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Learning Area: Identifying the problem and asking the question

Number of weeks: 3 weeks (12 hours)
Learner’s activity:
 Formulates clearly the statement of Research Problem
 Presents written statement of the problem

Teacher’s activity:
 Gives feedback or comments on progress achieved by the learner
 Checks learner’s work
 Conducts oral defense of learner’s work

Learner’s output: the output should defend upon the Research

approach whether it is Qualitative or Quantitative.

1. THE PHENOMENON 1. The Problem and Its
1.1 The Introduction
 The introductory part describes the 1.1 Introduction
background, concepts, scope and  This is the part of a research that
limitations of the study gives a brief introduction of the
 It makes the reason clear why the study being conducted in a macro
topic under investigation is worth approach or large scale approach.
pursuing.(rationale)  Possibly 1-2 pages long.
 It states the relevance/significance  The introduction usually
of the study to SHS students. emphasizes relevant literature
 It ends with the purpose of the and research that substantiates
study (explanatory, exploratory, the relevance and scope of the
descriptive and evaluative) problem.
 Use current statistics and
1.2 The Problem Statement literature in documenting the
present state of the problem or
 The research question or need for need for conducting the study.
study  This section should be concluded
 Qualitative Research problem should with the purpose of the study.
be anchored depending on the
strand of the students who are 1.2 Background of the Study
conducting research
 Constructions may be derive from  This part presents the background
the literature review, personal and scope of the study to make
experience, personal knowledge and clear the reasons why the topic is
observation worth pursuing.
 This delimits the area under
1.3 The Objectives investigation
 This part discusses extensive
 The central and specific purposes of reasons why the topic is
the study related to the tradition of important
inquiry (Phenomenological, Case  A more expounded discussion of
Study, Oral History, Ethnography, the relevant literature and
Grounded Theory, Critical Research, research that substantiates the
and Action Research) relevance and scope of the
 Specific objectives should be problem.
numbered so that these can easily  Brief citation of the setting of the
be the point of reference in study. The
reporting results participants/respondents and its
scope should be presented.
1.4 The Study Framework
1.3 Theoretical Framework
 In the case of Grounded Theory
Studies, the researchers’ emphasis  This part describes and explains
is on the generation of the theory/theories that are
theory/theories. Researchers may related and relevant to the
formulate new paradigm based on problem which are drawn from
the research results. related literature or studies.
 Researchers may customize the  It clarifies the relationship
existing theory (Customized between and among the major
Paradigm) variables of the theory.
 Researchers may integrate concepts  If there’s any, the original model
from two (2) or more theories. should be illustrated.
(Integrated Paradigm
1.4 Conceptual Framework
1.5 Theoretical Paradigm
 This part discusses how the
 Theoretical Paradigm: elements of the cited
Theory/theories drawn by theory/theories are applied in the
communication scholars which may study.
guide and explain the concepts as  The diagram or paradigm (original
well as the underlying research or adapted) and how it was
epistemology conceived/applied in the study
(assumptions/postulates) and its corresponding explanation
thereof is also an important part
1.7 Conceptual Paradigm of this section.

 Conceptual Paradigm: Presentation 1.5 Statement of the

of study concepts based on the Problem
research results, theoretical
precepts, and literature reviews.  This part introduces the research
 Introductory paragraph should be
the start of the statement of the
problem that will justify the intent
1.8 The Research Postulates of the study and should be closed
with the research question.
 These are assumptions that are
anchored to the study’s objectives.
The statements or principles will be
verified by the current study.
Postulates should be numbered and 1.6 Objectives of the Study
with reference to the study
objectives  This part consists of the clear,
definite and logical statement of
1.9 The Explication of Terms the objectives.
 Objectives cited in this section are
 Operational Definition of the enough to cover the thesis
concepts used in the study problem.
 Shared meanings among the  Rely on specific objectives as a
researchers, informants/participants reference in reporting the
and other sources findings.
 Theoretical and or Technical terms
should be defined with proper 1.7 Assumptions or
attribution of sources (American Hypotheses
Psychological Association or APA
Style)  These are the assertions related
 Arrange the terms as they appear in to the study that identify relevant
the manuscript theory, statements or principles
that were taken for granted as
being true but that were not
verified by the current study.
 Assumptions and hypotheses
generally underlie beliefs,
theories and practices.
Assumptions are used if there is
no variable testing while
Hypothesis will be used if
variables or relationships of the
variables will be tested.
 Statement of assumptions should
be numbered so that these can
easily be the point of reference in
reporting findings.

1.8 Significance of the Study

 This part presents the role of the

research findings to diverse
 The theoretical and practical
significance should be specific in
stating the possible contributions
of the findings.
 If suitable, the theoretical or
conceptual significance should be
addressed in particular.
 State in what way the study is
important to the researcher/s,
students, groups, organization
and institution in the community,
etc. Explain in paragraph in what
way each of them would benefit
from the study.

1.9 Limitations of Study

 This part sets the boundaries in

the study that may decrease the
ability to generalize findings to
the target population.
 It includes the weaknesses of the
study which are beyond the
control of the researcher/s.

1.10 Operational Definition

 This section presents theoretical

and/or operational definitions of
relevant terms to the study.
 Each major term in the problem
statement or research question
and objectives should be defined.
 Major concepts/variables within
the theoretical or conceptual
framework should also be defined.
 Arrange the terms as they appear
in the manuscript NOT
 If both scientific
(technical/theoretical) and
operational definition will be used,
separate the definition and
indicate OD for operational
definition and LD for lexical
 Technical and or theoretical terms
should be defined with proper
attribution of sources (use
American Psychological
Association or APA Style).
1. Cristobal, Amadeo Jr. P.,2017, Practical Research for Senior High
School, C&E Publishing

2. Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi,


3. Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology- Methods and

Techniques, New Delhi,
Wiley Eastern Limited.

4. Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide

Beginners,(2nd.ed.),Singapore, Pearson Education.
Budget of work



 Bulleted (no narration)

 Short description