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1.

Crude petroleum oil is generally considered to be formed from animal and vegetable debris accumulating in sea basins or
estuaries and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria resulting in a black viscous product. A typical elemental analysis shows 80%
C, 13% H, 1% N, 3% O, and 3% S. During a certain combustion, air supplied is less than the theoretical so that all of the 𝑂2 is
used up. 70% of the C burns to 𝐶𝑂2 , the rest to CO; the molal ratio of CO to 𝐻2 in the exhaust gas is 1:2. Assume that the
Sulfur in the fuel burns to 𝑆𝑂2 and the Nitrogen combines with the nitrogen from air. Calculate:
a) Orsat analysis of the exhaust gas
b) % of the theoretical air which is supplied for combustion
c) Equivalence Ratio

Given: air

exhaust gas

fuel
80% C
13% H 70 % C  𝐶𝑂2
1% N 30% C  CO
𝐶𝑂 1
3% O =
𝐻2 2
3% S
Required: S + O2 SO2

a. Orsat analysis of the exhaust gas 0.09375 0.09375 0.09375


b. % of the theoretical air which is supplied for combustion
c. Equivalence Ratio
𝐶𝑜 1
=
𝐻2 2
H2 = 2 CO
Solution: H2 (unburned) = 2(2.001) = 4.002
H2O = 6.5 – 4.002 = 2.498
Basis: 100 kg Crude Petroleum

80 𝑘𝑔 𝐶 1
= 6.67 𝑚𝑜𝑙 H2 + O2 H2O
2
12
13 𝑘𝑔 𝐻 2.498 2.498 2.498
= 13 𝑚𝑜𝑙
1
1 𝑘𝑔 𝑁 O2 theo = 6.67 +
13 1
+ 0.09375 − 0.1875 (2)
= 0.0714 𝑚𝑜𝑙 4
14
3 𝑘𝑔 𝑂 = 9.92 moles
= 0.1875 𝑚𝑜𝑙
16
3 𝑘𝑔 𝑆 O2 air = O2 used
= 0.09375 𝑚𝑜𝑙
32
= 7.013
79
N2 air = 7.013 ( ) = 26.38
C + O2 CO2 21

0.0714
4.67 4.67 (0.70)(6.67) = 4.67 N2 total = 26.38 + = 26.4517
2

1
C + O2 CO
2

2.001 4.002 (0.30)(6.67) = 2.001


a.) ORSAT ANALYSIS 7.013
= 𝑥 100%
9.92
Gas n %
theo air = 70.7 %
CO2 4.67 12.56%

CO 2.001 5.38%

H2 4.002 10.76%
𝑁𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
SO2 0.09375 0.25% 𝑁𝑎𝑖𝑟
(𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙)
d) ER = 𝑁𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
(𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜)
N2 26.4517 71.04% 𝑁𝑎𝑖𝑟

20.02265
37.21845 100.00% 33.393
= 20.02265
9.92
0.21
𝑂 𝑎𝑖𝑟
b.) % theo air = 𝑂 2𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 𝑥 100 ER = 1.4
2
2. An alcogas mixture made up of 85% gasoline and 15% ethanol is used as fuel for an engine in the presence of 17.05 m3 air/ kg
alcogas supplied essentially dry at 30°C and 740 mmHg. 80% of the C burns to CO2, the rest to CO; molal ratio of H2 to CO is
1:2. Assume that gasoline has the same composition as a mixture of iso-octane-heptane with 95% octane number. Use a
density of 0.6918 g/mL for iso-octane and 0.684 g/mL for n-heptane. Calculate:

a) Orsat analysis of the exhaust gas

b) % excess air

Given: air 30℃, 740 mmHg

exhaust gas

fuel
85% gasoline
95% octane number 80 % C  𝐶𝑂2
15% ethanol 20% C  CO
𝑔 𝐻2 1
𝜌𝑖𝑠𝑜−𝑜𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑒 = 0.6818 =
𝑚𝐿 𝐶𝑂 2
𝑔 𝑚3 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝜌𝑛−ℎ𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑒 = 0.684 17.05
𝑚𝐿 𝑘𝑔 𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑜𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑
Required: = 66.705 kgmol

a) Orsat analysis of the exhaust gas O2 supplied = (0.21)(66.705) = 14.01435

b) % excess air N2 supplied = (0.79)(66.705) = 52.42065

C converted to CO2 = [(0.7083 x 8) + (0.0425 x 7) + (0.3261 x


2)](0.80) = 5.2929 kgmol CO2
Solution:
C converted to CO = 5.2929 x (20/80) = 1.3232 kgmol CO
Basis: 100 kg alcogas
H2 unburned = 1.3232/2 = 0.6616 kgmol H2
Gasoline = 95% octane number;
1.3232 + 0.6616
95 kg C8H18, 5 kg C7H16 𝑂2 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 = (14.01435 − 10.29955) +
2
m = ρV = (0.6918)(95) = 65.721 kg C8H18(95% w) = 4.7072 𝑘𝑔𝑚𝑜𝑙

(0.684)(5) = 3.42 kg C7H16 (5% w) a) ORSAT ANALYSIS

0.95 x 85 kg = 80.75 kg C8H18 / 114 kg (MW) n %


CO2 5.2929 8.18
= 0.7083 kgmol C8H18 CO 1.3232 2.04
0.05 x 85 kg = 4.25 kg C7H16 / 110 kg (MW) H2 0.6616 1.02
O2 4.7072 7.27
= 0.0425 kgmol C7H16 N2 52.72065 81.48

15 kg C2H5OH / 46 kg (MW)
b) % excess air
= 0.3261 kgmol C2H5OH
𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 − 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 𝑂2 = (0.7083)(8) + (0.0425)(7) + (0.3261)(2) + % 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑥100
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙
(0.7083)(18) +(0.0425)(16) +(0.3261)(16) 1
[ ] − (0.3261)( ) = 10.29955 14.01435 – 10.29955
4 2
= 𝑥 100
10.29955
740 𝑚𝑚𝐻𝑔 1000 𝐿
𝑃𝑉 (760 𝑚𝑚𝐻𝑔 ) (17.05 𝑚3 )(100 𝑚3 )( ) = 𝟑𝟔. 𝟎𝟕%
1 𝑚3
𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = =
𝑅𝑇 (0.08206)(30 + 273.15)(1000)
3. A primary blend of gasoline (90% octane no.), alcohol (75% ethanol, 25% methanol) and benzole (75% benzene, 15%toluene
and 10% xylene) is burned completely in 35% excess O2. Analysis of the blend shows 70% gasoline, 15% benzole and 15%
alcohol. Calculate the complete analysis of the exhaust gas.

Given: air 35% 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠

exhaust gas

fuel
70% gasoline
90% octane number 80 % C  𝐶𝑂2
15% alcohol 20% C  CO
75% ethanol
25%methanol
15% benzole
75% benzene
15% toluene
15% xylene

Required:
Complete analysis of the exhaust gas
Solution:

Basis: 100 kg fuel CTotal=(0.5526)(8)+(0.7)(7)+(0.1442)(6)+(0.0245)(7)+(0.01415


)(8)+(0.2446)(2)+0.1172= 6.6671
Gasoline =90% octane no.
HTotal=(0.5526)(18)+(0.7)(16)+(0.1442)(6)+(0.0245)(8)+(0.014
90% C8H18; ρ=0.6918 15)(10)+(0.2446)(6)+(0.1172)(4)= 14.2059
10% C7H16; ρ=0.684 OTotal=0.2446(0.5) +0.1172(0.5) =0.1809
mC8H18= (0.6918) (90) =62.262 kg= 63kg/114 =0.5526 14.2059
Theo O2=6.6671+ -0.1809 = 10.0337
4
mC7H16= (0.684) (10) =6.84 kg= 6.84kg/100 =0.7
O2 supplied= 10.0337(1.35) =13.5509

N2 supplied= 13.5509(79/21) = 50.9772


Benzole

75% benzene (0.75) (15) = 11.25 kg C6H6


Actual combustion
15% C7H8 (0.15) (15) = 2.25 kg C7H8
C + O2 CO2
10% C8H10 (0.10) (15) = 1.5 kg C8H10
6.6671 6.6671 6.6671
mC6H6= 11.25kg/78 =0.1442 kmol C6H6
1
H2 + O2 H2O
mC7H8= 2.25kg/92=0.0245 kmol C7H8 2

7.10295 3.5515 7.10295


mC8H10= 1.5kg/106 =0.01415kmol C8H10

O2free= 13.5509-10.0377 = 3.5132


Alcohol

75% C2H5OH (0.75) (15) = 11.25/46= 0.2446 kmol

25% CH3OH (0.25) (15) = 3.75/32 = 0.1172 kmol


Complete Analysis

CO2-6.6671 9.77

H2O-7.10295 10.41

O2-3.5132 5.15

N2-50.9772 74.67
4. A boiler uses high grade distillate fuel oil with a calorific value of 43.38 MJ/kg. Analysis of the stack gases at 375℃ and 765
torrs shows 9% 𝐶𝑂2 , 1.21% CO, 0.37% 𝐻2 , 7.05% 𝑂2 , and 82.37% 𝑁2 . Assuming that the fuel oil consists only of
hydrocarbons. Calculate:
a. % excess air
b. Weight % composition of the fuel oil
c. Air- fuel ratio
d. % CV lost due to:
i. Unburnt combustibles
ii. Uncondensed water
iii. Sensible heat

Given: air

exhaust gas 375℃, 765 torrs


9% 𝐶𝑂2
1.21% CO
fuel 0.37% 𝐻2
𝐶𝑛 𝐻𝑛 7.05% 𝑂2
𝑀𝐽
CV= 43.43 82.37% 𝑁2
𝑘𝑔

Required: a. % excess air


b. Weight % composition of the fuel oil
c. Air- fuel ratio C + ½ O2 CO2
d. Barrels per metric tonne of fuel oil at 30𝑜 API;
1.21 0.605 1.21
assume 1𝑚3 = 6.2898 American barrels
e. % CV lost due to: 1
H2 + O2 H2O
iv. Unburnt combustibles 2

v. Uncondensed water 10.49 5.245 10.49


vi. Sensible heat
f. Adiabatic flame temperature

Solution: O2used= O2supplied- O2unused


= 21.90-7.05
Basis: 100 kg mol SG O2used= 14.85

N2 supplied = 82.37 14.85-(9+0.605) = 5.245


21
O2 supplied= 82.37(79 ) =21.90 𝐻𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 =(10.49+0.37)(2) =21.72
𝐶𝑂 𝐻2
O2free= x’s + + b. Fuel oil Composition
2 2
1.21 0.37
Excess𝑂2 = 7.05 - - %
2 2
Excess𝑂2 = 6.26 C = 10.21 X 12 = 122.52 84.94
H = 21.72 15.06
a) % excess air

𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
% 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑥100 (21.90+82.37)(29)
𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 − 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 c. AFR = = 20.96
122.52+21.72
6.26
= 21.90−6.26 𝑥 100

= 𝟑𝟔. 𝟎𝟕%

C + O2 CO2

9 9 9
d. % CV lost due to

i) Unburnt combustible
(1.21)(283.18)
%CO=(43.38)(122.52+21.72) (100) = 5.4761%
(0.37)(286.03)
%𝐻2 =(43.38)(122.52+21.72) (100) = 1.6914%
%CO+%𝐻2 = 5.4761 + 1.6914 = 7.17%
ii) Uncondensed water
(10.49)(44.04)
%Uncondensed 𝐻2 𝑂=(43.38)(122.52+21.72) (100) = Q=n𝐶𝑝 dT
7.38% 1219.64
%=(43.38)(122.52+21.72) (100) = 19.51%
iii) Sensible heat

𝐶𝑝 n

CO2 37.11 9
CO 29.14 1.21
H2O 33.58 10.49
H2 23.03 0.37
O2 29.355 7.05
N2 29.125 82.37
5. A furnace is fired with fuel oil with a partial analysis of 7.6% S and 2.8%N. Orsat analysis of the stack gas shows 9.44% CO2,
1.19% CO, 0.4% SO2 , 0.47% H2 ,6.8%O2, and 81.7%N2. Air is supplied is at 23oC, 755 mmHg and 85% RH. Calculate:

a.)%excess air

b.)Analysis of the fuel oil

c.)m3air/kgfuel

Given: air 23℃, 755mmHg, 85% RH

exhaust gas
9.44% 𝐶𝑂2
1.19% CO
fuel 0.37% 𝐻2
7.6% S 7.05% 𝑂2
2.8% N 82.37% 𝑁2
0.4% S𝑂2

Required:

a.)%excess air
b.)Analysis of the fuel oil
c.)m3air/kgfuel
Solution: Let y= O2 in H2O

Basis: 100 kgmol DSG Actual combustion


(0.076)(F) C + O2 CO2
S bal: =0.004(100)
32
9.44 9.44 9.44
F=168.42kg
1
NF = (0.028) (168.42)=4.7158/14=0.33684 kgmol C + O2 CO
2

N2 supplied= 81.7-0.33684(1/2) = 81.53 1.19 0.595 1.19

O2 supplied = 81.53(21/79) = 21.67


𝐶𝑂 𝐻2 1
O2 x’s= O2theo - − H2 + 2
O2 H2O
2 2

1.19 0.47 2y y 2y
O2 x’s= 6.8 - − = 5.97
2 2

%x’s air
5.97
%x’s air= 21.67−5.97 x100 =38.03%
H bal:
C bal:
(168.42)(0.1386-x)= 0.47(2)+4y 1
(%𝐶)(168.42)
= 9.44+1.19
12 O bal:
%C= 0.7574x100= 75.74% (𝑥)(168.42)
+21.67(2) = 9.44(2) + 1.19+ 0.4(2) + 6.8(2) + 2y 2
13
%H+%O= 1-(0.7574+0.076+0.028)

%H+%O= 0.1386 Solving for x 1 2

Let x=%O X=0.0245 x100 = 2.46%

%H=0.1386-x %H=0.1386-0.0246=0.114 x100 = 11.4%H


7258.2
++4.653𝑥10−6 (296) 2 760
Ps= 𝑒 73.649− 296
– 7.3037𝑙𝑛296
X 101325

Ps =20.90mmHg
(20.90)(0.85)(103.2)
nH2Oair = = 2.487
755−(20.90∗0.85)
Analysis of Fuel Oil
nair=103.2+2.487= 105.687
7.6%S
(105.687)(0.08766)(296)
2.8%N V= 755 =2584.11 m3
760

75.74%C 𝑚 3𝑎𝑖𝑟 2584.11


= 168.42 = 15.34
𝑘𝑔𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
11.4%H

2.46%O
6. Coal tar fuels are liquid fuels obtained by blending coal tar distillation products such as carbolic oil, naphthalene oil, creosote oil,
anthracene oil, and medium pitch. A sample elemental analysis shows 85.9% C, 6.3% H, 1.2% S, 5.5% O, and 1.1% N. If this fuel is
burned in excess air at 30℃ and 755 mmHg with 90% RH, it produces a burner gas containing 10.64% 𝐶𝑂2 , 3.19% CO and 0.64% 𝐻2 .
Assuming negligible N and S, Calculate:
a. % excess air
b. Complete Orsat analysis of burner gas
c. 𝑚3 stack gas (200℃, 100 kPa) / kg coal tar
d. 𝐴𝐹𝑅

Given: air 30℃, 755mmHg, 90% RH

burner gas 200℃, 100 kPa

10.64% 𝐶𝑂2
3.19% CO
fuel 0.64% 𝐻2
85.9% C
6.3% H
1.2% S negligible N & S
5.5% O
1.1% N
Required: 1.651 0.3313
free O2 = x + +
2 2

a. % excess air 79
b. Complete Orsat analysis of burner gas moles N2 = (8.56 + x)(21)
c. 𝑚3 stack gas/ kg coal tar
d. 𝐴𝐹𝑅
by BG bal:
Solution:
1.651 0.3313
Basis: 100 kg Coal tar fuel 51.76 = 5.507 + 1.651 + 0.3313 + x + + + (8.56
2 2
79
+ x)(21)
85.9 6.3 5.5
O2 theo = + − 32 = 8.56 moles x = 2.326
12 4

a.)
𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑂2
% excess air = 𝑥 100
Let x = x’s air O2 𝑂2 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜
2.236
= 𝑥 100
O2 air = 8.56 + x 8.56

79 = 27.18 %
N2 air = (8.56 + x)(21)
b.) ORSAT ANALYSIS
by C bal: Gas n %
85.9
= (0.1064 + 0.0319)𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝐵𝐺 CO2 5.507 12.56%
12

moles BG = 51.76 moles CO 1.651 5.38%

moles CO2 in BG = 0.1064 x 51.76 = 5.507 H2 0.3313 10.76%

moles CO in BG = 0.0319 x 51.76 = 1.651 O2 3.317 0.25%

moles H2 in BG = 0.0064 x 51.76 = 0.3313 N2 40.95 71.04%

51.76 100.00%
760 273 + 300
𝑚 3 𝑆𝐺 (51.76+2.0284+3.15)𝑥 22.4 𝑥 𝑥
750 273
=
𝑘𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 100
c.)
𝑚 3 𝑆𝐺
= 22.26
Ps = 𝑘𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙
7258.2
− 7.3037 ln(303)+ 4.1653𝑥10−6(303) 2 ) 760
𝑒 (73.649− 303 𝑥 d.)
101325

(40.95)(28)+ (10.887)(32)+ (2.0284)(18)


Ps = 31.59 mm Hg AFR = 100

= 15.32
31.59(0.90)
Moles H2O from air = (40.95 + 10.886)𝑥 =
755−31.59(0.90)
2.0284
7. Same as Problem 6, but assume that all the combustibles are converted to CO2 , and H2 O, with Sulfur converted to SO2 and the nitrogen in the
fuel to NO at 700℃ and 120 kPa. Will the amounts of SO2 and NO (mg/Ncm) be within the allowable requirements of the Philippine Clean Air Act
which are 180 mg/L and 150 mg/L respectively?

Given: air 30℃, 755mmHg, 90% RH

burner gas 700℃, 120 kPa

10.64% 𝐶𝑂2
3.19% CO
fuel 0.64% 𝐻2
85.9% C
6.3% H
1.2% S All combustibles are converted to 𝐶𝑂2 & 𝐻2𝑂
5.5% O Sulfur converted to 𝑆𝑂2 and Nitrogen to NO
1.1% N

Required:
𝑚𝑔 𝑚𝑔
Amounts of 𝑆𝑂2 and NO (mg/Ncm) be equal to 180 and 150 respectively
𝐿 𝐿
Solution:
2.32
At S in the fuel = = 0.0725 kgmol O2 = 4.49 kgmol
32

SO2 formed = 0.0725 kgmol NO = 0.512 kgmol

2.13 SO2 = 0.0725 kgmol


At N in the fuel = = 0.152 kgmol
14
103.75 kgmol
NO formed = 0.512 kgmol
12.17 0.6644
Theoretical O2 = 13.83 + 0.0725 + − = 16.613 kgmol
64 𝑘𝑔 106 mg 4 2
mg SO2 = 0.0725 kgmol × × = 4.64 × 106 mg
1 kgmol 1 𝑘𝑔
22.4 ×298
Ncm = = 103.75 × 273
= 2535 m3
30 𝑘𝑔 106 mg
mg NO = 0.512 kgmol × 1 kgmol
× 1 𝑘𝑔
= 4.54 × 106 mg
𝑚𝑔 4.64 × 106 𝑚𝑔
SO2 = = 1829.9
m3 2535.6 m3
Moles in the Stack Gas:
𝑚𝑔 4.56 × 106 𝑚𝑔
CO2 : 13.83 kgmol m3
NO = 2535.6
= 1798.4 m3

12.17 𝑚𝑔 𝑚𝑔
H2 O = = 6.085kgmol ∴ SO2 and NO exceeds the allowable requirements
2 m3 m3

N2 = 79.12 kgmol
8. A German fuel blend called Reichkraftskoff is made up of 50% motor benzole (75% benzene, 15% toluene, 10% xylene), 25% tetralin
(𝐶10 𝐻22 ) and 25% industrial alcohol ( 80% ethanol, 20% methanol). After combustion in excess air, a stack gas containing 9.13% 𝐶𝑂2
and 1.83% CO is obtained. Calculate:
a. %excess air
b. Complete orsat analysis of the stack gas

Given: air

stack gas

9.13% 𝐶𝑂2
1.83% CO
fuel
50% motor benzole
75% benzene
15% toluene
15% xylene
25% tetralin (𝐶10𝐻22)
25% industrial alcohol
80% ethanol
20% methanol
Required: CBAL

a. %excess air 6.7582 = (0.913+0.0183)(DSG)


b. Complete orsat analysis of the stack gas
DSG=61.6131
Solution:
O2 SUPPLIED =9.8361+ X
Basis: 100 kg fuel
79
N2 SUPPLIED= (8.8361+X)(21)
50 kg benzole
37.5𝑘𝑔 CO2=6.6253
75% 𝐶6 𝐻6 =50(0.75) = = 0.4808 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐶6 𝐻6
78
7.5𝑘𝑔
15% 𝐶7 𝐻8 =50(0.15) = = 0.8815 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐶7 𝐻8 CO= 1.1275
92
5𝑘𝑔
15% 𝐶8 𝐻10 =50(0.15) = 106 = 0.0472 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐶6 𝐻6 1.1235
O2= X 2

25kg 𝐶10 𝐻12 / 132 = 0.1894 kmol 𝐶10 𝐻12 79


(8.834+𝑋)( )
21
N2= 61.6131
25kg Industrial Alcohol
20 𝑘𝑔
80% C2H5OH = 25(0.80)= = 0.4348 kmol C2H5OH X=4.4218
46
5 𝑘𝑔
20% CH3OH = 25(0.20)= 32
= 0.1563 kmol CH3OH a. %excess air = 𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜
(100)
4.4218
𝐶𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 = 0.4808 (6)+ =8.8361 (100)
0.0815(7)+0.047258(8)+0.1894(10)+0.4348(2)+0.1563(1) = 6.7528 =50%
kmol
b. Orsat analysis
HTOTAL= 0.4808 (6)+
Gas n %
0.0815(8)+0.047258(10)+0.1894(12)+0.4348(6)+0.1563(4) =
CO2 5.6253 9.13%
9.5156 kmol
CO 1.1275 1.83%
O2 TOTAL = 0.4348(.5) + 0.1563(.5) = 0.2956 kmol O2 4.9856 8.09%
N2 49.8750 80.95%
9.5167
O2 THEO = 6.7528 + – 0.2956 = 8.8361kmol
4
61.6134 100.00%
9. Biodiesel from a palm oil has an approximate formula of C𝑥 H𝑦 O𝑧 . Excess air is supplied at 30℃, 100kPa and 85%RH. The exhaust gas leaves at
250℃ and 750 mmHg with a complete analysis of 12.08% CO2 , 0.25% CO, 0.55% H2 , 2.12% O2 , 71.17% N2 and the rest is H2 O. Find

a) formula of biodiesel

b) Equivalence Ratio

Given: air 30℃, 100 kPa, 85% RH

exhaust gas 250℃, 750 mmHg

12.08% 𝐶𝑂2
0.25% CO
fuel 0.55% 𝐻2
𝐶𝑥 𝐻𝑦 𝑂𝑧 2.12% 𝑂2
71.17% 𝑁2
The rest is 𝐻2𝑂

Required:

a. formula of biodiesel
b. Equivalence Ratio
Basis: 100 kgmol of exhaust gas

H2 O in exhaust gas = 100 – 12.08 – 0.25 – 0.55 – 2.12 – 71.17 = 13.83 kgmol

N2 in exhaust gas = N2 in air = 71.17 kgmol N2


21
O2 in air = 71.17 (79 ) = 18.92 kgmol O2

At 30℃, T = 30 + 273 = 303 K, Ps is computed as:


7258.2
ln(303)+4.1653 × 10−6(303)2 ) 760
Ps = [𝑒 (73.649− 303
−7.3037
] × = 31.589 mmHg
101325

31.589 (0.85)
Moles of H2 O in air = (71.17 + 18.92) × 760 mmHg = 3.345 moles
(100 kPa × )− (31.589)(0.85)
101.325 kPa

C in fuel = moles of CO2 + moles of CO = 12.08 + 0.25 = 12.33 moles

H2 in fuel = (13.83 + 3.345) + 0.55 = 11.035 moles

Total H2 in fuel = 11.035 × 2 = 22.07 moles


0.25 13.83−3.345
O2 in fuel = 18. 92 − (12. 08 + + 2.12 + ) = 0.6475 mole
2 2

Total O in fuel = 0.6475 × 2 = 1.295 moles

a) formula of biodiesel
12.33
C = 1.295 = 9.52 × 2 = 19

22.07
H = 1.295 = 17.04 × 2 = 34

1.295
O = 1.295 = 1 × 2 = 2

C19 H34 O2
b) Equivalence Ratio

Using mass balance

Let FO = wt. of Fuel Oil

FO + (71.17 + 18.92)(29) + (3.45)(18) = 12.08(44) + 0.25(28) + 0.55(2) + 2.12(32) + 71.17(28) +13.83(18)

FO = 176.34 kg
CO H2 0.25 0.55
Excess O2 = free O2 − − = 2.12 − − = 1.72 moles
2 2 2 2

Theoretical O2 = O2 supplies – excess O2 = 18.92 – 1.72 = 17.2 moles


176.34
moles of fuel 294
( 71.17+18.92 )
( moles of air )
actual
∅= moles of fuel = 176.34 = 0.91
( ) 294 )
moles of air stoichiometric ( 17.2
0.21
10. Biodiesel made from jatropha was found to have a Gross Calorific Value of 39.63 MJ/kg and an analysis of 14.2% palmitic acid,
C16H32O2, 6.9% stearic acid, C18H36O2, 43.1% oleic acid, C18H34O2, and 35.8% linoleic acid, C18H32O2. This fuel is burned in excess air
at 32°C and 98 kPa with 75% RH. Partial orsat analysis of the exhaust gas shows 11.63% CO 2, 0.61% CO, and 0.92% H2. The exhaust
gases leave at 300°C and 740 mmHg. Find:

a) % excess air

b) AFR, Air-Fuel Ratio

c) Combustion efficiency

Given: air 32℃, 98 kPa, 75% RH

exhaust gas 300℃, 740 mmHg

11.63% 𝐶𝑂2
0.61% CO
fuel 0.92% 𝐻2
14.2% palmitic acid ,𝐶16𝐻32 𝑂2
6.9% stearic acid, 𝐶18𝐻36 𝑂2
43.1% oleic acid, 𝐶18𝐻34𝑂2
35.8% linoleic acid, 𝐶18𝐻32 𝑂2
Required: CO = .0061 x 52.1023 = 0.3178;

a) % excess air H2 = 0.0092 x 52.1023 = 0.4793


0.3178 + 0.4793
b) AFR, Air-Fuel Ratio Free O2 = x + 2

c) Combustion efficiency 0.3178 + 0.4793


52.1023 = 6.0595 + 0.3178 + 𝑥 +
2
Solution: 79
+ (9.0012 + 𝑥) ( ) + 0.4793
21
Basis: 100 kg biodiesel
x = 2.3070
2.3070
a) %excess air = 9.0012 𝑥 100 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟔𝟑%
C bal:

(14.2)(16) (6.9)(18) (43.1)(18) (35.8)(18) b) AFR


+ + +
256 284 282 280 7258.2
−7.3037 ln(305)+ 4.1653𝑥10−6(305) 2) 760
= (0.1163 + 0.0061)𝐸𝐺 𝑃𝑠 = 𝑒 (73.649 – 305 ( ) = 35.406
101325
mmHg
EG = 52.1023 kgmol
35.406 𝑥 0.75 9.0012+2.3070
Ctotal = 6.3773 kgmol 𝑛𝐻2𝑂 𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 98 𝑥( 0.21
) = 2.018
𝑥760−35.406 𝑥 0.75
101.325

(14.2)(3) (6.9)(36) (43.1)(34) (35.8)(32) 9.0012+2.3070


Htotal = + + + = 11.9375 kgmol (
.21
)(29)+ (2.018)(18)
256 284 282 280 𝐴𝐹𝑅 = 100
= 𝟏𝟓. 𝟗𝟕
O2 = 0.3605 kgmol
c) Combustion Efficiency
11.9375
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜 𝑂2 = 6.3773 + 4
− 0.3605 = 9.0012; 0.03179 𝑥 283.18
%𝐶𝑉 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑂 = 𝑥 100 = 2.27%
39.63 𝑥 100
let x = excess O2
0.4794 𝑥 286.03
O2 supplied = 9.0012 + x %𝐶𝑉 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝐻2 = 𝑥 100 = 3.46%
39.63 𝑥 100
N2 supplied = (9.0012 + x)(79/21)

CO2 = 0.1163 x 52.1023 = 6.0595;


% 𝐶𝑉 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
11.9375
( − 0.4794) 𝑥 44.04
= 2 𝑥 100 = 6.10%
39.63 𝑥 100

n Cp nCp
CO2 6.0595 0.04654 0.2821
CO 0.3178 0.03025 0.009616
H2O 7.5074 0.03603 0.2711
O2 2.7056 0.03183 0.0861
N2 42.5404 0.02995 0.2624
H2 0.4794 0.01459 0.006994
1.9183 MJ/°C
(300 − 25)(1.9183)
% 𝐶𝑉 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 = 𝑥 100
39.63 𝑥 100
= 13.31%

𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = 100 − 13.31 − 6.10 − 3.46 − 2.27 =


𝟕𝟒. 𝟖𝟔%