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- Analysis Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Nonlinear_FEA_MSC-Marc
- Stress Analysis of Piping1
- RC02_DesignMethod
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3104

OBJECTIVE

This course covers the different types of philosophies related to Design of Reinforced

Concrete Structures with emphasis on Limit State Method. The design of Basic elements

such as slab, beam, column and footing which form part of any structural system with

reference to Indian standard code of practice for Reinforced Concrete Structures and

Design Aids are included. At the end of course the student shall be in a position to

design the basic elements of reinforced concrete structures.

Concept of Elastic method, ultimate load method and limit state method Advantages of

Limit State Method over other methods Design codes and specification Limit State

philosophy as detailed in IS code Design of flexural members and slabs by working

stress method Principles of Design of Liquid retaining structures Properties of un-

cracked section Calculation of thickness and reinforcement for Liquid retaining

structure

Analysis and design of one way and two way rectangular slab subjected to uniformly

distributed load for various boundary conditions and corner effects Analysis and design

of singly and doubly reinforced rectangular and flanged beams

UNIT III LIMIT STATE DESIGN FOR BOND, ANCHORAGE SHEAR & TORSION 12

Behaviour of RC members in bond and Anchorage - Design requirements as per current

code - Behaviour of RC beams in shear and torsion - Design of RC members for

combined bending shear and torsion.

12

Types of columns Braced and unbraced columns Design of short column for axial,

uniaxial and biaxial bending Design of long columns.

Design of wall footing Design of axially and eccentrically loaded rectangular footing

Design of combined rectangular footing for two columns only Standard method of

detailing RC beams, slabs and columns Special requirements of detailing with

reference to erection process.

TOTAL: 60

PERIODS

TEXT BOOKS

1.

India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 2002.

2.

Distributors, New Delhi,2003.

REFERENCES

1.

Rourkee

2. -Hill Publishing

Company Ltd., New Delhi.

3.

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.

DESIGN OF RC ELEMENTS

UNIT – 1

METHOD OF DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CONTENTS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 concept of Elastic method

1.3 concept of load factor method

1.4 Concept of limit state method

1.5 Method based on experimental approach

1.6 Advantages of LSM over other methods

1.7 Analysis of structures

1.8 Reinforced concrete slabs

1.9 Design codes and specifications

1.10 Limit state philosophy

1.11 Design of flexural members and slabs by WSM

1.12.3-Flanged beam

Technical terms

Limit state: The structure shall be designed to withstand safely all loads liable to act on it

throughout its life, it shall also satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as limitations

on deflections and cracking. The acceptable limit of the safety and serviceability

requirements befor limit state

Singly reinforced section: In a R.C. section, if steel is provided to take up only tension,

the section is called singly reinforced section.

Doubly reinforced section: To take an additional B.M which is more than that it can resist as

a singly reinforced balanced section, extra reinforcement in compression and additional

reinforcement on tension side (more than required for a balanced section) are provided and such

section, which are reinforced both in tension and compression zones are called ad Doubly

Reinforced sections.

T-beam: It is economical to go for beam and slab construction, if span for slab exceeds 3

to 4 m. in this type of construction, beams are placed along shorter direction and slab is

laid continuously over the beams. Here slab and beam are cast monolithically and portion

of the slab helps the beam in taking bending moment. Here the effective portion that acts

and hence it is known as

Flange & rib: The slab portion of the T beam is known as flange and the rectangular

beams portion of the T beam is known as rib or web.

Dead load: dead load in a building shall include the weights of all permanent

construction in the building such as weight of walls, partitions, floors, columns, beams

and roofs etc.

Live load: live loads are all the loads placed temporarily on the floors such as movable

and immovable loads, impact and vibration on the floors.

UNIT -1

METHOD OF DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF RC MEMBER:

codes of practice by one of the following two methods (IS 456 (2000) clause 18)

1. The method of theoretical calculations using accepted procedures of

calculations

2. The method of experimental investigations

The theoretical methods are employed for design of commonly used structures. These

methods consist of numerical calculations based on the procedures prescribed in codes of

practices prevailing in the country. Such procedures are based on one of the following

methods of design:

1. The modular ratio or the working stress method, also known as the elastic

method

2. The load factor method or Ultimate Load Method

3. The limit state method

The experimental method are used for unusual structures and are to be carried out in a

properly equipped laboratory by (a) tests on scaled models according to model analysis

procedures, and

(b) Tests on prototype of the structure. The theoretical methods themselves are the result

of extensive laboratory tests and field investigations. Safe and universally accepted

methods of calculations based on strength of materials and applied mechanics have been

derived from these laboratory investigations and are codified into the national codes.

1.2 CONCEPT OF ELASTIC METHOD:

In this method moments and forces acting on the structure computed from the

actual load.

The section of the component member is then designed to resist these moments and

forces such that the maximum stresses developed in materials are restricted to a fraction

of their true strengths. The factors of safety used in getting maximum permissible stresses

for concrete and steel are 3 and 1.8 respectively. Where the limit state method cannot be

conveniently adopted, working stress method may be used.

Method):

A major defect of the modular ratio method of design is that it does not give a true

factor of the safety against failure. To overcome this, the ultimate load method of design

was introduced in R.C. design. Later this modified method is called as Load Factor

Method. In this method, the strength of the R.C. section at working load is estimated

from the ultimate strength of the section. The concept of load factor, which is defined as

the ratio of the ultimate load the section can carry to the working load it gas to carry.

Usually R.C. structures are designed for suitable separate load factors for dead loads and

for live loads with additional safety factors for strength of concrete.

In the method of design based on limit state concept, the structure shall be

designed to withstand safely all loads liable to act on it throughout its life; it shall also

satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as limitations on deflection and cracking.

The acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability requirements before failures occur is

called limit state. The aim of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that the

structure will not become unfit for the use for which it is intended, that is, it will not

reach a limit state.

All relevant limit states shall be considered in design to ensure an adequate degree of

safety and serviceability. In general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of the

most critical limit state and shall be checked for other limit states.

1.5 METHOD BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

The designer may perform experimental investigations on models or full size

structures or elements and accordingly design the structures or elements. However, the

four objectives of the structural design (sec. 1.1.2) must be satisfied when designed by

employing this approach. Moreover, the engineer in charge has to approve the

experimental details and the analysis connected therewith.

Though the choice of the method of design is still left to the designer as per cl. 18.2 of IS

456:2000, the superiority of the limit state method is evident from the emphasis given to

this method by presenting it in a full section (Section 5), while accommodating the

working stress method in Annex B of IS 456:2000, from its earlier place of section 6 in

IS 456:1978. It is expected that a gradual change over to the limit state method of design

will take place in the near future after overcoming the inconveniences of adopting this

method in some situations.

1.6 ADVANTAGES OF LIMIT STATE METHOD OVER OTHER

METHODS:

1. The working stress method is based on pure elastic theory, which is not perfectly

applicable for semi plastic materials like concrete. In the limit state method of analysis,

the principles of both elastic as well as plastic theories are used and hence suitable for

concrete structures.

2. The structure designed by limit state method is safe and serviceable under design loads

and at the same time it is ensured that the structure does not collapse even under the

worst possible loading conditions.

3. The process of stress redistribution, moment redistribution etc., are considered in the

analysis and more realistic factor of safety values are used in the design. Hence the

design by limit state method is found to be more economical.

4. The overall sizes of flexural members (depth requirements) arrived by limit state

method are less and hence they provide better appearance to the structures.

5. Because of the modified assumptions regarding the maximum compressive strains in

the concrete and steel, the design of compression reinforcement for doubly reinforced

beams and eccentrically loaded columns by limit state method gives realistic values

which is not so in working stress method.

1.7 ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

Structures when subjected to external loads (actions) have internal reactions in the

form of bending moment, shear force, axial thrust and torsion in individual members. As

a result, the structures develop internal stresses and undergo deformations. Essentially,

we analyze a structure elastically replacing each member by a line (with EI values) and

then design the section using concepts of limit state of collapse. Figure 1.1 explains the

internal and external reactions of a simply supported beam under external loads. The

external loads to be applied on the structures are the design loads and the analyses of

structures are based on linear elastic theory (vide cl. 22 of IS 456:2000).

Design Loads

The design loads are determined separately for the two methods of design as

mentioned below after determining the combination of different loads.

1. In the limit state method, the design load is the characteristic load with

appropriate partial safety factor (vide sec. 2.3.2.3 for partial safety factors).

2. In the working stress method, the design load is the characteristic load only.

What is meant by characteristic load?

Characteristic load (cl. 36.2 of IS 456:2000) is that load which has a ninety-five

per cent probability of not being exceeded during the life of the structure.

The various loads acting on structures consist of dead loads, live loads, wind or

earthquake loads etc. These are discussed in sec. 1.1.6. However, the researches made so

far fail to estimate the actual loads on the structure. Accordingly, the loads are predicted

based on statistical approach, where it is assumed that the variation of the loads acting on

structures follows the normal distribution (Fig. 1.2). Characteristic load should be more

than the average/mean load. Accordingly, Characteristic load = Average/mean load + K

(standard deviation for load)

The value of K is assumed such that the actual load does not exceed the characteristic

load during the life of the structure in 95 per cent of the cases.

Loads and Forces

The following are the different types of loads and forces acting on the structure.

As mentioned in sec. 1.1.5, their values have been assumed based on earlier data and

experiences. It is worth mentioning that their assumed values as stipulated in IS 875 have

been used successfully.

1. Dead loads

These are the self weight of the structure to be designed. Needless to mention that the

dimensions of the cross section are to be assumed initially which enable to estimate the

dead loads from the known unit weights of the materials of the structure. The accuracy of

the estimation thus depends on the assumed values of the initial dimensions of the cross

section.

The values of unit weights of the materials are specified in Part 1 of IS 875.

2. Imposed loads

They are also known as live loads and consist of all loads other than the dead loads of the

structure. The values of the imposed loads depend on the functional requirement of the

structure. Residential buildings will have comparatively lower values of the imposed

loads than those of school or office buildings. The standard values are stipulated in Part 2

of IS 875.

3 .Wind loads

These loads depend on the velocity of the wind at the location of the structure,

permeability of the structure, height of the structure etc. They may be horizontal or

inclined forces depending on the angle of inclination of the roof for pitched roof

structures. They can even be suction type of forces depending on the angle of inclination

of the roof or geometry of the buildings Wind loads are specified in Part 3 of IS 875.

4 .Snow loads

These are important loads for structures located in areas having snow fall, which gets

accumulated in different parts of the structure depending on projections, height, slope etc.

of the structure. The standard values of snow loads are specified in Part 4 of IS 875.

5 .Earthquake forces

Earthquake generates waves which move from the origin of its location (epicenter) with

velocities depending on the intensity and magnitude of the earthquake. The impact of

earthquake on structures depends on the stiffness of the structure, stiffness of the soil

media, height and location of the structure etc. Accordingly, the country has been divided

into several zones depending on the magnitude of the earthquake. The earthquake forces

are prescribed in IS 1893. Designers have adopted equivalent static load approach or

spectral method.

6 .Shrinkage, creep and temperature effects

Shrinkage, creep and temperature (high or low) may produce stresses and cause

deformations like other loads and forces. Hence, these are also considered as loads which

are time dependent. The safety and serviceability of structures are to be checked

following the stipulations of cls. 6.2.4, 5 and 6 of IS 456:2000 and Part 5 of IS 875.

7. Other forces and effects

It is difficult to prepare an exhaustive list of loads, forces and effects coming onto the

structures and affecting the safety and serviceability of them. However, IS 456:2000

stipulates the following forces and effects to be taken into account in case, they are liable

to affect materially the safety and serviceability of the structures. The relevant codes as

mentioned therein are also indicated below:

- Part 5)

- Part 5)

- Part 2) (Fig. 1.4)

ess concentration effect due to point of application of load and the like.

8. Combination of loads

Design of structures would have become highly expensive in order to maintain their

serviceability and safety if all types of forces would have acted on all structures at all

times. Accordingly, the concept of characteristic loads has been accepted to ensure that in

at least 95 per cent of the cases, the characteristic loads considered will be higher than the

actual loads on the structure. However, the characteristic loads are to be calculated on the

basis of average/mean load of some logical combinations of all the loads mentioned in

sec. 1.1.6.1 to 7. These logical combinations are based on (i) the natural phenomena like

wind and earthquake do not occur simultaneously, (ii) live loads on roof should not be

present when wind loads are considered; to name a few. IS 875 Part 5 stipulates the

combination of loads to be considered in the design of structures.

(IS 456:2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice)

(Fourth Revision), ANNEX-B

Assumptions for Design of Members

In the methods based on elastic theory(Working Stress method), the following

assumptions shall be made:

a) At any cross-section, plane sections before bending remain plain after bending.

b) All tensile stresses are taken up by reinforcement and none by concrete, except as

otherwise specifically permitted.

c) The stress-strain relationship of steel and concrete, under working loads, is a straight

line.

d) The modular ratio m has the value -280/3휎cbc

specified in Table 21 of IS 456:2000.

NOTE - The expression given for m partially takes into account long-term effects such as

creep. Therefore this m is not the same us the modular ratio derived based on the value of

Ec, given in 6.2.3.1.

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES

1. Permissible Stresses in Concrete (휎cbc)

Permissible stresses for the various grades of concrete shall be taken as those given in

Tables 21 and 23.

NOTE - For increase in strength with age 6.2.1 shall be applicable. The values of

permissible stress shall be obtained by Interpolation between the grades of concrete.

2. Direct Tension

For members in direct tension, when full tension is taken by the reinforcement alone, the

tensile stress shall be not greater than the values given below:

The tensile stress shall be calculated as

Ft / AC + mAst

F, =total tension on the member minus pretension in steel, if any, before concreting;

AC =cross-sectional area of concrete excluding any finishing material and reinforcing

steel

m- Modular ratio; and

Ast = cross-sectional area of reinforcing steel in tension.

3. Bond Stress for Deformed Bars

In the case of deformed bars conforming to IS 1786, the bond stresses given in

Table 21 may be increased by 60 percent.

4. Permissible Stresses in Steel Reinforcement (휎st)

Permissible stresses in steel reinforcement shall not exceed the values specified in

Table 22 of IS456:2000.

In flexural members the value of (T, given in Table 22 is applicable at the

centroid of the tensile reinforcement subject to the condition that when more than one

layer of tensile reinforcement is provided, the stress at the centroid of the outermost layer

shall not exceed by more than 10 percent the value given in Table 22.

5. Increase in permissible Stresses

Where stresses due to wind (or earthquake) temperature and shrinkage effects are

combined with those due to dead, live and impact load, the stresses specified in Tables

21, 22 and 23 may be exceeded up to a limit of 33 1 3 percent. Wind and seismic forces

need not be considered as acting simultaneously.

NOTES:

1 The values of permissible shear stress in concrete are given in Table 23.

2 The bond stress given in co1 4 shall be increased by 25 percent for bars in compression.

C where k has the value

given below:

6. Minimum Shear Reinforcement

V C given in Table 23, minimum shear reinforcement shall be

provided in accordance with 26.5.1.6.

7. Design of Shear Reinforcement

V C given in Table 23, shear reinforcement shall be provided in

any of the following forms:

a) Vertical stirrups,

b) Bent-up bars along with stirrups, and

c) Inclined stirrups.

Where bent-up bars are provided, their contribution towards shear resistance shall

not be more than half that of the total shear reinforcement.

Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear equal to V- C.bd. The strength of

shear reinforcement VS, shall be calculated as-below:

1. For vertical stirrups

3. For single bar or single group of parallel bars, all bent-up at the same cross-

section

Where

ASV = total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs or bent-up bars within a distance

SV=spacing of the stirrups or bent-up bars along the length of the member

C= design shear strength of the concrete

b= breadth of the member which for flanged beams, shall be taken as the breadth of the

web bw

sv =permissible tensile stress in shear reinforcement which shall not be taken greater

than 230 N/mm2

-up bar and the axis of the member, not less

than 450, and

d= effective depth.

NOTE -Where more than one type of shear reinforcement is used to reinforce the same

portion of the beam, the total shear resistance shall be computed as the sum of the

resistance for the various types separately. The area of the stirrups shall not be less than

the minimum specified in 26.5.1.6.

1.10 LIMIT STATE PHILOSOPHY

The inadequacies of the elastic and ultimate load methods of design paved the

way for the limit state method of design with a semi-probabilistic approach. Limit state

design is a method of designing structures based on a statistical concept of safety and the

associated probability of failure. Structures designed should satisfy the dual criterion of

a) Safety and

b) Serviceability

Safety may be defined as an acceptable degree of security against complete collapse

or failure, which in concrete structures can occur by various modes such as compression,

tension, flexure, shear, fatigue or their combinations.

Serviceability requirement means that the member or structure should not in its

intended lifetime deteriorate to such an extent that is fails to fulfill its function for which

it is designed. In concrete structures, this state may be reached due to excessive

deflection, cracking, vibration, corrosion of reinforcement etc.

Limit state design philosophy uses the concept of probability and is b the

application of the method of statistics to the vibrations that occur in practice ads

acting on the structure and the strengths of the materials.

1. Plane section before bending will remain plane after b

2. Tensile strength carried by of concrete is zero

3. Does not obey Hook`s law.

4. Ultimate strain of concrete is 0.0035

σc = 0.67 fck

Partial safety factor for

Hence, design strength 0.67 fck /1.5 = 0.446 fck

5. Maximum strain in forcement at failure shall not be less

0.87 f y

than + 0.002

Es

6. Partial safe for steel γ m =1.15 . Thus the design strength will be:

f y /1.15 = 0.8 f y

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