2300 kg/m3.

Mean film temperature = ½(Tw + T∞) = 0.5 x(25 + 150) = 87.5 0C.

Properties of air at 87.5 0C are : ν = 21.79 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.03075 W/(m-K);

Pr = 0.695. Assume Recr = 5 x 10 5

Since Rex1 > Recr, the flow is turbulent at x1 and the flow will be turbulent over the module

under consideration. Therefore the average heat transfer coefficient for the module can be

written as x2

[hav]m = {1 / (x2 – x1)} ∫ hxdx

x1

x2

= {1 / (x2 – x1)} ∫{k[ 0.037 (Rex)0.8 – 871]Pr 1/3 /x}dx

x1

k Pr 1/3 x2

(x2 – x1) x1

k Pr 1/3

= ---------------- {0.037 (u∞/ν)0.8 ∫ x − 0.2 dx - 871∫ (dx /x) }

(x2 – x1)

1/3

k Pr

= ---------------- { 0.04625[Rex20.8 – Rex10.8] – 871 ln (x2 / x1)}

(x2 – x1)

329

0.03075 x (0.695)1/3{0.04625[(10.325 x105)0.8 –(9.325 X 105)0.8] – 871 ln (0.75/0.7)}

= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(0.75 – 0.7)

= 95.16 W / (m2-K)

For the module, power generation = qw = [hav]m {Tw - T∞} = 95.16 x (150 – 25)

(b) Since the bottom surface of the module is insulated, all the heat generated in the module

is transferred to air from the top surface of the module. Hence if q’’’ is the heat generated per

unit volume then

q’’’ (x2 – x1)δW = qw(x2 – x1)W,

where y is the coordinate measured in the direction of the thickness of the module.

The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0, the surface is insulated i.e. dT/dy = 0

and at y = δ, T = Tw. The solution of Eq.(a) subject to the boundary conditions is given by

Since the bottom surface is insulated, the maximum temperature of the module will be at the

bottom surface (y = 0) and is therefore given by

Tmax = Tw + q’’’δ2 / 2k

= 150 + ----------------------------- = 151.1 0C

2 x 5.2

6.15. Solution:

330

u∞ = 15 m/s; T∞ = 25 0 C

Tw = 1150C

L d = 0.025 m

= 18703

the drag coefficient ,CD = 1.2.

Therefore drag force = FD = ½(ρu∞2)LD CD = 0.5 x 1.0231 x 152 x 1 x 0.025 x 1.2 = 3.453 N

(ii) From Heat transfer data hand book for gases the average Nusselt number is given by

(μw = μ∞ can be considered for air )

84.04 x 0.0295

Therefore hav = Nuav k/d = -------------------- = 99.17 W/(m2-K)

0.025

6.16 Solution:

331

u∞ = 10 m/s; T∞ = 27 0C

Qw

D = 0.01 m

Given:- Qw = 1000 W/m; ks = 240 W/(m-K); ρs = 2700 kg/m3; Cps = 900 kJ/kg-K

(ii) time ‘t’ required for the surface to reach a temperature of (Tw – 10) 0C

Since Tw is not known it is not possible to read the properties at the mean film temperature.

Hence the problem has to be solved by trail and error procedure.

Trial 1:- Calculations are started using the properties of air at T∞.

Properties of air at 270C are:

Pr = 0.708

10 x 0.01

Red = u∞D / ν = ---------------------- = 6377.5

15.68 x 10 − 6

45.79 x 0.02624

Therefore hav = Nuav k/D = ------------------------- = 120.15 W/(m2- K)

0.01

332

Trial 2:- Assume Tw = 291.93 0C .Mean film temperature = ½(291.93 +27) = 159.5 0C.

10 x 0.01

Red = u∞D / ν = ---------------------- = 3323.4

30.09 x 10 − 6

Nuav = (0.4 x 3323.4 0.5 + 0.06 x 3323.4 2/3) x (0.682) 0.4 = 31.25

considerably different from the value got in the first trial, one more iteration is required.

Trial 3:- Assume Tw = 303 0 C. Mean film temperature = 0.5 (303 + 27) = 165 0 C.

Pr = 0.682

10 x 0.01

Red = u∞D / ν = ---------------------- = 3238.34

30.88x 10 − 6

Nuav = (0.4 x 3238.34 0.5 + 0.06 x 3238.34 2/3) x (0.682) 0.4 = 30.8

assumed value of 303 0 C and hence the iteration can be stopped.

Therefore Tw = 307 0C.

(ii) To determine the time ‘t’ required for the surface of the cylinder to reach a temperature of

(307 – 10 = 2970C).

If dT/dt represents the rate of change of temperature of the surface w.r.t. time during unsteady

state, then energy balance equation for the cylinder can be written as follows:

Rate of increase of energy of the cylinder = Heat transfer rate by convection from

the surroundings to the cylinder +

333

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3

u∞,T∞∞

D

ST

SL

Since the surface temperature of the tubes is not known properties of air are evaluated at T∞.

Hence properties of air at 30 0C are:

Pr = 0.708

ST / D 1.25

Umax = u∞ ------------------ = 1 x ---------------- = 5 m/s

[ST / D – 1] [ 1.25 – 1]

0.01 x 5.887

Reynolds number = Re = DGmax / μ = ------------------------ = 2969

1.983 x 10 − 5

From the graph friction factor f = 0.55 and Z = 1 for square arrangement as ST = SL.

N (Gmax) 2 10 x (5.887) 2

Now Δp = f ---------------- Z = 0.55 x ------------------------- x 1.0 = 161.9 N/ m2

ρ 1.1774

334

Here c2 = 0.27 ; m = 0.63 ; n = 0.

Since N <20, the above value of Nuav has to be multiplied by a correction factor.

u∞,T∞

ST

SD

Given: ST / D = SD / D = 1.25

ST / D

Maximum velocity Umax = u∞ ------------------ = 5 m/s as calculated above

[ST / D – 1]

ST / D 1.25

Or Umax = (½ )u∞ ------------------ = 0.5 x 1 x ------------- = 2.5 m/s

[SD / D – 1] (1.25 – 1)

We have to choose the higher of the two maximum velocities to calculate the Reynolds

number.Hence Umax and Reynolds number will be same as the above case.

335

From chart for staggered tube arrangement, f = 0.7and Z = 1

10 x 5.887 2

Therefore Δp = 0.7 x ----------------- x 1 = 206.1 N/m2

1.1774

= (√3/2)(ST/D)

Or ST/SL = 2 / √3 = 1.155

= 38.54

From the graph c3 = 0.98. Hence [ Nuav] N=10 = 0.98 x 38.54 = 37.8

6.20. Solution:

D

SL

336

D = 0.0125 m; number of tubes in each row = m = 40; L = 1 m ;

0.0125 x 10.394

Reynolds number = Re = DGmax / μ = ---------------------- = 4985.6

2.606 x 10 − 5

For in-line arrangement from data hand book, c2 = 0.27 and m = 0.63

48.18 x 0.03948

Average heat transfer coefficient = hav = [ Nuav] N=10 k / D = ----------------------

0.0125

= 152.175 W/(m2-K).

Energy balance between the tubes surfaces and hot gases can be written as

Heat transfer from hot gases to the tube surfaces = Q = (πDLNm)hav(T∞ - Tw)

337

Chapter 7 : Free Convective Heat Transfer

A. Free convection from/to plane surfaces:

temperature of 120 0 C is exposed to quiescent air at 30 0 C.Calculate the

average heat transfer coefficient and the total heat transfer rate from the plate to

air.

7.2. An electrically heated vertical plate of size 25 cm x 25 cm is insulated on one side

and dissipates heat from the other surface at a constant rate of 600 W/m 2 by free

convection into quiescent atmospheric air at 30 0 C. Determine the surface

temperature of the plate.

7.3. Determine the heat transfer by free convection from a plate 30 cm x 30 cm

whose surfaces are maintained at 100 0 C and exposed to quiescent air at 20 0 C

for the following conditions: (a) the plate is vertical. (b) Plate is horizontal

7.4. A circular plate of 25 cm diameter with both surfaces maintained at a uniform

temperature of 100 0 C is suspended in horizontal position in atmospheric air at

20 0 C. Determine the heat transfer from the plate.

7.5. Consider an electrically heated plate 25 cm x 25 cm in which one surface is

thermally insulated and the other surface is dissipating heat by free convection

into atmospheric air at 30 0 C. The heat flux over the surface is uniform and

results in a mean surface temperature of 50 0 C. The plate is inclined making an

angle of 50 0 from the vertical. Determine the heat loss from the plate for (i)

heated surface facing up and (ii) heated surface facing down.

7.6. A thin electric strip heater of width 20 cm is placed with its width oriented

vertically. It dissipates heat by free convection from both the surfaces into

atmospheric air at 20 0 C. If the surface temperature of the heater is not to

exceed 225 0 C, determine the length of the heater required in order to dissipate

1 kW of energy into the atmospheric air.

7.7. A plate 75 cm x 75 cm is thermally insulated on the one side and subjected to a

solar radiation flux of 720 W/m 2 on the other surface. The plate makes an angle

of 60 0 with the vertical such that the hot surface is facing upwards. If the surface

is exposed to quiescent air at 25 0 C and if the heat transfer is by pure free

convection determine the equilibrium temperature of the plate.

is exposed to quiescent air at 20 0 C. calculate the rate of heat transfer from

the surface to air. What would be the heat transfer rate if the tube were kept

horizontally?

7.9. A horizontal electrical cable of 25 mm diameter has a heat dissipation rate of 30

W/m. If the ambient air temperature is 27 0 C, estimate the surface temperature

of the cable.

7.10. An electric immersion heater, 10 mm in diameter and 300 mm long is rated at

550 W. If the heater is horizontally positioned in a large tank of water at 20 0 C,

estimate its surface temperature. What would be its surface temperature if the

heater is accidentally operated in air.

338

A.Free Convection to or from plane surfaces

7.1. Solution:

Tw = 120 0 C

T∞ = 30 0C

L = 0.3m

Mean film temperature of air = 0.5 x (120 +30) = 750C

x

Properties of air at 750C are:

First we have to establish whether the flow become turbulent within the given length of the

plate by evaluating the Rayleigh number at x = L.

GrL = (gβΔTL 3) / ν 2 = ----------------------------------------------------

20.555 x 10 − 6

= 1.62 x 10 8

Since RaL < 10 9 flow is laminar for the entire height of the plate. Hence the average Nusselt

number is given by (from data hand book)

60.6 x 0.03

Therefore hav = Nuav k / L = ---------------- = 6.069 W /(m2 – K).

0.3

Total heat transfer fro both sides of the plate per unit width of the plate is given by

339

Qtotal = hav(2LW) ΔT = 6.06 x (2 x 0.3 x 1) X (120 – 30) = 327.726 W/m.

7.2. Solution:

Insulated

qw = 600 W/m2

T∞ = 30 0C

L = 0.25 m

Since Tw is not known, it is not possible to determine the mean film temperature at which

fluid properties have to be evaluated. Hence this problem requires a trial and error solution

either by assuming Tw and then calculate Tw by using the heat balance equation and check for

the assumed value or assume a value for h av ,calculate Tw and then calculate hav and check for

the assumed value of hav.Since it is difficult to guess a reasonable value for Tw to reduce the

number of iterations, it is preferable to guess a reasonable value for h av for air as we know

that for air hav varies anywhere between 5 and 15 W/(m2-K).

* 4 2

Ra = GrL*Pr =[(gβqwx ) /(kν )]Pr = ----------------------------------------------x 0.696

L

0.02896 x (18.97 x 10 − 6) 2

Or RaL* = 4.61 x 10 9.

Since RaL* >10 9 flow is turbulent for the entire length of the plate

340

Hence Nuav = 1.25 Nux|x=L = 1.25 x 0.17 x (4.61 x 10 9) 0.2 = 55.37

Therefore hav = 55.37 x 0.02896 / 0.25 = 6.41 W/(m2 – K)

Since the calculated value of hav deviates from the assumed value by about 34 %, one more

iteration is required.

RaL* = ------------------------------------------- x 0.686 = 2.06 x 10 9

0.03338 x (25.45 x 10 − 6) 2

Since the calculated value of hav is very close to the assumed value (error < , the iteration is

stopped. The surface temperature of the plate is therefore given by

Data:- Characteristic length = L = height of the plate = 0.3 m; Tw = 100 0C;T∞= 20 0C;

= ---------------------------------------------------- x 0.696 = 1.23 x 10 8

341

(18.97 x 10 − 6 ) 2

= 86.256 W

T∞

T

Heated surface facing downwards with

Heat transfer coefficient hbottom

Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (100 + 20) = 60 0C;L = W = 0.3 m

Properties of air at 60 0C are: β = 1 /(60 + 273) = 3.003 x 10 − 3 1/K; Pr = 0.696

ν = 18.97 x 10 − 6 m2/s; k = 0.02896 W/(m-K)

RaL = ----------- Pr = ----------------------------------------------------------- x 0.696

ν2 (18.97 x 10 − 6) 2

Or RaL = 1.923 x 10 6.

From data hand book for heated surface facing upwards with constant surface temperature

the average Nusselt number is given by

342

Nutop = htopL/k = 0.54 x (RaL) 0.25 = 0.54 x ( 1.923 x 10 6) 0.25 = 20.11

Hence htop = 20.11 x 0.02896 / 0.075 = 7.76 W/(m2-K)

(b)To find hbottom:- From data hand book for heated surface facing downwards with constant

surface temperature, the average Nusselt number is given by

7.4. Solution: Data:- Horizontal circular plate with D = 0.25 m;Tw = 100 0C ; T∞ = 20 0C

This problem is similar to the previous problem except for the characteristic length. For a

horizontal circular plate of diameter D the characteristic length is given by

RaL = ----------- Pr = ----------------------------------------------------------- x 0.696

ν2 (18.97 x 10 − 6) 2

6

Or RaL = 1.112 x 10 .

From data hand book for heated surface facing upwards with constant surface temperature

the average Nusselt number is given by

(b)To find hbottom:- From data hand book for heated surface facing downwards with constant

surface temperature, the average Nusselt number is given by

343

hbottom = 8.76 x 0.02896 / 0.0625 = 4.059 W/(m2-K)

Mean film temperature = 50 − 0.25 x (50 - 30) = 45 0C;Properties of air at 45 0C are:

Pr = 0.6835; k = 0.02791 W/(m-K); ν = 17.455 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

β = 1/[{30 +0.25x(50-30)} +273] =3.25 x 10 − 3

gβΔTL3

GrL = -----------

ν2

θ = − 50 0

9.81 x (50 – 30) x 3.25 x 10−3 x(0.25)3

= -------------------------------------------------

(17.455 x 10 − 6)2

Insulated

= 3.27 x 10 7

From data hand book, for inclined plate with heated surface facing upwards the Nusselt number is giv

From data hand book for θ = − 50 0, Grc = 4 x 10 8 which is more than GrL.Hence the above

correlation cannot be used. Instead the following correlation has to be used.

Nuav = 0.59 (GrLcos θ Pr) ¼ = 0.59 x (2.23 x 107 x cos 500) ¼ = 36.3

344

The correlation for Nusselt number when the heated surface is facing downwards is given by

Nuav = 0.56 (GrLcos θ Pr) ¼ = 0.56 x (2.23 x 107 x cos 500) ¼

= 34.45

hav = 34.45 x 0.02791 / 0.25 = 3.84 W/(m2-K).

7.6. Solution:

Tw = 225

W

T∞=200C

L=0.2 m

Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (225 + 20) = 122.5 0C. Properties of air at 122.50C are: β = 1/(122.5 + 273

k = 0.03365 W/(m-K).

GrL = ---------------------------------------------- = 5.99 x 10 7

(25.9 x 10 − 6) 2

1000

Now Q = havLWΔT or W = Q / (havLΔT) = -----------------------------

7.94 x 0.2 x (225 – 20)

= 3.0718 m

345

7.7. Solution:

θ = − 60 0 T∞ = 25 0 C

Insulated

Since Tw is not known, mean film temperature to evaluate the fluid properties cannot be

determined. Hence the problem requires a trial- and – error method by suitably assuming a

value for hav and then check for this assumpotion.

Therefore β = 1/[61 + 273] = 2.994 x 10 − 3 1/K.

GrL = ------------------------------------------------------ = 2.51 x 10 9

(26.62 x 10 − 6) 2

For θ = − 60 0, Grc = 10 8. Since GrL > Grc the average Nusselt number is given by

= 164.45

346

Since the calculated value of hav is quite different from the assumed value one more iteration

is required.

Tw = 121.25 0C ;Tm = 97.18 0C C;Tβ = 49.06 0C; GrL = 2.311 x 10 9;Nuav = 159.96

Hence hav = 6.88 W/(m2-K). This value agrees with the assumed value within 8 %. Hence the

iteration is stopped and the equilibrium temperature of the plate surface is calculated as

= 60 0C.

Properties of air at 60 0C are:Pr = 0.696

L = 1.5 m T∞ = 20 0C

GrL = ----------- = -------------------------------------------------- = 2.21 x 10 10

ν2 (18.97x10−6) 2

Now ------------ = --------------------------- = 0.0078

GrL1/4 [2.21 x 10 10] ¼

347

(L/d)

Since ------- < 0.025, the vertical tube/cylinder can be treated as a vertical flat surface

GrL1/4

For calculating the Nusselt number.

Now RaL = GrLPr = 2.21 x 10 10 x 0.696 = 1.538 x 10 10

Rate of heat transfer = Q = πdLhavΔT = π x 0.05 x 1.5 x (100 – 20) x 4.81 = 90.67 W

(ii) When the pipe is horizontal:- When the pipe is horizontal, the characteristic length is the

diameter. Hence

Grd = ----------- = -------------------------------------------------- = 8.185 x 10 5

ν2 (18.97x10−6) 2

1/6

Rad

½

[Nuav] = 0.60 + 0.387 -----------------------------------

[1 + (0.559/Pr)9/16] 8/27

1/6

5

(5.697x 10 )

½

[Nuav] = 0.60 + 0.387 ----------------------------------- = 4.01 or Nuav = 16.08

[1 + (0.559/0.696)9/16] 8/27

7.9. Solution:

T∞ = 27 0C Tw = ?

qw = 30 W/m d =.025 m

348

Since Tw is not known, it is not possible to evaluate the fluid properties at the mean film

temperature. Hence the problem has to be solved by trial and error solution by assuming a

suitable value for hav and check for the assumed value.

Grd = ---------------------------------------------------- = 6.0 x 10 4.

[17.45 x 10 − 6 ] 2

[ 1 + (0.559/0.6985) 9/16] 8/27

Hence Nuav = 7.84 or hav = 7.84 x 0.028 / 0.025 = 8.78 W/(m2 – K).

Since the calculated value of hav deviates very much from the assumed value one more

iteration is required.

Proceeding in the same way as in trial 1 we have Tw = 70.5 0C. Hence Tm = 48.75 00C

Properties of air at 50 0C are: β = 1/(50+273) = 3.05 x 10 − 3 1/K; Pr = 0.698;

k = 0.02826 W/(m-K); ν =17.95 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

Grd = ---------------------------------------------------- = 6.4 x 10 4.

[17.95 x 10−6 ] 2

1/6

4

(6.4 x 10 x 0.698)

[Nuav] ½ = 0.60 + 0.387 ----------------------------------- = 2.89 or Nuav = 8.35

[1 + (0.559/0.698)9/16] 8/27

The calculated value of hav agrees with the assumed value within 5 % iteration is stopped.

349

The equilibrium temperature of the surface = Tw = 27 + 30 /(π x 0.025 x 9.5691) = 67 0C.

7.10. Solution:

Q

d

L

550

Wall heat flux = qw = Qw /(πdL) = ---------------------- = 58357 W/m2

(π x 0.01 x 0.3)

Since Tw is not known, fluid properties cannot be evaluated at the mean temperature and hence the proble

For free convection in liquids the order of heat transfer coefficient is around 10 to 1000 W/

(m2-K).Let us assume hav = 1000 W/(m2-K).

Grd = ------------------------------------------------------- = 5.519 x 10 6

(0.5675 x 10 − 6) 2

Nud = C Rad n with C = 0.125 and n = 1/3 for this value of Rad.

350

Hence hav = 33.908 x 0.639 / 0.01 = 2166.21 W/(m2 –K)

Properties of water at 33 0C 0C are : k = 0.6129 W/(m-K); Pr = 5.68; β = 3.3 x 10 − 3; ν =

0.831 x 10 − 6 m2 /s.

Grd = ----------------------------------------------------- = 2.2 x 106.

(0.831 x 10 − 6) 2

Rad = 2.2 x 10 x 5.68 = 1.24 x 10 7

6

Therefore, hav = 28.77 x 0.6129 / 0.01 = 1763.3 W/(m2 – K)

Tw = 20 + 58357 / 1763 = 53.1 0C. Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (20 + 53.1) = 36.55 0C.

ν = 0.657 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

Rad = ------------------------------------------------- x 4.34 = 1.03 x 10 7

(0.657 x 10 − 6) 2

Therefore, hav = 27.05x 0.6280 x / 0.01 = 1698.74 W/(m2-K)

Since the calculated value of hav agrees with the assumed value within 4%, iteration is

stopped and the equilibrium temperature of the heater is calculated as

Case (ii):- When the heater is exposed to air

When a heated surface is exposed to air the order of heat transfer coefficient varies between 5

and 20 W/(m2-K).

Tw = 20 + 58357 / 20 = 2938 0C. Mean film temperature = 0.5 x (20 + 2938) = 1479 0C

351

k = 0.108 W/(m-K); ν = 294.3 x 10 − 6 m2/s.

Rad = ------------------------------------------------- --- x 0.7045 = 133

(294.3 x 10 − 6) 2

Hence hav = 2.13 x 0.108 / 0.01 = 23 W/(m2-K) This is 13% away from the assumed value

and hence one more iteration is required.

k = 0.0978 W/(m-K)

Rad = ------------------------------------------------- --- x 0.705 = 188

(244.34 x 10 − 6) 2

Nuav = 0.850 x (188) 0.188 = 2.275.Hence hav = 2.275 x 0.0978 / 0.01 = 22.25 W/(m2 – K).

This value of hav agrees with the assumed value within 4% and hence the iteration is stopped.

The equilibrium temperature of the heater is therefore given by

352

Chapter 8 : Condensation & Boiling

8.1. Introduction: Knowledge of heat transfer occurring during change of phase i.e. during

condensation and boiling is very useful in a number of ways. For example in all power and

refrigeration cycles, it is necessary to convert a liquid into a vapour and vice-versa. This is

accomplished in boilers or evaporators and condensers.

much higher than those encountered in single phase processes. Values greater than 1000 W/

(m2-K) are almost always obtained. This fact has been used in several recent

applications where it is desired to transfer high heat fluxes with modest temperature

differences. An example is the “heat pipe” which is a device capable of transferring a large

quantity of heat with very small temperature differences.

comes into contact with a surface at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature of

the vapour corresponding to its vapour pressure. The nature of condensation depends on

whether the liquid thus formed wets the solid surface or does not wet the surface. If the liquid

wets the surface, the condensate flows on the surface in the form of a film and the process is

called “film-wise condensation”. If on the other hand, the liquid does not wet the surface, the

condensate collects in the form of droplets, which either grow in size or coalesce with

neighboring droplets and eventually roll of the surface under the influence of gravity. This

type of condensation is called “drop-wise condensation”.

The rate of heat transfer during the two types of condensation processes

is quite different. For the same temperature difference between the vapour and the surface,

the heat transfer rates in drop-wise condensation are significantly higher than those in film-

wise condensation. Therefore it is preferable to have drop-wise condensation from the

designer’s point of view if the thermal resistance on the condensing side is a significant part

of the total thermal resistance. However it is generally observed that, although drop-wise

condensation may be obtained on new surfaces, it is difficult to maintain drop-wise

condensation continuously and prolonged condensation results in a change to film-wise

condensation. Therefore it is still the practice to design condensers under the conservative

assumption that the condensation is of film type.

8.3. Nusselt’s theory for laminar film-wise condensation on a plane vertical surface:-

The problem of laminar film-wise condensation on a plane vertical surface was first

analytically solved by Nusselt in 1916.He made the following simplifying assumptions in his

analysis.

(i) The fluid properties are constant.

(ii) The plane surface is maintained at a uniform temperature, Tw which is less than the

saturation temperature Tv of the vapour.

(iii) The vapour is stationary or has a very low velocity and so it does not exert any drag on

the motion of the condensate: i.e., the shear stress at the liquid-vapour interface is zero.

353

(iv) The flow velocity of the condensate layer is so low that the acceleration of the

condensate is negligible.

(v) The downward flow of the condensate under the action of gravity is laminar.

(vi) Heat transfer across the condensate layer is purely by conduction; hence the liquid

temperature distribution is linear.

[τ + (∂τ/∂y)dy]dx

x pdy τdx

pdy

δ

dx

(p+dp)dy (p+dp)dy

ρLdxdyg ρvdxdyg

Here ‘x’ is the coordinate measured downwards along the plate, and ‘y’ is the coordinate

measured normal to the plate from the plate surface. The condensate thickness at any x is

represented by δ [ δ = δ(x)]. The velocity distribution u(y) at any location x can be

determined by making a force balance on a condensate element of dimensions dx and dy in x

and y directions as shown in Fig. 8.1(a). Since it is assumed that there is no acceleration of

the liquid in x direction, Newton’s second law in x direction gives

Expression for (dp/dx) in terms of vapour density ρv can be obtained by making a force

balance for a vapour element as shown in Fig. 8.1(b). The force balance gives

354

or (dp/dx) = ρvg

(∂τ/∂y) = (ρv−ρL)g

(ρv−ρL)g y C1

Or (∂u/∂y) = --------------- + ------- ……(8.2)

μL μL

(ρv−ρL)g y2 C1 y

u(y) = ---------------- + ------------- + C2 ......(8.3)

2 μL μL

(ii) at y = δ, (∂u/∂y) = 0.

Condition (i) in Eq. (8.3) gives C2 = 0 and condition (ii) in Eq. (8.2) gives

(ρv−ρL)g δ C1

0 = ------------- + ---------

2 μL μL

(ρv−ρL)g δ

Therefore C1 = − --------------

2

Substituting for C1 and C2 in Eq.(8.3) we get the velocity distribution in the condensate layer

as

g(ρL − ρv)

u(y) = --------------- [ δy – (y2/2)] …………………(8.4)

μL

δ

m = ∫ρLudy

0

355

δ

m = ∫ ρL{ g(ρL − ρv) / μL}[ δy – (y2/2)]dy

0

g ρL (ρL − ρv) δ 3

= ------------------ ………………………………..(8.5)

3 μL

g ρL (ρL − ρv) δ 2 dδ

Hence dm = ----------------------

μL

Or dq = ------------------------- ………………………….(8.6)

μL

Energy balance for the condensate element shown in the figure can be written as

dq = kL(Tv – Tw)dx / δ

Or ------------------------------- = kL(Tv – Tw)dx / δ………….(8.6)

μL

kL μL (Tv – Tw)dx

3

or δ dδ = ----------------------

g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

Integrating we get

δ4 kL μL (Tv – Tw)x

----- = --------------------- + C 3

4 g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

At x = 0, δ = 0. Hence C3 = 0.

----- = ---------------------

4 g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

4 kL μL (Tv – Tw)x

or δ = [-------------------------- ] 1/ 4……………………(8.7)

g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg

356

Now kL (Tv – Tw)dx

----------------- = hx dx [Tv – Tw]

δ

kL g ρL (ρL − ρv) hfg kL3

Therefore hx = --------- = [ --------------------------] 1 / 4

δ 4 μL (Tv – Tw)x

Or hx = 0.707[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 ...............................(8.8)

μL (Tv – Tw)x

Nux = ----- = 0.707[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 ...............................(8.8)

kL μL (Tv – Tw)kL

The average heat transfer coefficient for a length L of the plate is given by

L

hav = (1/L) ∫ hxdx ………………………………………(8.9)

0

Or C = 0.707[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 …………………(8.10)

μL (Tv – Tw)

L

Hence hav = (1/L) C ∫ x − ¼ dx = (C / L) (4/3) L− ¼ = (4/3)C L− ¼

0

hav = 0.943[ --------------------------] 1 / 4 = (4/3)hx|x = L.........................(8.11)

μL (Tv – Tw)L

8.4. Condensation on Inclined Surfaces : Nusselt,s analysis given above can readily be

extended to inclined plane surfaces making an angle θ with the horizontal plane as shown in

Fig. 8.2.

357

y

θ

g

The component of the gravitational force along the length of the pate is g sin θ.The expressions for local a

hx = 0.707[ ------------------------------------] 1 / 4

μL (Tv – Tw)x

…………….......(8.12)

…

and hav = 0.943[ ----------------------------------] 1 / 4 = (4/3)hx|x = L

μL (Tv – Tw)L

…………………………(8.13)

8.5. Condensation on a horizontal tube: The analysis of heat transfer for condensation on

the outside surface of a horizontal tube is more complicated than that for a vertical

surface. Nusselt,s analysis for laminar film-wise condensation on the surface of a horizontal

tube gives the average heat transfer coefficient as

hav = 0.725 [ --------------------------------- ] 1 / 4 ……………(8.14)

μL (Tv – Tw) D

where D is the outside diameter of the tube. A comparison of equations (8.11) and (8.14) for

condensation on a vertical tube of length L and a horizontal tube of diameter D gives

[hav]vertical 0.943

--------------- = ------------(D/L) ¼ = 1.3 (D/L) 1/4 .....................................(8.15)

[hav]horizontal 0.725

This result implies that for a given value of (Tv – Tw), the average heat transfer coefficient for

a vertical tube of length L and a horizontal tube of diameter D becomes equal when L =

358

2.856 D.For example when L = 100 D, theoretically [hav]horizontal would be 2.44 times [hav]vertical.

Therefore horizontal tube arrangements are generally preferred to vertical tube arrangements

in condenser design.

horizontal tubes arranged in vertical tiers as shown in Fig. 8.3 in such a way that the

condensate from one tube drains on to tube just below. If it is assumed that the drainage from

one tube flows smoothly on to the tube below, then for a vertical tier of N tubes each of

diameter D, the average heat transfer coefficient for N tubes is given by

[hav]N tubes = 0.725 [ ----------------------- ] ¼ = ------------ [hav] 1 tube ……………(8.16)

μL(Tv – Tw) N D N 1/ 4

This relation generally gives a conservative value for the heat transfer coefficient. Since

some turbulence and some disturbance of condensate are unavoidable during drainage, the

heat transfer coefficient would be more than that given by the above equation.

8.7. Reynolds number for condensate flow: Although the flow hardly changes to turbulent

flow during condensation on a single horizontal tube, turbulence may start at the lower

portions of a vertical tube. When the turbulence occurs in the condensate film, the average

heat transfer coefficient begins to increase with the length of the tube in contrast to its

decrease with the length for laminar film condensation. To establish a criterion for transition

from laminar to turbulent flow, a “Reynolds number for condensate flow” is defined as

follows.

ρL uav Dh

Re = ----------------- …………………..(8.17)

μL

359

where uav is the average velocity of the condensate film and Dh is the hydraulic diameter for

the condensate flow given by

4 x (Cross sectional area for condensate flow) 4A

Dh = --------------------------------------------- --------- = -------

Wetted Perimeter P

4A ρL uav 4M

Therefore Re = -------------------- = ---------------……………..(8.18)

P μL P μL

where M is mass flow rate of condensate at the lowest part of the condensing surface in kg/s.

The wetted perimeter depends on the geometry of the condensing surface and is given as

follows.

πD …..For vertical tube of outside diameter D ………….(8.19 a)

P = 2L …...For horizontal tube of length L …………………(8.19 b)

W ….. For vertical or inclined plate of width W………...(8.19 c)

Experiments have shown that the transition from laminar to turbulent condensation takes

place at a Reynolds number of 1800. The expression for average heat transfer coefficient

for a vertical surface [Eq.(8.11)] can be expressed as follows.

hav = 0.943 [ ----------------------------- ] 1 / 4

μL(Tv – Tw)

hav = 0.943 [ ----------------------------- ] 1 / 4 ………………..(8.20)

μL(Tv – Tw)

It has been observed experimentally that when the value of the film Reynolds number is

greater than 30, there are ripples on the film surface which increase the value of the heat

transfer coefficient. Kutateladze has proposed that the value of the local heat transfer

coefficient be multiplied by 0.8(RE / 4)0.11 to account for the ripples effect. Using this

correction it can be shown that

ReL

(hav / kL)( νL2 / g) 1 / 3 = ------------------------ ………………(8.22)

[1.08 ReL1.22 – 5.2]

360

8.8. Turbulent film condensation: For turbulent condensation on a vertical surface,

Kirkbride has proposed the following empirical correlation based on experimental data.

In the above correlation the physical properties of the condensate should be evaluated at the

arithmetic mean temperature of Tv and Tw.

8.9. Film condensation inside horizontal tubes: In all the correlations mentioned above, it

is assumed that the vapour is either stationary or has a negligible velocity. In practical

applications such as condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, vapour

condenses on the inside surface of the tubes and so has a significant velocity. In such

situations the condensation phenomenon is very complicated and a simple analytical

treatment is not possible. Consider, for example, the film condensation on the inside surface

of a long vertical tube. The upward flow of vapour retards the condensate flow and causes

thickening of the condensate layer, which in turn decreases the condensation heat transfer

coefficient. Conversely the down ward flow of vapour decreases the thickness of the

condensate film and hence increases the heat transfer coefficient.

Chato recommends the following correlation for condensation at low vapour

velocities inside horizontal tubes:

hav = 0.555 [ --------------------------- ] 1 / 4 ……………..(8.24 –a)

μL(Tv – Tw) D

This result has been developed for the condensation of refrigerants at low Reynolds number

[Rev = (ρvuvD) / μv < 35,000 ; Rev should be evaluated at the inlet conditions.]

For higher flow rates, Akers, Deans and Crosser propose the following

correlation for the average condensation heat transfer coefficient on the inside surface of a

horizontal tube of diameter D:

hav D

------ = 0.026 Pr 1 / 3 [ReL + Rev(ρL / ρv) ½ ] 0.8 ………..(8.25)

k

The above equation correlates the experimental data within 50 % for ReL > 5000 and