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Chapter 3

Shaping the Political Legacy of the Punjab

This chapter pointed out the political characteristics which emerged and became the partof the
Punjab politics with the events took place with time and even played an important role in post-
independence politics. Punjab stayed under the British almost hundred years. No doubt, modern
politics and governance of the present Punjab as well as of India and Pakistan had have their
origins in the political system introduced by the British, but they cannot be called purely British
instead they are the result of assortment of British institutions with local settings, culture and
traditions. Punjab as well as India saw and adopted tremendous changes and modernization in all
spheres of life from politics to industry. The subtleties of older times kept themselves alive
although somewhat changed with time and entered in modern age and independent states with
their roots. The tribal nature of connection and dealing, the pride in aggression, identity fears
along with the balance of power among social strata have entered into the age of modern
community life in the Punjab.
This chapter has tried to explain the background of political practices and dynamics which
became characteristic of the Punjab after independence. While studying the political history of
the Punjab following major patrons were prominent. The patronage and patriarchal
administration with cooperative regional political leadership. The Punjab had been supportive
toward militarization and communal activates. Provisional political parties and activates were
also heavily coloured with feuds and factions even at the height of national freedom movement.
The issue of rural and urban, Agriculturist and non-agriculturist divide often widened the
alienation among educated, politically conscious modern class from the rural. After the
independence these characteristics infiltered into the early politics of western Punjab. The first
section of this chapter discussed administration and working efficiency and style of non-official
member in the government of province. The second explained the nature of militarization in the
Punjab. The third part debated the working ofpolitical parties and their factions and feuds. Next
section will discuss the militarization and third will communalism and sectarianismwhereas the
last part urban rural divide along with the major issues of the provinces are discussed with their
profound effect in the provincial political life.
This chapter is based on the theory that political legacy of the Punjab is not only inherited by the
British but it was the production of past circumstances emerged due to many factors e.g.
geographical, cultural, economic, communal political international, national and most important
from the unique situation of the province of the Punjab itself. Provincial politics clearly
portrayed the picture of the people living in the province.
The Geography and People
The pre-independence Punjab popularly known for its five major rivers was a fairly larger
province in past it was a larger area who had Delhi towards East, Himalaya including sub
Himalayan Ranges in North there were SufadKohSuleman mountains in the West,in western side
it touches Balochistan whose boundaries meets with Iran, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea.
River Jumna and the Province of Agra were in East. South contained the Sind and Rajputana
Desert from where a vast piece of land linked it to River Sutlej. Multan was the major city in
western region. Sub montane region stretches from Jhelum to Jumna River consisted on low hills
and plains at their foot. Jhelum, Gujrat, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Kangra, Hoshiarpur and Ambala
were in this region with fertile lands and streams coming from in rainy season.
The plain between Ravi and Jumna is called the Eastern Plain Region. It is most fertile and
most populated area in Punjab as compared to Western part. Important cities of Lahore Jullundur
Delhi and Serhind are situated in this area. This area is fertile divided into two belts called
Malwa and Manja. Manja is consider the area from Ravi to Sutlej Sahiwal to dreary deserts and
north Gwrdaspur and its forests. This part is also called Bari doab. Malwa means country lying
between Sutlej and Jhelum it gets slimmer in the east. Rivers were not only used for defence
during wars but were also used to mark as boundaries of doabs and local governments from the
time of Akbar. The areas of doabs were fully cultivated with fertile lands and more population.
Wheat which was staple food of the area was grown here good weather, water and food has
positive effects on economics and health of people of this area. Industry or advanced level
trading did not exist although it had rivers but no sea. Connection with the internal India and
external states were through land routs of north west and east.
People older Dravian, Mongolian filtered through passes. Persian invasion in 5centary B.C. and
Alexander in 4 B.C. The Punjab inhabited by many tribes from past in different regions i.e. Jats
Hindus in Southeast Sikh Jats in Centre, Muslims in West, Rajput Muslims and Hindus
distributed in whole Punjab Bhatties in South and Centre, Chatthas in Gujranwala, Syals in Jang,
Chhibs in Gujrat, Janjua and Awans in Salt range Pawar in Southwest. Majority of Muslims were
in Southwestern Punjab, Gakhar in Jehlum, Khakhars in Shahpur and Jang, Kharrals in Ravi,
Daudpotas in Sutlej, many turk, Afghan and Persians Arabs, and Syed lived in different areas of
Punjab (Shibli, 1994). Inthe western rivers of Punjab were Swat, Punjkhora, Kabul, Khuram,
Gomal Indus in the middle and Chenab, Jhelum Ravi bias Sutlej in east.
A long line of Muslim invasions to India through West and North had provided the opportunity
to Afghans, Pathan, Turks, Arabs and Iranians to settle in the Punjab. Most were as local rulers,
army officers, and jagirs owners. Many local tribes also converted to Islam. The north and West
areas have more Muslim population as compared to other areas of the pre-independence Punjab.
Before and during Mughal rule Punjab has two Centers one Multan and the other Lahore. The
boundaries of the Punjab were spread and touches with Afghanistan before the making of North
West Frontierprovince in 1901.
Mughal and Sikh Administration
Mughal laid down the foundations of modern administration of India introducing the system of
agricultural revenue administration which still prevail in India Pakistan. The Mughal empire was
divided into twelve provinces; in the time of Aurangzeb they became fifteen which were further
divided into districts and subdivisions. Despite Despotic disposition of rule, they never allowed
their imperial rule into unbearable tyranny for masses. After Aurangzeb Mughal empire quickly
fell into decay and slowly disintegrated and became ineffective. The Muslim sultans ruled by
Farmans(Khan. H,2000:1). The wishes of the sultan were the law of the land. Sultans divided
their territory into Provinces (Subas) which were ruled by Subedars (governors). Rewards for
obedience, suppression of dissent, pious dispositions, installing fear and awe in the hearts of the
ruled rather than seeking the consent of the people were the chief traits of such rule. There were
no fix rules for succession. the eldest son was expected to succeed on the death of or decline of
emperor there was fratricidal war until the strongest claimant all threats and proclaimed himself
emperor. Appointed governors, judgment was given at different level with by a family head,
village caste leader court of guild the governor or the king himself. litigation was brief and
judgment swift.
The invasions of Nadir Shah during (1739,1751,1752) provided him the opportunity to annex the
Punjab with Afghanistan. Ahmad Shah Abdali came in the Punjab in 1757 (Gupta, 1996:33) to
encounter Mahrattas When Ahmad Shah was aiming to subdue the Mahratta power in East and
fought the war of Panipat in 1761, Sikh were rising in the Punjab, and were challenging Mughal
and Afghan administrators by looting and creating lawlessness through gorilla bands which
ultimately resulted in the Maharaja Ranjit Singh rule in Punjab.
Sikh religion was born in Punjab in 15th century. Aggressive and lawless behaviour policy
adopted by Sikh groups during sixteen and seventeenth centuries had earned enmity with Mughal
local rulers and Afghan invaders. skirmishes. Banda Singh and followers had proved powerful
enemies forlast Mughal administrators in the Punjab, who had themselves in many areas became
independent rulers. The decline of Mughal rule resulted in Sikh Rule in the Punjab. Ranjit
Singh`s Punjab had its boundaries to Afghanistan. Sikh had developed themselves into twelve
misilsin different areas of the Punjab. These misilsconsisted on near relations and friends, who
invaded collectively and contributed the plunder within them. Gradually Maharaja Ranjit Singh
dominated all misils and became the ruler of the Punjab also capturing the area of Peshawar in
1801. The Sikhs mostly occupied the central Punjab and choicest fertile lands. During this period
East India Company had expanded its rule to most of India. It was now surveying the boarder
province of the Punjab who has its boundaries adjacent to Russian neighbours (Osborn,
G.W.1988: 29)
After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh the wars among his successors and ministers provided
the Company the opportunity to invade the Punjab. Many Muslim tribes sided with British when
company took over the Punjab in 1849.The Company government in India had sent many
delegations and diplomatic envoys in the durbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Who had observed
the development and acted accordingly to seizure the province. When Punjab was captured,after
the Second Sikh war in 1846, the rule of East India Company had reached its peak in India. Early
occupied provinces were being introduced English political reforms of governance (Khan,H.,
2000) Sir Henry Elliot on 29th March, 1949 held a Durbar in Lahore and announced the
annexation of the Punjab with British Empire in India. British ruled the Punjab for more than
hundred years and introduced modern administration, social, political, legal and educational
The Punjab under British Administration
The Board of Administration (1849-1853) was setup in the province after the treaty of Lahore
1846 Lord Hardinge did not annexed the Punjab immediately. The Punjab hadstrategic position
for British, beyond the Punjab was situated Russia, without cordial relations toward the British.
But when Lord Dalhousie decided to annexation, the administration of Punjab was given to a
Triumvirate consisting Sir Henry Lawrence as president Sir John Lawrence and Mr. Mansel with
a team of civil and military officers to assist them. British treated the province on the lines of
tribal life emphasized on order and peace, justice and opportunity of peace and security to both
the agriculturists and urban traders. Patronage administration based on the administrators of
military back ground won the admiration and support from major sections within the province.
ThisAdministrative Board Achievements
The Board successfully executed law and order, peace and to some extend rule of Law. A strong
police system with Guide corps, Intelligence Department, Military Preventive Police, Detective
Police, recruitment of Khogees (professional trackers) curbed the large scale of looting, robbery,
cattle stealing, murders, and Thuggi (Cheating). Many social bad activities like infanticide was
prohibited and were investigated when reported, eliminate the number of this activity. A famous
Meeting with elite of all communities was held in Amritsar to encourage them to preach for
social reforms like less spending on marriage or reporting of infanticideRules were made and
signed in by all nobles who were present. This meeting had positive impact on the minds of
people. The code of costumes was drawn and then implemented, too bad or unjust customs were
abolished (Nijjar, n.d). Local nobility was encouraged to do social work, and other welfare
activities in their areas. Honourary Magistrates were appointed from upper class without any
stipend. Each village hold a court of its own according to the old costumes along the right to
appeal to the deputy commissioner of related area. Later Tehsildars, Zaildars and Numberdars
were appointed in rural areas to make the administration at lower levels more affective.
Punjab was agricultural province with majority of population living in villages. Landrevenue was
major source of income for governments. Industries and large-scale trade were not present due to
the landlock position of the Punjab. Land tax was also changed before it was paid in kind but
now it was collected in the shape of money and once in many years. Ratio of the land tax was
also reduced. Administrative Board took the reconstructed the Grand Trunk Road and many
canals. The system of money was improved within three years and in most places British coins
were began to use. Education and vernacular Urdu language were promoted. The entire judicial,
fiscal, and revenue system of province was reorganized. Roads were constructed. A line of forts
and cantonments was made and a force called Punjab Frontier Force was establish to hold this
line of forts and cantonments in the far north were established to strengthen the defence.Trade
policy was renewed by terminating the export and import duties, many taxes. Trade articles taxed
by Maharaja Ranjit Singh were abolished. Trade was made free instead stamp duty, levy on
spirit, toll on chef ferries over rivers and salt tax was imposed. Salt mining was taken by the
government directly in its hands. People had taken these taxes obediently. Within less than four
years thousands of Ranjit Singh’ warriors were not only demolished without any untoward
incident but converted into peaceful and loyal subjects. (Nijjar, n.d. :57).
In 1853 Board of Administration was abolished and Sir John Lawrence was made chief
Commissioner for 1853 -59. He further increased the reforms in the province.Punjab was divided
into Districts, tehsils, tribal matters were dealt, education in English from above primary was
introduced and 1% revenue was allocated for education. A census was held in the province on 31
dec,1854. The telegraph system was introduced in the province. John Lawrence`s paternal
administration to middle class, Punjab had recently come out of war, many sardars had been
killed in Sikh wars.
During the period of 1957, native regiments were disarmed rapidly after the news of the Revolt,
but even then, small scale mutiny actions occurred in Ferozepur, Jullundur, Phillaur, Ludhiana,
Peshawar Ambala and Multan but were controlled with the clever strategy of the British and
cooperation from majority elite of Punjab. Soldiers from different regiments ran away towards
the Punjab, but most were caught with the help of rural gentry who were rewarded for it.
Reward was already declared for cooperation. These were minor disturbances as compare to
other parts of India. Lieutenant Governor John Lawrence and other Company Directors were
satisfied for the situation in the Punjab. (Metcalf, 2001)In 1959 John Lawrence was nominated as
lieutenant governor but he became ill and went back England and came as viceroy of India after
five years.
Administration Development
After 1860 British deliberately fostered the partial return of the chieftain class by removing most
impediments to the wealth and influence of chieftains that had been setup by Dalhousie and
Punjab School of Administration in 1849-56. Twenty-five chieftainswere appointed as jaghirdar
magistrates to try middle order revenue officers, criminal case with their landed estates. And till
65 other influential Punjabi as Honorary Magistrates try petty crimes, this position did not carry
any stipend. Later administrative posts with stipend were also open to chieftains. Smaller
chieftainswere made zaildars and village head lumberdars, which were called thechannel of
communication by British administration and a missing link between village and provincial
government. In 1872 zaildar system was made regular with stipend. Durbar by the viceroy were
held and chieftains were granted insignia titles khilats and they in return presented gold as
nazrana, in fact, British revised their policy towards chieftains after 1857 (Major, 1991)
To keep law and order at any price was the major aim of administration no matter achieved on
what price. Sir Henry Davis the fifth Lieutenant Governor (1871-77) Faced the Kuka movement
of Sikhs and also strengthen control on NWFP became successful to bring Afridi tribes to join
British army Sir Robert EylesEgerton (1877-82) focused on frontier parts of the province and got
signed the Treaty of Grandmak. Amir YaqubKhan agreed to givethe British the control of
Khyber Pass and British fix allowance of 87540 perenam for him. He wrote to the Governor
General Sir Aitchison wrote and suggested to the viceroy to introduce the system of
LocalBodies and opportunity for native involvement in government affairs of the Punjab also.Sir
J.B.W.Lyall (Nijjar, n.d.: 133) laws which were passed. Sir hind canal was opened 1882.In 1884
Russian came nearer to Turkmenistan chances for fronting each other were increased, but the
problem solved. Lord Rippon`s policy of local governmentwas made in the period of Sir
Atchison and Sir Lyall. New staff at division level and at district level was recruited along with
civil judges.Lawsfor revenue were made; “Land Tenancy Act XVI-XVII in 1887-88 was
implemented. Political Agencies were established in the frontier areas in 1878. In 1893 Durand
line was marked between the Punjab and Afghanistan. In 1893 Chitral Garrison was found.
Fitzpatrick:the Punjab also suffered from plague in 1897. Waziristan agency was setup and
famous Land AlienationAct in 1900 was introduced.
Table 1: The Detail of British Administrators
S# Name of the Officer Period Office Held
1 Sir Henry Lawrence, Sir John Lawrence 1849-53 Boardof Administration
and Sir Charles GrevileMansel
2 Sir John Lowrance 1854-59 Chief Commissioner
3 Sir Robert Montgomery 1859- 65 Lieutenant Governor
4 Sir Donald McLeod 1865-70 Lieutenant Governor
5 Sir Henry Davies 1871-77 Lieutenant Governor
6 Sir Robert Eyles Egerton 1877-82 Lieutenant Governor
7 Sir Charles Aitchison 1882-87 Lieutenant Governor
8 Sir James Broad wood Lyall 1878-92 Lieutenant Governor
9 Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick 1892-97 Lieutenant Governor
10 Sir William Mackworth Young 1897- 02 Lieutenant Governor
11 Sir Charles Montgomery Rivaz 1902- 05 Lieutenant Governor
12 Sir Denzel Ibbetson 1905-07 Lieutenant Governor
13 Sir Thomas Gordon Walker 1907-08 Lieutenant Governor
14 Sir Louis William Dane 1908-13 Lieutenant Governor
15 Sir Michael Francis O` Dwyer 1913-19 Lieutenant Governor
16 Sir E.D. McLagan 1919-24 Governor
17 Sir Malcolm Hailey 1924-28 Governor
18 SirGeoffrey Fitzhenry De Montmorency 1928-33 Governor
19 Sir Herbert William Emerson 1933-38 Governor
20 Sir Henry Duffield Craik 1938-41 Governor
21 Sir Bertrand James Glancy 1941-46 Governor
22 Sir Evan Meredith Jenkins 1946-47 Governor
Source: information collected and converted into table from the Nijjar.

Working of Early Legislative Councils of the Punjab

In 1882-87 Sir CharlesAitchison reported to Governor General that educated people in the
Punjab wanted to take part in the affairs of the province. It would be better that finance being
discussed. Sir James Lyall played important role in the creation of the Punjab Legislative
Council. He wrote to the viceroy that the Punjab is different from Bengal and Frontier parts. It
had completed the codification of customary Law. He mentioned that people who could speak
and understand English and could become members of Legislative Council were available.In the
first of November 1897 first Legislative Council of the Punjab met under the Indian Council Act
of 1892.There were five nominated members four were government officials total nine. These
members were nominated on the bases of English language understanding, who couldnot speak
English could speak Urdu. These members were Nawab Fateh Ali Khan Kazalbash, Khalifa
Syed Muhammad Hussain, PanditSuraj Kevil, BediKhem Singh and Sir W. Rattigan. Madan
Gabal took the place of Pandit Suraj Kevil. Most bills which were discussed and passed were of
agricultural in nature. Act about wastelands e.g. Siwalik, Sindh Sager Doab. In 1900 Sir
Thorburn proposed Land AlienationAct which aimed at restricting more effectively the transfer
of land from agriculturist to the money landers. It was passed in 1901 and British administration
won the admiration of agriculturists. In 1903 minor canal bill for amendment was introduced.
Some other important bills were; Court of Wards Act II bill, some non-agricultural bills were the
Punjab Municipal Act 1891, Transport of Animal Bill 1902, The Punjab District Board Bill
1904. This Council was not allowed to discuss budget and had hardly any noticeable powers.
Legislative Council met twenty-six time till 1909. In 1891 Act, members and powers of council
were increased.(Tahir, 1997) The Punjab`s economy was agricultural and irrigation plans were
completed and lands were granted to people.
The beginning of twentieth century brought political consciousness in the Punjab though in the
form of ceremonial participation. Liberals came in the power in 1905.Lord Minto came India as
Viceroy and Morley as Secretary of State for India. Muslims of central India prepared Shimla
Deputation in which seven eminent Muslims were also invited from the Punjab these were Malik
Omer Hayat Khan Tawana, Mian Muhammad Shafi Lahore,Mian Shah Din Lahore, Sheikh
Ghulam Sadiq Amritsar, Khalifa Syed Muhammad Hussain Patiala, Khawaja Yousaf Shah
Amritsar, KarnalAddul Majid Patiala. This Deputation met the Viceroy in 1906. Muslim League
was also found in the same year. Sir Shafi made a Provincial Muslim League in 1906 whereas
Sir Fazl-i-Husain had made one in 1905 (Afzal, 1969).
Punjab Legislative Council under 1909Act
After the implications of 1909 Act second phase of Legislative council started. Punjab like other
provinces was not granted the separate electorate for Muslim seats as was in other provinces.
Although public opinion was in favour of it. Limited franchise included the ex- military men. In
later years PLC (Punjab Legislative Council) had passed twenty-three acts in twenty-six
sessions. Most of the passed Acts were related to agriculture. There were three categories in the
members of PLC, eleven official, fourteen nominated and five were elected total 30 seats. Most
bills which were discussed and passed after Minto Morley Act were Law of Arbitration, the
Punjab Municipal Bill. Colonization of Government Land in the Punjab Bill. Village Criminal
Justice (Punjab) Bill, the Punjab Panchayat Bill 1912, the Punjab Pre-emptive Bill 1912, the
Punjab Court Amendment Bill for 1887, the Punjab Tenancy Act Amended, Punjab Land
Revenue Act 1887Land about Fisheries in the Punjab. Redemption of certain Mortgages of Land
in the Punjab Bill (Tahir, 1997).The Punjab was shift from agricultural importance to trade and
some industry my opinion)
Fazli Hussain as Minister
In1912 government put proposal for amendment in to increase elected seats and to lessen the
nominated members in Punjab council. elected seats were increased but only one Muslim Malik
Muhammad Amin Khan was elected from western Districts. In 1913 Michael O Dwyer came as
last Lieutenant Governor, he was considered sympathetic to rural people, it was his policy to
give more seats to districts than municipalities.In the elections of 1916 Sir Fazl-i-Husain was
elected on the University seat the ex-elected ShadiLal had become judge in court. Actually, Fazli
was defeated in last elections by Shadi Lal. This time RajaHernam Singhfiled his papers for the
university seat but he was a citizen of Kapurthala state,so his papers were rejected. This time
Muslims won 7 out of 11 seats of elected members. Muslims usually avoided to discuss the war
in war days. (Batalvi, 1978: 199)In 1917 Viceroy Chelmsfield visited the Punjab, Muslims met
him as members of AnjumaneIslamia andAnjumaneHamait Islam, and demanded for separate
electorateand more seats for Muslims) have to check then write) ViceroyChelmsfield was
encouraging. When the report of Montague Chelmsfield came it accused separate electorate a
hurdle to elections. They did not propose to setup communal representation for Muslims in any
province where they formed a majority of voters. This report created disturbance in Muslims in
general. The Punjab government told franchise committee that they wanted to follow Lucknow
pact. In 1919 they were granted 50% seats in the PLC and separate electorate. Muslims in the
Punjab has supported and demanded separate electorate for Muslim for the elected members in
In 1921 Fazli was elected again and was nominated by the Governor as Minister of Education
and Local Self Government. Fazli introduced the Bill for panchayat act, 1921, for the revival of
panchayat, Hindu and Sikh leaders opposed it. But it was passed. Punjab Small Town Act,
Money Lender Bill to regulate their accountswas introduced but was not passed. At that time
Fazli took the charge of revenueand Local Self, leaving education to Sir Chhoto Ram. The bill to
decreased land revenue were introduced.
Rowllet Act and Reaction in the Punjab
Civil Disturbance and Reaction of the Punjab Government
In 1919 Rowllat Act increased unrest in whole of India. Newspapers keeping the sentiment alive,
Congress leaders Satya Pal, Dr. Kichlow were put under house arrest, under Indian Defence
rules. Tension grew, harsh steps of government to suppress the riots resulted in some incidents of
targeting European. A bank manager was killed, many incidents of looting in Amritsar,
Ludhiana, Lahore and Jullundur were recorded. Military was called in. Congress called a
meeting in Jallianwala against government. It was to be a peaceful meeting but army fired on the
gatherers, more than four hundred were killed and thousands were wounded but instead of regret
and apologetic reaction government used strict and humiliating punishments. When members of
PLC and politicians in other parts of India criticized the act, Hunter commission was put to
inquire the administration’s actions. Sir Fazli,
The massacre in the Jallianwala Bagh incited the harsh attitude from administration in the Punjab
than any other province whereas protest activities were not as forceful as were in other cities of
India. Martial Law, bombing through airplanes, flogging of innocent passersby or school
children had no solid reason behind them. Insulting and provocative restrictions even for the
respectable members of PLC e.g guarding the Government posters pasted on the walls of Sir
Fazli and Sir Shafi, LalaHerkishanetc was totally a denial of British claim of justice and rule of
Law.It was Congress and organizations of Young Sikh revolutionist and Khilafatists who
protested and took part in the activities of Satyagraha launched by Gandhi. Government claimed
that majority of the Punjabis were not interested. Members from Congress and Muslim League
and parties of the urban areas were taking part in the protest. Rural population was mostly kept
unaware due to censor and with the help of leadership.
The Punjab Legislature Council under Act of 1919
During the WWI which was broke out in 1914 Princely states contributed the 1302000
combatants and noncombatants, such as Labour Corps, to Imperial Forces. The war provided the
British administration to introduce undemocratic laws.
In 1916 position of British and allies was not clear Congress and Muslim League made 1916
Lucknow pact and settle the proportionate of election representatives in Central and Provincial
legislatures, a report for Lord Chelmsfield Viceroy and Secretary for India Sir Edwin Montague
prepared a report which recommended following suggestions.This report recommended
responsible govt at provincial level,It proposed for setting of Chamber of Princes. There were
two lists in the Act Central List and Provincial List but there were no concurrent List all
residuary subjects were put in the dominion of Centre;in case of doubt the governor general and
no court will decide whether a particular subject did or did not belong to a province. Prior
sanction of Governor General at Centre and Governors in the provinces was also required for the
introduction of bills on the subjects of public debt & revenues, religion and religious (Khan,H
2000: 15) of British subjects in India, relation with foreign states, any bill passed by the
Governor General and Governors of Provinces. The provincial list included local self-
government, education, public health sanitation medical administration famine relief agriculture,
public works, water supplies, irrigation, land revenue, administration, forests, cooperative
societies, law and order including justice, police and jails, Sources of revenue, for province,
land revenue, irrigation, excise, on alcohol, liquor, stamps, registration fee, forests, minerals,
provinces can also impose tax on successions betting gambling, advertisement, and amusement,
the raiding of loans, by provinces inside India needed special sanction of the governor general
while for a loan sought outside, India, the prior permission of the secretary state was needed the
provinces were given a certain amount of money out of the proceeds of income tax collected by
the central government while the provinces governments made contributions to the center to
meet its deficits (page 19Hamid Khan? check).Elections were direct, but franchise was restricted.
A partial responsible government was introduced in the province. This system worked in the
province of the Punjab from 1921 to 1937. Departments education, public works, Local
government, were transferred to the local representatives.
This period was turbulent and important, for political and constitutional development. During
war, in 1917 a committee under Sir Justice Sidney Rowlett for the improvement of law and order
was setup, on the proposals of this committee, the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crime Act 1919
was introduced. This act provided speedy trail of offences by a special court consisting of three
high court judged. Provincial governments were given wide powers in matters of arrest search
and seizures. Confinements of suspects, censorship and so on, the act was implemented through
the Central Legislature by the official majority regardless of strong opposition and warnings by
every single non-official Indian member elected or nominated. Muhammad Ali Jinnah resigned
from the central Legislature in protest. M.K. Gandhi launched a movement of satyagraha against
the act and called for country wide strikes. Although he planned a peaceful nonviolent protest
many people were killed in Delhi and Ahmadabad. By police firing, the worst incident was
accrued in Amritsar where on 13, April 1919 under the orders of army commander Brigadier
General Dyer`s troops opened indiscriminate fire on the peaceful but large public meeting, in
Jallianwala Bagh, 400 people died, 1200 were wounded in order to control future out brake of
violence martial law was declared in some districts of Punjab from 15 April to 11 June. Gandhi
called off satyagraha because of the violence and killing it had unlashed.
Sikhs under Akali Dal started a movement to took the possession of Sikh Gurdwaras and Shrines
from the custody of Mahants. In Nov 1920 SheromnaiGurdwaraPerbundak Committee to Sikh
Shrines was made,Mahant used force in 1921, when Sikh led a possession to Nankana Sahib. A
tragic killing of Sikhs by Mahant and company created anxiety among the Sikhs (see Najjar192)
Fazli also introduced Gurdwara Reforms & the Sikh) Fazli passed it with help of O Dwyer Sikh
Gurdwara & Shrines Act VI of 1922 passed but Sikh ignored it. This Act had two schedules
(Tahir, 1997:305). The possession of Sikh Shrines was given to the
SheromaniGurdwaraPerbundak Committee (SGPC). Sikh ignored the Act and continued the
movement,Akali started a movement to get Gurdwaras from Hindu Mahants 1925-30. They gave
arrests in protest and 30000 were arrested. Punjab land Revenue (Amended)Fazli started to took
lead in Muslim politics and made Muslim Conference in Lahore like Quaid,
NON-cooperation movement 1914 while war by congress and home Rule league, agitation
in Punjab against rowlet act april, khalifate movement. (from Lahore Molana Zafar
zamindar, migration movement Fazli discouraged not popular in Punjab due to rural less
information. (Rizvi 119)
In Punjab many, Khilafitist took part in elections and won two seats of Muslim in urban areas.
See or find the details.
The Simon Commission and the Punjab Cooperation
In 1925 a resolution was carried in the Central Assembly advising the British government to
make fundamental changes in the constitution of India. Making the government fully
responsible. it also called a Round Table Conference representing all interests to prepare a detail
led scheme to be placed before Legislative Assembly and British Parliament. In November 1927
British government appointed a commission composed on entirely Englishmen and headed by
Sir John Simon to inquire in the working of system of govt, the growth of education and the
development of representative institutions in British India. Commission was also asked to report
on the desirability of establishing the principle of responsible government and extension,
modification or restriction of the degree responsible government. then existing under the act of
1919. Simon commission was boycotted by all parties, and other representative’s organizations
in India, resolutions were passed (Batalvi, 1978) commission met all leading politicians who at
least cooperated. The Punjab leaders who were the members of the PLC met with the
Commission. They had responded negatively on the Delhi proposals and Nehru Report. Fazli and
Shafi with other Muslim leaders of Punjab had rejected the joint electorateon any condition. Sikh
leaders wanted Muslims to demand nothing in the place of separate electorate.Punjab Sikh and
Hindu both disliked the Nehru report, (find reference in nijjar) Muslims and Sir Fazli-i-Hussain
criticized on the report for joint electorates. Sikhs and Fazli with his party reject the unitary form
at Centre level and demanded for federal form.Sikhs disliked the suggestion of Nehru report
which proposed for no seats for minorities in the Punjab and Bengal. They doubted that Muslim
might take more seats in Punjab and Bengal. They insisted against the report on the point that no
minorities seat was to be reserved in the Punjab, even Gandhi also support Sikh and Hindu point
(Malik,A. 2003: p132).Sir Fazl-i-Hussain, Ahmad YarDoltana, Syed Mubarak Ali Shah,
NawabMushtaquGormani. met (find details) the commission and recommended that diarchy
should be abolished in the provinces, with expended franchise and enlarged legislature. (many
good references in th thesis). Fazli also said thatthe election and construction of Council of State
should be on the provincial bases. Central legislature Council should be refashioned on federal
system. Members of lower house should represent the provinces, and elected by provincial
councils. No dyarchy should be practice at the central level. It should continue to be compose of
the official nominees and not responsible to legislature.The report of Simon Commission told
that federal system would be setup in future. Governors in provinces would act on the advice of
Council and Chief executive. Governor will appoint the Chief minister and council on his advice.
Governor would be paid from the province.
Sir Fazli was taken in the Governor Generals Executive Council in 1930. He suggested
SirZafarullah and DrShafaat Ahmad from UP in the round Table Conference as representatives
of Muslims of India He told them to adopt the pro government strategy during Round Table
Conference. While staying in the Executive Council he worked for the Punjab and Muslim cause.
Muslims were getting 14% out of the minority quota of 33% in central jobs, he was successful in
reserving 25% for Muslims (Husain,A ?).Sir Zafar Ullah Khan and Dr. ShafaatAhmad, who were
proposed or sent worked with different committees. no solution for work given to various
committees, on the question of minorities Communal Award given by government, there was
neither congress nor Quaid in the committees of second round worked and decide a few more
Communal awardand PoonaPact 1932
Ramsay MacDonald issued on August 26, 1932 the Communal Award. It was purposely
confined to the arrangements to be made for the representation British Indian communities in
provincial legislatures. This Award provided separate general seats to depressed classesspecial
seats to women. The representation in central legislature was deferred for the time being since it
involved the question of the representation of Indian princely states, which needed further
discussion. Gandhi refused to accept the Award and declared to fast unto death. His condition
became serious, but Government kept firm, therefore Indian leaders held negotiations with the
leaders of depressed classes and ultimately the Poona Pact was signed in September 1932 and
was accepted by the government. Poona Pact reserved the seats of depressed class out of the
general electoral seats in the Provincial Legislatures follows. the details of the reserved seats
were as; Madras 30, Bombay and Sindh 15, Punjab 8, Bihar and Orissa 18, CP 20, UP 20,
Bengal 30, total 148 were reserved for depressed class .18% general seats were to be reserved for
them in the same way in Centre as in the provinces they were also be given the fair
representation in the local bodies and public services, subject to educational qualification, A
white paper in March 1933 by British govt was published. (Rizvi blue
The Punjab Government of India Act 1935
Th act of 1935 was comprehensive with 321 sections and two schedules. Provinces were granted
autonomy and responsible government, whereas partial responsibility and dyarchy was
introduced in Centre. 4 seats in federal legislature were reserved for the Sikhs of Punjab. Direct
election method was adopted for all communities whereas indirect election was retained for
representatives of Anglo-Indian Europeans and Indian Christian communities. Now there were
11 provinces; madras, Bombay, Bihar, Bengal, Punjab, NWFP, CP, UP, Assam, Orissa, Sindh.
Section 290 provided that the Crown by Order of the Council, might create a new province,
increase the area of any province, diminish the area of any province, and alter the boundaries of
any province. It was however provided that the before the draft of any such Order laid before the
parliament Secretary of State would take step for ascertaining the view of the federal legislature
also of the government and legislature of the province which was to be affected by such order.
These preliminary consultations were to be directed toward both the proposal to make the order
and the provision to be inserted therein. (Khan, H. 2000 Page 43)
Separate electorates were implemented for Sikhs and Muslims, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians,
and Europeans, on the base of communal award. Provincial Legislature assemblies could make
laws, on the matters given in list II and concurrent III list, no bill could be moved or introduced
as financial bill except on the recommendations of the Governor, Assembly had the power to
assent to , or refuse, or reduce the amount specific in any demand but the Governor was
empowered to restore and treat as sanctioned any such proposed expenditure in whole or in
parts, if in the opinion of the Governor the same was necessary for the due discharge of his
special responsibilities.
1937 Elections&Formation of Unionist Ministry
Fazli Hussain died in 1936. His place as the leader of Unionist party was filled by Sir Sikandar
Hayat Khan.Congress had won in eight provinces but in Punjab it could not Sardar Sunder Singh
Majithia of Khalsa National Party and Manohar Lal of National Progressive Party joined the
collation with unionist Party which enjoyed the support of 112 members in the Assembly of 175.
Akalis had refused to be the part of Unionist alliance but National Khalsa Conference entered in
the alliance with Unionist party as well as the Anglo Christian and EuropeansWar broke out and
Sikandar ministry was fully cooperative with Central Government. Sikandar suggested the
central government to pass a public safety Act for the provinces. Governor did not implement
section 93 in the Punjab as was in other provinces. The defence of India Rules was in force
throughout India during the second world war. it restricted the powers of the ministers in other
provinces where Governor began to force their will upon the ministers in the day today
administration. Mr. Allah Bux Chief Minister of Sindh was dismissed although he had enjoyed
majority, resignation of Fazlulhaq of Bengal, Prime Minister of Bengal was also obtained under
such circumstances. While Sikandar worked with full cooperation with both governors Sir H. W.
Emerson and later with Sir H. D. Craik.
Jinnah Sikandar Pact 1937
Sikandar in 14th October, 1937 attended the Annual session of Muslim League in Lucknow and
entered in a pact Called Sikandar Jinnah pact. Sikandar in this pact had promised to call a
meeting of Muslim members of his party on his return to the Punjab and would askedthem to
sign its creed become members of Muslim League. They would obey the rules of All India
Muslim League`s Central and Provincial Boards but this pact will not affect the present coalition
of Unionist party. After this pact members would cooperate with each other in the general and by
elections in the province. A provincial Parliamentary board would be re-established. According
to Ashiq Hussain Batalvi,Sikandar and Unionist Muslims did not act upon the pact
(Batalvi,1995). The wording of the pact was explained differently by different groups.This pact
was criticized and disliked by both governor and opposition. Governor wrote to the Viceroy that
Muslim League might interfare in the politics of the Punjab (Glancy to Linlithgow 17 th April
1943 The transfer of power vol 12. I have to put it when khizerJinnah conflict uncured.).Non-
Muslim coalition partners of Sikandar like Sir Chhoto Ram explained that this pact is not
changing the nature of Unionist party. Governor told Sikandar that his communal status as
neutral will be affected. (Governor to viceroy 1937 October L/P &j /5/238 IOR) (Abid, S.Q.
Iskandar’s ministry had the strong opposition of Congress, Akali Dal and Ahrars with Malik
Barkat Ali, only Muslim Leaguer on the opposition benches. Sikandar had to face the tough
criticism of opposition as well as have to cooperate with administration during war. Nehru called
many times the government of the Punjab reactionary.In 1936 Unionist Muslim leadership was
not in favour of collaboration with Muslim League. Congress had little support in the Punjab`s
Muslims in 1937 elections. Its Muslim Mass Contact activities were pressurizing the Unionist
after elections. Akali and Ahrar were also pro Congress. Muslim League also needed support in
the Muslim majority province to claim the credit of Muslim representative.
Role ofthe Governor
In Punjab governor played an important part in the administration of the province during war
years. When Governor was consulted by Governor General in 1938 on the question of releasing
political prisoners in UP and Bihar. The governor of Punjab wrote back that peace and tranquility
of the Punjab was likely to be disturbed if the prisoner were released. This he did without the
consulting the Chief Minister or member of his cabinet of Punjab. Punjab Premier Sikandar khan
had to admit it in the provincial assembly despite the provincial government. Police and secret
service of Raj operated in the Punjab and Bengal. Legislatures were also not free on financial or
other matters provincial Governors were also under Governor General. (Khan, H.2000:49).
Sikandar ministry kept the cordial relation with Governor by giving him full support.
Many communal riots during the Sikandar Ministrytook placed he tried his best to control but
Akali Dal and Congress were giving tough time as opposition. Sikandar held a Jinnah Sikandar
(reaction of minorities, pact also write. Second WW Sikandar Ministry issues (Shaheed Ganj,
Sikhs response on pact, Akali congress cooperation.
Lahore ResolutionKhaksar procession firing 50+2 died)
Muslim League held its famous annual meeting in the Lahore in March 1940. Only a day before
the clash between police and Khaksars had resulted in the death of two police men and fifty
Khaksars. Primer did not want Muslim League to held its cession in the Punjab because of
communal train related to Sheedganj Issue. Ahrar were also active to topple the ministry. Barkat
Ali had introduced a Bill for The Punjab Muslim Mosque Protection Bill in the Legislative
Assembly. Sikandaradvised the governor to withheld the bill introduction under 299(3) sections
of 1935 Act. Muslim League larders like Ziaudin supported himon this point. Other politicians in
Central assembly and Sikh Hindu leaders praised him. (C.M.G. 22.3.1938) In 1940 Privy council
also upheld the decision and issue wasdropped by Zamindar. Sikandar while answering in the
PLA stated that.Batalvi criticized the meeting arrangementsby provincial League. He also
claimed that when Molana Zafar Ali Khan was translating the Lahore Resolution Sir Sikandar
was sitting with him therefore his participation in the drafting of Resolution quite powerful
(Batalvi, 1995: 610). It was also decided in the meeting that a Punjab Muslim League
Parliamentary Party would be made in the PLA. Ahmad YarDoltana, Gazanfar Ali Khan,
NawabGourmaniand SheikhKaramat Ali and Syed Amjad Ali did not want to make this party in
the Assembly they thought Unionist was doing the job well.
In 1941 again Sikandar who had been nominated in the National Defence Council of Viceroy
along with BegamJihahanara Shah Nawaz was asked by the Quaid to quit the member ship
according to the policy of Muslim League. Sikander after some resistance quit the membership
but BegamJihanara did not resign.
In March 1942 Sir Shah Nawaz Khan Mamdot the Muslim League Provincial President died and
his son was made President at his place. In December 1942 Sir Sikandar died suddenly. Shaukat
Hayat Khan his son was given Muslim League Ticket in by elections. MumtazDoltana son of
Ahmad Yar Khan Doltana had been elected on the seat of Sir Sikandar.Khizar Hayat Tiwana was
nominated by the Governor as Primer of the Punjab. Shaukat was given Muslim Minister place
in the cabinet. A group of MumtazDoltana, Iftikhar Mamdot and Shaukat was formed as young
Muslim League with landed gentry background.Batalvi claimed that these men were assembled
to toppled down Khizar and used the platform of Muslim League (Batalvi, 1995: 624).
Otherwise they were their all the time. Suddenly in 1943 they find that there was no Muslim
League in the PLA. They also knew that Khizar is pressurized to avoid Muslim League name to
keep the alliance with Sikhs and Hindus. Akalis were already calling Sunder Singh Majithia and
other traitors.there were six ministers in Hizr ministry. Shaukat Hayat Khan and SardarBaldev
Sigh were new ministers and other were RajaGazanfar Ali, Sir Chhoto Ram, Sir Manohar Lal,
Abdul Haye.Mamdot talked against Chhoto Ram statements in which he had said that no Muslim
League in the House. HamayunAdeeb (1987: 184) claimed that Quaid compromised because
Shaukat Hayat had confidence of Sikh and Hindu representatives. He also claimed that Muslims
Student Federation had given the strength to the party. It was now more popular in Muslim
Masses. (Adeeb,190). Second World War was at its end. When Khizar became Premier Unionist
Muslim Members began to make factions in it. At this stage the Muslim League Parliamentary
Party Idea was promoted by this group. Khizar supported the philosophy of Sikandar that
Muslim members of Unionist are members of Muslim League but did not need to use the
separate MLPMP in the PLA because it would alarm the non-Muslim coalition partners of
Unionist. Although this situation existed since 1937 to 1942. Sir Shah Nawaz Mamdot had
become the president of Muslim League after the death of Sikandar.His son Iftikhar Husain
Mamdot became the president after the death of his father in 1942. The group ofIftikharMamdot,
MianMumtazDoltana, Raja Gazanfer Ali, Mir Maqbool Mahmood, Shaikh Karamat Ali, and
Sardar Shaukat Hayat beganto develop a separate faction from Khizer Hayat Khan.They began to
report Quaid I Azam that situation in the Punjab had changed in the favour of Muslim League.
For one-year Muslim League president wrote about Khizer and others to the Quai after a year he
came to the Punjab and held many meetings withthe Primer. Khizer refused to change his policy
in the PLAand to establish Muslim League in the Legislative Assembly. Quaid expelledhim from
the Muslim League. Meanwhile Governor expelled Shaukat Hayaton the grounds of corruption.
Whereas Shaukat told that he had resign from the Khizer cabinet. Twenty Muslim members
began to sit on Muslim League benches. Governor was keen observant of the situation and
wrote to Viceroy. Khizar was taking the advice of governor in almost every matter, but did not
understand the changing public opinion in the Punjab masses (Abid and Abid,M 2009).
Viceroy Lord Wavell decided to hold a political conference and invited the Muslim League and
Congress leaders, Provincial premiers, and some other leaders. He proposed parity in Muslim
league and caste Hindu and all portfolios except war to the interim government. Muslim League
demanded all 5 seats for it in the Executive Council. But Viceroy wanted a Punjabi Muslim and
non-Leaguer. He was also supported by Congress and the Punjab premier Sir Khizar Hayat Khan
Tawana whom Jinnah had expelled from Muslim League. Jinnah firm stand broke down the
conference. In 1945 war came to the end and Labour Party came into power in Britain and also
announced elections in India. The Punjab Muslim League started its election compaign with the
help of MSF. This time style of the campaign was as used by traditional rural methods. Use of
Caste tribal affiliation, support from rural religious leadership and connects with elders of the
villages were also reached. The slogan of Pakistan KaMatlabKia Laalahaillallah. had become
popular with Muslim League workers. (blue book )Warcame to end with surrender of japan. On
15th August 1945. Labour party won in Britain general elections 1945. Elections and
Government in the Province of Punjab 1946
The general elections in winter 45-46 were held for provincial and central Assembly. Congress
Muslim League, Unionist, Akali Dal, Khalsa National Party were main contestents. Election
Campaign were based on the demands of the major parties. Congress for nationalism, Muslim
League went for Pakistan.
The Punjab Legislature Election 1945-46
Party Name Seats in PLA
Muslim League 73
Congress 51
Unionist Party 21
Akali Dal 20
Independent 10
Total 175
Source: Details taken from Syed Nur Ahmad 1985:192) as are mentioned by Graig Baxter.
In the Punjab Muslim League had won 73 out of 86 Muslim provincial seats with all six seats for
Central Assembly (Ahmad,S.N. 1985: 192). Unionist won 21 Congress 51 Akali 20 and
independent 10.A Unionist,Akali and Congress collation (21+20+51=92) was offered by
GovernorGlancy to make the Punjab ministry underUnionist MalikHizar Hayat Khan Tiwana,
Congress underLalaBhimsen Sachar, SardarChaudharyLehri Singh. Akali`s were first
represented by SardarBuldevSingh who was selected in the Central Interim Ministry, and later by
SardarSwaran Singh in the interim government. SardarSwaran Singh was a sophisticated cool
minded young man with highly skilled in negotiation as compared to Mamdot.Baxter in the notes
of Syed Nur Ahmad`s book wrote that Glancy should have asked first to Mamdot to make the
ministry. He was sure that Mamdot would have failed because Sikhs and Hindus would not make
coalition with a party committed to the division of India and the Punjab. Although Muslims were
not committed to the division of the Punjab and Bengal.
Direct Action Plan and interim Government.
Mountbatten plan, declared will transfer powers in few months. Punjab Bengal would meet in
two parts and decide to remained united. each part would vote separately on question whether or
not the province should be petitioned and if so constituent assembly the areas it represent should
joined. If verdict went on favour of partitioned province would be divided on the basis of
Muslim and non-Muslim majority districts. Therefore, a boundary commission would demarcate
the boundaries. On the bases of contiguous majority areas of Muslim and non-Muslim. Hamid
khan(2000) and Batalvi (1995) said that the vagueness of Lahore resolution led the partition of
provinces page 66. Mountbatten argues. Indian independence bill 18 July after only 18 days of
introduction received. royal assent
Interim government in provinces 1946
In Punjab a civil disobedience started in January 14, 1946. A Police parties suddenly raided the
headquarters of Muslim League, National guards. Later it was learned that a British Police
Officer was in disregarded of a well-publicized directive of the provincial administration, had
ordered the search without informing the province Primer or getting the approval. was it his aim
to give primer a pain in neck (Tawana was at Delhi) or make Muslim League a target of his own
ambition (Ahmad, S.N, 1985) MianIftikharudin has run and came forward and blocked the police
and refused to let them in the premises of the building. He was arrested immediately
MianMumtaz Dolata, Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan, and other seven or eight persons offer
themselves for arrest and were obliged. Thus, the civil disobedience campaign began. On the
return Sir Khizar Hayat Khan Tawana ordered their release on 26 January. On 28th January,1946
he also cancelled the orders of banning the Muslim League National Guards. Muslims were on
protest movement which was violation of Punjab safety act implemented at the time in the
province. Arrests were made on civil disobedience. Anger against Unionist Congress coalition
was rising in Muslim Public opinion. It was noteworthy that these demonstrations were peaceful.
The Jailed leaders of the Punjab Muslim League advise peaceful demonstration. For the first
time in the history of Punjab, ladies of respectable families were out for protest, Miss Mumtaz
daughter of Begum Jahanara Shah Nawaz, Lady Feroze Khan Noon, Begum Salma Tassaduq,
and many School and College students were participating in the protest. Rumours were
everywhere that government had made compromise with Muslim League. Slogans like Khizer
Hayat haihai , tazakhaberaai ha Khizarhamarabhi ha when Sir Khizar Hayat resign from the
primiership.sSirZafurrullah Khan claimed in his book TahdisiNaimat(1971: 225) that it was he
who proposed Sir Khizarresigne.Page On February Attlee announced that British would transfer
powers till 1948, June. It was problem for Primer he was holding the office without the wishes of
Muslims. He decided to remove himself. Zafarullah Khan also said that Sir Churchill and
Secretary of State had assured him that Punjab will not be divided but later Labour Party won the
elections and situation changed.
The budget session in Punjab Assembly started from 3rd March. Sir Khizar Hayat had submitted
his resignation to the Governor on 2 March. He stated that power transfer was a reality so
Muslim League should face this on behalf of Muslim majority in the province. He would assist
Muslim League but wanted the integrity of the province. Sudden resignation of Tawana was
disappointment for Akali Dal and Congress who were the coalition partners of Unionist
Government (Abid, S.Q. 1992). Mater Tara Singh and LalaBhem Sen Sachar the Congress
finance minister were on the steps of the Punjab assembly, when a crowd of Muslims shouted
Pakistan zinda bad, Tara Singh pulled his sword from sheath, winging in the air said sword
would decide who would rule the Punjab. With the resignation news riots began in cities, Lahore,
Multan, Rawalpindi, Amritsar, sporadic incidents of arson and assault mostly against Hindus
continued for a while. These assaults increased the bitterness of Sikhs and Hindus in their
majority Areas and resulted into reaction with more severe consequences and death of Muslims
in Gurgaon, Jullundur, Amritsar (Moon, 1961).
Independence act 1947provided that the province of Punjab as constituted under the Govt of
India act 1935, ceased to exist and in its place two new provinces were constituted to be known
as West Punjab and East Punjab, the boundaries of two new provinces were to be determined by
a boundary commission appointed by the Governor General of British India, and until the
demarcation of districts specified in the second schedule of the act were to be treated as
territories comprising the new province of West Punjab. The remaining territories in the province
of the Punjab at the time of the passing of act were to comprise the new province of East Punjab,
the district of Gurdaspurwas included (section 4,) in west Punjab in second page 71-2schedule.
The Boundary commission was set up in two sections. Sir Cyril Radcliffe was neutral chairman
in Punjab justice Muhammad Munir and justice Din Muhammad. Sir Radcliffe visited Lahore
first time in July 13. He worked out the procedure with the members of his commission. he told
justice din Muhammad whom other members of commission unanimously given the title vice
chairman. That he wanted to fly over a particular area the next day. Area was Madhapur
headworks in Pathankot. Tehsil, and the adjacent areas of Gurdaspur and Batala Tehsils. And
Amritsar. District. And wanted justice din Muhammad to along. In his place justice Munir came
but programme cancelled. Judges became suspicious because the claims were to filed in July 18,
and no one new on what areas differences would arise which would require the commission to
render a decision. What could be the reason for Radcliffe taking interest in a particular area. Two
judges came on conclusion that someone had tried to influence. both offered resignation to
Jinnah by Din Muhammad going to Delhi, to meet him. (opinion has somebody written on
Punjab provincial leadership and division? article can be written)
It was more than 2. 28% .Syed Nur Ahmad (1985) blamed that Pathankot was given to India in
the slim hope for gain of Ferozepur. Justice din Muhammad talked to Zafarullah Khan. He said
these arguments were prepared by Muslim League Punjab in the hands of Nawab Mamdot.
President of Punjab Muslim League (Khan,M.Z. 1971 : 248). Mountbatten was advising princes
to join as early as possible, he had said and gone to Kashmir Jammu. Many congress leaders
began to visit Jammu Kashmir, Mountbatten with the use of his grand personality although he
offered both but practical efforts were to maximize the number joining India. He threatens also.
All top leaders of Congress going. Sikh and Congress working for Radcliffe hand in hand
demands in debate. When Redcliff discussed reports on the argument, when Munir tried to
discuss Ferozepur and Ziara Radcliff told him categorically they are to west Punjab for he
wanted to give Gurdaspur, Batata and Pathankot to theEast Punjab. Justice Din Muhammad tried
to tell Liaqat and Jinnah that much will lost and Ferozepur tehsil may also not come. but they
were preparing for Independence Day. It was possible that Liaqat was uninformed about the
significance of Pathankot tehsil, but time was not in favour of feeling the importance of the area,
award was announced on 9 and published on 17. And two tehsils of Zaira and Ferozepur were in
theEast Punjab. This file was left in the cabinet containing secret papers at Government House in
Lahore. And Sir Francis Mudie showed this firstGovernor of Punjab to Quaid e Azzam. Jenkin
had asked to tell him the award on phone so he draw it on his file what able told him. whereZaira
and Firozpur in Pak shown but later date august 8 dates is important. If Mountbatten received the
award on the morning of 9 it means that document completed in 8, award published on 17 show
these tehsils in East it was dishonesty on the Mountbatten and recalled. (Ahmad, S.N. 1985:
Bloodshed: Baxter( Ahmad,S.N. 1985: 151) says that there are Sikh version and Muslim about
the bloodshed. Page Hudson moon good, many writes, Gyani Karter Singh Akali dal young
General Secretary that Sikh meant trouble if the decision of Boundary Commission is not
according to their liking. Jenkins was very sympathetic to Sikhs, he enclosed a memorandum of
his conservation GyaniKarter Singh talking in wrote letter to Mountbatten.
Role of Jenkins asGovernor was criticized by the Punjab Muslim League. He was reported by
police that Sikhs were preparing for bloodshed he would listen or took step to stop build ups
toward riots. but he took no notice or prevention actions. Saying if the boundary commission
did not work disappointment in fixing boundary by legal, Sikh leaders for civil war and riots for
revenge. Baxter wrote in the Nur Ahmad that Sikh were entirely for revenge. Communal riots
erupted in Punjab in march 1947. But subdued after that Sikh leaders thought revenge and
elimination of stigma which they thought was reaction of March riots had inflicted on the Sikhs.
And they set themselves to shed blood the Muslims minority in the East Punjab, there was
already a Hindu group the RashtriyaSwayamsevak Singh (RSS) which think it a part of faith to
murder Muslims. This party prepared to work with Sikhs. Also see note on44 on page 277
Governor was sent reports and to Governor General also, he thought that some concession to
Sikhs will avoid riots in this regard he made some strange proposals, one was NankanaSahib to
were retained in Sikh possession. Jenkin also propose the Montgomery (Sahiwal) District
independent for them Lyallpur and other could settle in and live like as status of Vatican in Italy
(write in conclusion the British thought of Israel but they do not do it in England’s)
The staff of Punjab Criminal Investigation department (CID) had intercepted some letters written
by Sikh leaders circulars sent to Gurdwaras ceased sent documents as evidence to governor
Jenkins, governor sent an officer with the file. To lord Mountbatten, stopped Nehru Patel Jinnah
Liaqat after meeting of 5 august. Partition council. Letter show that several plans were to put fire
stock arms in NankanaSahib and attack on Muslims, invasion on train heading towards Pakistan,
throw a bomb on car of Jinnah. Jinnah Liaqat demand the arrest of these individuals. Nehru
Patel did not oppose, but governor Jenkin opposed the arrest of Sikhs. Muslim police officers
took personal action so NankanaSahib and destruction of headworks could not take place.
(Ahmad, S.N. 1985:278 note48). But in East Punjab leaders did nothing to prevent. arson
plunder, massacre plan was so well prepared that leaders could not stop them even if they wanted
to do so. Such people were there who savedthe lives when feelings of hatred bloodshed and
revenge were at. Raja Gazanfar Ali. Gandhi with Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy did what
boundary force of 50000 soldiers in the Punjab could not do. Gandhi has come to Lahore after
seeing the Maharaja of Kashmir and addressed joint meeting of Sikhs and Hindus and appeal to
them not to run and face future events with courage, particularly to Sikhs. Then went to Bengal,
where Muslims requested him to stay and for their security he demanded for Noakhali Hindus,
Muslim telegrams to Muslim League leaders and got surety.
Kashmir Accession perhaps Maharaja and Congress leadership had planned well before the
Award of Boundary Commission (my opinion: popular leadership in Jammu Kashmir was more
local than national like Punjab. Had no relation with Muslim LeagueCentral Leadership. Many
other Muslim ruled princely states had relation with Jinnah, write and got points from this
situation for conclusion also) (also get the references from those proposed by Baxter in his notes
on page of 278-9 Abdullah demanded of Muslim Conference Movement kept gaining strength.
His slogan was thatit was the people right to decide on accession. Police and state army adopted
extreme measures to stop the movement. Baxter s note there is information about these.).
Workers of RashtryiaSwayamsevakSangh (R.S.S.) tried to turn it in communal riots (opinion: in
Punjab its clever to turn the things as religious issue to increase sympathy in own community and
hatred or support for the other. many evidence, may be in other parts of subcontinent but my
concern is Punjab)Meanwhile the state of Jammu and Kashmir offered on 12 August to each
dominion and entered in the Standstill agreement with Pakistan on 14thAugust and with India it
was not completed Baxter gave the reference of Guptas (Ahmad,S.N. 1985: note on 280). In
September Poonch Dogra army was slaughtering Muslims burning villages. On October many
families began to enter in the Panjab (write these things in the next Chapter.) page of nur Ahmad
Resignation of Khizar and next
Khizer was unhappy on the 20-2-1947 statement by British premier in which he said that British
government wanted to transfer the powers to India before August 1948. He resigned on 2nd
February 1947,he was asked by Governor Jenkin to work till new government, budget was also
due in next month. Governor first met with Sikh leadersSardarSwaranSingh and then
BehmsanSchar of Congress. They were perplexed at the resign of Khizer, and said Muslim
wanted to treat with Sikhs like slave, then Governor met with Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot,
and made it clear on him that a government consisted on only one community and without
minorities representatives was not acceptable, therefore Mamdot should try to gain support of
other communities. Governor also told him otherwise he would use section 93 to pass the budget.
Governor was not ready to accept only Anglo Indians and Cristian as a minority. Jenkin thought
it safe for Christian minorities to avoid them from being the target of the violence of Sikhs and
Hindu rioters.Noon also met with governor but could not claimed the Sikh support for Muslim
League Sikhs had refused any cooperation after riots in Western parts of the Punjab. On 4th
February,Governor met Mamdot again but he told he had 90 seats.Governor asked him to get the
support of Sikh or Congress. Mamdot took time for next meeting on 5th,but wrote letter to him
after the meeting that he hadthe confidence of 100 members of PLA.
With khizar resignation riots erupted with the speeches of Tara Singh Lahore Amritsar Muslims
were invaded in Attock, Multan, Rawalpindi, non-Muslims were invaded. riots were started with
a procession of Hindu students slanting Quaid e Azzammurda bad. Jenkin claimed this killing of
non-Muslims was due to progress of Pakistan ideology after 1943, communal campaign in 1945-
46 elections, and failure of Muslim League ministry making. And spreading of roumers. he made
a Peace Committee on Mamdot, Noon, Doltana, Iftikharudin, Shaukat Hayat, Master Tara Singh,
LalaBhemSainSchar, Mr., S.P Sangha Speaker PA, LalaGhopi Chand Bhargo, SardarSwaran
Singh, and an Anglo-Indian Mr. Gibbon. It was on the proposal of Swaran Singh and best
solution when no representative government was working. But Tara Singh refusedto attend any
meeting. Some meetings were held but with no results.
In a letter to viceroy Jenkin wrote Sikh would do everything to stop the establishment of Muslim
Leagueministry (Adeeb, 1987:283) Kartar Singh has said to the Governor when any Council
meeting held to decide the future of the Punjab, Sikh would be called also. And his request is
important.Jenkin wrote to Wavell to give a paper prepared for results of riots in Punjab to
SardarUjal Singh. But viceroy forbade him.Governor kept meeting Mamdot, MumtazDoltana
andFeroze Khan Noon. Congress working Committee decided to demand for division of Punjab
by giving reference to the violence in Muslim majority areas it also said they were discussing
Bengal on the same lines. Mountbatten had come to replace Wavell. Mamdot along with Doltana
met Jenkin on 29th March, 1947 and at this time offered cooperation instead of making the
ministry. Mamdot said he could not understand Sikhs that why they were not cooperating with
(opinion: Mamdot and Muslim should know now it will ok when congress has decided nothing
will stop division. Why they thought they are in majority and will ok) Mamdot called a meeting
of Muslim League members of Provincial Assembly presidents of Muslim League branches and
secretaries and made Legal Defence Committee, Central relief committee. And Central watch
committee, collected funds from all divisions.
Mamdot talked about Jenkin to newspapers, in his interview he complained. Just telling Muslims
are in minority in province officers. Wrote letter to Governor on 24-4-47. Governor still refused
a Communal Government. Mamdot saidpublic might protest but Jenkin firmly refused. (when
they were always guiding why not now when things were grave?) Mamdot wrote Governor
again. Asked him to write him to according to constitution he had right. Jenkin Viceroy
consulted v. in answer 93 one community one sect government was impossible. Liaqat and
Quaid met Mountbatten for Punjab and discussed sections 93. Mountbatten said I have
convinces them sincerity of Jenkins. Also promised to meet Jenkin. Quaid said Jenkin should not
meet Mamdot before Jenkin met viceroy. Who told Quaid that he will not allowed one sect
government Jenkin got angry. Mamdot wrote letters to Governor, and also met on 28 April the
day Mountbatten send the telegraph that what Jinnah want (stupid Mamdot) on 14 may he again
wrote latter to Jenkin and demanded to call meeting of assembly. While this Muslim League
leaders tried their best to convince Sikh not to demand division of Punjab. (why ml should have
known what they want for them minorities in their area can also want such things for themselves
too. And said it wouldbenefit only Hindus. When Tara Singh said a Boundary,Commission made
on the bases of nontransferable properties and not the population. Even then Mamdot did not
thought. Nehru was for Gurdaspur and Sikh shrines division on the bases of districts and same
was happened. (they had done homework)
On June 6, 1947 again, Jenkin met Mamdot LalaBhemSainSchar and SardarBaldev
Singh.BothSchar and Baldev wanted to keep section 93 in the province. Mamdot said he would
wait for Muslim LeagueCouncil meeting before expressing his will. While Mr. Able had come
on fifth of June to Punjab on matters of division and said justice Cornelius would preside Punjab
Division Committee, butgovernor Jenkin said a Hindu Justice would be the president of the
committee. Mamdot Wrote letter to Governor complaining again.Mamdot went to attend the
meeting in all India Muslim League in Delhi told about Jenkins to Quaid and Liaqat Ali. He met
to Viceroy and demanded that the Committeesfor division should be made of Americans, British
or both Hindu Muslims (Adeeb, 1987: 307).
Governor Muslim LeagueClashPunjab Muslim League party passed a resolution that Jenkin
was partial and should be send back or he should leave his post. Daily Nawa I waqat was writing
against him, whereas Jenkin called it a newspaper compinged of Mamdot. He resolved toleft the
charge on 15th August, 1947. Congress demanded Martial Law during the partition days, but
Mamdot opposed it, and military officers were also not in favour of it. A meeting held in
Mamdot villa,Collective Security Committees were madeincluding
LalaBehmsenSachar,SardarSwaran Singh and Nawab Mamdot. Some positive effect was seen.
Jenkin made a Special Police Force to avoid riots, curfew in Misri Shah Lahoreand every home
was searched,Nawab Mamdot was angry anddemanded for same act against Hindu in Gurgaon
and Amritsar. Leaders at this stage needed quick reflections and a neutral and just reputation
could only have won the confidence of the public but Nawab Mamdot failed to achieve this
reputation by making himself partial against Hindus and Sikhs as well as Governor. He
demandedthe Equal representation in staff of mental hospital staff of CID. But Governor blamed
that Muslim League could erupt riots. Most of information which were collected in the mental
hospital CID sell was burnt (Adeeb, 1987:310) and record was wasted against.Congress invaded
Muslims in minority areas blame Muslim League. Governor nominated a Hindu officer ICS Ram
Chander to collect information Nawab Mamdot protested Governor asked to talk to Swaran
Singh and Bhem later a Muslim was with consent of Congress and Sikhs was also selected.
(Moon met a niab tehsildar in the office of Mamdot when came for Boundary Commission for
Bahawalpur state. And wonder junior there). during the division of the Punjab all British
administrators were showing favour to the Sikhs even in the British Parliament, Secretary of
State said that the Boundary Commission is allowed to take care of Sikh`s holy places. Quaid
and Liaqat protested that it was to affect the commission. Sir Zafar Ullah who was nominated as
Muslim Lawyer was provided information. a secretariat was established in Mamdot villa to
collect maps information to be used in the Boundary Commission. When Award was announced
nothing had helped to attain Gurdaspur or Ferozepurfor Pakistan. Most government officers who
were Hindu and Sikhs migrated to the East Pakistan.
Boundary Force had been established to stop the riots and peaceful migration of population in
both parts of the Punjab but it was not of much useful. Complaints for its partiality had made it
unreliable. West Pakistan entered the new era on 14th August 1947 as part of New state Pakistan.
Within few months geography, ethnography and leadership had been changed to great extant.
Punjab through ages had seen invasion coming from North towards prospers India. First
resistance to fresh invaders came from the Punjab

Section II: Militarism in the Punjab

The second section of the chapter explained the major characteristic of militarism and aptitude
for military activities of the Punjab. This province had a long history of involvement in
belligerencyDrawing on a tradition of aggressiveness and militancy fostered by folk traditions
and frontier orientation of the region Punjabis picture themselves as brave lions of Punjab.
Strong and dependable. Bengalis and Bombay leaders were seen as intellectuals …. press played
a major role both in perpetuating feuds as well as offering a ready channel of communication in
attack. Punjabis acquired the reputation at home and elsewhere for being erratic, temperamental
and highly aggressive.
Punjabhad seen invasion coming from North towards prospers India. First resistance to invaders
came from the Punjab.The land had an aptitude for fighters and defensive and aggressive
collaborations, from North Frontier to the jungles of Malva and Manja in the east Punjab.
Muslim invasions had with Jihad had reinforced the Muslim tribes to keep the trait alive. The
honour, status of martyr and Ghazi and prize were also encouraging factors. Muslims taking
pride in Jihad have been an example for Sikh misils. Nomadic and Tribal life and with a code of
honour had talent for military attachmenteven under the foreign powerful rulers. Bravery,
courage to fight and kill had been praised and valued in tribal histories. Wining wars means
wealth too in the areas hard to cultivate due to being barren and not irrigated. These tribes had
have developed special relations with all dominant powers in the area. The tribes inhabited in hill
areas had provided the recruits to Mughals, operated with Sikhs and then for the British. The
rulers choose the more suitable tribe in reality who was comparatively more able to suppress or
forcible. This situation had always encouraged factions and regional rivalries. Later Mughal
period saw a rise of Sikh in central Punjab. They rose their guerilla bands and swift
lootingplunder of wealthy created their capital and allies quickly. Misls of Sikh worked almost
on the same grounds as the frontier tribes had done.Belonging to same area and blood was
convenient for them to keep the bound within. The finalist misl of Ranjit Singh confirmed their
military supremacy in the Punjab again (Dewey,1991:263) After the death of Ranjit Singh
succession was also decide with the bloody coups and provide the right movement to British to
call allies in the Punjab to subdue the already fighting Sikh Sardars. Northern Muslim tribes
willingly cooperate against Sikhs.Many Frontier tribes tried to rebel but were gradually brought
in peace with British strategy made to deal with these tribes. Agreements of annual payments by
the British and permission to rule in the native zone attracted tribes to peace. Sir John Lawrence
first British Lieutenant Commissioner of the Punjab observed that in the society of the Punjab
large landowners, traders, moneylenders and lawyers behaved with their lower classes as
“predators” (Metcalf, 2001:129). They are unjust and exploiting.
Families with a marital status to maintain conventional status of living and earn izzat in the
Fighting tribes after wars defeats joined the winning side or make truces. When Sikh took the
Punjab Muslim Jihadists occasionally fought with them. In 1824 Syed Ahmad Shaheed was
Martyred and defeated by Maharaja Sher Singh in BalaKot. Syed Akbar Shah fought the English
in 1858-9.
Sikh military was exhausted in the war of Feroze Shah and Chalianwala. Therefore, when Great
Revolt occurred there were no spirited fighters to fight the British. They also had devised best
plans by disbanding and converting the Sikh jats toward cultivating and rewards. Consequently,
those Sikh Sardars who had lost their Jagirs were able to acquire some of their property back by
helping the British in 1957. They had seen Muslim tribes in north and west getting reward for
cooperation against Sikhs. SardarJawahar Singh Nalwa son of Hari Singh Nalwa, who had
fought British in 1849 came in the service of British in 1857 and fought Indian rebels of
Company. The Punjabis found opportunities of employments in military after the suppression of
Great rebellion. By 1862 Punjab battalion made 21 % of Indian infantry. thirty years after
increased to 31 % (Major 1991:77). They also tend to share the same view of how their interests
related to the British encouraged by the government Punjab.Pro government Politicians saw the
colonial power as the basic source of justice and patronage. Accordingly, they emphasize support
for raj while at the same time fight with other possible competitors with ease.
Revolt 1857 and the Punjab
It seems surprising to many that soldierly loving Punjab did little in the national war of India.
Punjab had after the weakening of Mughal become independent from central Indian rule. Then
the strict rule of Ranjit Singh and the wars of 1846 and 1849 with British had killed many
fighters and exhausted the rest. A good will for British had developed without any resistance in
the Punjab who had taken the place of Sikhs. The Administration Board and John Lowrance later
as LieutenantCommissioner had successfully disbandedthe army of Ranjit Singh. The declaration
for prize on the capture of native Indian, the spy system proved effective in the Punjab. The
Punjabi did not know much about sepoys in British army. Although small scale clashes had
occurred in all cantonments with successful supersession from British. British also offered many
Sardars and tribal chiefs to cooperate and rewarded them for help. After the 1857 the mutineers
Bengal Regiments were disbanded and recruiting grounds were shifted into the Punjab. (Metcalf,
2001,129) before revolt there were mix regiments. After the Rebellionall regiments were
established till 1880 on the bases of Caste and ethnicity. The British Recruitment Committee for
forces accepted so-called concept of Martial Races is from Victorian England, those who
resemble the British in habits of outgoing, adventure and sports lovingwere declared the so
called Martial Races; Rajpoots, Jats, Awans, Gujjars, Syeds, PathansKharals, were included in
the martial tribes while Khatri, Brahman, Bania, Arora were declared 130. Almost all
agriculturist Muslim, Hindu and Sikh tribes came under the category of the martial tribes.
Khatri, Bania, Brahman and Aroras the trading classes were declared non-martial and kept away
from military jobs in the British army Recruitment in Brattish army easily became a symbol of
respect and influence (?) in the Punjab. A regular pay, after job pension and facilities attracted
the young men from whole of the Punjab. They have fewer other options in an agricultural
economy.Military Job earned for them respect and so-called affinity with the rulers. Muslims,
Sikhs and Hindu Rajpoot and Jat easily adopted older profession under new masters. But it did
not completely diminish their fighting spirit. The British had to deal with the aggressive frontier
tribes after a long time of their government in the Punjab. They had to make peace with many
tribes in the north. The value of the Punjab as a military recruitment region was felt strongly
during the first world War First World War
After the declaration of war Punjab became the largest center for the recruitment of soldiers. In
The last four months of 1914 28 thousand soldiers were recruited from India, and 14 thousand
were Punjabis. In 1915 93 out of which 46 were from Punjab. In 1916 210000 out of which
110000 were Punjabi. But in 1917 international situation was worsen and British needed more
soldiers so they established a Central Board for Military recruitment was established. Whose
target was to recruit more 480000,
Year Total IndianRecruitment No of Punjabi
1914 28000 14000
1915 93000 46000
1916 225000 110000
1917 186000 95000
1918 317000 134000
In WWI total 683000 recruits were taken from India out of which 350000 were from Punjab.
Page 118 (hamariqoumijidojehad.)
During the war Muslim and Sikh young men were encouraged to get recruited by local
provincial parties whose leadership saw a chance in it of influence with British and a better status
in the province. But Congress and urban middle class were against the recruitment. Ashiq
Hussain Batalvi described in his book Iqbal kay Akhri Do Saal that local leaders used force to
recruit the men from villages by force. Government officials were also involved in the
recruitment. The Deputy commissioner of district, Revenue officers Tehsildar and Numberdar
visited the villages and by force pressurize the elders of villages to provide young men for
recruitment. Sometime torture or force was also used if required number of men did not appear
willingly. Sikh Sabha was also in favour of recruitment in British army which they saw as a
chance of influential status for a minority. Muslim politicians especially discussed less against
the war or recruitment in the military, but Congress and urban Muslims protested and question
the Indians involvement in the War. Quaid Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded in the Imperial
legislative Council to grant same promotion and ranks to Indians as were granted to British
In April, 1919 protest against Rowllet Act in Punjab resulted into a massacre against unarmed
civilians. Military troops installed in Amritsar killed almost four hundred and wounded more did
not make the Punjab go against its support to military use. It was noted that British
administration used force as to pressurize the tribal nature and not a civilian population.
Surprisingly death of recruits in the war was not given considerable attention by both rural based
political leadership in PLC or urban press.
Simon commission in its report in 1928 mentioned the Punjab and its role in the defance of India,
It says total army of India was about 1156546 men, out of which 442976 are from the Punjab.
General Sir George Brown also wrote about importance of Punjab, (Adeeb,1987:113, Ahmas,S.
N, 1985: 198). The Punjab had two karor twenty lakh population and NWFP had 26 lakhs, both
these provinces had recruited soldiers that 23 karor rest if India did not in Indian Army.

Second WorldWar (Ian Talbot Tiwana)

First September 1939 German invaded Poland, England and France declared war against
Germany. Viceroy of India also declared war against Germany. Many Indian leaders discussed
that whether he was eligible to do so or not. Congress ministries resigned in seven provinces, but
The Punjab and Bengal announced support for England in a long statement Sikandar said Punjab
will and its Youngman will serve the allies and British 25-8-1939. In Amritsar said we are
fighting to save our home and Muslim countries (Batalvi, 1969:433) Recruitment especially from
Punjab was started. Sikandar Hayat Khan was an ex-military man and so was Khizar Hayat Khan
Tiwana son of Sir Umar Hayat khan Tiwana. Sikandar proposed an act according to which
opposing military recruitment would become punishable for two years. On 15 august 1938
DefenceSecretary of India Mr. G. Ogilvie introduced the bill in the Central Assembly. He said
that government of the Punjab is complaining that a propaganda is continued against recruitment.
This is dangerous for the Punjabis were faithful and brave people. They are proud of their
military traditions. This bill would be welcomed by rural population of Punjab. Although there
were already sanctions for the purpose. This bill was discussed for ten days. Maulana Shaukat
Ali who had opposed the WWI was in the House. Jinnah said if Punjab wanted this law to be
made, any province had no such right according to the act of 1935, but later Muslim League also
supported the bill and it was passed. After ten days it was passed 1938, 25 august. Sir
Sikandarexplained in the reception party of Governor Sir Henry Kraik. (Civil and military
Gazette 28-9-1938).He described proudly the Punjabis role in military services and promised
unconditional support to the British from the Punjab.Muslim League leaders from other
provinces did not like his open support to the British. Zaheerul Hassan forwarded a resolution
against Sikandar in the All India Muslim League Council meeting and raise two points, first
British policy was against Palestine. Second British governors in Congress ministries are
exploiting Muslims, therefore,Iskandar’s speech is not representative of the Muslims of India.
Sikandar rejected the charges, and said British will never send army to Palestine. and said
Muslims in army will strengthen the position of them in India. It is a guarantee to the security of
India. (military and civil gazette 6-12-1938).
GadherParty of BhgatSingh
Educated Sikh young men from America
In 1938 Sir Sikandarin his speech talked about Punjab superiority in army, he said that patriotic
Punjabi would kept it. In theCentral Legislative Assembly members protested on his claims,
Hindu members.Many prominent Punjabi leaders collected huge amounts of money to donate in
the War Fund setup by the government. Sir Shah Nawaz Mamdot was president of provincial
Muslim League gave handsome amounts in the fund and Sikhs? Hindu? , (Adeeb, 1987),Nawab
gave the reason that he had to keep loyal to the British becauseof his promise to Nawab of
Hyderabad. Who had approached the British to help Mamdot to getMamdot estate. The reaction
and practice of government was viceroy started meetings with the leaders of India. Met priers of
Bengal and the Punjab, Sikhs, minority leaders beside Jinnah and Congress leadership. Congress
Nehru and Gandhi wrote in English dailies if the British are sincere they should set democracy in
India too. Congress said what is the ethical reason for Indiana to participate in the war. Many
minority leaders telegraph Jinnah when you met viceroy represent us too (page 466. .6-11-1939.
Military gazette). Congress wanted to pass a resolution in all provinces legislative assemblies.
made by Working Committee that British government should implement the democratic
principles in India, if it wanted the cooperation from India. We demand that British government
should declare that it had decided to recognize India a free and self-determined country who
have the right of make its own constitution. assembly also propose provinces would also do
anything related to war with the consent of provincial assemblies. Muslim League told its
members to propose an amendment in his resolution that no step would be taken without
permission and consent of Muslim League. In the Punjab government put a resolution for
dominion status after war by dr. Gopi Chand Bhargo, Malik Barkat Ali of Muslim League
offered amendment but resolution was passed with 104 votes with 39 Congress against it.
War Activities in the Punjab during Second World War
Many semi military organizations and sub groups of political parties in the Punjab began to grow
in the province and fear of clash or disturbance were raised. Especially Khaksar Movement who
worked on the lines of Nazi party with similar uniform and spade as weapon. Many other Sikh
and Hindu semi military organizations were active in the province. A question was asked by
Sardar Anup Singh representative of Sikh Landholders on 4thDecember 1939? asked in the
Punjab Assembly fromPrime Minister to give the details of military nature organizations in the
Punjab and what were their names and what was the policy of government about their activities?
Sir Sikandar gave the names of these organizations.
Detail of Semi Military Organization working in he Punjab
Muslim Organizations Sikh Organizations Hindu Organizations
Khaksar Movement AkaliFouj Mahabir Dal Punjab
Jesh-e- Islam AkaliSehna Provincial Mahabir Dal
GaziFouj Ganti Dal Shakti Dal
Itihad-e-Millat BajrangIkharShakti Dal
RashtaryaIkta Dal
Agni Dal
Source: from the Iqbal Kay Akhri Do Saal by Batalvi 1978)

Sikandar also said that they were observing the parties and would declare the policy later. Hindu
press was all against this party. Although AlamaMashriqi had met Prime Minister and promised
to obey law but when government confiscated the pamphlet published by the Khaaksar,
named,“AksariatyaKhoon” they protested. Government declared Khaksar and other semi
military and communal organizations on 28 February 1940. thedrills, gathering of crowds,
display of weapons or exercise, movement, were banned.Khaksars deliberately planned to
disobey the government orders and planned a procession of 313 Jesh of Punjab and NWF
province on 19th march 1940. A clash with police resulted in death of 50 Khaksar and two police
officers and many were seriously wounded.
Muslim League Guards and Sikh Militants after 1945-46 election?
Division of Military with the Division of India
When in 1947 division of India was agreed, first impression and demand from the Indian Army
was not to divide it. But later it was decided to divide Indian Army into two separate armies.
Proposals for the united army were given from both British and Indian officers. The Punjab
regiment and other regiments where Punjabi officers and soldiers were housed detested the idea
of army division.Military officers were asked to choose from India and Pakistan all non-Muslims
chose for India, many Muslim officers choose India but no non-Muslim choose Pakistan. When
these men came back they kept for some time neutral and act according to their Indian Military
Culture but shortly after the division these military men were fighting against on communal
grounds using their experience in the Indian military.
Section III: Communalism and Sectarianism in the Punjab
The third section of this chapter deals with the communalism and sectarianism in the Punjab
before independence. Communalism and sectarianism both have deep roots in the background of
the history of the Punjab.There were three major religion in the united Punjab, 56percent
Muslims, 11% Sikhs and 33 percent Hindu with a sprinkle of Christians and others religions.
Hindus and Sikhs were more educated and majority of Hindusresided in urban areas. The
religions of Muslims and Hindus have basic differences. These differences were more widened
when the Muslims invaded India and many native Hindus embraced Islam. Both nations looked
down each other. Sikhs who had craved themselves from the Hindus of Punjab had issues with
both Muslims and Hindus.Sikhs were against Mughal who had faced resistance in Sikhs and
their last Gurus. They detested Hindu claim for them as their sect. They had a long history of
fighting against Muslim Mughal and Durrani rulers of Punjab before the rule of Maharaja Ranjit
Singh (Bhatia, 1981). Mughals, and Durranis were looted and plundered by Sikh bands who in
return persecuted and killed them in thousands. During the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Sikhs
had persecuted Muslims. Azan was forbidden, many renowned Mosques were used by Sikh
army. Cow slaughter was prohibited in several areas. When British started to fight Sikhs for the
Punjab, many Muslim tribes cooperate with them and fought against Sikhs.
Religious identity was important in the Punjab as was in other parts of India, where these nations
were living together for hundreds of years. All three religious communities called and accept
themselves as separate nations They had cooperated and worked with each other under
conquerors but whenever opportunityappeared every community grouped it selves with co-
religions instead of territorial nationality. With British came many social, religious and political
organizations of different kids were initiated in the Punjab. Congress and Muslim League
provincial parties were started immediatelyafter their establishment but were able to gain
noticeable support not before 1940s. Communal parties became popular in the Punjab, Hindu
Mahasabah, Arya Semaj, BrahmuSemaj, RashteryaSavak Sigh, AnjumaneIslamia, Anjuman e
Hamayat e Islam, Akali Dal, Khaksar Movement, Itihad e MillatIslamia and Majlis e Ahrar.
Most of these parties were popular and known in urban middle-class Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs.
Most politics of Punjab revolved around these communal parties. It was the force of religion
which can unite and call the people of a community. Provincial government was also contended
with this situation and did not like the national parties to become popular in the province which
had importance in the defence and had a frontier status. Congress and Muslim League had only
supports in larger cities and in urban educated class. In 1872 Kuka Movement for reformation in
Sikh religion which spread into princely states turned into killing Muslim butchers and
otherMuslims. British government in response killed many participants. The conspiracy theories
were common without common charismatic and intelligent leadership in the Punjab and religious
riots easily spread. All communities rarely participated in a collective movement unless it is a
common local cause like 1907 movement protest against the bill of colonization was introduced
which proposed more revenue tax and other sanctions. Hindu and Sikh collaborated in it. In
1905 agitation against Bengal division came to the Punjab through Bengali Hindus urbanitesand
kept in the Hindu urban community.
In 1914 during first world war Hindu Muslim riots began Arya Semaj, Hindu Mahasabah were
very vocal against Muslims and Sikh converts, Muslims started TanzimOTabligh in their
response. Arya Semaj and Muslim Khalifat Movement in the Punjab were also against the army
recruitment on religious bases. (Malik, A, 2003), In early years of Khilafat movement Hindus
and Sikhs were also cooperative but aftersometime this cooperation turned into communal riots
in 1921. In 1922 Hindu Muslim riots in Multan took placed. The Punjab press which was mostly
under the members of Hindu Mahasabah and Arya Semaj wrote against Islam and the Holy
Prophet which sparked communal unrest. In this situation Majlis e Ahrar was originated by the
leaders of the Punjab KilafatMovement who were against Congress. Syed Ata ullah Shah
Bukhari, Ch. Afzal Haq, MaulviMazhar Ali, Maulvi Habib urRahmanLudhanvi were included.
Majority was religiously educated without any knowledge of international changes and modern
realities. The leaders talked imaginative and emotionally and declared unrealistic things. Khaksar
Movementstarted agitation against Dogra prime minister of Kashmir against his unjust and
oppressive government. Police firing on a procession in front of Sri Nagar Jail converted into
communal violence. As Kashmir was a Muslim Majority two parties took part in this movement
one was All India Kashmir Committee presided by Mirza Bashir ud Din Ahmad Qadiani the
leader of Qadiani religion and other was Majlis e Ahrar who fought at two fronts one for
Kashmir Cause and other for anti Qadiani movement. (176 p Zahid Choudhary vol. 5.) A
movement against Sir Zafarullah was also started by Ahrars at that time he was member of
Viceroy Executive Council.In 1932 he was nominated on the place of Fazli in the Viceroy
Executive Council because Fazli was ill. Ahrar started a protest against Zafarullah being a
Qadiani and Unionist Party. Zahid Iqbal claimed that Iqbal became anti Qadiani at this
nomination because it was thought that he will be replaced Fazli. Sir Zafarullah was considered
an average lawyer by Muslim newspapers. In 1934 again when he was offered to keep in the
Council, Muslims in Punjab began to protest against him and Qadianis.
In 1929 Ghader Party of Young Sikh revolutionaries was created by Bhagat Sigh and his friends.
He and a friend Dutta planned to throw a bomb in the Central Assembly while speech delivery.
They were caught and were severely punished. This party had also many other violent activities,
and Killed many prominent Sikh men in the doubt of spying for government. Their bomb factory
caught, gradually all members were caught and punished.
In 1929 a Muslim young man GaziIlmuddin killed a Hindu Arya Semajist Publisher Rajpal in
Lahore for publishing an offensive and derogatory book against Islam and Holy Prophet Hazrat
Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬. Rajpal was persecuted in court but court did not punish him. He was hanged.
MianShafi on behalf of Muslim community gave personal guaranteefor peaceful funeral
procession of Ilmuddin. It was very largest procession of Muslims in Lahore.Muslim ministers
worked fairly but were criticized and blamed by Sikhs and Hindus for favouring Muslims. They
also did not have any confidence in the Muslims leaders.
Communal and sectarian activates were popular in the press and meetings were held to promote
them. In 1931 Khilafatsome Punjabi leaders break up with Congress on the nomination of
Muslim Member from the Punjab in Congress working Committee. They did not like the
nomination of Dr. Muhammad Alam, they wanted Choudry Afzal Haq. These leaders
createdKhaksars in the Punjab.When these leaders contested the election in 1924 three members
were elected in the urban constituencies of Muslims who thought they had worked for Khilafat
movement. These were Chaudry Afzal Haq, Rana Ferozuddin, Mazhar Ali Azhar. These leaders
were skilled in communal speeches. (Zahid Vol 5: 173) During 1930`s Muslim communal
activates were active in Kashmir other Punjab princely states where Muslims were maltreated by
officials and police. Religious activities were targeted.
In 1935 the Shaheed Ganj Masque issue was also raised between Sikhs an Muslims. A Mosque
near a Gurdwara was situated in Lahore. For a long time, it was used for other purposes, Sikhs
had offered the Muslims to buy the buildings but nobody accepted. In1925 under the
GurdwaraAct, whenGurdwaraPerbundak Committee took the control of Gurdwaras in the
Punjab. This Committeefiled request to take the control of this place, Secretary of Anjuman e
Islaima Syed Muhsin Shah gave an application as well. Tribunal decided in favour of Sikhs. In
1935 Perbundak Committee began to demolish the building. Muslims protested and in response
Sikhs also came out with jathaproscessions. Court and ministryof Fazlifavoured the Sikhs,
SurprisinglyAhrar did not participatein Muslim protest and lost popularity among Muslims.
Molana Zafar Ali founded Majlis e Millat I Islamia. It became a strong opponent of Ahrar and
won two seats in provincial assembly in the elections of 1937. Ahrar thought it was all raised by
Sir Fazli Hussain who had not wanted Ahrar to work against Qadianis.
Khaksar Movement which was founded on the lines of Nazi party of Hitler in 1931 by
AlamaAnaiatullahMashriqi was popular in lower middle-class Muslims and labourerin the
towns. Majlis e Ahrar was vocal against Muslim League and other Muslim and no Muslim
1940 Lahore resolution Hindu leaders said Pakistan idea of Jinnah will die but Sikandar will
made whole Punjab Pakistan by giving every job to Muslims.
Muslim League Guards and Sikh Militants after the 1945-46 election.
When in 1945-46 elections results were in favour of Muslim League and Congress. The election
campaign had been run on communal lines. A slogan was popular in Muslims Pakistan
KaMatlabkia La elahaIllallah. Sikh Akalis also won on the base of communal grounds. They had
targeted the Khalsa National Party as a traitor to Sikh religion. When Muslim League leader
Mamdot won majority Muslim seats, and was asked by governor Jenkins to obtain the
cooperation of Sikhs he was not able to do so. They were completely against him. Same was
with Congress a secular party working with Muslim League in the Centre but did not in the
province due to communal affiliations. Sectarianism escalated with the results of 1945-46
elections and making of Khizer ministry. Three communities had developed the feelings of
victimization. Killing and looting in Muslim majority areas just after the resignation of Khizerin
March resulted same reaction against Muslims of Hindu and Sikh Majority areas. Semi military
organizations R.S.S. Akali Dal and MSF were collecting weapons and working underground
against each other (Wajdi, 1974). Situation had become out of the control, Governor refused
Marmot’s offer to make the ministry with alliance of Christian members. He knew that it would
earned enmity of Sikhs. Governor also refused to make Justice Cornelius member of…
insteadproposed a Hindu officer in his place. Government officials and police was also blamed
for communal partiality during riots. Communal hated in the Punjab resulted in a huge and cruel
bloodshed of all communities during the division of the province Moon estimated it 60000 in
each side beside looting kidnaping and arson.

Section IV: Political Parties &Factions in the United Punjab

Politics and Factions of political Parties in the Punjab
The election was introduced in India under Indian Council Act of 1892, all provinces were given
advantage of this provision except the Punjab and Assam. It had to wait till Minto Morley
reforms, which gave the chance to the Punjab to have five elected members and in 1912 they
were increased to eight. Separate electorate was not introduced in the Punjab until the act of
1919. In the 1921 PLC Fazli was given the ministry again….
The Annexation of Punjab withBritish India brought social and communal reformist parties as
were mushrooming in the other parts of India. Political parties were not encouraged in the
province due to its frontier status by the administration. The social setup of the Punjab and lack
of modern education especially in the rural areas limited the activities of most parties to the
cities. The Punjab Provincial Congress was under the members of Arya Semaj and Hindu
Mahasabah. Theybelonged mainlyto educated Hinduand Sikhs commercial classes and some
educated Muslims in urban area.
National Secular National Communal Local Local Others
Secular Communal
Congress Muslim League Unionist Akali Dal
Swaraj/Home Rule Hindu Mahasbah National Khalsa
League Party
Khilafat Movement
There were three major types of parties in the Punjab. These parties were; national,
communal professional and ideological parties. The 90% population of the Punjab was
jural. Education and new ideas were slow to reach the rural population with patriarchal
culture. Therefore, parties with national programs took more time to reach them. And
When it did reach it was not the individuals but the rural leadership which decided to
choose National parties in 1945-46 elections moreover political and other parties
developed factions in them
In 1906 the Shimla Deputation of Muslims had invited the emanant Punjabi leaders. They
were seven including Sir Umer Hayat Twana, (who wrote to Waqarulmulk what benefit
(Abid,Q,Abid,M. 2009) Mian Muhammad Shafi, Shah Din from Lahore were present in
the deportation. LaterMian Muhammad Shafi and Shah Din founded the Punjab Muslim
League. Sir Fazli made his own Muslim League in 1905 and both insist on their own
version of Muslim League as real Muslim League Party. (Abid,Q,Abid,M. 2009). In 1907
Muslim League Punjab was organized by Mian Shah Din and NawabFateh Ali Qazalbash
and Mian Muhammad Shafi. (Afzal,1969:3) In 1911 political situation in India seemed
anti Muslim with annulment of Bengal partition. Turky was also facing the
aggressiveness from European countries. A group in Indian Muslims wanted to change
the Muslim policy towards the British. The Muslims had divided into two groups on the
political, educational and social issues in the Punjab. One group was pro government,
which wanted to cooperate British administration; these were landowners and rich
urbans, and other was progressive group who wanted to cooperate with congress.
Newspapers like Zamindar also supported the progressive group. In 1912 Sir Choudhry
Shahabudin criticized the Shafi group of Muslim League. The conservative group was
against pro Congress policy. In 1914 turkey entered in the World War and arrests of
Muslim leaders effected the Punjab politics. Malik Barkat Ali, Pit Tajudin, KhalifaShujah
Amin were avtive in progressive group with daily observer supporting them.
MolviMahbobAlam of Paisa Akhbar was in favour of Conservative group. (Afzal,1969).
In 1916 Progressive group had selected Khan BuhadurSardarAbdurehman as
president,PirTajudin as General Secretary and Ghulam Rasool Khan as financial
Secretary. Conservative group had selected the NawabBehram Khan of Dera Gazi Khan
as president, Mian Muhammad Shafi as General Secretary. Congress and Muslim League
held their famous joint session on 28th December 1916 in Lucknow, there this factional
controversy came more visible. At the Lucknow Pact Sir Shafi again contradicted but
Fazli supported the separate electorate idea. The progressive Muslim League was
successful to obtain the affiliation and old Shafi League was disaffiliated, Sir Shafi was
also removed from vice presidentship of All India Muslim League. Later Sir Shafi and
Malik Umer Hayat Tiwana started the Punjab Muslim Association, but it could not get
more popularity (Afzal,1969).
. Muslim League Punjab worked with Home Rule Movement of Mrs. Annie Besant in 1917with
holding the Punjab Provincial Conference.
In 1916 In 1912 Fazli was defeated by Lala on the University seat. In 1916 Fazli was elected as
member of Punjab Legislative Council, on the University Seat because Shah Din had become the
Justice. In 1921 he was nominated by the Governor as minister of Education and Local
Government under Act of 1919. He worked for the development of education in the Punjab and
show admirable performance. He fixed 40% quota for Muslim students in the higher educational
institutions like Government college and Medical college. Established many intermediate
colleges in smaller cities. Muslims were given jobs in the education department on the quota
system. This method helped Muslim education improvement but it had affected the urban Hindus
who were taking the benefit of higher education due to their better position.Fazli was a target of
criticism by Hindu urban professional and educated class. Rural quota was as beneficial for
Hindus of rural areas as was for Muslims.
In 1925-30 Fazli was nominated in the Executive Council of Viceroy.He had made Abdul Qadir
the President of Legislative Assembly with the help of non-official members of the House
butQadir on the initiative of Governor Healy accepted the portfolio of Fazli ministry for three
months in his absence. Later he had to leave the minister ship and presidency of the Council.
The rural urban divide was at its peak at this time. Fazli established the Unionist Party
(Zamindara party) Unionist Party served Fazli and administration both. All Muslim groups like
Mian Ahmad YarDoltana and relatives and Choudhry Shahab Uddin, Twana and Noon group,
Nawab Ashiq Hussain, Syed Mubarik Ali were in the group of Fazli while MaulviMuharam Ali
Chishti from Lahore and Pir Muhammad Hussain Shah from Montgomery were against Fazli.
Haley became governor in 1924. Fazli at that time was a defacto Chief Minister of the Punjab.
Haley who had worked in Punjab for many years did not liked the power of elected members of
legislative assembly. There were National Progressive Party made by LalaHerikishan Lal who
was separated from Unionist. Governors of Punjab also had a dislike for national leaders and
ideas in the Punjab because it could disturb the military of India. After the elections of 1923
Fazli insisted to governor to allow him to nominate the ministers. Rural urban divide was still
there or was called so Hindu promised to vote Sir Shah Nawaz against Fazli? Page 80 nur) Haley
appointed a Sikh minister on the place of Muslim minister.Joginder Sigh Majithia.Dr. Iqbal and
Sheikh Deen Muhammad were also selected on the seats of Unionist urban. When there were
communal issue allies in the legislative Assembly vote collectively. After Fazli and with the
Haley unionist became weak and Government Block was in majority. Only Chhoto Ram
remained. Most prominent leaders of Punjab worked in Executive Council of Viceroy and not in
the central legislature were Quaid I Azam worked. He offered Fazli to join the Muslim League
but he refused know his position in the province. Fazli was unhappy at the faction by Sikandar
which became inactive till the sudden death of Fazli in 1936.
During the absence of Fazli from the Punjab a group of Sikandars friends developed in Punjab
politics. These were Sir Shahabuddin and Ahmad YarDoltanaand FerozeKhan Noon. Another
group was in the Unionist party was of Sikandar, brother sir Liaqat Hayat Khan,who was prime
Minister in the Patiala State, cousin NawabMuzafer Ali Khan belonged to WahAttock were
called Wah party one was Tawana Group including Noon who were more powerful in the days
of early British Raj due to their services in British army .In Multan there were Gellani and
Qureshi groups, Khan Bahadur Ahmad Yar Khan Daultana …there was another group Shahpur
District MLC was Nawab Allah Bakhsh was favoured against Sikandar. Governor was very
much aware of this situation he Emerson wrote in a letter to Linlithgothat they wanted to get
minister ship?
Hindu educated urban classes had trend towards Hindu Mahasbah and Arya Semaj. Congress
was also working in towns (see om net Congress in the Punjab)
Sikh had also had many groups in them two major parties were prominent. One was Chief
Khalsa Dewan in the lections of 1937 they named themselves as National KhalsaParty,a party
and educated landlords and of moderate thinking and favour to cooperate with government.
SardarUjal Singh, SardarJoginder Singh and Sardar Sunder Sigh Majithia. But it was
SheromaniAkali Dal who were from middle class and had more influence. They also control the
Gurdwara funds through SheromaniGurdwaraPerbundak Committee (SGPC) both parties had
support in agriculturist and non-agriculturist Sikhs. Khalsa were pro government while Akalis
were popular in and trading Sikh classes Khatri and Arora also support them.
1937 Elections and communal fanaticism
Influential leaders of three communities in the Punjab took part in the elections. At that time of
election many new parties emerged on the scene these parties can be divide due to their nature,
aims, activities and ideologies. They were Hindu, Muslim Sikh, communist rural, urban, and
radical type. In the elections fourteen parties won seats of PLA they were Akali Dal, SGPC,
Swaraj, Central Sikh League, Itihad e Millat, Unionist, National Progressive, Congress, Muslim
League, Khalsa National Party, Hindu Mahasaba and Ahrar Movement. Unionist was the only
party who had participated in the five elections 1923,26,30,37 and 46.
In 1935 Khalsa College Amritsar there was a student strike and two groups emerged from this
conflict Loyalist Sir Sikandar and Sunder SinghMajithia of government and nationalist under
master Tara Singh this brought BuldeveSingh closer to Tara Singh.
Making of KhalsaNational Party turned Tara Singh to Punjab created a other group
in the AkalisMangal Singh resign from Board saying congress promised to oppose communal
Award. On the visit of Nehru and statement Sikh thought he was against communal ward too. In
1936 Sikh and congress reached on an Accord to contest elections with seat adjustments. Tribune
praised this as Sikhs are thinking in national outlook. They thought Muslim League was only
thinking for Muslims.
Section V: Urban Rural Divide
Punjab had faced a divide between urban rural, agriculturist and non-agriculturist beside
uncompromising communal gap during first half of twentieth century. The impact of this
stratification on the politics of the Province was significant. This gap promoted the caste
affiliation in the politics of the province. Caste system had had longstanding roots in three
communities of the Punjab although their religions denied to promote such division. (Ali,I. 1991:
33) Warrior tribes and money lending castes were considered more powerful in Punjab.
Affiliation of Hindus with Arya Semaj and Muslims with Muslim reformist parties could not
succeed to uproot the caste system from the Punjab. The Punjab province had agricultural
economy with larger section of population living in the villages susceptible to modern education,
ideologies and means of communication. Agricultural activities left little time for other activities.
There were wider differences between people living in rural and urban areas. Profession, dress,
language, knowledge, economics and to some extend interests were different at that time. Urban
educated especially lawyer understand more about new Government, Western ideas of rights,
equality and British political institutions. British knew this fact and were even more slow to
introduce representative institutions in the Punjab as compare to other provinces of India. British
administration took the duty of safeguarding the rights of agriculturist from the startof their rule.
The major source of revenue in the Punjab was land tax in early period of British. The economy
of the Punjab was also directly and indirectly dependent on the agriculture. British administration
planned to promote canals, development of cultivatable land. Administration setup new colonies
in Montgomery, Lyallpur and Shah Kot etc. to provide land to Sikh disbanded soldiers and
British retired soldiers also. Rural landowners used to take money from Hindu and Sikh money
lenders of Brahman, Khatri, Bania and Arora Castes.Muslim did not involve in the business of
interest being forbidden in Islam. Land tax had to be pay in cash therefore landowners took
money on interest. Many British officers saw rapid destruction of landed class through interest.
They were selling their lands in the hands of money landers. Situation was becoming worse
because many landed owners were becoming worse. Thorburn was nominated in the Punjab
Legislative Assembly in 1897. Patronization of landed class by British created disdain in urban
Land Alienation Act 1900 (I have used same wording so change needed)
In 1852 Board of Administration had issued a circular about the selling of agriculturist land. If a
person wishes to sell the land first to village community or copartner whose rate or value will be
fixed by revenue officer and three assessors.
In 1858 and in 1866 land sale for debt and collective ancestral land was discouraged by
government authorities financial commission. The 1859 Civil Procedure Code confirmed the
power of the civil Courts to attach agricultural land in execution of decrees, this code was only
extended to the Punjab in 1966 and the sanction related to sale of agricultural land were special
subject to modification in the Punjab.
But temporary Transfer method had made the land transfer s to money lenders in alarming
The evil that money lenders were becoming the proprietors of agriculturist land had also due to
the policy of British government when they have fixed a cash amount of land revenue. Muslims
as interest was forbidden in Islam took loan from Hindu Brahman, Bania, Khatri castes as major
money lenders.
The proposal of Thorburn was accepted to restrict effectively the transfer of land from
agriculturist to money lender. On June 8th 1901 the Punjab Alienation of Land Act came into
force. Its main provision was simple. Sale of agricultural land in execution of a decree was
forbidden. Sales of land to non-agriculturist tribes was also forbidden but in special case.
This act was strongly opposed by Urban Bourgeoisie. Because it will not only affect their
business but return will also be affected. They were of the view that a deep distance has been
created by this cat between rural and urban class. (Mr. M.L. Darling excluded the Punjab Canal
Colonies out of the operation of this act.
The effect on peasantry and landed elite was positive and demanded that the revenue which was
mainly contributed by them should be spent in their benefit.
(Wallace Paul: British while handling of the Sikhs tend to reflect general political assumption,
Sikh militancy and their primer position during Ranjit Singh region However, made the
bureaucracy especially cautious in dealing with community with regards to Jat Sikhs for example
the bureaucracy tried to reach revenue and administrative decisions that would maintain their
prominence in the rural area of central Punjab since Jat furnish soldiers for imperial army they
tend to be pampered. British officers associated valor and loyalty with religious identity and
therefore encouraged a view of Sikhism quite separate from Hinduism and local sects.

Section VI: Contemporary Issues and their Treatment

Issues or problems in Punjab
Water canals, Land Revenue, Famine, Floods, Smuggling of food, north, south / Centre?
Robert Montgomery period, Chalisakal in 1783-84. 1837-38 Delhi, Allahabad were affected,
1860-69 less rains, famine, 1868-69 Amritsar pressure from whole India, pressure on British
govt, 1877-97 disturbed monsoon, no rain in time, crops were affected, British made canals, on
Jhelum, Chenab, and those areas were made, which were thickly /heavily populated
Sir Sikander like fazli created schools, employed teachers from rural areas to end the
backwardness service not wealth was his aim .act he promulgated for agri would be
remembered (shaukat 91)
It would be sikander who would have proposed Lahore resolution but he had from
Khaksar that they will kill him. Page 96
Galancy told him Churchill had wanted him to have seat in Punjab cabinet as his father’s
services in military. 98.

In 1906 British government establishment of Legislative councils in india. Muhsin al Mulk who
was secretary of MAO College led a delegation to Lord Minto for separate electorate. A
concession Minto granted in the spirit of divide and rule. This delegation had 7 Punjab
and 1 Bengali 11 UP Muslims (9:Jafferlot) use the word Muslim separatism. Sectarian/
communal militancy and militarism. Over centralization


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