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Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

CROSSRAIL C310 THAMES TUNNEL


Geotechnical & tunneling related specifics in urban
tunneling & a river crossing with low overburden.

Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS, Technical Director


Riku Tauriainen, MSc., Project Director
Frank Wiegand, MSc., Technical and Risk Manager

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 1
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

OUTLINE
1. Project Overview
2. Challenges
3. River Crossing
4. Design Elements
5. Summary
Tunnel btw. Plumstead and Woolwich
Box

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 2
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

CROSSRAIL Project – Moving London Forward


• Crossrail is a rail line that will run from Reading and Heathrow Airport in the West, through
new twin-bore tunnels under central London to Shenfield and Abbey Wood in the East;

• Total 118km (73mile) new railway, 42km (26mile) tunnels and 40 stations of which 8 will be subterranean;

• It will bring an additional 1.5 million people within 45 minutes commuting distance of London's
key business districts and increase London's rail-based transport network capacity by 10%;

• Overall 8 TBMs in operation (6 EPB + 2 Mix-shield);

• Investment approx. £14.8 Billion = $19.5 Billion (excluding “Rolling Stock”).

C310 Thames Tunnel


Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 3
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Tunnel Alignment & Portals

N
Thames
London City Airport

North Woolwich Belmarsh


Portal
River
Thames

Woolwich
Box Plumstead
Portal

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 4
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Tunnel Alignment & Portals


North Woolwich
Thames Barrier
Portal
City Airport

Woolwich
Box

Belmash Prison

Plumstead
Portal

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 5
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Tunnel Alignment & Portals

Thames Barrier

North Woolwich City Airport


Portal

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 6
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Geotechnical Conditions
North Woolwich Cover Woolwich Cover Plumstead
Portal ca. 12m (39.3’) Box ca. 20m (65.6’) Portal

10m GWL

CP 19
CP 16
CP 18
+
Pump Sump
CP 17
+
Pump sump

TBM Drive Direction

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 7
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

TBM Selection
• Contract allowed for
both Mix-Shield &
EPB Technology
• Decision was based
on risk assessment:
– Low overburden
– Geology
– Settlements
– Chalk disposal
– Program security
– Cost
• Mix-Shield
technology is more
expensive but in
overall scoring of risk
assessment
Mix-Shield “Sophia” at factory acceptance July 2012 outperformed EPB

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 8
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Programme
• Procurement – 03/18/2011
• TBM Breakthrough – 05/13/2014
• Completion – 06/10/2015

Advantages of TBM Reception


with sealing pot:
• no grout block – one slurry wall
panel only
• no risks of leak by means blow
off the compressed air when
run in the sealing
• reusable

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 9
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Challenges at Plumstead Portal


• Close proximity to Operational
Railway;

• Unknown utilities,
Marmadon Road Sewer;

• White Hart Road Bridge;

• Sensitive Equipment within


Cathedral Substation;

• Cross Passage CP19


low Chalk overburden;

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 10
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Ground Engineering Techniques for Portal Construction

60m (197’) CFA piles

Secant Wall
(Cased CFA)

180m (591’) Secant Pile Wall 193m (633’) Diaphragm Walls


(cased) 18m (59’) depth up to 22m (72’) depth

Tension Piles / Rotary Bored


Piles up to 38m (125’) depth

Plumstead Portal
433m (1,420-ft) long
Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 11
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Four Piling Rigs & Five Attendant Cranes at One Time

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 12
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Top-Down Construction of Portals

• Internal dewatering
• Recharge outside of portal foot print
• Two levels of temporary propping
• Bulk excavation
• Portal in-situ concrete slab
Dewatering well
• Real time monitoring

Hydraulic temporary propping

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 13
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Lifting Operations Next to Operating Railway Line


Risk: proximity of the portal works
to the Network Rail (NR):
• >3m (9.8’) away from a
running line; not compliant
with existing NR regulations;
700 to crane at headwall • Trains one every 3 minutes;
• 8 months to develop a
workable solution w/ NR;
• Slew restrictions;
• Reinforced concrete piling
Tandem lift – D-wall platform;
cage • 3 full-time protection staff on
rail line & automatic crane
collapse alarms.

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 14
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Deep Excavation in Close Proximity to Operational Railway


Shape Accelerator
Arrays (SAA) in D-wall

• show real time


movement of the box
structures over the full
depth;

• Effects of Dewatering,
Excavation, Props and
structural loading of
area adjacent to box.

SAA strand in D-wall

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 15
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

TBM Tunneling Interface at Cathedral Substation

Cathedral
Substation

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 17
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Compensation Grouting at Cathedral Substation


Low overburden, Gravel and below GW

GW
- 6.0m 4.5m
Gravel (19.6’) (14.8’)
Lev
el

Grout Shaft

TAM Drillings

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 18
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Challenges at North Woolwich Portal


• Late site possession due to
complicated service diversions on
the portal footprint;

• Risk of cross contamination due to


dewatering and recharge
operations for portal excavation;

• Sheet piles extending into the


tunnel envelope below a 2.4m
(7.9’) Thames Water sewer;

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 19
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Store Road Sheet Pile Removal

TW Pumping Station

Sheet piles
extending to
tunnel
envelope

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 20
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Store Road Sheet Pile Removal Existing pipe demolition


New Cofferdam

Removal old sheet piles New DN 2.4m (7.9’) pipe installation

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 21
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

River Crossing
• Tunnel length
underneath
Thames approx.
480m (1,574’)
(between flood
Woolwich
Box protection walls);
Flood
Protection
Walls • Approx. 300 rings
CP 17
to build
underneath
Woolwich Ferry Thames;

• Cross Passage
CP17 to build
underneath
North Woolwich
Portal
Thames.

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 22
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

First Thames Tunnel by Marc Brunel – 1826 to 1846

Brunel‘s Tunnel, 1828 (Mathewson)

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 23
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

River Crossing – Tidal Impact

Closed Face
Mixshield TBM
with Double Chamber
• Control of Face-
pressure
• Reduction of
Settlements

Slurry
Balance 1. Submerged Wall.
Control
2. Working Chamber.
3. Air Cushion.
4. Pressure bulkhead.

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 24
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

River Crossing – Tidal Impact


Real Time Data from River Thames, Damping effect in Chalk

Variation of tide approx. 8m (26.2’)

2 tide cycles in 24 hours

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 25
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

TBM Tunneling – Compressed Air Intervention at CP19

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 26
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Value Engineering Phase


Post Contract Award

• Special 4-weeks phase to evaluate specifications


• Technical & contractual
• Identify possibilities for optimization
• Identify weak points in contract
• Identify critical issues to pay attention for

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 27
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

SFRC Pre-Cast Segmental Lining


Segmental Lining Design –
Double tapered Universalring (7 plus 1)

Keystone

Counterstone

Longitudinal
Joint

Circumferential Joint
(Smooth/Hardboards
and plastic dowels)
Use of EPDM Gasket with
additional blackswell
Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 28
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Segmental Lining Production in Ireland

Segment
Tracking

C310 - Thames Tunnel

X1-C-4-130912

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 29
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Pre-Cast Segmental Lining


Concrete Mix design, large scale fire tests at MFPA Leipzig

PP-fibre 0.75 kg/m3 PP-fibre 1.5 kg/m3

Successful fire test with 1.5kg HPR


(high performance) Baumhüter PP-fibres

start ca. 1 year in advance to


segment production (!!)

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 30
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Innovation – TBM Launching with Movable Rig


“Flying Launching System”

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 31
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

TBM Launching – “Flying Start”


Movable Rig System
for a TBM Launch
(HOCHTIEF Patent
Solution)

• Easy, quick & safe


Launching Operation;
• No temp. rings or other
means;
• Improved Health &
Safety;
• Less space required.

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 32
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Alternative Cross Passage Construction – SCL

• Alternative to Clients proposal with cast-iron rings


• High demanding geology with water bearing fissures
• Low overburden, i.e. CP19
• Constraints from available working space

additional steel-
ring-support with
emergency
floodgate

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 33
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Cross Passage Construction – SCL


Segment Removal
• Coring & Cutting in Segment Joints
• Removing Key Stone
• Removal of Segmental 2K-Grout

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 34
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Cross Passage Construction – SCL

Top Heading Excavation

Bench Excavation

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 35
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Cross Passage Construction – SCL


Shotcrete Application

Waterproofing Membrane

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 36
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Cross Passage Construction – SCL


Cross Passage completed

Secondary Lining – Central Section completed

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 37
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Monitoring Tilt Meter

Advanced Tunnel Drive Steering (ATDS) Real-Time Monitoring System


 All appropriate structures within our works corridor are manually and/or
automatically monitored
 Shape accelerator arrays, hydrostatic levelling cells and tilt meters
are installed on all sensitive structures
 Piezometer for ground water levels
 All monitoring date is shown real time in one system (ATDS)
 Confidence to all stakeholders enabling consents &
permissions being granted to pass under/over sensitive
structures
 Full control of source data and its management on site
 Compliance with best practice in tunnelling and project
insurance requirements
Cathedral
Hydrostatic Levelling Cell
Sub Station

White Hart
Screenshot ATDS
Road
Bridge
Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 38
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Conclusions

• Optimized Contractors Involvement (OCI) drives and


Deep Excavation
motivates innovations as well as people;

• Third Party interface management requires early


involvement and detail knowledge of construction
techniques; Mix Shield

• Deep excavation next to Operating Railway line is


feasible but requires robust control measures;

• Application of Mix-Shield was the right choice for


C310. STP with Filter presses

• SCL-lining is feasible solution for temporary lining in


Chalk for Cross Passages.
SCL in Chalk

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 39
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Summary

A technically challenging project like C310 with many


interfaces and challenges can be delivered to the original
completion date.

Effective collaboration between the PM, Designer and


Contractor’s technical and operational teams is delivering
improved quality.

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 40
Outline | 1. Overview | 2. Challenges | 3. River Crossing | 4. Design Elements | 5. Summary

Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Evolution of TBM Tunneling under Thames since 1825

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 41
Crossrail C310 Thames Tunnel

Thank you for your Attention!

“If I could start again, I would build it better”

Marc Brunel
(1769 – 1849)

Tunneling Short Course 2016, 09/15/2016, Boulder, CO | Dr. Taner AYDOGMUS One Team, One Spirit 42