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This course covers the different types of philosophies related to Design of Reinforced
Concrete Structures with emphasis on Limit State Method. The design of Basic elements
such as slab, beam, column and footing which form part of any structural system with
reference to Indian standard code of practice for Reinforced Concrete Structures and
Design Aids are included. At the end of course the student shall be in a position to
design the basic elements of reinforced concrete structures.


Concept of Elastic method, ultimate load method and limit state method Advantages of
Limit State Method over other methods Design codes and specification Limit State
philosophy as detailed in IS code Design of flexural members and slabs by working
stress method Principles of Design of Liquid retaining structures Properties of un-
cracked section Calculation of thickness and reinforcement for Liquid retaining


Analysis and design of one way and two way rectangular slab subjected to uniformly
distributed load for various boundary conditions and corner effects Analysis and design
of singly and doubly reinforced rectangular and flanged beams

Behaviour of RC members in bond and Anchorage - Design requirements as per current
code - Behaviour of RC beams in shear and torsion - Design of RC members for
combined bending shear and torsion.


Types of columns Braced and unbraced columns Design of short column for axial,
uniaxial and biaxial bending Design of long columns.


Design of wall footing Design of axially and eccentrically loaded rectangular footing
Design of combined rectangular footing for two columns only Standard method of
detailing RC beams, slabs and columns Special requirements of detailing with
reference to erection process.

India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 2002.
Distributors, New Delhi,2003.

2. -Hill Publishing
Company Ltd., New Delhi.
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

UNIT – 1

1.1 Introduction
1.2 concept of Elastic method
1.3 concept of load factor method
1.4 Concept of limit state method
1.5 Method based on experimental approach
1.6 Advantages of LSM over other methods
1.7 Analysis of structures
1.8 Reinforced concrete slabs
1.9 Design codes and specifications
1.10 Limit state philosophy
1.11 Design of flexural members and slabs by WSM

1.11.1-One way slab design

1.11.2-Two way slab design

1.12 Design of beams

1.12.1-Singly reinforced beam

1.12.2-Doubly reinforced beam

1.12.3-Flanged beam
Technical terms
Limit state: The structure shall be designed to withstand safely all loads liable to act on it
throughout its life, it shall also satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as limitations
on deflections and cracking. The acceptable limit of the safety and serviceability
requirements befor limit state
Singly reinforced section: In a R.C. section, if steel is provided to take up only tension,
the section is called singly reinforced section.
Doubly reinforced section: To take an additional B.M which is more than that it can resist as
a singly reinforced balanced section, extra reinforcement in compression and additional
reinforcement on tension side (more than required for a balanced section) are provided and such
section, which are reinforced both in tension and compression zones are called ad Doubly
Reinforced sections.
T-beam: It is economical to go for beam and slab construction, if span for slab exceeds 3
to 4 m. in this type of construction, beams are placed along shorter direction and slab is
laid continuously over the beams. Here slab and beam are cast monolithically and portion
of the slab helps the beam in taking bending moment. Here the effective portion that acts
and hence it is known as
Flange & rib: The slab portion of the T beam is known as flange and the rectangular
beams portion of the T beam is known as rib or web.
Dead load: dead load in a building shall include the weights of all permanent
construction in the building such as weight of walls, partitions, floors, columns, beams
and roofs etc.
Live load: live loads are all the loads placed temporarily on the floors such as movable
and immovable loads, impact and vibration on the floors.

Reinforced concrete members are allowed to be designed according to existing

codes of practice by one of the following two methods (IS 456 (2000) clause 18)
1. The method of theoretical calculations using accepted procedures of
2. The method of experimental investigations
The theoretical methods are employed for design of commonly used structures. These
methods consist of numerical calculations based on the procedures prescribed in codes of
practices prevailing in the country. Such procedures are based on one of the following
methods of design:
1. The modular ratio or the working stress method, also known as the elastic
2. The load factor method or Ultimate Load Method
3. The limit state method
The experimental method are used for unusual structures and are to be carried out in a
properly equipped laboratory by (a) tests on scaled models according to model analysis
procedures, and
(b) Tests on prototype of the structure. The theoretical methods themselves are the result
of extensive laboratory tests and field investigations. Safe and universally accepted
methods of calculations based on strength of materials and applied mechanics have been
derived from these laboratory investigations and are codified into the national codes.
In this method moments and forces acting on the structure computed from the
actual load.
The section of the component member is then designed to resist these moments and
forces such that the maximum stresses developed in materials are restricted to a fraction
of their true strengths. The factors of safety used in getting maximum permissible stresses
for concrete and steel are 3 and 1.8 respectively. Where the limit state method cannot be
conveniently adopted, working stress method may be used.


A major defect of the modular ratio method of design is that it does not give a true
factor of the safety against failure. To overcome this, the ultimate load method of design
was introduced in R.C. design. Later this modified method is called as Load Factor
Method. In this method, the strength of the R.C. section at working load is estimated
from the ultimate strength of the section. The concept of load factor, which is defined as
the ratio of the ultimate load the section can carry to the working load it gas to carry.
Usually R.C. structures are designed for suitable separate load factors for dead loads and
for live loads with additional safety factors for strength of concrete.


In the method of design based on limit state concept, the structure shall be
designed to withstand safely all loads liable to act on it throughout its life; it shall also
satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as limitations on deflection and cracking.
The acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability requirements before failures occur is
called limit state. The aim of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that the
structure will not become unfit for the use for which it is intended, that is, it will not
reach a limit state.
All relevant limit states shall be considered in design to ensure an adequate degree of
safety and serviceability. In general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of the
most critical limit state and shall be checked for other limit states.
The designer may perform experimental investigations on models or full size
structures or elements and accordingly design the structures or elements. However, the
four objectives of the structural design (sec. 1.1.2) must be satisfied when designed by
employing this approach. Moreover, the engineer in charge has to approve the
experimental details and the analysis connected therewith.
Though the choice of the method of design is still left to the designer as per cl. 18.2 of IS
456:2000, the superiority of the limit state method is evident from the emphasis given to
this method by presenting it in a full section (Section 5), while accommodating the
working stress method in Annex B of IS 456:2000, from its earlier place of section 6 in
IS 456:1978. It is expected that a gradual change over to the limit state method of design
will take place in the near future after overcoming the inconveniences of adopting this
method in some situations.
1. The working stress method is based on pure elastic theory, which is not perfectly
applicable for semi plastic materials like concrete. In the limit state method of analysis,
the principles of both elastic as well as plastic theories are used and hence suitable for
concrete structures.
2. The structure designed by limit state method is safe and serviceable under design loads
and at the same time it is ensured that the structure does not collapse even under the
worst possible loading conditions.
3. The process of stress redistribution, moment redistribution etc., are considered in the
analysis and more realistic factor of safety values are used in the design. Hence the
design by limit state method is found to be more economical.
4. The overall sizes of flexural members (depth requirements) arrived by limit state
method are less and hence they provide better appearance to the structures.
5. Because of the modified assumptions regarding the maximum compressive strains in
the concrete and steel, the design of compression reinforcement for doubly reinforced
beams and eccentrically loaded columns by limit state method gives realistic values
which is not so in working stress method.
Structures when subjected to external loads (actions) have internal reactions in the
form of bending moment, shear force, axial thrust and torsion in individual members. As
a result, the structures develop internal stresses and undergo deformations. Essentially,
we analyze a structure elastically replacing each member by a line (with EI values) and
then design the section using concepts of limit state of collapse. Figure 1.1 explains the
internal and external reactions of a simply supported beam under external loads. The
external loads to be applied on the structures are the design loads and the analyses of
structures are based on linear elastic theory (vide cl. 22 of IS 456:2000).
Design Loads
The design loads are determined separately for the two methods of design as
mentioned below after determining the combination of different loads.
1. In the limit state method, the design load is the characteristic load with
appropriate partial safety factor (vide sec. for partial safety factors).

2. In the working stress method, the design load is the characteristic load only.
What is meant by characteristic load?
Characteristic load (cl. 36.2 of IS 456:2000) is that load which has a ninety-five
per cent probability of not being exceeded during the life of the structure.
The various loads acting on structures consist of dead loads, live loads, wind or
earthquake loads etc. These are discussed in sec. 1.1.6. However, the researches made so
far fail to estimate the actual loads on the structure. Accordingly, the loads are predicted
based on statistical approach, where it is assumed that the variation of the loads acting on
structures follows the normal distribution (Fig. 1.2). Characteristic load should be more
than the average/mean load. Accordingly, Characteristic load = Average/mean load + K
(standard deviation for load)
The value of K is assumed such that the actual load does not exceed the characteristic
load during the life of the structure in 95 per cent of the cases.
Loads and Forces
The following are the different types of loads and forces acting on the structure.
As mentioned in sec. 1.1.5, their values have been assumed based on earlier data and
experiences. It is worth mentioning that their assumed values as stipulated in IS 875 have
been used successfully.
1. Dead loads
These are the self weight of the structure to be designed. Needless to mention that the
dimensions of the cross section are to be assumed initially which enable to estimate the
dead loads from the known unit weights of the materials of the structure. The accuracy of
the estimation thus depends on the assumed values of the initial dimensions of the cross
The values of unit weights of the materials are specified in Part 1 of IS 875.
2. Imposed loads
They are also known as live loads and consist of all loads other than the dead loads of the
structure. The values of the imposed loads depend on the functional requirement of the
structure. Residential buildings will have comparatively lower values of the imposed
loads than those of school or office buildings. The standard values are stipulated in Part 2
of IS 875.
3 .Wind loads
These loads depend on the velocity of the wind at the location of the structure,
permeability of the structure, height of the structure etc. They may be horizontal or
inclined forces depending on the angle of inclination of the roof for pitched roof
structures. They can even be suction type of forces depending on the angle of inclination
of the roof or geometry of the buildings Wind loads are specified in Part 3 of IS 875.
4 .Snow loads
These are important loads for structures located in areas having snow fall, which gets
accumulated in different parts of the structure depending on projections, height, slope etc.
of the structure. The standard values of snow loads are specified in Part 4 of IS 875.
5 .Earthquake forces
Earthquake generates waves which move from the origin of its location (epicenter) with
velocities depending on the intensity and magnitude of the earthquake. The impact of
earthquake on structures depends on the stiffness of the structure, stiffness of the soil
media, height and location of the structure etc. Accordingly, the country has been divided
into several zones depending on the magnitude of the earthquake. The earthquake forces
are prescribed in IS 1893. Designers have adopted equivalent static load approach or
spectral method.
6 .Shrinkage, creep and temperature effects
Shrinkage, creep and temperature (high or low) may produce stresses and cause
deformations like other loads and forces. Hence, these are also considered as loads which
are time dependent. The safety and serviceability of structures are to be checked
following the stipulations of cls. 6.2.4, 5 and 6 of IS 456:2000 and Part 5 of IS 875.
7. Other forces and effects
It is difficult to prepare an exhaustive list of loads, forces and effects coming onto the
structures and affecting the safety and serviceability of them. However, IS 456:2000
stipulates the following forces and effects to be taken into account in case, they are liable
to affect materially the safety and serviceability of the structures. The relevant codes as
mentioned therein are also indicated below:
- Part 5)

- Part 5)
- Part 2) (Fig. 1.4)
ess concentration effect due to point of application of load and the like.
8. Combination of loads
Design of structures would have become highly expensive in order to maintain their
serviceability and safety if all types of forces would have acted on all structures at all
times. Accordingly, the concept of characteristic loads has been accepted to ensure that in
at least 95 per cent of the cases, the characteristic loads considered will be higher than the
actual loads on the structure. However, the characteristic loads are to be calculated on the
basis of average/mean load of some logical combinations of all the loads mentioned in
sec. to 7. These logical combinations are based on (i) the natural phenomena like
wind and earthquake do not occur simultaneously, (ii) live loads on roof should not be
present when wind loads are considered; to name a few. IS 875 Part 5 stipulates the
combination of loads to be considered in the design of structures.


(IS 456:2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice)
(Fourth Revision), ANNEX-B
Assumptions for Design of Members
In the methods based on elastic theory(Working Stress method), the following
assumptions shall be made:
a) At any cross-section, plane sections before bending remain plain after bending.
b) All tensile stresses are taken up by reinforcement and none by concrete, except as
otherwise specifically permitted.
c) The stress-strain relationship of steel and concrete, under working loads, is a straight
d) The modular ratio m has the value -280/3휎cbc

Where 휎cbc permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mm2 as

specified in Table 21 of IS 456:2000.
NOTE - The expression given for m partially takes into account long-term effects such as
creep. Therefore this m is not the same us the modular ratio derived based on the value of
Ec, given in
1. Permissible Stresses in Concrete (휎cbc)
Permissible stresses for the various grades of concrete shall be taken as those given in
Tables 21 and 23.
NOTE - For increase in strength with age 6.2.1 shall be applicable. The values of
permissible stress shall be obtained by Interpolation between the grades of concrete.
2. Direct Tension
For members in direct tension, when full tension is taken by the reinforcement alone, the
tensile stress shall be not greater than the values given below:
The tensile stress shall be calculated as
Ft / AC + mAst
F, =total tension on the member minus pretension in steel, if any, before concreting;
AC =cross-sectional area of concrete excluding any finishing material and reinforcing
m- Modular ratio; and
Ast = cross-sectional area of reinforcing steel in tension.
3. Bond Stress for Deformed Bars
In the case of deformed bars conforming to IS 1786, the bond stresses given in
Table 21 may be increased by 60 percent.
4. Permissible Stresses in Steel Reinforcement (휎st)
Permissible stresses in steel reinforcement shall not exceed the values specified in
Table 22 of IS456:2000.
In flexural members the value of (T, given in Table 22 is applicable at the
centroid of the tensile reinforcement subject to the condition that when more than one
layer of tensile reinforcement is provided, the stress at the centroid of the outermost layer
shall not exceed by more than 10 percent the value given in Table 22.
5. Increase in permissible Stresses
Where stresses due to wind (or earthquake) temperature and shrinkage effects are
combined with those due to dead, live and impact load, the stresses specified in Tables
21, 22 and 23 may be exceeded up to a limit of 33 1 3 percent. Wind and seismic forces
need not be considered as acting simultaneously.

1 The values of permissible shear stress in concrete are given in Table 23.
2 The bond stress given in co1 4 shall be increased by 25 percent for bars in compression.
C where k has the value
given below:
6. Minimum Shear Reinforcement
V C given in Table 23, minimum shear reinforcement shall be
provided in accordance with
7. Design of Shear Reinforcement
V C given in Table 23, shear reinforcement shall be provided in
any of the following forms:
a) Vertical stirrups,
b) Bent-up bars along with stirrups, and
c) Inclined stirrups.
Where bent-up bars are provided, their contribution towards shear resistance shall
not be more than half that of the total shear reinforcement.
Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear equal to V- The strength of
shear reinforcement VS, shall be calculated as-below:
1. For vertical stirrups

2. For inclined stirrups or a series of bars bent-up at different cross-sections:

3. For single bar or single group of parallel bars, all bent-up at the same cross-


ASV = total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs or bent-up bars within a distance
SV=spacing of the stirrups or bent-up bars along the length of the member
C= design shear strength of the concrete
b= breadth of the member which for flanged beams, shall be taken as the breadth of the
web bw
sv =permissible tensile stress in shear reinforcement which shall not be taken greater
than 230 N/mm2
-up bar and the axis of the member, not less
than 450, and
d= effective depth.
NOTE -Where more than one type of shear reinforcement is used to reinforce the same
portion of the beam, the total shear resistance shall be computed as the sum of the
resistance for the various types separately. The area of the stirrups shall not be less than
the minimum specified in
The inadequacies of the elastic and ultimate load methods of design paved the
way for the limit state method of design with a semi-probabilistic approach. Limit state
design is a method of designing structures based on a statistical concept of safety and the
associated probability of failure. Structures designed should satisfy the dual criterion of
a) Safety and
b) Serviceability
Safety may be defined as an acceptable degree of security against complete collapse
or failure, which in concrete structures can occur by various modes such as compression,
tension, flexure, shear, fatigue or their combinations.
Serviceability requirement means that the member or structure should not in its
intended lifetime deteriorate to such an extent that is fails to fulfill its function for which
it is designed. In concrete structures, this state may be reached due to excessive
deflection, cracking, vibration, corrosion of reinforcement etc.
Limit state design philosophy uses the concept of probability and is b the
application of the method of statistics to the vibrations that occur in practice ads
acting on the structure and the strengths of the materials.

Assumptions in limit state method:

1. Plane section before bending will remain plane after b
2. Tensile strength carried by of concrete is zero
3. Does not obey Hook`s law.
4. Ultimate strain of concrete is 0.0035
σc = 0.67 fck
Partial safety factor for
Hence, design strength 0.67 fck /1.5 = 0.446 fck
5. Maximum strain in forcement at failure shall not be less
0.87 f y
than + 0.002
6. Partial safe for steel γ m =1.15 . Thus the design strength will be:
f y /1.15 = 0.8 f y